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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4

Volume 3, Issue 4 December 2007


Vanderpoel’s Hobby
A Brief History Lesson 1
Note to Readers 3
LeRoy (Jake to his friends) Vanderpoel,
SRAC Around the Community 9 found his first arrowhead at a very young
4th Annual Drumbeats 10 age, and he was hooked. Jake loved to
Saturday Workshops at SRAC 12
fish, and from his home in Athens, Brad-
ford County, he would walk to either the
SRAC Receives Fox Collection 13 Susquehanna or Chemung River with his
Coming Events 13 fish pole and bait. When he returned to his
home he would walk the farmer's fields
The Arc Site 14
and search for lost treasures that had
SRAC Receives DEC Grant 15 been brought to the surface by the
Tioga Point NSDAR 16 farmer's plow.
Special Thanks to Contributors 16 Jake related how he would clean the dirt
“River, Rocks, and Time” Online 17 off the flint points and stone tools and lay
them on the window sills in the house.
Membership Form 18
This didn't please his dad at all as he or-
dered him to get rid of them. Then he
started storing them in salt bags but his LeRoy (Jake) Vanderpoel with Restored Pots
dad got fed up and threw his stone treas-
(Continued on page 2)
ures in the garden.
Join S ! Go to
www day!
join to
slowly receding and flooding our region,
It is hard to imagine what our region
we certainly would not have survived.
looked like a few thousand years ago, let
alone who the people were that lived Great flood waters were the result of the
here. The cultures that existed then melting of the glaciers with evidence of
seem so alien to us that they are a this seen even today. High atop our re-
mystery. Yet by looking at the evidence gion's highest mountains fossils of crea-
they left behind, we find that this culture tures can be found that once lived in an
has similarities to any other culture. Al- ancient deep sea that disappeared long
though they vary in detail, cultures are the ago. But during this time sea levels rose
same in that they are the summation of so high that it flooded what were once
generations solving the problems before coastlines and created those ancient
• Our Vision
them with new ideas and inventions. One seas and rivers. Without question, our
The Susquehanna River Ar-
might even consider whether the only real landscape is forever sculpted from these
chaeological Center of Native
Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is dedi- variations between each culture may ulti- great glaciers that gouged the earth's
cated to education, research and mately be what challenges each had to crust and subsequent flooding waters
preservation of the Native face and how their culture chose to solve that changed the original terrain.
American archaeological, cul- them.
tural and historical assets of the About 20,000 BC - 8000 BC – PALEO
About 70,000 to 20,000 BC - THE LAST PERIOD While debates continue con-
Twin Tier Region of Northeast-
ICE AGE Several thousand years ago, our cerning exactly when this occurred, once
ern PA and Southern NY.
region was a place that few of us today the water receded and the rich soil was
could survive; and if we travel as far back
as when the huge sheets of ice were (Continued on page 4)

The Susquehanna
BecomeRiver Archaeological
a member of Center
SRACof Native
today! Indian
back ~
page for more ~ email
Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


(Continued from page 1)

As Jake got older he became a very

good hunter, trapper, and fisherman;
which all tied in well with finding old
Indian village sites where the farmer's
plow or flood waters would uncover
firepits, storage and refuse pits, and on
occasion burials.

Jake and his wife lived on North St. in

Athens and he worked at the Ingersoll-
Rand Foundry. They had a daughter
Shirley, who at the age of six started
going with her dad and loved to pick up
shards from broken Indian clay cooking
and storage pots. Later on Jake be-
Jake Vanderpoel with Vast Native American Collection
came very proficient working with ce-
ramics and restored 17 clay pots of all and learned from each other regarding Bradford County, locating and number-
sizes. the most productive sites, not only ing nearly 80 of the recorded sites reg-
along the rivers and creeks but also hill istered with the state museum in Harris-
I enjoyed joining Jake on a number of or hunting sites. Jake drew me a map of burg. He copied reliable information
artifact trips. We shared our knowledge from a map produced by Louise Murray.
Jake worked for a short time with a
state funded archaeology team in 1948,
but they ran out of funds.

He was with us on the Tioga Point Farm

when a professional staff under Dr.
Barry Kent carried out an excavation.

Jake collected from Wysox and To-

wanda up the Susquehanna River to
Nichols and Tioga County, NY, and up
the Chemung River from Tioga Point to
Wilawana, Chemung and Lowman. By
his own count, he had over 6,000 pro-
jectile points at one time, arrowheads
and spear points as well as hundreds of
stone and bone tools used for hunting,
skinning, fishing, agriculture and war.
Metal Cross and Miscellaneous Bead Stone (approximately 2” x 1.5”) with Incised
(Continued on page 3)
Found at Tioga Point Site Spiral Design

Jake Working at Tioga Point Site, Athens PA 2 Sides of Deer Antler (1615 - 1630) with Incised Markings

