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IATMI 2005-18

PROSIDING, Simposium Nasional Ikatan Ahli Teknik Perminyakan Indonesia (IATMI) 2005
Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Bandung, 16-18 November 2005.


Taufan Marhaendrajana; Institut Teknologi Bandung
Pudji Permadi; Institut Teknologi Bandung
Ayub Hartono; Petrochina
Wandy Hendrawan; Institut Teknologi Bandung

Abstract it proved the existence of oil at the flow rate that is

Reservoir management needs to be done in a planned considered economical.
manner from the first time it will be produced. Within Geology
this scope, efforts are aimed at obtaining maximum oil
recovery from a reservoir, which ultimately results in The vertical reservoir is divided into two facies. The
maximum profit. One of the factors that need to be bottom reservoir is deposited as a sand flat facies
considered in the management of the reservoir is the when the sea level decreases in the middle miocene.
problem of water coning and gas coning. While the top is deposited as an open platform during
the transgression process. Based on the log
Water coning and gas coning are issues that need to be
interpretation and the dominant core facies are flat
anticipated and addressed on oil wells produced from
reservoirs that have gas caps, water drives or both. sand which constitutes 65% of the total volume of
Although there have been many studies on this issue, rocks in this reservoir.
few have reported strategies to address gas and water
coning problems in a single reservoir (dual coning). Laterally, the distribution of properties is controlled
The field subjected to the study is produced from a by the differences in facies above which cause
carbonate reservoir layer where there is a gas cap and differences in the quality of the reservoir. Well-1 lies
a bottom-water drive. Because carbonate reservoirs in a build-up margin that has a smaller permeability.
can have substantial vertical permeability, water con- While Well-2 penetrate zone sand flat facies that have
cing and especially gas con- cing may occur earlier
high permeability.
which will result in lower oil yields due to water
mobility and especially gases much higher than oil. Contac Fluid

This paper presents the application of analytical Log data and FMT data indicate that this reservoir
methods in establishing a comparative strategy has gas cap, oil zone and bottom water. Well Well-1
(optimum perforation interval) that proved successful only penetrate the oil zone and bottom water due to
in increasing oil acquisition and maintaining oil its location towards the flank. While Well-2 wells
production with zero water-cut. In addition the penetrate all three zones because of its more central
production of two wells in this field is in accordance location to the structure.
with the predictions that have been made.
Estimated GOC and WOC depths are determined
based on log and FMT data. WOC depth is 6530 ft
Reservoir Description TVDSS (6618 ft TVD) and GOC depth is 6035 ft
The discovery of hydrocarbons in this reservoir was
characterized by Well-1 well drilling between April TVDSS (6123 ft TVD)
and July 2001. Well Well Well 2 which was appraisal Core data
well was drilled between July and September 2001. The relationship between permeability and porosity
From the hashes of both wells for both facies in this reservoir shows a fairly good
correlation (Figure 1). This shows that the
classification of flow units based on the two existing
facies is sufficient.
The vertical permeability of the core data shows a
considerable price and can be said to have a 1: 1
ratio. See the gas stamp and
bottom water, this situation has the potential for the the position and the optimum perforation interval are
occurrence of coning gas and water early so that the determined based on the largest and most rapid
oil production becomes not optimal. recovery value of oil.
Sumur Well-1
Poros ity vs Pe rm e ability

10000 For Well Well 1, where there is bottom water without

y = 0.2591e 0.2795x
R2 gas-cap, oil recovery factor reaches 28% (Figure 3).
= The position and interval of the optimum perforation
is the upper third of the oil zone (6291 - 6400 ft
1000 y = 1.2099e 0.2199x
TVD). While the optimum total rate based solely on
R2 = 0.8117
y = 0.0328e 0.3193x
reservoir performance using this coning model is
R2 = 0.9995 8000 bbl / d (Figure 4). As a comparison of critical
Pe rmeability to air, m


flow rates calculated by the Hoyland method,

Papatzacos and Skjaeveland are amounted to 7370
bbl / d.


0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
He lium Poros ity, %
Sand Flat & Open Platform Facies Sand Flat Facies Open PlatformFacies

Picture 1. Cross-plot permeabilitas dan porositas

dari data core.

Picture. 3. Influence of position and perforation

interval to the oil recovery factor, Well-
1 well.

Picture. 2. The correlation between vertical permeability

and horizontal permeability is based on data
from cores.

