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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

Volume 5, Issue 2 September 2009

THE SRAC JOURNAL


T H E R EG I ON ’ S A R C H A E O LO G IC A L , C U LT U R A L , AND H I S T OR I C A L R E SO U R C E
INSIDE THIS ISSUE:
THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION
1916 Susquehanna River Exp 1 BY DEB TWIGG, SRAC EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
The Kassly Tablet 1
Early on in my investigations concerning that the Expedition was little more than a
Bears on Broad Street! 8 Spanish Hill, I was told to read treasure hunting spree that left our region
Tom Jack-Native Am Friend 9 “Susquehanna’s Indians” by Pa Archae- with fewer artifacts and even less under-
SRAC Membership Drive 9 ology’s Dr. Barry Kent to find out why the standing of our archaeology. But I will
site was considered to be not worthy to be leave it up to you the reader to make your
Identity of the Andaste, Minquas.. 10 preserved. It was then that I realized that own opinions. – Deb Twigg
Recent Contributors 13 Dr. Kent had relied on information from the
1916 Susquehanna River Expedition and On May 16 1916, an expedition of
Recent Events at SRAC 14 nine men left Lake Otsego, at the head of
its author, Warren K. Moorehead as one of
Woolly Mammoth...in Waverly! 16 his references. Once I had read all of the the Susquehanna River, central New York,
information that I could find on the Expedi- and proceeded down that stream to the
Membership Form 18
tion to include hundreds of letters between mouth of the river at Havre de Grace,
Moorehead and others before, during and Maryland. The purpose of the expedition
after the expedition, I felt it important to was to record all the Indian sites along the
share the information that I uncovered. main Susquehanna, and if possible to dis-
now! Personally I have come to the conclusion (Continued on page 2)
C o nline
SRA o to
Join G g/join
e n t e r .o r THE KASSLY TABLET BY VINCENT BARROWS, SRAC MEMBER
C
.SRA day!
www to (LOUISIANNA)
A collection of carved
stones found on and around
Monks Mound, the world’s
largest pyramid, is clear
evidence of refined civiliza-
tion. Arrows indicate the
location that each engraved
stone was found on Monks
Mound. Today these ob-
jects have been graciously
donated to museum collec-
tions including the Cahokia
• Our Vision
Mounds State Historic Site,
The Susquehanna River the Madison County Histori-
Archaeological Center of cal Museum, the Illinois
State Museum, The Pea-
Native Indian Studies
body Museum of Archae-
(S.R.A.C.) is dedicated to ology and Ethnology, and
education, research and the Quincy Museum.
preservation of the Native
American archaeological, About 40 miles south of the Cahokia The stone had been fractured and four frag-
cultural and historical assets Mounds World Heritage site in Southern ments have been recovered to date on the
Illinois, an engraved stone object has been surface of a farmer’s field south of Old Val-
of the Twin Tier Region of
found by Elizabeth Agnes Kassly. The meyer, IL. Kassly discovered pieces of the
Northeastern PA and stone on November 15, 2000 and May 15,
Southern NY. stone was named the “Kassly-Schaefer
(Continued on page 6)
Tablet” after the finder, Kassly, and prop-
erty owner, Schaefer.
The Susquehanna
BecomeRiver Archaeological
a member of Center
SRACof Native
today! Indian
SeeStudies
back ~ www.SRACenter.org
page for more ~ email Info@SRACenter.org
information.
Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T .

(Continued from page 1) this wholeheartedly. As many of youhis own man, Alanson Skinner would
accompany Moorehead’s crew and
know Ellsworth Cowles’s collection is
cover a cemetery of the Andastes. would be on Heye’s payroll separately.
now a part of the SRAC collections and
The expedition followed the plan is on exhibit. The Cowles family also
However, once the announcement of
adopted by the surveys in Maine, of donated a significant exhibit of Moore-
the Expedition was made public, Heye
traveling by canoe and camping…As head’s Southwestern collection thatand Moorehead were not the only ones
we proceeded down the river the men Ellsworth acquired at some point that
who began making their plans for their
would land at a site marked on our we hope to have on display at some trip along the Susquehanna.
maps as an Indian village of conse- point soon. Also, those who visit our
Just before the Expedition was to be-
quence during the historic period. Per- Center on most Thursdays, get the
gin, a letter was sent to Moorehead
mission having been secured, these chance to have Ellsworth’s son, Dick
from Albany. It seems that New York
men would scatter about and sink test Cowles give you a special tour of the
State was quite aware of Mr. Moore-
pits fifty or one hundred yards apart collection on display.
head’s “archaeological tactics of taking
over an area of from ten to fifty
all of the artifacts and obliter-
acres. During the day our
ating sites for further re-
workmen would sink as many
search, and they had insisted
as two hundred of these pits,
that none other than Arthur
or one hundred in half a day. If
C. Parker, the well respected
this number of test pits re-
Native American NYS Mu-
sulted in no finds, the expedi-
seum archaeologist accom-
tion would move on to another
pany (and monitor) the expe-
site… Warren K. Moorehead
dition until they reached the
Background: Pennsylvania border. I am
Apparently, local avocational sure Moorehead cringed
archaeologist and founder of when he learned that the
the Tioga Point Museum in NYS Museum expected that
Athens, PA, Louise Welles all archaeological specimens
Murray already had an inter- would be taken at the NYS
esting relationship with Moor- Museum in Albany.
head as result of being in- One thing we know is that
volved in rounding up artifacts Moorehead contacted Heye
from our region for his 1917 immediately and told him
book, “Stone Ornaments.” This Part of Moorehead’s exhibit at the Chicago Expo in 1893 about the letter. Moorehead
book referred to many today as assured him that the best way
nothing more than a collector’s catalog to handle the situation was to try to
for buyers, was in its day quite a liter- But in the spring of 1916 it wasn’t just keep NYS in good humor so that con-
ary work. This along with many other Moorehead who was making plans for cerns would not be raised in the news-
exploits in Moorehead’s life such as the expedition that would take place. In papers that would surely cause trou-
accumulating a huge exhibit of Native fact there was an even larger plan in bles for the Expedition. Instead,
American artifacts for the Chicago Ex- the works to build a new museum and Moorehead told his financier that if he
position in 1893 that had made him to stock it with the grandest artifacts could not get NYS to cooperate, he
quite a celebrity in his time. that could be found. This museum to-
would take Parker in one direction, and
day is known as the National Museum
As a result, it is no wonder that in 1916 allow Skinner and the rest of the team
of the American Indian, George Gustav
when he began sending letters out to to go elsewhere to find the specimens
Heye Center in New York City.
the archaeological societies, muse- that would go to Heye.
ums, and collectors along the Susque- My research reveals that as early as The Expedition:
hanna River where his next expedition February 1916, George Gustav Heye
As one reads the accounts about the
would take place, many were quick to had agreed to finance Moorehead’s
Expedition and had agreed to pay expedition, they will find a very short
want to work with the great Warren K.
$2,500. In return, all specimens found portion dedicated to the New York
Moorehead.
or bought along the way would be State sector through which Moorehead
It was Mrs. Murray in fact who asked
brought to him exclusively. Mr. Heye and his men traveled from May 16 until
Moorehead if a young man who
also told Moorehead that all skeletons early June that summer. It seems that
showed great promise in the field of
should be packed separately in boxes Dr. Parker had many friends along the
archaeology, Ellsworth Cowles, could
marked with an “S” so that they could Susquehanna in New York State.
join the expedition for a few weeks to
be sent “where they belong,” and that
gain experience. Moorehead agreed to (Continued on page 3)