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4

ple living in this area and
(Continued from page 2)
interested in the local history King George 1st
of our Indian civilization. medallion; Cobalt
Photos of Jake's artifact collection blue Russian trade
I feel sad about our lost arti- beads (found with
have appeared in the Pennsylvania
fact collections; but we were 107 black and
Archaeologist by Charles Lucy, Barry
a few years too late in orga- 2,428 white beads
Kent and Ira Smith III, and by Gary and when all strung
nizing our SRAC, that is
Fogelman in the Pennsylvania Artifact together created a
working hard to change what
Series. Vanderpoel displayed several string of beads 14
happened to many collec-
times at the annual Che-Hanna Rock feet, 8 inches long);
tions in the past. We want to
and Mineral Show and special events Copper coil with
save and protect this part of human hair (1727-
at the Tioga Point Museum. Jake Van-
our history forever. 1734), all found at
derpoel passed away in 1986 at the
age of 75. The bulk of his collection Tioga Point farm.
was sold at a Roan Brothers auction at
Cogan Station, Pa.
on March 19, 1988.
A few of us have
frames and locally
found items that
were bought or
given to us by Jake;
but the rare pipes,
pots, banner
stones, beads and
trade goods are
now lost to the peo-
Vanderpoel Clay Pot Collection

the Vanderpoel Collection that had to SRAC and allowing us to record his
gone to auction in 1988. There is no collection, and in remembrance of a
In the winter of 2006, SRAC Board
doubt that these artifacts have passed Jake Vanderpoel, a collector well
member Dick Cowles received a phone
hands several times before reaching known to many in our region.
call from Tim Tuttle, who lives in Michi-
that cabin. From a collection that once
gan. He also owns a cabin in Dick's It is our hope that SRAC may someday
held thousands of artifacts, SRAC was
neighborhood near Corning, NY that he return some of Vanderpoel’s extensive
at least able to bear witness that a
visits a couple of times a year. The collection back to our region; allowing
handful was still intact with prove-
phone call was to invite SRAC board us to include him in our wall of collec-
nance. That afternoon will also be a
members Dick Cowles, Ted Keir, and tors that will memorialize their life's
special memory because Ted Keir had
Deb Twigg to see a portion of his col- work in the search and study of our
actually witnessed the discovery of
lection relative to our region. region's local prehistory.
some of the pieces, and had handled
Mr.Tuttle spent the better part of an the artifacts decades before with his
afternoon with his guests, who were friend Jake. As a result, Ted was able
surprised to see several pieces from to offer Tim much more information
about the artifacts, and both parties
were better for the meeting that took
place that day. While we know there
are more small parts of the vast Van-
derpoel collection still in local hands, it
by no means makes up for what was
lost at that fateful auction in 1988.

SRAC has extended a request to Tuttle

to someday exhibit his collection at our
Center, and it was agreed that this
would indeed be a great thing to do
sometime in the future. Until then, we SRAC board members, Deb Twigg, Ted
Ted Keir reunited with artifacts Keir, Dick Cowles, and Tim Tuttle
thank Tim Tuttle for opening his doors

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


An Early Invention - Sinker stones have been

found in massive amounts in Bradford
County, Pa. They were attached to ancient
fishing nets in order to weight them down in
the many rivers and creeks in the region. The
nets that they were tied to rotted away a long
time ago and are only evidenced by their
marks worn into the stones that still remain.

While scientists today argue about the

path that led the first men into our
area, the massive evidence they left
behind in the form of artifacts clearly
Earth during the last Ice Age (around 16,000 B.C.) show that this was a region rich with
the resources needed to sustain life in
(Continued from page 1)
these paleo (first people) are said to such harsh times. It seems that
then revealed, life would soon make have called no place home and were throughout the thousands of years of
use of it. Plants would rise from the constantly on the move for their next the migration by several cultures, the
muddy terrain and waterfowl and meal and ultimate survival. Their need Twin Tier region was a continuous
small animals would live off of the was to feed themselves, and without stopping point along their way.
many fish species that flourished in agricultural knowledge these people
the icey waters. Once the mud dried had learned where their food supplies With the Susquehanna River full of
even more and became suitable for were available and lived off of what great eels, fish, water fowl, and other
passage, it would soon be littered with grew naturally in the environment wild game, and the soil rich with fruit
footprints of larger animals that around them such as nuts, berries, and nut trees and wild edible plants,
ranged all the way up to the great roots and plants. They created basic early travelers found this region a
wooly mammoths, giant elks, huge inventions to help facilitate catching place in which their families could sur-
cats, and even later those of humans fish, and others to help in hunting to vive and thrive. The artifacts that re-
who came here hunting these animals get meat to help their families survive. main give us a glimpse into the world
for their next meal. They also had to protect themselves that they lived in and what needs they
from the weather and because of their used their energies to fulfill.
Believed to be hunters and gatherers, continuous search for food, initially
found places that naturally provided 8000 BC - 1000 BC - THE ARCHAIC
natural shelter such as caves but PERIOD Thousands of years would
eventually would build primitive short- pass, and slowly generation after gen-
term housing structures. To survive eration would bring new ideas and
answers to problems that made life
the winters however meant to store
just a little easier. Although their lives
enough food that would not rot and
hope that hunting efforts throughout were significantly eased by the inven-
the cold months could be fruitful tions of their past generations, their
enough to get them through to the lives were still surrounded by a harsh
next spring. When spring finally ar- life and many problems that begged
for answers.
rived, they set out again on their quest
to survive for another year.
One artist’s rendition of early hunters (Paleo). (Continued on page 5)

