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Chapter 11

The Preparation of Corpses and


Mummy Bundles in Ychsma Funerary
Practices at Armatambo

Luisa Díaz Arriola

Location and General Characteristics of Armatambo

The urban centre of Armatambo is located in the modern-day district of Chorrillos, Lima on the
eastern slope of the Morro Solar hill. Armatambo is a multicomponent Ychsma site, containing a
series of monumental structures including ramped pyramids, large enclosures, domestic occupa-
tion areas, terracing and cemeteries. Armatambo and Pampa de Flores (Lur ín) were the two larg-
est sites with easy access to Pachacamac, the Ychsma capital, which is located 15 km to the south.
During the Inca occupation of the sixteenth century (Late Horizon), Armatambo was the capital
of the Sulco chiefdom, a territory under the command of the ‘Lords of Ychsma’ (Rostworowski
1977); although this occupation is known to have originated during the Late Middle Horizon
(A.D. 900–1450), the nature of settlement remains unclear.

The Armatambo Cemeteries


The Prehispanic cemeteries at Armatambo are named as follows: Heroes of the Paciic, 22nd of
October and the Huaca de San Pedro (Díaz and Vallejo 2005: 231–233). The three cemeteries
cover an occupational sequence that spans the Late Intermediate (A.D. 900–1450) to the Late
Horizon (A.D. 1450–1533). The former two cemeteries contain early–late Ychsma tombs, which
are notable for being dug directly into natural (non anthropogenic) layers. The third cemetery is
primarily known for Inca (Late Ychsma B) burials, which are usually placed in adobe structures.
The bundles analysed in the current study come from the 22nd of October and Huaca San
Pedro cemeteries, and provide us with the opportunity to expand on earlier ield observations of
Ychsma funerary traditions. Bundles CF26B (code 2824), CF65A (code 3439) and CF79 (code
3425) are from the 22nd of October cemetery, and were excavated between 2003 and 2004 (Díaz
Arriola: 2004: Vol. II). These three bundles form part of the 189 contexts that have so far been
examined in the cemetery. Bundle CF168 (code 620–2000) comes from the Huaca San Pedro
cemetery, and was excavated in 2000 (Díaz Arriola 2000).

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

Figure 11.1. Location of the Heroes of the Paciic (a), 22nd of October (b) and Huaca San Pedro
(c) cemeteries. (Photo by SAN, 1945.)

The 22nd of October Cemetery


This cemetery is located 400 m south of Huaca San Pedro, occupying the high ground, and
is characterised by steep slopes covered with gravel caused by natural erosion of the hill
(Figure 11.1). There are rocky outcrops, which – in the 1945 aerial photograph of the area – are
adjacent to a hollow illed with sand.There are signs of looting, and a lack of archaeological struc-
tures in the upper levels. The ravine is bounded by rocky outcrops on each side and is roughly
triangular in form, with the base opening out at the base of the hill. The sediments are clayey
layers mixed with gravel from the outcrops’ deterioration, and covered with aeolian sands. This
area appears to have been used as a cemetery owing to its distance from the Prehispanic city and
also the type of sediments. It was used as a mortuary space for a prolonged period of time, as can
be seen from the high density of burials.The nature of the site only became apparent in the wake
of modern occupation.

The Huaca San Pedro Cemetery


The cemetery is sprawled around the edge of the huaca, with graves dug into adobe-built archi-
tectural structures. The burials pertain to the Inca period and pertain to high-ranking members
of the Armatambo hierarchy.Various funerary contexts pertain to Quipu readers,1 notably tombs
CF06, CF19 (Díaz Arriola 2004:Vol. I) and collective tomb CF24 (Díaz and Landa 2009), which
also contained a textile decorated with tocapus.
Some tombs were found to contain the remains of tattooed individuals, including CF168 (Díaz
Arriola 2000) – which is referred to in this chapter – or associated with groups of ‘mullus’ like
CF65 (Díaz Arriola 2000). It should be noted that almost all the funerary contexts in this sector

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

have sufered postcolonial disturbance, something that is also found at other Ychsma sites. Don
Juan Cucho Gualle (Cantos de Andrade2 1999 [1573]: 72) documented the sacking of ancient
buildings under ‘encomendero’ Horgoñez, who commanded that his men remove any gold or sil-
ver from tombs and buildings at the site of Pachacamac. This in part explains why there is such
a dearth of Late Period interments, a fact that has confounded eforts to understand the way in
which the Ychsma prepared and interred their dead. The few intact burials that do survive in
Ychsma cemeteries (Díaz and Vallejo 2005; Eeckhout 2002) are therefore of pivotal importance
in understanding ancient attitudes to death.

Unwrapping Methodology
In order to ensure that the results obtained during this unwrapping study3 were comprehensible
to future researchers, the following terms were deployed: funerary context, layer, element and
ind. ‘Funerary context’ is deined as the group of structures and objects related to an individual,
which were buried contemporaneously, and which may also relect intentionality and function
(Kaulicke 1997). This marks a speciic point in the process of body preparation and deposition.
The layer, in this context, is deined as a covering or wrapping that covers the entire individual.
Elements are incomplete layers, or segments thereof, that do not cover the entire body; a ind is
any loose object found between the layers or in direct association with the body.
The unwrapping followed this sequence: cleaning, radiography, photography and measure-
ments, followed by the removal of layers (C), elements (E) and inds (H). The description of the
contents of the bundles follows the order in which the layers appeared, and what elements and
inds were made as the process continued. The descriptive narrative is thus the exact reverse of
the order in which the bundles’ construction took place. The material derived from the four
mummy bundles was studied at the ex-CENCA4 installation, where the remains were stored until
December 2008.

Stratigraphy and Funerary Contexts


22nd of October Cemetery
Funerary contexts CF26B, CF65A and CF79 were deposited in pits dug into level C of Unit 3.
This unit was extremely complex owing to the number and density of superimposed and cross-
cut burials. The unit measures 30 m (east–west) by 3 m (north–south), with extensions towards
the north and south. We subdivided the unit into 5 × 3 m sections, referred to as 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d,
3e, 3f and 3g. This unit contained layer A, a compacted layer between 50 and 70 cm thick and
containing modern debris. Layer B was about 120 cm thick, looser and ranging from grey to dark
brown in colour. It demonstrated repeated slumping events from the north-west, where there is
a steep slope of archaeological strata. Layer C is 150 cm thick, loose, beige in colour and contains
angular sandstone fragments, which pertain to weathering of the mountainside. Archaeological
remains include fragments of ceramic and scattered human remains. Layer D is natural, compris-
ing a 50-cm-thick deposit of light beige, ine, loose aeolian sand (Figure 11.2a).

Funerary Context 26
This context was contained within a semicircular pit, oriented east–west. It measured 160 cm ×
100 cm, and intruded into layers C and D. It was a fairly well preserved collective burial, con-
taining four mummy bundles that were deposited on at least three distinct occasions. We believe
that individuals A and B were buried irst, followed by individual D, and inally individual C.

