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Stability of

Floating Bodies
Hydraulic lab Practical - 2

UWE no - 16028741
Stability of Floating Bodies

Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 2

Objective ....................................................................................................................................................... 2

Procedure...................................................................................................................................................... 3

Data ............................................................................................................................................................... 4

Observation................................................................................................................................................... 4

Calculations & Results ................................................................................................................................... 5

Experimental determination of BM .......................................................................................................... 5

Analytical determination of BM ................................................................................................................ 6

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

Discussion...................................................................................................................................................... 6

Content of Table

 Table 1: Angle of tilt caused by jockey weight displacement……………………………….5

 Table 2: Calculation to find BM………………………………………………………………...5

Content of figures

 Figure 1 Different parts of apparatus………………………………………………………….2


 Figure2 Tilt angle………………………………………………………………………………..4
 Figure3 Locating C.G. of boat by a knife-edge………………………………………………4

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UWE no 16028741
Stability of Floating Bodies

Introduction

The Stability of any vessel which is to float on water, such as a pontoon or ship, is of
paramount importance. The theory behind the ability of this vessel to remain upright
must be clearly understood at the design stage. Archimedes’ principle states that the buoyant
force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body and is
directed vertically upward. Buoyant force is a force that results from a floating or submerged
body in a fluid which results from different pressures on the top and bottom of the object
and acts through the centroid of the displaced volume.

Objective

 To experimentally determine the “metacentre” of pontoon.


 To determine stable of floating body is independent on centre of gravity.

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Stability of Floating Bodies

Procedure

 The horizontal sliding weight adjusted to the centre. (x = 10cm).


 Vertical sliding weight is moved to bottom position.
 The tank is filled with water and the floating body inserted into tank.
 The tilting angle noted by gradually raising the vertical sliding weight.
 Centre of gravity calculated for each vertical raising of sliding weight.

Total weight of the pontoon = W

Weight of the horizontally adjustable mass (jockey weight) = ώ

Displacement of the horizontally adjustable mass = x

ώ𝒙
The distance GGˡ is given elementary static as; GGˡ =
𝑾

GGˡ = GM.θ (for small angles)

ώ𝑥
GM. θ =
𝑊

ώ
Θ= x y = mx
𝑊.𝐺𝑀

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Stability of Floating Bodies

Figure2 Tilt angle Figure3 Locating C.G. of boat by a knife-

measurement
edge

Data

 The height (h), breadth (b), and Length (l) calculated by ruler.
 The weight of pontoon is calculated by using equation of U = W, where U is Up thrust.
 The weight of the horizontally adjustable jockey and vertical sliding weight is already
given.
 Centre of gravity(OG) is determined by balancing the pontoon on a knife edge.

Observation

Total weight of the pontoon W (N) = 24.81

Weight of the horizontally adjustable mass (jockey weight), ώ (N) = 1.962

Weight of the vertically adjustable mass (N) = 4.905

h = 3.16 cm

l = 40 cm

b = 20 cm

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Stability of Floating Bodies

Table 3: Angle of tilt caused by jockey weight displacement

Angle of tilt caused by jockey weight displacement (degrees)


Jockey weight displacement from centre, x (cm)
Height of vertically
adjustable mass,
y(cm) -4.50 -3.00 -1.50 0 1.50 3.00 4.50 OG (cm)
0 -3.50 -2.50 -1.50 -0.50 0.50 1.50 2.50 6.002
5 -4.00 -2.50 -1.50 -0.50 0.50 2.00 3.50 6.70
10 -5.00 -3.50 -2.00 -0.50 1.00 2.50 4.00 7.00
15 -6.00 -4.00 -2.50 -0.50 1.50 2.00 5.00 8.00
20 -8.00 -6.00 -3.50 -0.50 2.00 5.00 7.50 9.20

Calculations & Results

Experimental determination of BM

ώ
Gradient of the curve, m =
𝑊.𝐺𝑀
ώ
The metacentric height, GM =
𝑊.𝑚
BM = OG + GM – OB
OB = h/2

Table 4: Calculation to find BM

Height of vertically adjustable mass y (cm) OG (m) m GM (m) BM (m)

0 0.0600 0.667 0.119 0.163


5 0.0670 0.75 0.105 0.157
10 0.0700 1 0.079 0.133
15 0.0800 1.33 0.059 0.124
20 0.0920 1.83 0.043 0.119

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Analytical determination of BM

Second moment of area, I = lb3/12

Immersed volume, V = blh

BM = I/V = b2/12h
2
= 0.2 ⁄12 ∗ 0.0316

=0.105 m

Conclusion

For stable of pontoon the metacentre should be higher than centre of gravity. As the results of practical
the metacentric height is depended on centre of gravity (OG) and angle (θ). When the centre of gravity
(OG) increases the metacentric height (GM) will be decrease. It is mean the pontoon become less stable.
And when considering angle (θ), smaller the angle greater the metacentre. Therefore it is more stability.

If the metacentre is very much higher than the centre of gravity, the stability of
pontoon will be higher, it produces a short periodic time of oscillation which results in discomfort and
excessive stress on the structure of pontoon. In the passenger ship manufacture this theory is mainly
used. The ship should be stable and comfort both coincide.

Discussion

All the value of experimentally determined is vary with theoretically determined.

It is because,

 There could be error while determining Centre of gravity OG.


 The immersed height h is taken as same for all situations, but in reality it will be vary.
 Error in measuring b, l and h.

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