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Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


It is believed that during the Archaic time
(Continued from page 4)
period a significant technological break-
through, the bow and arrow had not yet
This in turn would cause new upgrades, been invented. Researchers believe that
ideas, and behaviors built upon prior ones as their ancestors had, hunters continued
that would continue to grow exponentially to use an atlatl to throw long spears for
Contact Us! as the populations steadily grew. This pe- thousands of years before the invention of
riod begins to show that more time was the bow and arrow. Carefully made, ground
available and taken to make more ornate
and polished stone tools such as pestles,
Our Headquarters celts, axes, and adzes. Interestingly, some
Mail: of these early tools have continued to be
SRAC modified and used to modern times. Other
artifacts found in our region such as bird-
PO Box 12 stones, gorgets, and plummet stones con-
Sayre, PA 18840 tinue to be debated about, because their
usage stopped at some point over the cen- The atlatl, was most likely still used as the
Phone: turies and their purpose has been lost. Fur- weapon of choice by the archaic period hunters.
607-727-3111 thermore, the locations of quarries of new
Email: and better materials continued to be found and uses for these materials constantly
being upgraded. As a result, scientists can
date many sites by not only the level of
Our Center tools that are found there, but the types of
lithic materials that are found there as well.
345 Broad St. Another indicator of continuous innovation
Waverly, NY
Ancient Ohio "bird stone" believed to be an atlatl
weight found near Spanish Hill, Bradford County, PA.
Our Website
and polished stone weights were attached
to the shaft of the spear thrower to increase
the precision of the throw needed to make
Our Online Giftshop the kill. 1000 BC - 1550 AD - THE WOODLAND

PERIOD At this point, people began to har-
Ancient points made in many shapes and sizes ness enough knowledge of their surround-
Online Membership as well as from many types of materials show ing vegetation to begin meager efforts in
that several cultures over many time periods agriculture. It is believed that this time pe- found themselves near Spanish Hill, Bradford riod was marked by this huge innovation
County, PA because with it they still could hunt and
Our Blog gather, yet begin to build extra stores of
that occurred over the centuries are that the food that would allow them to remain in one points themselves. The mere design in their place for longer periods of time. Larger
edges and stems as well as whether pres- groups of people could at this point live to-
Online Donations sure was used as opposed to striking the gether and villages and small communities
material are all indicators of past innova- began to be formed. With this advancement tions that were made over the centuries by to their social structure, there were more
different groups, and all of this information people to help grow and harvest more food
helps today's researchers to classify them stores and this again allowed for more time
by time period and culture. for other needs to be considered.

(Continued on page 6)

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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


deavors other than sustaining life; and as a result, efforts in

(Continued from page 5)
things such as the arts and other cultural matters were now
Great religious efforts seem to have arisen at this time and given the focus they had never been afforded before. Yet,
many ceremonial spaces and temples began being built in as with all histories of mankind, other less productive activi-
North America, not unlike those found in South America. ties, such as war, began to be the focus of attention.
Large villages, cities and trade centers would pop up
throughout the east coast and Mississippi valley region. Soon even peaceful people had to learn about war if only
With the creation of cities, each person no longer had to for protection, and as a result, the rise of palisaded or
provide their own food to sustain their families. Huge fields walled villages began to appear. Paths once used by all,
of corn supported whole villages, and people were allowed were now guarded by nations that claimed them as their
to specialize in different areas of tool making and artisan- own, and passage became deadly to anyone not given
ship. By now, the paths through our region were many; and rights to use them. French missionaries made some of the
although not paved, they were almost as abundant as our earliest records of people in our region, and noted that at
major highway systems today. This allowed people of differ- least one tribe carried great war clubs, which they would
ent regions to share their individual cultural and technologi-
cal advancements, and soon the first "melting pot of Amer-
ica" was underway.

Instead of carving bowls from steatite, well made pottery

with various designs and tempering materials became yet
another innovation during the Woodland period. This pot-
tery today is used by researchers to define the culture of
the people who made them very distinctly in this period.
The invention of the new hunting technology known as the
bow and arrow is also believed to have occurred at this
time. Because of these huge leaps forward, I believe that

Early illustration of an Iroquoian palisaded village

leave next to the body of a forbidden traveler along their
heavily guarded paths. These people were the most feared
of all in the area that later was described as having many
warring nations all at battle with one another. The people in
our region were said to have lived as if constantly on a
wheel of survival, finding themselves most powerful one
year only to be on the edge of extinction the next.