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

(a)
A

22 A CF22
D
22 B 26 A

24 c
26 B CF26
26 D

(b)
CF 63 N

CF 60 60 B
CF 66 CF 64
V-2 60 A
V-1
V-2
CF 65
V-6
65 A V-1 V-2
V-3
V-1 V-4
V-2 65 B V-3
V-1

65 C

3C
3B
Escala: 1/20

Figure 11.2. (a) 22nd of October cemetery; Unit 3. North proile, southern expansion, CF26.
(b) Unit 3B; plan view of CF65-66.

There were no grave goods associated with this burial. Individual A is a child in an extended
position, measuring 46 × 20 × 4 cm. Individual B is an adult measuring 80 × 42 × 25 cm. Indi-
vidual C measured 92 × 40 × 27, while D – a lexed child – measured 46 × 22 × 6 cm. Their
orientation varied considerably: A was oriented north–south, B east–west, and C/D north–south
(Figure 11.2).

Funerary Context 65

This multiple burial was deposited in a simple pit measuring 1.5 m in diameter (Figure 11.2b).
Three adults and one child (CF66) were recovered, all closely associated and probably part of the
same burial event. Individual A was located centrally, oriented towards the south. The bundle was

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

formed around a framework made up of two large, lateral reeds, and may originally have borne
a false head. This individual was directly associated with four vessels, two pitchers, a bottle and
a cooking pot. The structure of adult individual B’s bundle was less obvious. It was found to the
north of the feature, directly behind bundle A, and was not associated with any ceramic vessels.
The third adult (C) was in a simple wrapping with a small aperture or opening to the side of the
individual’s head. Directly beneath the mummy there were two more pitchers, one of which was
a ‘cara-gollete’ vessel.

Funerary Context 79
This contained a single adult individual in extended, supine position, oriented east–west in a pit
dug directly into the sand layer. The pit measured 172 cm long by 43 cm wide and 30 cm deep.
The only associated ofering was a single ceramic vessel.

Huaca San Pedro Cemetery


Funerary context 168–20005 was excavated towards the northern side of the Huaca San Pedro.
The stratigraphy of the unit is as follows: Layer A is between 20 and 50 cm thick, and contains
modern debris. Layer B is between 60 and 70 cm thick and represents an abandonment horizon.
Layer C was between 20 and 32 cm thick and also relected an abandonment process, associated
with a period of elevated precipitation that led to the formation of clay-rich areas. Layer D was
25 cm thick and clearly demonstrated disturbance to the sediments, as testiied by disarticulated
human bones mixed with various textiles and ceramics. There was no modern content. Layer E
was 110 cm thick and composed of loose earth containing numerous Inca adobes. It also con-
tained disarticulated human remains, fragmented and intact ceramics, a burnt-decoration gourd,
mollusc shells, intact textiles and organic remains. One unusual feature was also found: the base of
a circular structure which contained feathers, a Conus shell, bone artefacts, an intact two igurines,
nine balls of twine, two incomplete ceramic vessels and numerous human remains. This level also
contained a lexed adult burial (CF168) in a good state of preservation, directly associated with a
textile iconographically attributed to the Late Ychsma B (Figure 11.3). There was no evidence of
recent activity. Layer F was the deepest archaeological horizon, and was between 10 and 30 cm
thick. Layer G was a natural stratum cut by two funerary contexts, which contained some frag-
ments of ceramic (Figure 11.4).
Funerary Context 168–2000: This individual was suiciently well preserved to observe the
structure of the bundle; judging from associated artefacts the individual was interred in the Inca
period. Most notably, this individual displayed tattooing to the hands, ankles, legs and wrists. The
mummy had been damaged – some of the textile had disappeared, exposing the face and the
right leg.

The Unwrapping Process


Bundle 26B (Code 2824)
Measurements6: 80 cm long; 42 cm wide and 25 cm thick (average). Weight: 5.5 kg. The bundle
was oblong in shape (Figure 11.5a) and was poorly preserved owing to the high concentration
of ground salts. The individual was in a lexed position, and was partly covered by the remains of
a reed mat (E1) reaching from the mid-section to the feet, which presumably once covered the
entire body. This 2 × 2 m woven mat covered a layer of cotton (C1; Figure 11.5b) which – along
with four large reeds (E3 and E4) and two pads (E5 and E6) – was secured with a twisted reed

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

Figure 11.3. Inca-period textile found near CF168-2000.

E O

Figure 11.4. Huaca San Pedro; proile of unit 13 where CF168-2000 was recovered.

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

(a) (b)

(c)

E-5 E-6 E-6 H-8


E-5 H-9
E-13
E-2
H-6
C-2

E-12

E-2
H-2
C-1
E-4
E-3 C-1

Layer 1 Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 The Individual


Figure 11.5. (a) Bundle 26B. Before unwrapping it was possible to see layer 1a, element 3 (b, reeds
on the right side), element 5 (c, right pillow), element 6 (d, left pillow). (b) Bundle 26B. Shown
are the layers, elements and inds that chart the unwrapping process. (c) Bundle 26B. Removal
of Layer 3 (cotton), exposing element 12 (rolled cloth), element 13 (a pillow with extensions),
ind 6 (a short ‘uncu’), ind 8 (a sling) and ind 9 (a cloth beneath the sling).

cord (E2). The reeds on the right side of the body (E3) measured 78 cm, while those on the left
measured 92 cm.The pads were sewn alongside the sides of the head, above the shoulders; the right
side pad (E5) was made from striped textile, and the surface was covered in unidentiied insects.
The left side pad (E6) was made from a white textile with blue stripes. Layer 1 is a smooth cotton
cloth, light brown in colour and 42 cm wide. The textile was folded over and sewn along the left
border to a wider, 84 cm wide cloth. It was sewn in such a way that one of the ends – where the
head was situated – formed a conical shape, while the body was covered by the rest of the cloth.
Layer 1 covered another cotton cloth (C2 – see Figure 11.7), which was striped with light brown,
dark brown and white. To wrap the body securely, the cloth had been carefully folded then knot-
ted on the front, at the level of the midrif.This layer lay above a further layer of cotton cloth (C3),
which lay directly upon the body; several seeds were found between this level and the individual,
particularly on the face. There was a pad beneath the head (E13), decorated with a red pigment
(E7) tentatively identiied as cinnabar. On each side of the body and between the cotton layers
there were fragments of cane (E9 and E10) measuring 16 and 17 cm in length, as well as several
lima beans (E8 and E11).The face was also covered with red pigment; the mouth contained a thin
strip of metal (H1), the oxidisation of which had darkened the teeth.
The lexed position of the body had been brought about by means of a rolled-up cotton cloth
(E12), which served a ligature linking the knees to the chest. This was formed by two knotted
cloths, which were in turn tied to textile extensions originating from the pad under the head
and over the shoulders. The body wore a cotton loincloth (H2) covered with the same red

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

pigment found on the face and on the pad under the head.The right hand was wrapped in a ine
cloth made from camelid hair (H3). The left hand held a similar artefact (H4) as well as a pair
of metal tweezers (H5). The attire was completed with a dark brown camelid-hair poncho (H6;
Figure 11.5c) that had been put on upside-down with the embroidered neck trim pressed against
the body. Some small insects – similar to those found on the surface of E5 – were also recovered.
The individual was wearing a necklace made from two Nectandra sp. seeds (H7), both of which
were pierced and one of which still retained the central cotton thread. The head was wrapped
around with a strap (H8) three times, on top of a ine brown and white cotton cloth (H9) that
enveloped the head. The latter cloth was formed from two sections, one brown and one white,
and was folded in on itself. Analysis of the bones indicated that the individual was a man, between
35 and 40 years of age, and measuring 157.9 ± 3.42 cm.7 The teeth were all present, and unafected
by caries. The right upper and lower third molars were coloured green owing to the presence of
a metal strip in the mouth. AMS C14 analysis (OxA-13919) for this individual yielded dates of
833 ± 24 BP, calibrated (95.4%) to A.D. 1161–1264.