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T .

(Continued from page 2) the beginning of a myth that still is as- that they just did not find them. In fact it
sociated with our region today. Louise would be a much older Ellsworth
These friends clearly spread the word Welles Murray detailed the event that Cowles who would find the palisaded
ahead of the Expedition that the plan occurred that day as follows: village site at the foot of Spanish Hill in
was not to show Moorehead and his While the writer was present one 1933.
team any of the good sites and instead of the working in a grave exclaimed Another report by the Expedition about
to keep them moving farther down the “There are horns over his head!” Mr. Spanish Hill that seems to have
river as fast as they could. Skinner said that indicated chieftain- evaded many was actually a report on
By June 10th, a frustrated Moorehead ship. Later this was found to be a another site, called Sugar Creek, lo-
who had to return to Andover, Massa- bundle burial, completely covered in cated on the west bank of the Susque-
chusetts for graduation ceremonies antlers of Virginia deer. A passing hanna River three miles above To-
wrote to Alanson Skinner who was to visitor, however, heard the exclama- wanda. In this report, Moorehead
arrive in Athens, PA. He told Skinner tion and attempted to verify it by in- states, “We found traces of a fortified
that two gentlemen, Lang and Shoe- terrogating a fun-loving Maine work- hilltop, there being distinct traces of
maker would need to be dealt with. It man, and the story grew and was embankments. This is smaller that
was in Moorehead’s opinion that they printed from coast to coast that one Spanish Hill, but resembled the same.”
should first try to cooperate with these or more skulls had been found with (Moorehead: 1938)
people, but if that failed that they would horns growing from the forehead! –
need to “smash through” to get to the (Murray: 1921)
Andaste cemetery that Mrs. Murray Unfortunately for Spanish
had offered to have excavated. Clearly, Hill, given the attention
from the earlier work with Mrs. Murray and amount of time dedi-
and her contribution of incredible arti- cated to the Valley area,
facts photos for his “Stone Orna- Reverend Donehoo and a
ments,” Moorehead knew what Athens, boy scout troop were the
PA held in store for them, and as each only staff dedicated to
mile along the Expedition had been trying to find a cemetery
foiled by the NYS Museum efforts, the and artifacts for the expe-
Murray Farm seemed to be the light at dition at Spanish Hill. In
the end of the tunnel and hopeful the end Moorehead would
“treasure trove” that could redeem him claim that 400 test pits
in the eyes of his financier who eagerly were dug at the hill to no
awaited high quality artifacts for his avail. However when you
museum. see the map of where the
On June 12th, Alanson Skinner wrote test pits were dug, I think
back to Moorehead from Athens, PA you will see that because
and smugly assured him that he had the hill was actually
everyone and everything properly in planted and the farmer
hand and that there would be no need had refused to allow them
to “smash through” anything, because to dig where the crops
he had “the goods” and the permission were, that the majority of
for all of it. He also stated that the Ath- test pits sunk all the way
ens region was an important place with around the perimeter of
many rich sites, and that Spanish Hill the top were bound to be
Published by the Washington Post on July 30, 1916
would have to wait because he wasn’t fruitless.
going to drop the Murray Farm until he L.D Shoemaker who was
had to. present at the hill when the test pits Other sites in our region that the
In the following three weeks, 59 skele- were dug later wrote to Mrs. Murray expedition reported finding artifacts
tons including 6 bundle burials were and stated that Donehoo merely was from include:
excavated and the expedition reported looking for a cemetery, and was not Upper and Lower Sheshequin * –
to have only found 8 shell-tempered interested in much else. Specimens included deer bones, ant-
pots, 4 Andaste pipes, 4 celts and 25 Moorehead would later write a frus- lers, and several bushels of unio
other objects in the graves. trated Mrs. Murray concerning the little shells, along with fragments of two
One of the bundle burials was covered attention paid to the site that the village pots, one with a very heavy rim, An-
with several deer antlers, and this was site and cemetery probably existed, but (Continued on page 4)

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T .