15?? - Forward – THE HISTORIC PERIOD (When records

Actual pottery found in our region that shows inhabitance of of events began being documented in a written language in
many cultures over many time periods. (Jack Rowe Collection) our region) The first people in our region that we have re-
one could look at this time period as the “Renaissance” of cords of were called the Susquehannocks by Englishman
the American Indian in our region. Captain John Smith, who found them guarding the Susque-
hanna River waterway as far south as the Chesapeake Bay
At this point, our region became a place that could sustain in 1608. In fact on his journey up this river from Virginia, he
life and many cultures together. It had seen rise to the first was met by many of these Susquehannocks, which were
cities and civilizations it would know. The growth of human- enough to make him turn around and go no further!
kind and the accumulated wisdoms of many generations
were continuing to culminate exponentially, and each gen- The first records of white men that came into our region is
eration showed more and more advances due to the record said to be three Dutch trappers, who happened onto one of
populations it was able to support. Life had finally reached the above described heavily guarded Susquehannock
a point where large amounts of time could be spent on en- (Continued on page 7)

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


(Continued from page 6) Recently at our last Drumbeats event, this whole idea of the
continuous wheel of needs being answered by innovation
paths. Luckily for the and invention was a topic of discussion between me and a
Dutchmen, the Susque- new young friend and SRAC member, Danny Scopelliti as
hannocks had knowl- we were looking over the birch bark canoe that Les Rolfe
edge of their country- donated to us. I was telling Danny about how the canoe
men at the Delaware was made and that it was a very intense process that obvi-
Bay, said to be willing to ously was not one man’s idea. Instead that probably one
pay a handsome ran- day someone wanted to hunt the geese that were swim-
som in precious metal ming out of reach in a river or a lake and someone made
pots and other items in something out of branches or some material to facilitate
exchange for their safe their need. I told him that just as he questions why his dad
return. does something one way, probably this person’s son gave
him another idea of what would work better, and maybe a
While the advent of the neighbor jumped in the conversation and that together they
first white men in our made something even better, and so it went…for hundreds,
region signifies so many possibly thousands of years people continued to add their
changes to the world ideas. One only needs to look at the incredible workman-
that was forming in ship that goes into making the bark canoe to appreciate the
North America, it also story I was trying to illustrate. And of course, the continued
begins the joining of the innovations in canoe making did not stop and continue to
wisdom of the genera- be upgraded just like everything else even today.
Captain John Smith's illustration of tions of the people of
"Susquehannock" North America with the Danny continued that he believed these people were really
knowledge of genera- intelligent and that most people that he had talked to about
tions of the people of Europe. While the Europeans are rec- them thought that the ancient cultures were not as smart as
ognized for bringing the technology of gunpowder and we are today. I actually think about this from time to time,
metal to this land, they would not have survived the first and have to say that from what I understand there is very
winter without the help of the North American people who little that we do or understand today that wasn’t passed on
for generations had developed methods and tools for this to us from other generations. The laptop that I am writing
purpose. this on, the desk that it sits on, the building that I am sitting
in are all results of ideas and inventions that show a
The clash of these cultures in our region thought process that obviously existed a
the following hundreds of years would very long time ago. As a result, I am not
make drastic changes in both, and would sure that man could have survived with
lead the mighty Susquehannocks to their less brain power than we are able to ex-
final extinction in 1763. ert today. Furthermore, I have to be hon-
est when I say that I am not sure how
While this is but a brief overview of the
many of us could survive 1,000, much
incredible past this region holds, it hope- less 10,000 years ago with the same
fully helps you to understand that our tools and knowledge level let alone in the
region is rich with a significant prehistory same situation we found our ancient an-
as well as history along with an incredi- cestors in. As a result, I am not sure I
ble amount of evidence in the form of
can make the call on who was the most
artifacts that should be preserved and
intelligent or most inventive, but instead
shared. If one looks closely at the in- can only state that within each group
credible artifacts that have been and still there was always the opportunity to meet
are being found in this region, it is clear the challenge before us with the knowl-
that this region was once a favorite stop edge we had been given at that point in
by ancient travelers and later was the
home to many cultures. Over thousands
of generations, evidence of the incredible This opportunity to meet challenges set
accumulation of knowledge and contin- before us has existed throughout history
ued need for innovation and invention and still exists today. Let’s be honest, no
that formed these unique cultures is well culture to date has been defined by be-
recorded. SRAC’s birch bark canoe on display at (Continued on page 8)
recent Drumbeats event

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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


(Continued from page 7)

ing just like another one before it. Instead, they are defined by the different ways they dealt with the challenges before
them ~ or not. This opportunity is also realized in two parts. First, any need can be identified and one of two responses
can follow: “I can’t do anything about it,” or “I can do something about it,” (no matter how large or small that something is.)
Secondly, whatever is done needs to cause some change to occur. The people throughout history that somehow saw the
need as something they could address and were able to find solutions differently than those before them were naturally
the ones who caused the innovations and invention to occur time period after time period.

For this reason, I believe that history is a thing that can tell us many things not only about the people who once lived here,
but about ourselves. SRAC is made up of people who believe that we can indeed do something about the black hole that
has engulfed the interest and the knowledge of our regional prehistory and early history as well as the preservation of it.

What do you believe?

To join or learn more about SRAC, visit, call 607-727-3111 or email

Note: Due to the spatial limitations for this article, please understand that the break down within each time period or inclu-
sion of the Transition Period have been eliminated.