Bundle 65A (Code 3439)

Measurements: 70 cm long, 42 cm wide and 25 cm thick. Weight: 4.5 kg (see Figure 11.6a). This
mummy bundle is of quadrangular shape, based around four pieces of reed used as a framework.
The bundle and the reeds were positioned inside a mesh container made from interwoven rushes.
It was constructed in a similar way to the ‘false heads’, and disintegrated en route to the laboratory.
The individual inside was in a lexed position. The external layer was a white cotton cloth (C1;
Figure 11.6b) which presumably once covered the entire bundle; preservation was poor – only
fragments were recovered on the lower half of the body, while white, beige and brown cotton
fragments (E1) were recovered from the head area. Layer 1 (C1) covered C2, which was another
very deteriorated cotton cloth. It appears to have been a double cloth, white on one side and
brown on the other, and manufactured in a manner reminiscent of padded cloth. Beneath this,
there was a layer of crushed and folded reeds (C3) measuring 51 cm in length and covering most
of the bundle. Beneath this there was another mesh or woven structure made of reeds (C4), which
was multicomponential. First there was the cover (E1) made up of intersewn spirals, and which
covered the head of the individual. The bag itself (E2) enveloped the body from the shoulders to
the feet, and was made of wide-woven reticulated material. In among the strings of the bag were
four pairs of reeds (E13, E14, E16 and E20), which served to support and strengthen the bundle.
On the left side of the individual and towards the middle of the bundle there were two thin canes
(E3) measuring 18 and 22 cm; there were two matching canes (E4 and E5; each 18 cm long) on
the other side of the bundle. E4 was sealed with a cotton plug.The large canes (E13, E14, E16 and
E20) on each side of the bundle were interspersed with cobs of purple maize: four on the left side
(E6, E7, E8 and E9) and four on the right side (E10, E11, E12 and E17).
The removal of the textile and maize exposed another layer of crushed reeds (C5) that illed the
space between the bundle and the braided structure. At this point the large reeds were more easily
observed: they measured between 75 and 79 cm long and were attached to the subsequent level of
cotton (C6) by lengths of knotted cotton.Two ine reeds (E16) lay to the left, and two to the right
(E19), mixed with the remains of cotton. Layer 6 was a ine cloth covering the entire body, and
was moulded to the body via a series of pleats and folds. Beneath this, the body was covered with a
layer of brown, beige and white cotton (C7), which still contained seeds; the majority of these were
focused on the face and the chest. The individual was buried with four spindles (H1) placed next
to the left elbow, while the cotton layer contained rolled cotton threads and unidentiied roots.
The body wore a tunic (C8), remnants of which were recovered from the shoulders and behind
the body. A simple brown textile (H2) was recovered from the left shoulder and side of the head,
and which had been folded several times; this may have been included to give a rounded shape to

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194

(a)

(b) (c)
E-13 E-14
C-4 C4-E1

E-4/5
E-10 E-3
E-11
C-3 E-12
E-17
Inner surface
C-1 C-2 of Textile C-2
C4-E2

Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4


E-14
E-13 C-6 E-20
E-18 H-2
C-7 H-5 H-7
H-3

C-6 H-4

C-5
C-8

Layer 5 Layer 6 Layer 7 The Individual

Figure 11.6. (a) Bundle 65A. Before unwrapping, it is possible to see layer 2 (C2), layer 3 (C3), layer 4 (C4), layer
5 (C5), layer 6 (C6), element 10 (E10), element 13 (E13), element 14 (E14) and element 20 (E20); (b) Bundle
65A. Showing the layers, elements and inds that chart the unwrapping process. (c) Bundle 65A. Layer 8
(tunic) below; ind 7 (Nectandra sp. necklaces) around the neck.
Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

(b)
E-1

E-3

E-4

(a) Layer 1 Layer 2 Layer 3 Layer 4

H-3 E-7
E-6

E-12
E-8

E-9

Layer 5 and Layer 6 Layer 7 The Individual

Figure 11.7. (a) Bundle 79. Before unwrapping. Layer 1 is visible; (b) Bundle 79. Shown are the
layers, elements and inds that chart the unwrapping process.

the bundle. The hands were wrapped in a thin camelid-hair textile (H3), the ibres of which were
orange or beige with black edges. Two cotton threads (H5) were wrapped around the right arm
in the manner of a bracelet. The left hand contained several cotton strands (H6), along with an
elongated, dehydrated and unidentiied organic object that may be a desiccated umbilical cord. A
cotton strap (H4) had been used as a ligature to draw the knees into the chest and keep the body
in a lexed position. This textile was 5 cm wide and passed from the back across the shoulders and
then over the knees, where it was tied in a knot. Three necklaces of Nectandra sp. seeds were also
recovered (H7 [see Figure 11.6c]), and had been placed under the neck and on top of a thin layer
of beige cotton. Four spindles (H8) – associated with a root and wrapped in beige cotton – were
recovered from between the tunic (C8) and layer 6 on the individual’s back. Lastly, the head was
held in a vertical position because of the presence of a cotton cushion/pillow (E21). Preliminary
analysis indicates that the individual was a woman, aged approximately 20 years.