(Continued from page 3) Moorehead stated in the book:


daste style, and one flint arrow point. (Moorehead: 1938) It has always been a matter of regret to me that our
Towanda * – Referred to as an extensive Iroquoian site, publication has been delayed 21 years…Between June
but that the burial site seemed to have been washed 2nd and 18th 1916, the writer (Moorehead) was at Ando-
away. Specimens included bone awls, celts, triangular ver Mass., attending exercises and taking care of depart-
points, and Iroquoian pottery. (Moorehead: 1938) mental duties, so missed the exploration of the Murray
cemetery at Tioga Point. George P. Donehoo wrote most
Wysox * – This site was referred to having and Andaste
of our field notes in the regions of Great Bend and below
settlement and burial ground with triangular arrow points
Athens. (excepting Mr. Skinner’s work on the Andaste
and Iroquoian objects. (Moorehead: 1938)
cemetery)… The untimely death in 1925 of Alanson B.
Wyalusing * – The expedition reported to visit the old lo- Skinner, active field director of the expedition delayed pub-
cation of the Moravian village of Friedenshutten, and also lication and many valuable maps and sketches of artifacts
a prehistoric settlement to the south. Pottery, notched ar- were lost. (Moorehead: 1938)
row points and implements were reported to have been
The report that I received from the Smithsonian/Heye Mu-
found there for many years. (Moorehead: 1938)
seum told of 93 artifacts from Athens, PA, which they have
* Only a few sentences were dedicated to each of these in their collections. These artifacts are mostly reported to
sites in the book. I am not aware of any field notes that have been donated by Alanson Skinner.
exist for any of these sites from the Expedition.
When I contacted the Peabody Museum in Andover, MA a
As the Expedition continued to travel south along the river few years ago, about coming up to see their artifacts from
into the “Antracite Region,” it seems that that Moorehead Athens, PA, I was told that their inventory was not com-
must have felt like they had re-entered New York where pleted yet.
the towns were alerting the others ahead of the Expedition
Moorehead’s Legacy?
to keep them moving southward:
Warren K Moorehead died just a year after “The Susque-
As we approached the hard coal fields, our men
hanna River Expedition of 1916” was published, on Janu-
looked forward to seeing the miners. My New England
ary 5, 1939 at the age of 72.
men who were paying $16 to $17 per ton for anthracite
wished to observe these miners and ascertain what man- As I searched the internet, I found many references to the
ner of men they were. They were soon disillusioned. Con- claim that “Warren King Moorehead was known in his time
ditions became intolerable. None of these men had ever as the 'Dean of American Archaeology’.” However, during
seen large canoes such as ours, and they interfered with my research on this topic, I was steered toward some let-
our camps on the journey to Plymouth. As the head of the ters that are still archived in the Ohio State Museum. They
expedition, I ordered my men to keep the canoes in mid- were written by associates of Moorehead, who may have
stream, and proceed as rapidly as possible. In passing even been with him during that long summer of 1916.
under bridges, boys and men would frequently drop bits of The following is an excerpt from just one of several letters
coal or small stones on the boats as they passed. We had in response to a Mr. Tom Crouch, who in 1973 requested
to carry our canoes around one or two dams, necessitat- feedback from people who had worked with Moorehead, to
ing hired labor. Men swimming paused to throw stones. be used as part of his dissertation which would be dedi-
This had never occurred in any other expedition with cated to Warren K. Moorehead’s affect on American ar-
which the writer has been connected. We made 32 miles chaeology. Each letter in the archive at OHS supports the
that day, not stopping en route to search fields. content of the letter, dated April 20, 1973, excerpted here:
(Moorehead: 1938) Mr. Tom D. Crouch
The Book Ohio American Revolution Bicentennial Advisory Commis-
As a result, the most impressive and most reported site in sion
the whole report from “The Susquehanna River Expedition Ohio Historical Center
of 1916” by Warren K. Moorehead was the Murray Farm in Columbus, Ohio 43211
Athens, PA. In fact, the introduction of the book goes to Dear Mr. Crouch,
great lengths to thank Louise Welles Murray and her fam-
ily for donating ALL the artifacts that were found on the It is far better to let the memory of “W.K.” die quietly,
Murray Farm site to include the skeletons. as we hoped here that it would. Moorehead “knew every-
body” but the only real attention paid to him was by collec-
Strangely, however, the book did not get published until
tors (some of them wealthy and many of them as avari-
21 years later. This, in my opinion, is because the book
cious as present day ones) and by non-archaeologists
was never the real goal of the expedition, which instead
who were hood-winked by his barely truthful announce-
was in search of cemeteries and artifacts to be sent to the
financier, George Heye. (Continued on page 5)

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Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE 1916 SUSQUEHANNA RIVER EXPEDITION C O N T .


(Continued from page 4)

ments and promotional letters.


Perhaps you wrote me because you have learned that Moorehead supported me as a young graduate student during
the depression when we were pretty hungry. I freely admit to being part of his operations, albeit reluctantly, because the
fifty cents per hour made it possible to survive as an archaeologist. I was probably dishonest and reprehensible and I took
some ribbing from my colleagues but I had one objective in life and had to eat to reach it. In the course of this really un-
happy job I handled a very large portion of the record you mention. Also included were various personal files which you
may never see. I do not remember the details after some forty years but I do recall vividly being forced to discard important
papers which were significant records. The late Melvin Barnes, my successor at this job, was not an archaeologist and had
had very little experience and I know that in one instance a rather important large file I had organized was badly
“reorganized.” Moorehead’s insistence that this be done is an example of his stupid, crafty way of life. – (Anonymous:
1973)
As requested, the letter’s author was kept anonymous, but the reference to Melvin Barnes who was the successor to his
position makes it pretty easy for anyone to find out with the help of the internet just who the author probably was.
As stated in the beginning of this article, I will leave the final opinion to the reader about Warren K. Moorehead, the Sus-
quehanna River Expedition of 1916, and any references that were used about Spanish Hill by them. Instead I will close
with a quote from Louise Welles Murray who was there that summer in 1916 and later wrote:
The tendency of the intelligent student of history and archaeology today seems to require more facts, more particu-
lars. Curiosity has ever led man to gather and preserve unusual or mysterious objects, which often are assembled in mu-
seums. Today it is a recognized fact that museums have a great educational value, and that the student views a collec-
tion for what it means rather than what it is. Archaeology has taken strides, and the search for Indian artifacts without
making written records is considered vandalism. The skilled archaeologist deplores the fact that sites have been “dug to
death” when they might have been “dug to life for the benefit of science. (Murray: 1921)

ABOUT WARREN K. MOOREHEAD


Warren K. Moorehead was the first Curator of Archaeology for the Ohio Historical Society. Born
in Siena, Italy in 1866, his family later moved to Xenia, Ohio. He attended both Denison Univer-
sity and the University of Pennsylvania, but did not graduate from either institution.

The young Moorehead had a great interest in archaeology and excavated a number of sites in
Ohio. He conducted excavations at Fort Ancient and the Hopewell Mound Group to obtain arti-
facts for the Columbian Exposition in 1893.