On November 28, 2007 Ted Keir and Deb Twigg did a spe- Sayre High School welcomed SRAC board members in
cial presentation September of 2007. Ted and Deb were invited to speak to
at Lockheed Mar- the district’s seventh grade students. They spoke about the
tin in Owego, NY. Valley area
The presentation history and the
was very well re- importance of
ceived; and they preserving lo-
were surprised, to cal artifacts. It
say the least, was a great
when they were day for SRAC
told to expect and the stu-
about 60 people dents!
and 120 attended!


SRAC's Board mem- SRAC's Board Chairman
ber, Inga Welles, Ted Keir presented his
manned the SRAC "Story of the Woolly Mam-
display table and moth" program for the
"Sand Pit" at the Southern Tier Lions Club
Lynch-Bustin Elemen- at Fisherville, NY in No-
tary School "Jurassic vember 2007. Photo 1
Night" in Athens, Pa. shows Ted holding one of
Kids dug for rocks in his woolly mammoth teeth
the sand pit for dino- as he stands with
saur era rocks and minerals King Lion Jack Harter. Photo 2
donated by Ted Keir. The dis- shows the sign that was placed at
play held special items that the site that the mammoth was un-
drew attention which included covered, Spring Lake, near Wyalus-
coprolite, (petrified dinosaur ing, PA.
droppings) also from the Keir

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Page 9 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


We at SRAC thought our summer was busy….and then came fall! Board
members participated in all sorts of events; including Jurassic Night at Lynch-
Bustin School, a presentation to the students of Sayre High School, a Wooly
Mammoth Program at the Southern Tier Retired Lions Club, the Otsiningo
Harvest Festival, the Guthrie Christmas Craft Fair, a special SRAC Presenta-
tion at Lockheed Martin, and we hosted our own 4th Annual Drumbeats
Through Time (see page 10). The year is closing with our biggest accom-
plishment and hardest task to date...the purchase and renovation of our first
location. Look for us around the community in the coming months. We’ll be
looking for you too!

Deb takes a moment with good friend Ron Wen-

ning of Wennawoods Publishing

Ted presenting at Lockheed Martin Henry Farley at the

Lynch-Bustin Elementary School Jurassic Night Craft Fair

Inga and friend at a Jurassic Night at

Susan, Delores Elliott, and Deb at Lynch-Bustin Elementary School
the Otsiningo Harvest Festival in
it h vis ito rs at the O Guthrie Christmas Craft Fair Organ-
Susan w estival izers Bev Varner and Frank Sickler
Harvest F
with Deb

Peggy Burkhart (Sayre Historical Soci-

ety) at the Guthrie Christmas Craft Fair

Deb presenting to our good friends at Lock-

heed Martin Inga, Susan, and Jessica manning the tables at the
Guthrie Christmas Craft Fair

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Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


In October 2007, SRAC held the 4th annual Drumbeats

Through Time event which was a great representation
of the ever growing support of people and resources
dedicated to its success.

The day began early with an invitation only session for

members and friends of SRAC presented by executive
director, Deb Twigg. The presentation covered an over-
view of SRAC's successes over the past year, financial
reports and strategic plans for the coming year, as well as never before shown
pictures of the new SRAC building on Broad Street, Waverly.

As the morning session closed,

the public portion began and Deb addresses the SRAC membership
visitors began to browse the
collections and special SRAC
displays to include our new
birch bark canoe which is part
of the SRAC Les Rolfe collec-
tion. SRAC also displayed arti-
facts from each of our collec-
tions to include the Cowles,
Safford, Rolfe, and Sloat collec-
Les Rolfe and wife with the birch bark canoe tions.

Later, Ralph Ratual from the NYS mu-

Mural artist, “Mitch” Mitchell works on
seum presented a story about the NYS
the backdrop for the canoe display
Museum and why a preservation effort
in a museum setting is so important. After this presentation, the Tioga County
Tourism bus arrived with visitors to the event and they joined the audience in
browsing the collections and displays until it was time for the final presenta-
tion made by Dr. Earl Robinson of the Lowman Historical Society. He pre-
sented the trail of Sullivan's March in 1779, and promptly followed that up by
boarding all those that had reserved tickets to join the Tioga Tourism visitors
on the bus to take a tour of the exact path of Sullivan and his troops through
NYS Museum’s Ralph Ratual visited Ted’s our region.
museum before the event.

We want to thank Ralph Ratual from the NYS Museum and Dr. Robinson especially for taking the time to be such an
important part of our event this year. It is so important to us to know that we have friends such as them who support
the efforts of SRAC.