Bundle 79 (Code 3425)


The bundle measured 166 × 42 × 9 (<11) cm; the head end of the bundle was 20 cm thick (Fig-
ure 11.7a). The bundle was wrapped in various incomplete and damaged textiles. The outermost
layer was a mat (E1), made from an as-yet unidentiied vegetable ibre (Figure 11.7b). Under the
mat, and at the height of the head, we recovered the remains of a ine cotton cloth (C1) in brown
and white; fragments of this cloth also appeared on other parts of the mummy. Textile C2 – a
white cotton cloth – was found beneath this preliminary textile layer and covered much of the
mummy’s body. Atop this layer, and at the level of the chest, we found a packet made of dark
brown to black camelid hair (E2); this form of textile was often placed in the hands of Ychsma
burials from Armatambo (Díaz and Vallejo 2005: 240; Díaz Arriola 2004: Vol. II). The next layer
(C3) was very ine beige (originally white) cotton textile that covered the entire bundle. The
cloth was moulded to the body’s contours using folds, and had been further attached to the body

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

Figure 11.8. (a) Bundle 79. Note the edges of the cloth (E6) knotted beneath the chin, along with
two pairs of silver tweezers. (b) Bundle 79. Necklace formed by strips of metal (E10).

using twisted vegetable ibre (E3 and E4), which had left marks on the textile. Two pieces of this
cord were found on the bundle.
The subsequent layer (C4) was made from low-twist cotton, giving a thin section. The ibres
were brown and white, providing a marbled efect. The cloth wrapped twice around the body
from the head to the feet. It was similar to layer 1 of CF26 (2824), but in a bad state of preser-
vation. The folds of this layer yielded a shell and an as-yet unidentiied leaf (H1). The cloth was
attached to the body using a cord made from twisted vegetal ibres (E5), possibly sisal, which had
left some marks and fragments on the exterior of the textile.
C4 lay over C5, another thin white cotton textile that totally covered the individual from head
to feet.This overlay C6, a very thin layer made from white cotton which closely followed the con-
tours of the body. It was wound the same way. The folds of C6 contained groups of 10-cm-long
human hairs (H2). A sling (H3) was sandwiched between C6 and C7 and had been knotted above
the left temple. C7 was made from ine white, yellow and brown cotton, which covered the entire
individual. This textile directly overlay the body, and there was no cotton illing beneath it.
The body’s right arm was crossed across the chest towards the left shoulder. The left arm was
strongly lexed into the left shoulder. Each hand held a strip of camelid ibre, which was wrapped
around them (E8 and E11). These resembled Find 3 from CF65A (code 3439). The face was cov-
ered with a brown cloth (E6), which crossed it at the height of the eyes and wrapped around the
sides of the face. The ends of the cloth were knotted together under the chin, in association with
two sets of tweezers tied together with cotton string (Figure 11.8a). This covered a white cloth
(E7), which was completely covered with red pigment, topped with a layer of cotton. This cloth
was twisted at both ends, and then tied under the individual’s chin. Three strips of metal were
attached to the cotton covering the face. The individual’s hair had been cut.
The body was attired in a white cotton loincloth (E9) showing signs of red dye (cinnabar?); the
cloth had been knotted to the left side of the waist. The individual was wearing a necklace (E10)
made from 16 square pieces of metal (Figure 11.8b), of which the central piece was the largest.
The metal is currently believed to be silver, although the presence of white oxidisation may be
a result of its’ being alloyed with some other metal. The necklace was strung on a cotton thread,
now very degraded, over which the pieces of metal had been folded to hold them in place. From
this we deduce that the necklace was not used in life, and was prepared speciically for the burial
as an ofering. Lastly, the chest bore a camelid-hair ‘uncu’. A perimortem depression and hairline
fracture running from the glabella to the left orbit is believed to represent the cause of death in
this individual (Figure 11.9).

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

Skeletal lesions
Broken or missing Damaged, bones present

Figure 11.9. Bundle 79. Skeletal lesions for individual CF79.

Bioarchaeological analysis8 indicated that the individual was an adult male of ca. 50 years of
age, and measuring 152.7 ± 3.42 cm. The lumbar vertebrae displayed strong osteophytic growths,
although there are no other degenerative changes in the skeleton. The right radial tuberosity was
very strongly developed, perhaps implying some form of occupational stress involving lexion of
the elbow and extension of the arm.The frontal lesion mentioned above is not the only perimor-
tem injury sufered by the individual – fractures were also noted in the ribs and scapulae, caused
by both blunt and sharp (spear) weapons.There was a deep injury to the right humerus, as well as
multiple sharp weapon puncture lesions to the anterior aspect of the pelvis, fracturing the sym-
physis and other areas.These appear to have been aimed from in front and below the victim, as an
attack on the genital area. The last – and most notable – lesion was that on the skull, comprising
a 24 mm diameter depressed fracture surrounded by small radial and concentric lines, implying
a blow of considerable force using a hardened club made from Astrocaryum chonta or something
harder still. The position and angulation of the lesion indicates that the individual was lower than
the aggressor at the time it was administered. We believe that the frontal lesion was the last injury
received, based on both its severity and position/nature. There were no defence lesions on the
arms, forearms or hands, thus implying that the individual was unable to defend himself against
an assault. Lastly, none of the penetrating injuries showed any signs of recovery.

Bundle 168–2000 (Code 620–2000)


Measurements: 47 cm long, 40 cm wide, 28 cm thick (average) and 4.5 kg in weight
(Figure 11.10a).The individual was buried in a lexed position, and is in a bad state of conservation.

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

(a) (b) (d)


H-15

H-5

(c) (e)

Knee Ankle
Figure 11.10. (a) Bundle 168–2000. The individual’s wrappings were incompletely preserved.
(b) Bundle 168–2000. Find 2 in the left hand. (c) Bundle 168–2000. Detail of ind 6, with the
two Spondylus sp. valves. (d) Bundle 168–2000. Face with ind 15 (cloth covering the face) and
ind 5 (necklace). Note that the mouth is covered. (e) Bundle 168–2000.Tattoos on the left leg.
The continuous line represents skin preserved in good condition.

The outermost layer (E1) was a simple cloth made up of four separate parts, manufactured
from loosely woven and slightly twisted beige cotton. The cloth ran from shoulders to feet, leav-
ing the head uncovered, and ran between the left arm and leg. It appeared to be a female tunic,
with multiple folds on either side of the neck.The neck opening was in the shape of a buttonhole,
while small apertures were made for the arms. An incomplete lat cotton cloth (E2) lay above the
right arm and covered the front aspect and legs of the individual. The folds of this cloth yielded
a round lump of red pigment – probably cinnabar – wrapped in human hair.
The left hand was loosely wrapped in two bundles of ibres (H2) of white and brown cotton
(Figure 11.10b), arranged in several loops of about 10–12 cm in diameter.There was a necklace of
seeds (H3) at the height of the stomach, and a fragment of spindle (H4) was found adhering to
the tunic. There was a small amount of cotton between the legs (E3), which may originally have
been part of a layer that covered the entire body. The neck was encircled with several fragmented
seed necklaces (H5), while the buttocks were seated upon a rolled-up cloth (H6) containing two
separate halves of a large Spondylus shell (H7 and H8), one under each buttock (Figure 11.10c).
The cloth ran from the buttocks towards the legs and then upwards towards the chest, where it
crossed to reach the shoulders, then proceeded down the back to the legs where it was knot-
ted. The seed necklace in the right hand (H9) passed through a bundle of twisted roots (H10).
The inal layer over the right hand and wrist was a lat cotton cloth (H11). The hand held two
bundles of brown and white cotton threads (H14), a string of seeds (H12) and two or three pieces
of green-coloured metal (H13) that resembled sections of a disc with a central circle. The face
was covered with a cotton cloth (H15) that was tied at the back. Beneath this there was a layer