He was hired by the Ohio Historical Society in 1894. He resigned as curator in 1897 for health
reasons. (TB)

He was head of the Peabody Institute of Andover in Andover, Massachusetts from 1902 to 1920.

He was 51 in 1916 when the 1916 Susquehanna River Expedition took place.

He died in 1939, at 72, 23 years after the expedition and 1 year after his Susquehanna River book came out.

Meetings:
407 E. Main St, Have a Dandy Day!
Endicott, NY
7:30 PM, 4th Thursday, Nearly 60 stores in
except July, Aug., & Dec.
PA and NY
email:
nysaatcc@yahoo.com

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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE KASSLY TABLET CONT.


(Continued from page 1)

2003. On June 3, 2009 a fourth piece of the tablet was


found, nearly completing the entire artifact. A unique clay
head was also found within 30 feet of the tablet. Liz added
a YouTube video of fitting up the pieces of the tablet, lo-
cated at the following link:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ct4W8O13CmE

On January 14, 2007, The Tablet was donated by the finder


and placed on display at the Cahokia Mounds Interpretive
Center. The tablet is about palm size and the larger portion
has a length (Ht.) equal to 86.67 mm, width equal to 60.76
mm, and thickness equal to 28.37 mm. The stone weighs
142.2 grams.

The location of discovery is 18 feet of the south of the west Drawing of the Kassly Schaefer Tablet from University of
curb line and 10 feet north of the north house line of 6714 Illinois Drawing by Mera Hertel
Bluff Road in Valmeyer, IL at Schaefer’s house. The coordi-
nates of the find are at Latitude= 38 deg 17’ 04.735” N, Lon- • One (1) Motley (800 BC to 600 BC),
gitude = 90 deg 18’23.083” W.
• One (1) Steuben (diagnostic of terminal Middle Wood-
Many artifacts were found at the site from a wide range of land to early Late Woodland periods dating about 100
chronological periods including the Archaic, Late Woodland, AD through 500 to 800 AD),
Mississippian, and Historic period.
• One (1) Hamilton incurvate arrowhead (diagnostic of
The date of the sandstone engraving is not possible to pre- Late Woodland Hamilton culture from about 500 AD to
cisely determine with analytical tools. However, an assem- 1000 AD),
blage of diagnostic evidence in the form of lithics from the
Schaefer’s site may be used to determine the time that the • Two (2) Madison points, (900 AD to 1150 AD)
site was occupied. Lithic styles found at the site include:
• One (1) black and white Cahokia point found within a few
• Two (2) Oneoto style scrapers (Paleolithic) feet of the Kassly-Schaefer Tablet (900 AD to 1150 AD)

• One (1) Wade base (diagnostic from the late archaic According to the Jesuit Relations on page 127 of Volume
and early woodland transition dating from 1000 BC to 68, a similar stone was used in the cabin of the Brother of
500 BC). the Great Sun, the War Chief, as follows:
(Continued on page 7)

Schaefer Site, Drawing by Mera Hertel Schaefer Site Artifacts, Drawing by Mera Hertel

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE KASSLY TABLET CONT.

(Continued from page 6)

There are in this cabin a number of beds on the left hand at


entering: but on the right is only the bed of the great Chief,
ornamented with different painted figures. This bed consists
of nothing but a mattress of canes and reeds, very hard,
with a square log of wood, which serves for a pillow. In the
middle of the cabin is seen a small stone, and no one should
approach the bed until he has made a circuit of this stone.
Those who enter salute by a howl, and advance even to the
bottom of the cabin, without looking at the right side, where
the Chief is. Then they give a new salute by raising their
arms above the head, and howling three times. If it be [Page
127] one whom the Chief holds in consideration, he answers Obverse and Reverse of the Cahokia Point found a few feet
by a slight sigh and makes a sign to him to be seated. He from the Kassly- Schaefer Tablet.
thanks him for his politeness by a new howl. At every ques-
tion which the Chief puts to him, he howls once before he
answers, and when he takes his leave, he prolongs a single The reverse “crosshatched” side resembles a grouping of X
howl until he is out of his pres- shapes interlocking. In other Birchbark Scrolls, the X has
ence. been interpreted to symbolize war. This could be a repre-
sentation of scales of a snake shedding diagonally from the
A clay head was found with the halfway point toward the right. When compared with all other
stone and appears to have an native venomous snake species of Illinois, this crosshatch-
upturned nose, open mouth ing is most similar to the copperhead snake species.
showing teeth, and unique left
eye. The right eye was only an
indentation.

The symbolic attributes of


the stone are a topic that
is open to interpretation.
Liz Kassly interpreted the
symbols to be a Birdman
image, similar to the other
examples found at Monks
Mound.

Similar engravings have


been found on Birchbark Bibliography:
Scrolls from the Ojibwa.
The following symbol from Elizabeth Agnes Kassly, The Prehis-
page 203 of The Midewi- toric Birdman Tablets of Illinois. Pre-
win of the Ojibwa includes an English translation: historic American #2, 2004.

Illinois Antiquity, Volume 36, No 2


July 2001.

http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallery-
Translation: “Mi´-sha-kwat´-ni-yō´, meaning “I brought the pages/clayheadkasslypage1.htm
medicine to bring life. The Midē´ Man´idō, the Thunderer,
after bringing some of the plants—by causing the rains to http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallery-
fall—returns to the sky. The short line represents part of the pages/kasslytabletbirdlarge.htm
circular line usually employed to designate the imaginary
vault of the sky.” http://lithiccastinglab.com/gallery-
pages/tabletssandstonebirdman.htm
Other interpretations are open including a record of thunder-
bird mythology or watery elements. http://puffin.creighton.edu/jesuit/relations/relations_68.html

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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

BEARS ON BROAD STREET—MAKING A MEMORY!