Interpretation of log data shows a thin, discontinous shale

break intermediate, especially in areas near the fluid
contact line. The existence of this shale break can help
delay the occurrence of water and gas coning breaktrough,
by providing a vertical flow resistance (small vertical
permeability). Based on this observation, although the
micro (core) vertical permeability is quite large, but the
macro vertical permeability is smaller than the Picture. 4. Effect of production rate on oil recovery
measurement performed on the core.
factor, Well-1 well.
Optimization of Sumuran Production
To determine the performance of wells more fully, it
The model used in determining the well production is necessary to do nodal analysis. On the basis of this
profile over time is a simultaneous dual model (gas analysis for well Well-1 obtained system performance
and water) coning [Pitrarue, 1996]. This model can of 5980 bbl / d.
also be used if only one type of coning happens. With Based on gas / water coning, and nodal analysis, it is
this model, determined that the optimum well production is 6000
bbl / d with a perforation interval of 6291 - 6400 ft
TVD. This rate of production also meets criteria
Sumur Well-2 for production below the optimum rate can be done
with consideration to avoid large water and gas
production at the beginning of production.
For Well-2 wells, where there is bottom water and gas
-cap, oil recovery factor only reaches 7.8% (Figure 5). The Comparison of Reality and Planning
optimum perforation position and interval is 6308 - 6550
Based on the above mentioned well production
ft TVD (3 / 8h - 7 / 8h). The perforation position for Well-
optimization planning, the implementation is
2 well is more down to the water zone than the gas zone.
This is because gas has a mobility that is much larger than implemented with some modifications in accordance
oil so it has more potential coning (although the density is with the enabling conditions in the field. For well
smaller). Well-1 realization of perforation interval conducted at
The optimum total rate based on this coning analysis is depth 6460 - 6510 ft TVD, with production in the
8000 bbl / d (Figure 6). While the critical flow rate is first year ranged between 4000 - 5000 bbl / d (zero
calculated by Meyer, Gardner and Pirson methods is 2770 water cut). As for Well-2 wells, the perforation
bbl / d. This price is much smaller than the critical flow intervals are placed at 6351 depth
rate at well Well 1 because Well-2 well there are two
- 6534 ft TVD, with average production close to 3000
possible coning, that is gas and water coning.
bbl / d (zero water cut).
Evaluation is done by comparing production
performance of optimization planning result with
actual production performance during one year of
production (July 2004 - July 2005). The
aforementioned comparison is shown in Figures 7
and 8 for Well Well Wells and Well Well 2 wells.
Prediksi Kondisi Optimum

9000 Prediksi Kondisi

Produksi Aktual



Picture. 5. Influence of position and interval of 6000

perforation against oil recovery factor,



sumur Well-2. 4000




1-Jul-04 9-Oct-04 17-Jan-05 27-Apr-05 5-Aug-05 13-Nov-05 21-Feb-06 1-Jun-06 9-Sep-06

Picture. 7. Produksi sumur Well-1.

Prediksi Kondisi Optimum
9000 Prediksi Kondisi Aktual
Produksi Aktual




Picture. 6. The effect of production rate on oil 4000

recovery factor, sumur Well-2. 3000


The nodal analysis for this well yields a system 1000

performance of 6240 bbl / d. 0

1-Jul-04 9-Oct-04 17-Jan-05 27-Apr-05 5-Aug-05 13-Nov-05 21-Feb-06 1-Jun-06 9-Sep-06

Based on gas / water coning, and nodal analysis, it is Date

determined that the optimum well production is 6240 bbl / Picture. 8. Produksi sumur Well-2.
d with perforation interval
6308 - 6550 ft TVD. Given that the optimum rate is It can be seen in Figures 8 and 9 that the estimated
greater than the critical rate (2770 bbl / d), it is possible production profile under optimum planning
conditions is different from actual production. This is
due to adjustments made during realization
production, both perforation intervals and production Ucapan Terimakasih
arrangements. With the adjustment, the prediction using
dual coning model (Pitrarue) in accordance with actual Kami mengucapkan terimakasih kepada Petrochina
production. atas ijin yang diberikan untuk menggunakan
datanya dalam paper ini.
From this case study it is concluded that Well-1 and Well- Reference
2 well production from Tuban Carbonate reservoir can be Joshi, S. D.: “Horizontal Well Technology”,
maintained in zero water cut condition with high enough
oil production (5000 STB / D and 3000 STB / D). This is PennWell Publishing Company, Tulsa, Oklahoma,
made possible by the application of production 1991.
optimization planning which involves the integration of
geological, reservoir and production analysis. With such Pietraru, V.: ”About Kind of Breakthrough and
practitioners the reservoir management to maximize oil Maximum Recovery Factor in Dual Coning”, Paper
recovery can be achieved. SPE 37049, presented at the SPE Annual Technical
Conference and Exhibition, Calgary, Alberta,
November 18-20, 1996.