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

of cotton and a red dust covering the face up to the cheekbones. The fringe had been cut short.
The lips (Figure 11.10d) were covered by a layer of leather or textile; this was attached so irmly
that it could not be removed.
The woman’s skin was fairly well preserved on the torso, waist, abdomen and pubis, where
it resembled thick, dry leather. On the extremities the skin had been badly damaged by salts in
solution.The woman appears to have been fairly well built in life, to judge from the folds of tissue
around the waistline and also the breasts, which would have been prominent. The right hand was
well preserved, including the nails; the tendons could be observed beneath the skin of the palm.
The body contained no insect pupae. The trunk had become separated from the lower extremi-
ties, and part of the right foot had been lost.This fragmentation of the body – presumably caused
by post-inhumation disturbance – permitted us to observe the absence of internal organs and the
fact that the body appears to have been mummiied naturally rather than artiicially.The mummy
is most notable for the tattoos on the hands, wrists, ankles and legs, although preservation was less
than ideal (Figure 11.10e).
Anthropological analysis indicated that this was a woman 40–45 years of age, measuring about
148.2 ± 3.82 cm tall.9 The skin on the face was in better condition than that of the postcranium,
and included both ears. There was red pigment on the frontal and the cheekbones. The skull was
fronto-occipitally deformed; a series of radiographic studies indicated that the individual sufered
no linked pathology. All the teeth were present in the alveoli, the third molars were congenitally
absent and little caries was noted. There was evidence of cribra orbitalia.

Discussion
The data concerning the unwrapping of four of these mummies was accompanied by a wider-
scale review of the 189 burials excavated at the 22nd of October cemetery (2004: Vol. II). Of
these, 177 were intact single or multiple graves, giving a total of 233 individuals. The other 12
contexts contained groups of disarticulated bones, which were often heavily disturbed. Although
cemetery typologies are not the aim of the present publication, a brief summation is in order.
The bundles can be divided into two groups: those wrapped in textiles with a framework of
reeds/canes running lengthwise through the bundle, and the simple bundles which assume the
shape of the wrapped body. Within the reed-framework group, we can distinguish bundles with
(type A) and without (type C) funerary goods, while the same distinction can also be made in
the simple format bundles (type B and D to denote bundles with/out funerary goods).10 All age
groups are found in all bundle types, although there is a higher prevalence of children buried in
type D bundles.11 Multi-individual tombs often contained various subtypes mixed together in a
single group. It was also noted that adults, adolescents and children older than the age of 3 years
tended to be buried in lexed positions.Younger children and some adults were not buried in this
manner, and belong to ‘extended type D’. The most common orientation for the adult bundles
was head towards the south, in the direction of Pachacamac. This difers notably from a pre-
ponderance of eastern orientations at the cemeteries of Huaca Santa Cruz (Cornejo 2004) and
La Rinconada Alta12 (Díaz Arriola 2002; Díaz and Vallejo 2005). Chronologically the cemetery
contexts can be grouped as follows: a single early Ychsma context, 12 middle Ychsma contexts,
and 104 late Ychsma contexts. Within this classiication, bundle 26B pertains to type C and 65A
pertains to type A. Bundle 79 pertains to type D (extended variant), while we are currently
unaware of the burial type of the tattooed woman, as the bundle – which came from the Huaca
San Pedro – was incomplete.
Our investigations lead us to propose the following paradigms for Ychsma funerary tradition
at the current site (Díaz and Vallejo 2003: 368–370, 2004: 398–399, 2005). The traditions relect
ethnic identity, gender and indicators of social ainity; although it is possible that ‘work iden-
tity’ was also an issue, we currently lack any evidence for vocation. The data are summarised in
Tables 11.1 and 11.2.

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Table 11.1. Comparison of Unwrapped Female Individuals


200

Individual Huallamarca Armatambo Pachacamac La Rinconada Armatamboa Pampa de Flores


(Valladolid 2000) (Fardo 65A) (Eeckhout 2002) (Díaz y Vallejo 2005) (168–2000) (Eeckhout 1999)

Chronology Late Middle Horizon; Late Intermediate Between Middle and Late Intermediate Late Horizon Late Intermediate
Early Late (end of Late Ychsma A) Late Horizons (Late Ychsma A) (Late Ychsma B) 6 to Late
Intermediate Horizon

Age 60–65 ca. 20 35 Unknown 40–45 26–32


External mat Mat (outside the Mat Mat
bundle) (the external layer of (Outside the bundle)
the bundle)
Lateral reed supports Lateral reed supports Lateral reed supports Vertical reeds on
plus 4 maize cobs on each side
each side
Mesh/netting Elaborate reed mesh Reed mesh with
opening for the
face
Single-colour textiles 5 textiles 3 textiles 3 textiles 3 textiles
far from the body
Textiles near the body Crossed-over textiles Present Present
near the body
Cotton stuing 1 1 2
Layers of reeds Crushed reed layers
Ligature securing body Present (cotton) Present (cotton) Present (cotton)
Tufts or bundles of Bundle of human hair Vegetable ibre bundle 3 tufts of camelid Human hair with
human/animal hair hair red pigment.
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Gourds in textiles Present Gourd on the chest 2 gourds inside 2 gourds inside
bundle bundle
Textile covering head/ Head covering Face covering Face covering
face
Pillows/cushions Cushion supporting Cushion supporting head
head
Molluscs 8 Eurhomalea rufa, 1 2 Spondylus 3 Spondylus valves
Argopecten
Other Lime vessel with
wooden lid
Other textiles 2 polychrome strips
Metal strips In mouth and left On face and abdomen On face and right Right hand
hand, and inside hand
tunic
Weaving implements 3 spindles and cotton 8 spindles and roots 3 spindles, 3 needles 4 spindles, 2 spindle 1 spindle 3 shuttles with
balls weights, 6 needles, spindles, 3
a bone ‘tupu’ simple spindles
Strips and threads on Camelid hair strip Cord around hands, Cotton threads 2 groups of cotton Thread bracelets
the hands and arms around hands, cotton which hold a ball of around left hand thread around left around hands
threads on arms cotton thread hand
Necklaces 3 Nectandra necklaces Nectandra necklace 3 seed necklacecs
Red pigment Red pigment on the Red pigment on the
feet face
Head hair Cut short (fringes)
Body attire Tunic Tunic Tunic Tunic Tunic ¿
a
Tattooed.
201
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Table 11.2. Comparison of Unwrapped Male Individuals


202

Individual Armatambo (26B) Armatambo Huaca Granados La Rinconada Pampa de Flores


‘victim’ (79) (Mendoza 1983) (Frame et al. 2004) (Eeckhout 1999: 357–360)

Chronology Late Intermediate Late Horizon Late Horizon Late Horizon Terminal Late Intermediate
(Middle Ychsma) Late Ychsma B
AMS calibrated
A.D. 1161–1264