August 22nd 2009 was truck pulled in


an awesome day for and blocked off
many reasons. First Park Ave. from
and foremost because SRAC’s back
SRAC had the opportu- alley to Broad
nity to bring a LIVE St. Next we
BEAR show to down- setup our blue
town Waverly, NY that and white tents
was filled with fun and across Park
education and bears Ave. where it
that clearly loved to do met Broad St.,
what they were doing making our own
with their trainers, Der- little theatre for
rick Rosairre and his the day, en-
two sons, Derrick and closed by SRAC
Frederick. and the building
on the opposite
I met up with these
side of the
guys at the Tioga
street.
County Fair and
bugged Derrick Sr. By then, Mary-
long enough for him to Ann and Don
finally give in and come to SRAC in between stops in his Taylor had ar-
travels through New York during fair season. rived, with
Marilyn and Da-
August 22nd was the date that he gave us with just a few
ran Weber, Beryl Cleary, Nellie Brewster, Pat Miran, and so
weeks lead time, and I still needed to get the Waverly Coun-
many others that manned the gift shop and sold tickets all
cil to approve my request to close down the street for the
day. Outside in the front tents, Janet Andrus had borrowed
date. In the end they held a separate meeting one afternoon
the popcorn maker from Elderwood and actually rented a
just to officially approve the request and give me enough
snow cone maker and bought fixings to sell popcorn and
lead time for advertising and setup plans.
snow cones to the kids all day. The Rail House, Al Burgess
Next came the advertising – and asking Brian Denlinger of and his wife, also filled a tent and sold spiedies and hot-
Denlinger Designs to create an eye catching poster that dogs. The dance studio also sold teddy bears to the kids.
would get people to the event. Within a day he had created The Waverly Police donated over $250 to pay for every
a poster that in the end became a sought after piece of child’s admission to the last show.
memorabilia. For a handful of complimentary tickets, Gary
By the time the show was to begin, the street was trans-
Murrelle at Signs Express in Sayre made 100 full color post-
formed into a wonderful carnival-like place, and the audi-
ers using Brian’s design, and we had our beautiful posters
ence packed each of the three shows.
ready within days to be dispersed. My co-workers at Guthrie
and many SRAC members took the posters from Vestal, For those that attended, from the time that the doors
Corning and Ithaca, NY to Troy PA. opened and the bears came out walking upright into the
caged arena to the last moments that Frederick Rosaire and
Our local radio station, WATS-WAVR gave away 20 compli-
his bear “Indian” spent answering individual questions, it
mentary tickets on the air and promoted the event. The
was a magical time that will not be forgotten.
Morning Times and Daily Review papers covered the event
as well. Our website and blog constantly pushed new info But to those of us who experienced creating the event and
about the Rosaire’s Bears Show coming to Waverly. seeing everyone come together from the first moment the
decision was made, to putting away the last item after the
The night before the event, our own Tom Vallilee was still
shows that day, it was a magical feeling of community that
working and getting things ready for electrical needs,
was overwhelming. Although I did not get to mention all of
bleachers loaned from Sayre High School, and other last
the names of the people who helped us – I hope that you
minute details. The Rosaires pulled into Waverly at about
know that your efforts have touched me and those of us at
7:30pm and the Waverly Police escorted them to the place
SRAC who wanted so much for the day to be a special one
we had arranged for them to stay the night.
for the community.
The next morning by 7am, things started back up with Mark
Without ALL of you, it would have been just another show.
Twigg, Mark Madill, Jeff Terwilliger, Tom Vallilee, Sam
With you, it became a proud moment and fond memory!
Ayres, and Brian Denlinger all on hand when the Rosaire’s

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Page 9 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

TOM JACK -A NATIVE AMERICAN FRIEND BY TED KEIR, SRAC CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD
was instrumental in doing
Tom Jack is credited in past history books as the last full-
much good for her race in
blooded Indian of Bradford County. He was a self-described
the Allegheny region. She
Mingo-Christian Indian who was born at Logan's Gap, Pa.
brought about a reciproc-
near the Juniata River. When the white people began to set-
ity of good feelings be-
tle nearby, he moved to the Susquehanna River near the
tween the Indians and the
present town of Forty Fort. There he married Betty Montour ,
whites of that region. She
who was three-quarters Indian.
never married, giving as a
Tom Jack became known as a "peace man." When it was reason that the Great
proposed by the Indians and Tories to massacre the white Spirit made her a mother
settlers in the Wyoming Valley, he refused to join them and of a nation rather than a
moved up the river with his family. They moved into a cabin mother of a family.
on the south side of Sugar Creek at Burlington. Tom Jack Ted Keir, SRAC Chairman of the
White Fawn died in Board
shared his few provisions with the early settlers and in every
1823, highly respected,
way proved he was a friend, inviting them into his home. He
and in 1836 a monument was erected to her memory by the
traded salt with the settlers, knowing how valuable it was,
Moravian Missionary Society, of which church she was a
and never disclosed the salt's location. It is believed there
member as were her parents.
was a salt dome on a hill near Burlington. There is a Histori-
cal Marker in Burlington with Tom Jack’s name on it, saying Tom Jack's memory has been perpetuated by the name
he was an Iroquois Indian. Tom Jack Creek, near whose mouth he lived and several
clubs and organizations that use his name.
Tom Jack stayed in the Burlington area until 1794 and then
moved to the Allegheny River, where he died in 1809. He Steve Sliwinski, a Troy High School art teacher and avoca-
and his wife had two children, a daughter named White tional archaeologist, has painted a large vibrant image of
Fawn and a son named Sun Down. The son suffered a Tom Jack after researching the life story of this famous Na-
tragic death but I could not find out the details. White Fawn tive American.
was educated and became a teacher and a missionary, and

Thank you Allen Pierce Foundation!!! SRAC was again blessed to have received a
$10,000 grant from the foundation this year. It is important the public know that this foun-
dation is truly the reason that many local organizations, like SRAC, survive. Thank you to
Peggy Pierce Elfvin and The Allen Pierce Foundation. We are honored to receive your
vote of confidence for 2009-2010!
S R AC M E M B ER S H IP D R I V E C O N T ES T !
From today until our next annual membership meeting at our Drumbeats Through Time
event on October 10, 2009, we are having a membership drive contest. SRAC members can
win huge prizes for referring new members to SRAC!
There will be three top winners in two categories: Most new members referred and most
membership dollars made.
How can YOU win?
1.) You need to be a member.
2.) In order for a referral to count for you in this contest, the new member must write in that
they were referred by you on their membership form.
3.) Download the form at http://www.sracenter.org/Join/MembershipForm.pdf, put your name
on them as the referrer and give them to your friends to join the contest today!
4.) We will keep track of the new members and referrers in our database. We'll announce
the leaders at different intervals throughout the contest. The top three winners for both
categories will win prizes and will be announced at the annual event in October!
Stay tuned for more information!