Earl Robinson chats with Don Hunt and

Brian and Ethan Denlinger Ralph Ratual answers audience Marilyn Wheeler at Drumbeats
questions at Drumbeats

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Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


Deb and Ted….☺

Dick Cowles chats with Ron Wenning of

Deb setting up displays at Drumbeats
Wennawoods Publishing

Inga Welles mans the historical books and

maps table

Guests enjoyed the popular addition of food at this Dick and Marcia share artifacts the Joe
year’s Drumbeats event Schmieg at the 4th Annual Drumbeats

Some new friends enjoy Drumbeats

Marcia Cowles talks with Mike

Buynak and his daughters

One of the day’s presentations

SRAC celebrates our collections, the collectors,

and their families. Without their generosity, our Matt Hicks of the Morning Times
Earl Robinson waiting to present
local history would be lost.
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Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


Our Saturday workshops have been much more than I could have ever dreamed of - - (and trust me - when I say I can
dream pretty big!) We have had more than twenty people show up on any one day, and the amount of work that is accom-
plished is to be proud of!
On one Saturday we had Tom Valillee and Jack Rowe lead a team of movers with one truck which included myself, Dave
Santas, Mike Bunyak, and Les Rolfe. At the same time Duane Welles led the truck for the second team which included
Jessica and Joe Quinn, Luke Rae, and Mike Geiss. That same day Gloria Riegel came and helped with cleaning and
moving too!
On another Saturday Danny and Sue Hakes Jeff Terwilliger, Mary VanSchaick, Claire Borits, took time out of their Satur-
day to help us with sweeping, moving items, tearing down peg boards, and washing down walls and windows.

Left to right: Duane

Welles, Luke Rae, Deb
Twigg, Tom Valillee, Jack
Rowe, and Jessica Quinn

Rita and Craig Maury stopped in to volunteer to help us with building cases and to do other fin-
ish work. They just happen to have a workshop just a few buildings down from us and took
measurements for a couple of projects that they have offered to do for us for nothing more than
the cost of supplies. It would be impossible to (and lengthy!) to list all of the activity and gifts
we’ve been blessed with!
SRAC has workshops Saturdays from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Check
for announcements each week!
Claire Borits

Jack, Angelo, and Tom getting ready to

Rita and Craig Maury talk with Deb drywall Jeff Terwilliger and Jessica

Sue Hakes works with Alley

Terwilliger while Danny sweeps Luke Rae, Duane Welles, Deb Twigg,
Mary VanSchaick Carol Merrill, and Don Merrill

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4

The Robert K. Fox Collection - (which it will be known as
SRAC is proud to announce that the Robert K. Fox Collec-
from this point on at SRAC) is the fifth donation of evidence
tion has been added to our collection. Bob Fox was a col-
that SRAC has received. The first of which was SRAC's co-
lector in and around Athens, PA for most of his life. After
founder Mr. Dick Cowles' collection consisting of thousands
his recent death, his family was left with the responsibility
of artifacts (evidence) that belonged to his father, Ellsworth
of where his collection would end up, and they made an
Cowles. The Cowles Collection covers sites in a broad re-
important phone call that will affect our community for gen-
gion from Waverly, NY, Spanish Hill, Athens, PA, Big Flats,
erations to come.
and as far as Corning, NY. The second was the Bernard
Safford Collection, from Waverly, NY which includes hun-
dreds of artifacts from sites located mostly in Sheshequin,
PA and Ithaca, NY. SRAC has used the Safford Collection
in schools around the region and at many events for chil-
dren, per Mr. Safford's wishes. The third collection was the
Sloat Collection, which includes evidence from a specific
site in Milltown, PA. The fourth was the Les Rolfe Collec-
tion, which includes an authentic birch bark canoe, as well
as 250 framed Vestal Points, and some miscellaneous arti-
facts from a PA site.
Miscellaneous artifacts numbered
clearly to note where in our region We’d like thank Randy Pettit and all of Bob Fox's family for
they were found the donation of this evidence to SRAC. Furthermore, thank
Prehistoric tool called an you to all who have given to SRAC in whatever form was
That phone call was an invitation "adz" donated as part of the
to SRAC board members to look possible. We at SRAC believe it is OUR history. Without
"Fox Collection" to SRAC our local collectors and philanthropists who also believe
at the collection, and to receive it
as an addition to the SRAC collection. It was a pleasant this to be true,
surprise to find that all of the artifacts were numbered and SRAC would not
listed in a notebook, showing the specific site or location have been founded
where each artifact was found. This puts the Robert K. Fox nor been able to
Collection in a very important place in the SRAC collection, have the suc-
because it can be very useful to researchers to know what cesses it has to
was found at various sites in our region. date. We take it as
a vote of confi-
We at SRAC are particularly pleased that the word is get- dence, and will
ting out about what we are trying to do. That is - to keep continue to work
our evidence off the auction block and instead to preserve hard to continue to
it for the sake of our community and furthering research be deserving of it.
about our prehistoric past.
Ted Keir, Randy Pettit, and Tom Vallilee