Age 35–40 50 50 35–40 30–40


External mat Mat is exterior layer Mat is exterior layer of Mat is exterior layer of bundle
of bundle bundle
Lateral reed supports Present Present; associated with 4 3 vertical 60 cm sticks, placed
corn cobs on sides of bundle
Mesh/netting Mesh or bag with
reed handles
One-colour textiles not 2 7 3 2, plus one wrapping 3
adjacent to body garment
Textiles adjacent to body 1 1 1 2 (cotton)
Cotton stuing 1 Not stated 1 1
Ligature securing body Present (cotton) Not stated
Tufts and bundles of Beneath head Not stated Hair fragments in folds of
animal/human hair textiles
Gourds in textiles Present
Textile covering face or Cotton cloth 2 cotton cloths covering Cloth covering face Cotton cushion covering Wool cloth right of neck
head covering forehead face Band covering face Seeds covering lower half of
forehead (?) face
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Pillows or cushions Fringes cushion Supporting head Remains of wool Collar of cotton ibres Vegetal ibres (Huaman ripa) in
with red pigment, that supported supporting head base of skull
supporting head head
Mollusks Fragments 4 Spondylus valves; white
spiral shell
Other objects and textiles 1 Lliqlla 2 lime containers: one
2 tupus with cotton lid, one
with itted wooden lid
Other textiles 2 polychrome strips
(bands)
Bags and packets 2 bags 2 bags containing various 2 bags suspended from the
objects, including neck, and containing silver
a piece of mineral objects
pigment
A packet containing
tunics, including one
in ‘casana’ design
Metal strips In the mouth In left hand Attached to a necklace 6 circular pieces, each 3 cm
made of cotton in diameter (one in the
encircling the neck. right hand)
1 half-moon shaped fragment
1 large silver fragment
1 rectangular strip
Weaving implements None None 1 loom, 8 yarn None None
balls, 2 weighted
spindles, cotton
thread
203

(continued)
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Table 11.2 (continued)


204

Individual Armatambo (26B) Armatambo Huaca Granados La Rinconada Pampa de Flores


‘victim’ (79) (Mendoza 1983) (Frame et al. 2004) (Eeckhout 1999: 357–360)

Strips and threads on hands Camelid hair strip Camelid hair strip Thread bracelets on
and arms around each hand around each hand; each arm
one similar on chest
Necklaces 1 necklace with two Necklaces bearing 16 Fruits/seeds strung on vegetal
Nectandra sp. seeds strips of metal ibres
Red pigment On face and pelvis
Sling Present Present 7 slings, as well as camelid ?
wool and agave ibres
for sling manufacture
Metal tweezers In left hand 2 attached tweezers in Tweezers with Spondylus Silver bowl (10 cm diameter),
cloth lying across face bead, 1 Tumi (knife) silver bracelet (inside bags)
Head hair Hair had been cut Hair had been cut
Beneath individual Folded cloth as seat Gourd as seat
Attire Short uncu, Short uncu, loincloth Tunic over loincloth Naked
loincloth
Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

The variables used include the position of the body, the manner of the bundle’s construction,
the number – or lack – of oferings, biological sex, age, and so forth. These all relate to a belief
system, to social identities and the roles individuals played in life. However, it should be noted
that intragroup diferences in a comparative study of this sort may refer to diferent chronological
phases, gender identity, age groups and social status, among others; these factors can be observed
in the unwrapped bundles from La Rinconada Alta (Frame et al. 2004) and Pampa de Flores
(Eeckhout 1999a: 357–360), as shown in Table 11.2.
The four bundles from Armatambo show markers of Ychsma cultural identity and sex-based
diferences, primarily in terms of burial goods. The burials can be deined as follows: (1) Adults
were tied into a lexed position using a textile band (CF65A, CF168-2000 and CF26B). These
cotton straps are sometimes constructed from two or more separate cloths, and may also incorpo-
rate a cushion to support the head. (2) The individuals were prepared as bundles, using successive
layers of cotton cloth with a layer of cotton as ill (CF65A, CF26B). Most of the external cloths
were lat, of a very open weave, in white or beige and of a width indicating that they were made
on a portable loom. The textiles nearer to the body tend to be of better construction, in a range
of colours to include beige, brown and blue.They tended to be moulded to the shape of the indi-
vidual by making folds in the material that were sewn into place using large stitching; this efect
was emphasised by binding the individual with ibre bands. (3) Higher status bundles were con-
structed around a framework of lateral fortifying reeds tied together with ibre made from rushes.
Bundles CF26B and CF65A were built around one and two pairs of reeds, respectively, but up to
four pairs of reeds were used in high status bundles such as CF93A, 93C, 95 and 105 (Díaz Arriola
2004: Vol. II; Díaz and Vallejo 2005, igure 36, type F4). (4) Three of the unwrapped bundles
(CF65A, CF26B and CF79) contained pillows around the head area, which makes the outline of
the mummy more regular and also keeps the head positioned securely. (5) Red pigment was also
found, which may be either cinnabar or ochre (CF79, CF26, CF168-2000).This pigment was dis-
tributed on the face, behind the head or between the bands wrapping the hands (CF168-2000).
It was also found on the loincloth of CF79. (6) More uncommon variants included trimmed/
cut fringes in adults (CF26B, CF79, CF168-2000) and the incorporation of human hair tufts into
the wrappings (CF65A, CF79). A mummy with such inclusions has been excavated at Pampa de
Flores, although the excavators believe that the hair did not come from the individual in ques-
tion (Eeckhout 1999: 357–360). (7) The hands are usually rested on the chest, not necessarily one
on top of the other, and are always wrapped in either cotton threads (CF168-2000, CF65A) or
colourful camelid ibre straps (CF65A, CF26B, CF79). The latter tend to be long and bipartite,
and either in plain weave with colourful designs, made with very widely spaced wefts and warps
in black or very dark brown, which give the appearance of being fringed. (8) Women are dressed
in tunics while men are dressed in short uncus and loincloths. (9) Women were often buried with
spindles with or without thread attached, and with strips of metal in the hands (CF168-2000).
Men were often interred with a sling wrapped around their heads, and tend to be carrying twee-
zers (CF26B and CF79). (10). Necklaces – multiple strands or multiply wrapped single strands –
appear in both male and female burials, and were made from a variety of seeds that included
Nectandra sp. (11) Metal distribution was irregular: women often held irregularly shaped metal
strips in their hands (CF168-2000), while men’s mouths often contained metal strips (CF26B) or
tweezers (CF26B). Unusually, male mummy CF79 had a necklace made from quadrangular strips.
It seems that tweezers and necklaces made from metal strips are associated with men, and we
believe that this tradition persisted from the Middle Ychsma to the Inca period.