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ www.SRACenter.org ~ email Info@SRACenter.org
Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND


CONTESTOGAS By John Gilmary Shea, 1858

Recently I came across a copy


of the handwritten article writ-
ten by John Gilmary Shea that
I purchased from one of our
local museums. Written in
1858 and subsequently pub-
lished in the same year in the
“Historic Magazine, Vol .II,”
this piece was meant to clarify
the identity of the Susquehan-
nocks and the Andastes in
early historical documentation
that referenced them by differ-
ent names in different lan-
guages. As a result, even
though Shea’s references do
not use Champlain and the
reference to when Brule vis-
ited yet another name for the
Andastes - the “Carantouannais” in our region, I still thought that it would be a good article to share with our
readers; to read and learn about these people, and for the references to many early documents and maps about
them. Please note that you can read all of the Jesuit Relations including those referenced in the following arti-
cle by visiting my website, www.SpanishHill.com and clicking the ”Jesuit Relations” button. ~ Deb Twigg, Ex-
ecutive Director, SRAC

The name frequently ends with “ronon” in Huron and “ronon”


The doubt that seems to hang over the Andaste of the
or “hage” in Iroquois, both terminations meaning “people” so
French writers and the Susquehannas mentioned by Virginia
that the full Huron name is Andastoeronon and the full Mo-
and Maryland writers, can we think be cleared away by a
hawk Gandastogueronon or Gandastoguehage.
closer examination of the earlier writers, and the present
essay is an attempt to convey to others the grounds for a Language – The relations of the Jesuits and Bressani in his
belief that one identical nation was known to the French by “Breve Relatione” mention them as a nation speaking a
the name of Andaste, Andastoe, Andastogue, Andastoei, Huron dialect and as the writers had frequent opportunities
Gandastogue; to the Dutch and Swedes by that of Mengwe of meeting men of the tribe, there can be no doubt on the
or Minqua; to the Maryland and Virginia by that of Susque- point. See Huron Relations 1635, Rel. 1639, Rel. 1647,
hanna, and by other Pennsylvanians, by that of Contestoga. Rel.1672.
THE ANDASTES Country – The territory of the Andastes lay according to
Bressani, and the Relation of 1647 – 8 (p50) near the Swed-
Name – the Andaste are frequently mentioned by the early
ish colony, one hundred and fifty miles S.E. by S. of the
French writers from about 1630 down to their overthrow
Hurons, inclining a little to the east; but the road from the
nearly fifty years later. The Jesuit annalists wrote first about
one to the other was actually 200 leagues. Gallatin errone-
them from the Huron territory, and we find “Andasta” defined
ously placed them on the headwaters of the Ohio, and hav-
“perche a faire la voute de la cabane,” “pole to make the
ing been unsuspectingly followed by Bancroft, has misled
roof of lodge,” in other words, a bow bent to half an ellipse.
many (see Hist of the U.S. iii 245 and the map.) According
The name Andastoe in Huron corresponds to the Andas-
to the Relation of 1662-3, a larger river rising near Lake On-
togue of the Iroquois, the “i “subscript of the Huron being
tario led to their town. The earlier Relations mention that
replaced in the Iroquois dialect by a “g” as Potier notices in
they lay near the Swedes, with whom they were on friendly
his Huron grammar.
terms. A Huron ambassador to the Andaste town in 1647

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Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND


CONTESTOGAS cont.
visited the Swedish fort, and there heard of the death of guage; thus on the forst page of Potier’s Huron Grammar
Father Jogues. we read “D alquindo pronoutiatur ut n, en vicissim n ut d.”

THE MINQUAS OR MENGWE Language – The language of the Contestogues was an


Iroquois dialect, as Coldens assures us in his “History of
From the preceding data, furnished by the French ac- the Five nations” ii 58, and is evident from the names of
counts, it is evident that that the Andastes were 1.)Huron – the chiefs who appears in various treaties.
Iroquois ; 2.) on the Susquehanna ; 3.) Near Fort Chris-
tina. Locality – Contestoga is near the Susquehanna in the
South of Pennsylvania, not far from Lancaster.
We have now to see what Dutch and Swedish accounts
say of any tribe answering these conditions. It will be seen These points coincide exactly with what we have seen of
that the Miqua or Mengwe alone do. Andaste and Miqua, and are corroborated by the letter of
Father Lamberville in (NY Documentary History, I 400;
Name – The name Minqua or Mengwe is Algonquin, and New York Colonial Documents, ix. 227); and by Penn’s
is given by the Delawares, who lay nearest the Swedes, treaty of 1701 (Penn. Hist. Coll., iii. P. 2, 169), where Min-
just as the Maquuas (Mohawk) was given to the tribe who quas, Susquehannas, and Contestogues are spoken of as
styled themselves Ganniegue. one tribe.
Language – The language of the Minquas is a dialect of As will be seen in the historical sketch, the subjugation of
the Huron, as is evidenced by the vocabulary in the “Nya the Contestogues by the Iroquois, and the overthrow of the
Swerige” of Campanius (p. 172, rectius 182, and trans- Andastes date from the same period.
lated in Pennsylvania Historical Collections, “ iii 158)
THE SUSQUEHANNAS
Country – The creek, called Minqua kill, was the road
leading to their town. (Hazard p. 77.) Campanius thus Name – The name was given by Virgininan and Maryland
describes their town - we quote form an English transla- tribes whose languages have totally disappeared.
tion. “the Minques or Mickus lived at a distance of 12
(Swedish, i.e. 54 English) miles from new Sweden, where Language – Their language according to Smith, almost
they daily come to trade with us. The way to their land was our only authority for the Virginia tribes, different from that
very bad…They live on a high mountain, very steep and after Powhatans and Tockwogh; the latter at least of whom
difficult to climb; there they have a fort or square building, seem to have been Algonquin.
in which they reside…they have guns and small iron can-
non, with which they shoot and defend themselves, and Father White’s Mary-
take with them when they go to war. They are strong and land Grammar and
vigorous both young and old…they are tall people, and are Dictionary, of which a
not frightful in appearance. When they are fighting, they do copy is promised me,
not attempt to fly, but all stand like a wall as long as there may throw some light
on the point. As to
is one remaining. They made the other Indians subject to
them, so that they dare not stir, much less go to war the family of the lan-
against them; but their numbers are present greatly re- guage, it is a signifi-
duced by war and sickness.” cant fact that Lederer
in his “North Carolina
From this it is evident that Andastes and Minquas coincide explorations took a
in race, language, location and relations with the Swedes; Susquehanna inter-
and in total absence of anything to show two dominant preter on his vist to
tribes with the same characteristics, we must consider the Tuscaroras.
them as the same tribe unless historical notices of one are
not predicable of the other, which as we shall see, is not Country – They lay
the case. on the Susquehanna
and were a warlike
THE CONTESTOGUES race, friends of the
Swedes and Dutch
Name – The name Contestogues is an English form, and ( M c S h e r r y ’ s
corresponds to the early French Gandastogues, just as the “Maryland” p. 59)
Caughnawaga do with the early French form Gandawa- According to Smith,
gue. The disappearance of the “d” is usual in the lan- “The Susquehan-
nocks inhabit upon
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Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS, SUSQUEHANNAS, AND