39th Annual Che-Hanna Rock & Mineral Club Show • Admission Donation: Adults$3.00Students$1.00Kids un-
• 5 Athens Twp. Vol. Fire Hall, Herrick Ave., Sayre, PA - der 8 FREE
March 29th and 30th, 2008.Hours: Saturday 9-5 and Come and bring a friend!!
Sunday 10-5 More info - call 570-888-7544
• The Carnegie Museum will provide an outstanding and
will provide minerals for silent auctions.
• Special exhibit of AMBER from the Paleontological Re-
search Institute.
Would you like to receive email no-
• Club members will exhibit minerals, gems, Indian arti- tices of upcoming events? Email
facts. and ask to be
• Demonstrations of the lapidary arts will be done by club added to our announcements list.
members. Mini-mine for the kids. Fluorescent minerals by
• Dealers with fossils, gemstones, minerals, jewelry, hobby
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


caribou herds that were going east to the calving grounds in
The largest known Paleo Indian site in New York State was
the Adirondack foothills in the Spring and southwest to
discovered by my dad, Jacob, and myself in 1984 near
Western Pennsylvania and Ohio in the Fall.
Oakfield, New York (between Buffalo and Rochester). It
was named the Arc Site and covers well over one hundred There is a high hill near
acres, which we have surface hunted many times. Hun- the site from where, on
dreds of end and side scrapers (broken and complete) have a clear day, one can
been recovered. Also, many knives, spokeshaves, drills, see Lake Ontario. From
gravers, limaces, sickles and preforms were found. Over 60 here, I suspect that
different fluted these early hunters
points (Clovis) are could have seen the
represented. Many receding glacier far to
thousands of waste the North.
flakes found shows
Since this is such an
that tools were Fluted Tools, Points, Glued Together
important site, I have
made or resharp-
mapped in each of the
ened here. Most of
artifacts as they were found. We have a couple of radio car-
the artifacts are
bon dates for the Arc Site: 10,370 plus or minus 108 and
made of local Ono-
11,700 plus or minus 110 years old. Thanks to Jack Hol-
daga chert, but
land at the Buffalo Museum for measuring, weighing and
about 5% are of
numbering over 1700 tool specimens from this site.
Pennsylvania Jas-
per or Argilite, East- Triangular End Scrapers, Knife with Graver
ern New York State Spurs, Knife, Graver, Spokeshaves, Drill
Onondage, Flint
Ridge (Ohio) or
Canadian material.
These exotic (non-
local) tools were
carried into this
area when they first
arrived, as they
didn't know if tool
making stone ex-
isted here. Their
lives depended on As shown by the waste flakes in this photo, they also brought in raw
reliable tools. materials to make tools from. There is Pennsylvania red jasper, east-
38 Fluted Points
ern New York Onondaga, black Pennsylvanian and Ohio flint, Flint
Many of the fluted
Ridge assorted colors and upper Mercer.
points represented
are of bases only.
This suggests that
the tips were some-
times broken off the
spears at the killing
areas and that the
wooden spear
shafts were brought
back to the camp
where the broken
flint bases were
detached and dis- 3 Fragments of a Knife
carded, then new
points installed. Caribou were probably the main food This is a picture of some of the best tools found at the Arc Site. Notice
source here as this provided food, shelter and clothing. many made with non-local material. When the Paleo people first came
into this area, they didn’t know if tool-making lithics were here. Know-
It is possible that these early hunters came to this area from ing their lives depended on tool availability, they brought many tools
the Shoop Site in Pennsylvania seasonally to intercept the with them.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


SRAC applied for its first art grant to fund a mural by local
artist Ron Nogar to be placed on the outside of our new
building this year. The top floor has several 9-feet by 13-
feet boarded windows and it is our plan to continue to apply
for grants and work with Ron over the years to have each
space filled with a mural that looks as if it is a window look-
ing into the past.
The Arts of the Southern Finger Lakes DEC grant program,
which regrants state funds on the local level, focuses on
public projects that increase accessibility to the arts for
all. It supports collaborations between artists and arts/
cultural organizations, and assists emerging arts organiza-
Since the grant request deadline preceded the purchase of
our new building, the Village of Waverly acted as our spon-
sor for the grant and we want to thank them for supporting
this effort to beautify downtown Waverly!