The Comparative Sample


When comparing these four contexts with other bundles from this region, various similarities
were noted that relect trends visible throughout the Ychsma cultural sequence. So far as we are

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

aware, there are publications pertaining to the unwrapping of seven Ychsma bundles. One of
these is a Late Intermediate ‘false head’ mummy with a cloth mask from Huallamarca (Vallado-
lid 2000), a site noted for false head bundles with masks (Casas and Dolorier 2006) associated
with early Ychsma ceramics (Dolorier and Casas 2009). Other bundles have been recovered from
Pachacamac (Eeckhout 2002), Pampa de Flores (Eeckhout 1999), La Rinconada Alta (Díaz and
Vallejo 2005; Frame et al. 2004) and Huaca Granados (Mendoza 1983). The total comparative
sample (including the four bundles from Armatambo) totals 11 individuals from sites deemed to
be Ychsma on the basis of ceramics (Tables 11.1 and 11.2). Some of the sites also possess ramped
pyramids (Armatambo, Pachacamac and Pampa de Flores), a monumental architectural style char-
acteristic of the Ychsma.
It is interesting to note that the Huallamarca male individual was buried using markers
associated with female social identities (Cornejo 1999: 299–300; table 2), to include weaving
implements and a strip of metal in one hand, among other items. Some of the female mum-
mies had been prepared using a mat (Huallamarca, Pachacamac and La Rinconada), and three
males also showed this trait (Armatambo and Pampa de Flores). Reed/rush frameworks to
support the bundles are also found in both sexes, but are not universal: it most probably refers
to a form of social stratiication. The appearance of a reed structure in the Huallamarca bundle
indicates that this tradition was in use from the Early Ychsma. Bundle preparation techniques
are generally similar in both sexes, using simple weaves and colours towards the outside of
the bundle and more complex and multicoloured textiles nearer to the body.13 In every case
except for Armatambo CF79, the mummies had a single insert of cotton ‘stuing’. Men and
women were both tied into lexed positions using cords, were provided with pillows to sup-
port their heads, cloths to cover their faces, and had necklaces and cotton threads tied around
their hands. The use of metals and red pigment is also fairly common for both sexes. Hair-
dressing seems to have been restricted to Armatambo and Pachacamac (Tables 11.1 and 11.2;
Uhle 2003 [1903]: 181). In the 11 cases studied, the men were found to possess slings, tweezers,
an uncu or a tunic and also a loincloth. The use of slings as a male burial ofering is recurrent,
and has also been noted in the cemetery of Huaquerones (Cook and Goycochea 2004), where
an adult believed to be male was buried with a sling in a single bundle along with two chil-
dren. Women are usually buried with strips of metal in their hands, with weaving implements,
and always wearing a tunic. Both sexes tend to have their hands ‘bound’ with cotton threads
or narrow textile bands.
Some diferences observed between the mummy bundles may pertain to temporal variabil-
ity within the Ychsma sequence. The false-head and cloth-masked bundle from Huallamarca
establishes a link with Middle Horizon funerary traditions; equally, the (slightly later) male buri-
als from Pampa de Flores and la Rinconada Alta contain wool bags, while one individual with
a ‘casana’ design tunic (Rinconada Alta) dates to the Late Horizon. It should be noted that the
Huallamarca and Rinconada bundles are of a higher status than other individuals from the same
samples, in light of the special objects they were interred with. It should also be noted that the
Late Period individuals – the tattooed woman of Armatambo, and the man and woman from
Pampa de Flores – possess deformed skulls, although this is not the case for the male from La
Rinconada.
Two further individuals were also included in the study: adult VA60381 and subadult VA60382
(with a deformed skull), both of which were found as reed-structure bundles at the site of
Pachacamac (Herrmann and Meyer 1993). Both were false-head style mummies wrapped in a
series of textiles that concealed various metal objects in their folds. The bodies were typically
buried in a lexed position: the hands of the adult individual were originally resting on their
shoulders, similar to the individual from Pampa de Flores (Eeckhout 1999a: 357). Lastly, this
bundle – which was covered with a rush mat – bore a false head with a wooden nose (Herrmann
and Meyer 1993: 58). Shimada et al. (2006: 3) and Eeckhout (2007) have also reported on the pres-
ence of reed-reinforced bundles at Pachacamac. Shimada’s discovery of a tomb used from the end

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

of the Middle Horizon until the Late Horizon contained 34 individuals, the majority of which
were interred in reed-reinforced bundles.

Nonstandard Ychsma Funerary Traditions at Armatambo


There is a single exception to the burial customs paradigm deined in the preceding text. There
are four similar individuals from the 22nd of October cemetery, notable for having been interred
without funeral goods, or with a single vessel. CF79 was buried in an extended position, which
is atypical for the period. However the wrappings and the presence of the loincloth, a short uncu
(similar to that of CF 26A), hand wrappings, red pigment, tweezers and the necklace of metal
strips all conirmed that CF79 was indeed an Ychsma individual. We believe that this individual’s
violent death was the reason behind the observed diferences, as the bundle its the parameters
of the ‘deviant burial’ practices Eeckhout and Owens (2008) have used to deine unconventional
funerary practices at Pachacamac, including – but not limited to – human sacriices. This inter-
ment therefore tends to accord with their proposals, and demonstrates that punishment could be
an important cause of unconventional funerary practices during this period.
Interment CF79 reignites the debate between – on one side – those who claim that human
sacriice only occurs in religious contexts (Testart 2004), and – on the other – those who argue
that any deliberate destruction of wealth and living things motivated by ritual, symbolic or
magico-religious reasons should be considered to be sacriice. In this context, ‘companion burials’
would certainly qualify as sacriice, but executions would not. It is certainly true that archaeology
cannot always determine the intentions behind the appearance of an unconventional or violent
death, and in this context Eeckhout and Owens’ proposals are very useful. But in cases where the
anthropological analysis and archaeological context assist in clarifying the causes of death (as is the
case for CF79) it is possible to distinguish sacriice as a discrete and distinct form of violent death.
We consider it very important – where possible – to be able to distinguish a death brought about
for religious reasons from those with a more secular motivation, and which may in turn contain
information about the social status of the individuals and other aspects of social/religious behav-
iour. Individual CF79 died a violent death without apparently being able to defend himself from
the aggressors, who severely wounded and maimed him before killing him outright (although
mutilation directly after death is also a possibility). It is therefore necessary to determine whether
this concerns the result of direct conlictive violence, sacriice or an act of punishment. When
weighing these three possibilities, we see that the individual’s penetrating injuries were not ran-
dom, and nor did he display any healed fractures or wounds in other parts of the body, not even
in the hands. This tends to rule out the possibility that this individual was a warrior. It is also
possible that this individual was a sacriice: this would imply that the individual was considered
to be a ritual ofering to a divinity as a gesture of homage or atonement. These types of contexts
tend to be characterised by the destruction (real or symbolic immolation; holocaust) or voluntary
abandonment of the ofered item, or the destruction of the sacriicial object.This is incompatible
with CF79, which demonstrates the preparation of the body traditionally seen in Ychsma funer-
ary rituals, including the use of clothing and objects associated with the body. It is also incompat-
ible with the bundle’s burial with other community members in a centralised cemetery. For this
reason, we discount the possibility that he was a sacriicial victim. Instead – and based on the form
of the burial and the method of decease of the individual – we maintain that CF79 represents an
execution or act of punishment. He may have been a victim of intergroup violence, or have been
subjected to punishment by Armatambo’s ruling class. This cannot be determined with certainty,
but may have been the reason for the unusual body position and the lack of burial goods. In any
case, it is a ‘deviant burial’, an example of nonconventional burial practices. Similar Late-Period
contexts, but that pertain to sacriices, have been recovered at Pampa de Flores (Eeckhout 1999a:
365–366) and in the Cerro Lampay (Vega-Centeno et al. 2006).