CONTESTOGAS cont.
(Continued from page 11)

the chief spring of these four branches of the barges head (i.e. the Susquehanna) two days higher than our barge could
pass for rocks.” On his map, as Bozman remarks, he locates their town on the east side of the Susquehanna, about 20
miles up. He elsewhere says “They can make near 200 able men, and are palisaded in their towns to defend them from the
Massawomekes, their mortal enemies.”

He describes and depicts a chief, whose garb, arms, and especially the mode of wearing the hair, wore peculiarly Huron.
See Bozman, i. 128, 142.

“The Swedes,” says a writer in 1648, “hiring out three of these soldiers to the Susquehannocks have taught those the use of
our arms and fights, “ See citation in “Proud’s Pennsylvania, i . 111; Bozman’s Maryland, ii. 273.

The meager accounts furnished us of the Susquehannas give us therefore only the locality and the connection with the
Swedes to justify us in identifying the dominant Susquehannas with the dominant Minquas. The Treaty made by Penn in
1701 is here also an authority, as Conodagtoh is styled “King of the Susquehannas, Minquays, or Contestogo Indians.”

HISTORY OF THE TRIBE – J. Gilmary Shea

Before the year 1600 - the Andastogues had in a ten years war almost exterminated the Mohawks – Rel. 1659 – 60, p. 28.

1608 – Susquehannas at war with Messawomekes (Mohawks) – Smith

1614-1616 – “Minquas called by Mohawks Ogehage” at war with Mohawks – Map in NY Colonial Documents, vol. i., and
map in O’Callaghan’s New Netherlands.

1633 – Minquas at war with Timber Creek Indians – De Vries. Swedes purchase lands and friendship of them. – Hazard, 48;
Campanius.

1634 – Susquehannas at war with Yoamaeoes.

1639-1644 – Susquehannas make war on the Piscataways and Patuxents – Bozman’s Maryland, ii. 161.

1647 – The Andastes numbering 1,300 warriors, sent an embassy to Hurons, and offer them aid against the Iroquois. – Rel
1647 – 8, p. 50.

1652 – Sawahegeh, Auroghtaregh, Scarhuhadigh, Ruthchogah and Nathhelddianeh, Susquehannas chiefs in presence of a
Swedish deouty cede to Maryland from Patuxent River to Palmer’s Island and from the Choptank to the N. E. branch, North
of Elk River. Bozman, ii. 683.

1656 – Andaste hunters robbed by Onnondagason lake Ontario, and war expected – Rel. 1656 – 7 ch. 4-5.

1660 – Swedes makes presents to Minquas

1661 – Three Cayugas killed by Andastes. Rel . 1660-1, last chapter.

1661-1662 – Some Minquas killed near Swedish post by Senecas. Hazard, 341-6-7, citing Albany Records xvii. 142, 156.

1662-1663 – Western cantons defeated by Andastes and anxious for French aid. Rel. 1662-3, ch. 4.

1663 – May. As an army of 1,600 Senecas besieges 100 Minquas in a little fort, but were compelled to raise the siege, and
being pursued by Minquas, lost ten warriors and ten prisoners. Hazard’s Ann. Pennsyl., 346.

1663 – 4 - Senecas wish French aid against the Andastes. – Rel. 1663 – 4, ch. 8; Charlevoiz, ii. 134.

1667 – A part of Cayugas harassed by Andastes cross Lake Ontario and settle on the north side. – Rel. 1667 – 8, ch. 5.

1668 – 73 – Andaste prisoners burnt at Onondaga and Oneidas.

(Continued on page 13)

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Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

THE IDENTITY OF THE ANDASTES, MINQUAS,


SUSQUEHANNAS, AND CONTESTOGAS cont.
(Continued from page 12)

1669-1670 – Andastes attack Cayugas, but offer peace; Cayugas however, after a
time pput their ambassadors to death. Rel. 1669-70. Senecas take prisoners. Contact Us!
1670-1671 – A Cayuga medicine man ordered his body to be interred on the road to
Andastes, promising to prevent their inroads. Promises that they will take a Hochi- Our Headquarters
tagete, a great Andaste chief. Mail:
1671-1672 – A Seneca war party takes the field against the Andastes, intending to join SRAC
a Cayuga party, but before they can effect a junction, are routed by 60 Andaste youth PO Box 12
who then pursue Cayugas – Rel. 1671-2 p. 81. “God help them,” says the writer,
“They have only 300 warriors.” Sayre, PA 18840
1672 – Andastes burnt at Onondaga. Phone:
1675 – The total defeat of the Andastes mentioned in the “Etat Present” of 1675. 607-
607-727-
727-3111
1676 – The Relations of this year says, “Andastoguets exterminated by the Iroquois Email:
after having made head against them for more than 20 years. P. 2. info@SRACenter.org
1675 – Contestogues said to have been subdued about this time by the Five Nations.
Our Center
1675 – Susquehannas retreating before Senecas attacked by Marylanders and Virgini-
ans under Traceman and Washington, and their chiefs put to death.
Location:
345 Broad St.
1675-1676 – Governor of Maryland in a commission to Col. Cousey, dated April 30,
1677, says that the Susquehannas had lately desired to make peace with Lord Balti-
Waverly, NY
more, and after these overtures had submitted to put themselves under the protection
of the Cinnigos. See Dr. O’Callaghan’snote in NY Colonial Documents, ix, 227. Phone:
607-
607-565-
565-7960
1683 – Iroquois claimed to have annexed the Susquehanna Territory – Colden, i. 54

1701 – Contestogues make a treaty with Penn. Website:


SRACenter.org
1749 – Teorhassery (Day Dawn) and other Contestoga chiefs at treaty of Philadelphia.