The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


the Museum, now called Tioga Point In 1950, appropriate ceremonies ac-
The Tioga Chapter was organized on
Museum, until a museum association companied the placement of a bronze
October 4, 1900, by Mrs. Charlotte Hol-
was formed. tablet on the grave of our founder, Mrs.
brook Maurice. There were 21 charter
Maurice, in the Tioga Point Cemetery.
members and Mrs. Maurice was Chapter membership grew, and in
elected Regent. 1921, thirty members from Waverly, The Chapter aided in the restoration of
NY, withdrew and formed the Caran- the Colonel John Franklin private
"Tioga" or "Teoga" is an Indian word
touan Chapter DAR. In 1984, the Ca- cemetery in East Athens, PA. Local
meaning "the meeting of the waters."
rantouan Chapter dissolved and mem- and state dignitaries attended a cere-
This area, where the Susquehanna and
bers transferred to the Tioga Point mony when a historical marker was
Chemung rivers converge, was the site
Chapter. placed near the highway to identify the
of the oldest and most important Indian
grave sites of Colonel Franklin and Ma-
town in Bradford County. All of the We have the distinction of having two jor Zephan Flower, who were early set-
great Indian paths passed through Real Daughters as members: Mrs. tlers, soldiers, and patriots of this area.
here. At one time, one third of the conti- Arlette Talliday Northrup and Mrs. Ann
Revolutionary grave markers were also
nental army was encamped at Tioga Stewart. Their graves were marked placed.
Point and General John Sullivan built a with bronze plaques in 1922.
temporary fort here while waiting to be We celebrated our Chapter Centennial
joined by General Clinton. On Novem- In 1925, we contributed toward a Brad- on October 14, 2000, at a luncheon at
ber 23, 1790, the treaty between the ford County chair for Continental Hall. the Grand Victorian Inn, Sayre, PA.
US government and the Iroquois Coun-
cil of the Six Nations was signed. The In 1926, we contributed toward a me- The Chapter has presented the DAR
Chapter dedicated a boulder on the site morial window in Valley Forge Chapel. Good Citizen pin, certificate, and mone-
of Fort Sullivan on October 3, 1902. tary gift each year since 1936. Several
In 1929, we joined with the Pennsyl-
have been Silver Spoon winners at the
In 1910, the Chapter donated a bronze vania and New York Historical Com- state level. In 1998, Michelle Vargo
medallion bearing the coat of arms for missions in the Sesquicentennial of was selected State winner and honored
Pennsylvania which hangs in the foyer Sullivan's Expedition, held at the old at Continental Congress in April 1999.
of Memorial Constitution Hall. A bust of Academy grounds in Athens. At that
Benjamin Franklin was donated for the time, three tablets and markers were The Chapter charter is on display in the
Pennsylvania Alcove. placed marking Revolutionary sites. In Athens Museum. A large framed case
all eleven sites were marked from 1906 holding pictures of the early Regents
In 1912, the Chapter joined in the to 1959. hangs in the hall outside the museum
elaborate ceremony at the dedication of entrance.
Sullivan's Monument, now Newtown In 1932, the 200th anniversary of the
Battlefield, near Wellsburg, NY. birth of George Washington, a pin oak
tree was planted on the Spalding Me-
In 1913, the Chapter name was morial Library grounds. The Chapter
changed from "Tioga" to "Tioga Point." was enrolled as a member of "The
George Washington Tree Association."
In 1914, the Chapter took over care of


• Arnold’s Excavation • Guthrie Health • Tom Thumb Nursery
• CQ Services • Joe Vaselli • Top’s Market
• Craig and Rita Maury • Leon Thomas • Triple V Electric
• Dandy Mini Mart • Les Rolfe • Wennawoods Publishing
• Denlinger Designs • Lockheed Martin
• Don and Carol Merrill • Lucio and Susan Bartolai To learn more about donating to
• Dr. Barry Skeist • Marty Borko SRAC call 607-727-3111 or visit
• Dr. Charles Ellis • Ralph Ratual
• Dr. Frederick Teribury • Robert Fox Family & Randy Pettit

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4


Although SRAC already has a website at, we have created a blog, which is
a webpage that is written in a format that is more like an
ongoing conversation or report of what we are up to.
Postings are added several times a week by executive
director Deb Twigg, and have become quite popular in
a very short time.
In the first 45 days it was online, the blog had over
1,000 visits from 37 states, with the majority coming
from New York State, followed by high numbers of visits
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey respectively.

One of the recent posts on

automatically by email and thereby eliminates the need to

remember to check back for new postings. Another
popular feature is a slide show of pictures of SRAC and
friends that constantly rotates 300-some images.
If the visits to the blog during the first month and a half are
an indication of what we can expect offline, it certainly
makes the point that we have the potential to bring people
from across the nation into the Valley, which can be good
Map shows the 68 different cities in NY that had visitors to for the whole community.
the SRAC blog. (larger dots show larger number of visitors)
Please make sure to visit and
send the link to all of your family and friends that would
Posts cover a wide array of topics and to date discussed
like to learn more about SRAC and what exciting things we
things such as never seen before local collections,
report every
updates on progress with the new SRAC building, and
discussions about our local history.
The blog archives each post so that they can each be read
no matter when they were posted, and it also has links to
our main site. It also has a feature where
anyone can sign up to receive each post made to the blog


SRAC would like to thank Mr. Marty Borko of Waverly for donating $500 to seed an endowment fund for SRAC through
the Community Foundation for the Twin Tiers! Other tax deductible donations can be made to the endowment fund for
SRAC by contacting the Community Foundation for the Twin Tiers. Once this permanent fund has reached it minimum
fund amount of $10,000 the Community Foundation for the Twin Tiers will start to give out grants to SRAC for operating
expenses or any other expenses for the organization and will be forthcoming every year from then on. To learn more
about the Community Foundation for the Twin Tiers call 1-800-732-0999 or visit

Deb Twigg - Executive Director Ted Keir - CoDirector of Archae- Susan Fogel - Chief Financial Officer Tom Valilee
Dick Cowles - CoDirector of Archae- ology/Education and Chairman of the Inga Wells - Secretary
ology/Curation Board Jessica Quinn

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 3, Issue 4
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

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(Ind.) base collection access.
Corporate or
$250.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.
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One Time cial discounts.

Become a member of SRAC!
• Please check the type of membership you wish to apply for.
• Fill out the information above.
• Submit this form with a check for the appropriate amount to: SRAC, PO Box 12, Sayre 18840

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email

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