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Luisa Díaz Arriola

These individuals are unusual in having been interred in an extended burial position. Further,
they lacked complex funerary wrappings and were buried quickly and without much ceremony
in tombs that were dug into public architectural monuments (which is not the case for CF79).
Of the three individuals from Cerro Lampay, one was gagged and the other two were tied up.
The mouth of the woman from Pampa de Flores (PV48-4A-E11) was wide open, the hands were
at the height of the heart and the body was covered with red pigment. Evidence of wrappings
is very scarce other than some small fragments from under the body; there were no funerary
ofrenda. These characteristics tend to be found on the burials of individuals who sufered a ritu-
alised or violent death, as was the case for CF79. The woman from Pampa de Flores also had a
congenital deformity of the pelvis, which would have prevented her from giving birth. Accord-
ing to historical sources, physically deformed animals or humans could be considered ‘huaca’
(Bertonio 2006 [1612]: 547; Garcilaso de la Vega 2005 [1609]: 77; Gonzáles Holguín 1989 [1608]:
165) and thus may have been sacriiced to the deities, (Albornoz 1989 (1584): 168); this is perhaps
the cause of this woman’s ritualised death.
Finally, the tattooed woman from Armatambo – who also displays cranial deformation – is the
second tattooed individual to be recovered from the Huaca San Pedro. We believe that she was a
member of the elite, and may have been involved with ritual or shamanic practices. It should be
noted that she displayed no signs of violence, unlike eleven individuals – ive of them women –
recovered from “The 22nd of October” cemetery (Aguayo 2009). None of these lesions were
fatal, as all displayed signs of healing. The distribution mirrored social distinctions, as the ive
women had received injuries to the face, ingers, ribs and legs, unlike the men.The lack of lesions
on the tattooed woman from CF168-2000 may therefore be an expression of elevated status; the
subject of violence in Armatambo is a new line of study currently being explored using physical
anthropology, to better understand the individuals who lived in this society.

Conclusion
This unwrapped mummy has permitted us to considerably further our knowledge of body treat-
ment methods at Armatambo.Various analytical tasks are still outstanding: these include a reined
study of the wrappings, artefacts and other inds from the four funerary bundles, and the physical
anthropology studies of CF65A and the other three other individuals. We currently know that
26B pertains to the Middle Ychsma period, but the other individuals (26C–D) may postdate this
as the tomb was reopened and probably reused.We have classiied individual CF168-2000 as Late
Horizon, given its association with Inca period artefacts. A vessel associated with CF65A dates to
the Late Ychsma B, thus tentatively dating the individual. As stated, we believe that CF79 pertains
to the Late Ychsma on the basis of fragmented ceramics associated with the burial. Finally, we
propose that the body treatment associated with funeral rites at Armatambo comprises a good
indicator of Ychsma cultural identity. It should therefore be possible to use the bundle-with-reeds
type of burial – a notable Ychsma burial variant – to identify the range of the Ychsma territory in
the Rimac and Lur ín Valleys.This method could be assisted and contrasted with new data, further
increasing our knowledge of the Lima area during the Late Period.

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the Peruvian INC for permitting the unwrapping of CF26B, 65A and
168–2000 at the Museo de Sitio de Pachacamac. Likewise, the INC granted us an ex-CENCA
centre as a workplace where we could carry out the unwrapping of CF79, and continue with the
conservation work of materials unwrapped in 2004 and 2005; the materials are currently curated
at the CENCA site, where we carried out some further analyses in 2008. I would also like to
express my gratitude to Patricia Landa Cragg, Amelie Brandon Ortiz, Koraita Fierro and Mar ía

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Preparation of Corpses in Ychsma Funerary Practices

Inés Barreto, without whose assistance and hard work this project could never have succeeded.
I would also like to thank the reviewers for their helpful commentaries on an earlier draft of this
chapter.While acknowledging all the assistance I have received, responsibility for any opinions or
errors in the current chapter lies solely with the author.

Notes
1. quipucamayocs.
2. “...the Indians of this division sufered much work because of the aforementioned Horgoñez, the
irst agent, who robbed the chiefs and Indians when they went to Cuzco. He sought to collect all the
gold and silver which belonged to the chiefs and Indians in this division, and he also took from the
huacas a large quantity of jars and pots and cups of silver and gold, and it is understood later that it
would in be in all more than thirty thousand pesos of gold and silver...”. Report by Rodrigo Cantos
de Andrade, 1573: f21v.
3. This analysis comprises part of a doctoral thesis at the Universidad Pantéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1) under
the direction of Dr. Jean François Bouchard.The mummy unwrapping was authorised by Resolución
Directoral Nacional N° 669/INC, on the 17.08.2004, Institute of Culture, Perú.
4. The INC allocated an ex-National Training Centre (CENCA) building for use as our project head-
quarters.
5. We have attached the suix ‘2000’, which denotes the year of recovery.
6. Bundles 3439, 2824 and 620–2000 were unwrapped by Patricia Landa Cragg (conservator and textile
specialist), Amelie Brandon Ortiz (illustrator), Koraita Fierro (physical anthropologist) and the cur-
rent author.
7. The anthropological analysis was carried out by Koraita Fierro. Sex was determined using the vari-
ables described by Ubelaker (1991), Bass (1987), Brothwell (1987) and others, on the basis of cra-
nial and iliac morphology. Age determination was based upon pubic symphysis phases (Todd 2000;
Brooks and Suchey 1990) and the auricular surface of the ilium (Lovejoy et al. 1985). The fourth rib
was also used (Isacḁn and Loth 1984). Stature was based on maximum left femur length and the for-
mulae provided by Genovés (1967).
8. Carried out by physical anthropologist Mar ía Inés Barreto R. Age, sex and height determination
were carried out using work by Brooks and Suchey (1990), Iscan and Loth (1984), Lovejoy et al.
(1985), Buikstra and Ubelaker (1994), Krogman and Iscan (1986), Genovés (1967) and Trotter 1970
(among others).
9. The physical anthropology studies were carried out by Koraita Fierro, using the same methods as for
bundle 26B.
10. Bundle types: 77 type A, 47 type B, 19 type C and 90 type D.
11. Of these 90 individuals, 23 were adults, 4 of which were extended. There were also 16 subadults and
53 children.
12. Thus oriented towards the ravine and road of Manchay, which leads to the Lur ín Valley (Díaz and
Vallejo 2005: 302).
13. The Pampa de Flores bundles are the exception to this rule, and contain only single-colour textiles.

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