1763 – Contestogues massacred by Paxton Boys. See account Parkman’s Pontiac, p. Online Giftshop:
414. SRACenter.org/store
Online Membership:
Would you like to be SRACenter.org/join
RECENT CONTRIBUTORS TO SRAC a volunteer in our
Special thanks to the fol- • Ann Riley gift shop? SRAC Blog:
lowing for their support: Volunteers who SRACenter.blogspot.com
• Frank Patterson
work at least 7
• Dandy Mini Marts • Waverly Police Dept. hours a month get to Online Donations:
• Triple Cities NYS Ar- • Peter Pratt attend all SRAC
chaeological Assoc. SRACenter.org/donations
• Dan Caister events each month
• Janet Andrus for free! Call the Mobile Website:
• Athens
• Guthrie Health Rotary Center at (607)565- SRACenter.org/mobile
• Stan Vanderlaan
7960 during hours of
operation for more
• Beryl Cleary
information.
• John & Dee Margetanski

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Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

R E C E NT E V E N T S AT S R AC
There’s always something happening at SRAC! Our events draw more and more people. In fact, we recently had to
turn people away when it became clear we were at risk of exceeding safe building capacity. We love to share pictures
captured at these events. Thanks, as always, to John Margetanski for his generosity in taking pictures and sharing his
photography!

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Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

R E C E NT E V E N T S AT S R AC

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Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

W O O L L Y M A M M O T H … . I N W AV E R L Y !
The Andaste Chapter of PA Archaeology is one
of the oldest chapters in Pennsylvania, and the
United States. Silvia Wilson and Ted Keir are Anyone interested in financially supporting this new
now, to my knowledge, the oldest living mem- and exciting exhibit are asked to send donations to:
bers of the club at this time. Early on, as SRAC SRAC WOOLLY MAMMOTH FUND
was being formed, I also joined the Andaste
Chapter, and the close ties between the two or- PO Box 12
ganizations have become even closer over the Sayre, PA 18840
years. Thank you in advance for your support of this wonder-
Since SRAC bought the Center in Waverly, we ful addition to our community!
have hosted many of the Andaste Chapter
monthly meetings at SRAC as a joint meeting
and have invited the TriCities Chapter of NY Ar-
chaeology to also join in to make it a “border” meeting whenever possible. Today the Andaste Chapter and TriCities
Chapter have become great supporters and friends to our fledgling organization, and to me, we have all become a little
better together because of the friendships we have made.
Early in September we were notified that the Andaste Chapter of PA Archaeology had received a grant that would facili-
tate getting reproductions of the woolly mammoth 10 foot tusk, jaw and teeth that were excavated at Spring Lake near
Wyalusing in Bradford County, PA. Ted Keir, Tom Vallilee, Mark Madill and many others from the Andaste Chapter as-
sisted the Carnegie Museum in the excavation that summer in 1987.
This is a huge honor for SRAC, and we have already been working with our friend Brian Denlinger of Denlinger Design to
help us create and exhibit that will
span thousands of years and incorpo-
rate the woolly mammoth pieces into
an exhibit that will be viewed for gen-
erations to come.
This is a rendering of the basic layout,
placement and design that Brian has
created. As you will note, the exhibit
will fill the whole back area of the ex-
hibit hall and include our mural, a new
TV/DVD area, two murals, the birch
bark canoe on a river and even a wa-
terfall and rock ledges created. The
final phase of the exhibit will then
house an “excavation site” where the
replicas will be placed with life size
standups of Ted and some of the An-
daste Chapter at the 1987 wooly mam-
moth dig. The whole exhibit will speak
of the ability of archaeology to be the
medium that can allow us to see the
past while paying tribute to the An-
daste Chapter’s efforts at the archaeo-
logical dig in 1987.

Thank you to the Mildred Faulkner Truman Foundation for the $5,000 grant to upgrade
the fire/smoke detectors and security system at SRAC! Your philanthropy in our region is
awe inspiring! With this grant, SRAC will be able to more safely and securely accommo-
date the many collections we currently house.

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Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2

The Valley Digs Culture!


One of the Valley's oldest organizations will join with one of its newest to pre-
sent "The Valley Digs Culture" on Sunday, Nov. 8 here at the Susquehanna
River Archaeological Center on Broad Street, Waverly.
The unique "infotainment" event will benefit both the Polyhymnia Music Club,
part of the Valley's cultural scene since 1897, and SRAC, which dates from
2005.
The afternoon (from 2-5 p.m.) will include entertainment by a lineup of out-
standing musicians (including some of the winners of the club's recent audi-
tions), great food, and a chance to learn more about the amazing collections
housed here at SRAC.
The exhibit hall will be open with SRAC directors on hand to answer questions
and explain the significance of the many items on display -- all of which are much older even than Polyhymnia Club!
Raffles and games will also be featured during this event designed to entertain and inform the whole family.
Tickets -- they're $10, with no charge for those under 12 -- are available at the Center and from members of the Polyhym-
nia Club.

SRAC operates with 100% volunteer staffing. The people listed below donate hundreds of hours every month to
make SRAC a success. Thank you for all that you do! We survive because of your efforts!

S R AC B OA R D OF DIRECTORS S RAC V OLUNTE ERS


• Deb Twigg • Janet Andrus • Mary Keene • Pat Miran
• Dick Cowles • Mary Ann Taylor • Bev • Nellie Brewster
• Ted Keir • Mark Madill • Beryl Cleary • Ann Carrigan
• Susan Fogel • Sam Ayers • Don Taylor
• Tom Vallilee • Ben Borko • Marilyn and Derek Weber

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Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 2
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840
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