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Maintenance Management

Ali AZZOUZ
MSc Asset Management
Petroleum Economics Engineer
Taxiphone Bonne Nouvelle la rue de la poste BP M’chedallah
10100 Bouira, Algeria.
Email : ali_azzouz_iap@yahoo.fr
Mobile : +213554550038

1. Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)

a- RCM definition:
According to John Moubray, a Reliability Centred Maintenance is a process
used to determine the maintenance requirements of any physical asset in
its operating context (1). This means that RCM is a process used to
identify the most applicable and effective maintenance action(s) to ensure
the performance of a system or component

b- What RCM does?


RCM process (2)
 Defining systems functions, performance standards and system
boundary definition
 Determining the ways in which the system functions may fail
 Determining the significant failure modes
 Assessing the effects and consequences of the failures
 Identification of maintenance tasks by means of decision-logic
scheme
 Identification of maintenance tasks interval
 Auditing, implementing and feedback
The RCM achievements (1)

 Greater safety and environmental integrity (safety and environment


before the effects on operations)
 Improved operating performance (output, product quality, and
customer service)
 Greater maintenance cost effectiveness (ensure that everything
spent on maintenance is spent where it will do the most good)
 Longer useful life of expensive items
 A comprehensive database (RCM ends with comprehensive and fully
documented record of the maintenance requirements)
 Greater motivation of individuals and better team work

C. What CMMS programme does? (3)

 CMMS allow companies to electronically track orders for work (work


order) within a centralised software package.
 CMMS package can assist the users in tracking materials in
storeroom and allows the work order administrators to choose from
a list of materials in the system which items will be needed to do the
work.
 CMMS package help manage the whole process of purchasing and
tracking all of the costs associated with it.
 Eliminate the nightmare of paperwork.
 Helps maintenance departments to move from doing corrective
maintenance to preventive maintenance which not only keeps the
organisation running more smoothly, but impacts safety and quality
of life.
 Makes work force more efficient, it helps workers plan their efforts.
d. Highlight the differences between RCM and CMMS and why they
are two different yet complementary things and why the company
still needs to do RCM (4), (5), (6)

 CMMS is a Computerised method of controlling the planning of all


the tasks involved in maintenance, RCM is a process for identifying
the effective maintenance action(s).
 CMMS analysis determines the critical item which needs
maintenance. RCM provide the most applicable approach of
maintenance to deal with this item.
 A CMMS contributes critically to RCM analysis by providing
equipment data and history.
 Companies still needs RCM, because RCM deal with multiple failures,
even the hidden failures and uses deferent approach of maintenance
(Preventive, productive, condition monitoring…)

e. doing RCM before, during (i.e. simultaneously), or after the


implementation of the CMMS and why?
Before setting out to analyse the maintenance requirements of the assets
in any organisation, we need to know what these asset are and to decide
which of them are subjective to the RCM review process (1). Assets and
their maintenance history are best described in a CMMS package. Thus it
is better for any organisation to have CMMS package before implementing
RCM.

2. Root Cause Analysis (RCA)

a. What RCA is?


Root Cause Analysis is a process designed for use in investigation and
categorising the root causes of events with safety, health, environmental,
quality, reliability and production impact. Is designed to help identify not
only what and how an event occurred, but also why it happened (7). RCA
is the process of finding and eliminating the cause.
b. What RCA does?

RCA process: (7), (8)

 determining the problem


 Data collection (understanding of the events, the causal factors and
root causes associated with the events)
 Causal factor charting (a structure to organise and analyse the
information gathered)
 Root causes identification (decision diagram to identify the
underlying reasons)
 Recommendation generation and implementation ( to prevent the
occurrence of causal factors)

RCA benefits: (9)

 Identify barriers and the causes of problems, so that permanent


solutions can be found.
 Develop a logical approach to problem solving; using data that
already exists in most operations.
 Identify current and future needs for organizational improvement.
 Establish repeatable, step-by-step processes, in which one process
can confirm the results of another.

C. Which of the new problems identified are likely be


improved/reduced with RCA?

Understanding why an event occurred is the key to developing effective


recommendations (7). In our case, by using RCA we determine that the
damage is caused by some type of raw materials and enfant failures due
to the inexperienced employees, thus RCA can recommend:

 To replace the raw materials with the new ones to prevent failures
caused by these type of materials in the future
 More training of the workers to know how to deal with these kinds of
materials

d. Which of the new problems identified are not likely to be


improved with RCA?

The problem of the spares which are not made any more as the OEM
(Original, Equipment, Manufacturers) are no longer in the business will
may not be solved by RCA, it may suggest to change the design or
compressors, but this requires an economic analysis whether we change
the design or it is worth to continue with the old ones.

e. other programme of improvement

There are still some problems that RCM and RCA can not solve, thus we
have to introduce another system which addresses these problems. I want
to introduce TPM which is a structure for managing and continually
improving uptime on production equipment. But the introduction of TPM
should be done step by step to avoid the overloading and demotivation of
staff.
3. Education & corporate development

a. Skills and competencies needed to develop in building an asset


management team
1. Communication skills
Good communication makes everything easier in the music industry. You
need to speak and write clearly, concisely and in an open and friendly way
(10).
The best way of achieving clear communication is to follow the age-old
advice that – it is best to engage the brain, before opening the mouth.
(11)
Thus you must: (11)

 Think about how you communicate


 Make your message clear, descriptive
 Do double check that your communications have been understood
 Give people sufficient detail and tell them why as well as what then
your communication should be well received.

The ability to express an idea is almost as important as the idea itself.


(Bernard Baruch)

2. Leadership skills
The leader must have these important qualities: - integrity and be
trustworthy. - fair in dealings and must not create a sense of insecurity
among team members through misinformation - recognise the strengths
and weaknesses of team members and allocate work accordingly - Stress
on the importance of team work must be emphasised through words and
action. (12)
Leader’s abilities:
Ability to see opportunities, Adaptability, Analysis, Communication,
Decision-making, Dependability, Enthusiasm, Imagination, Integrity,
Open-mindedness, Positive thinking
Reliability, Sincerity, Single-mindedness, Understanding, Willingness…
(13)

3. Business skills (14), (15)


 Understand the financial climate in which your organisation is
operating. You also need to know what the financial goals of your
organisation are.
 You must be able to justify your budget
 The ability to think strategically and understand what the
organisation’s future goals are, as well as the current ones
 Understand what the political landscape is like within your
organisation.

 Apply business standards, practices, principles, theories, and


concepts to creative development
 Apply knowledge of information technology, human resources,
organizational development and culture, sales, marketing, finance,
international commerce, regulatory processes, economics, and
education.

a. Technical understanding
Besides the engineering skills (understanding machines, dealing with
software, calculations …) for better communications, you need to
understand:
 Functions and failure concepts
 Criticality and systems performance
 Reliability and risk concepts
 Maintenance and resource management
 Life cycle analysis and modelling
 Information systems/ modelling
 Information systems usage/integration (16)
b. The difference between these requirements and traditional
engineering or management education programme

The difference between these requirements and traditional engineering or


management education programme is that these skills help to deal more
with people; they must understand the technical side as well as the
management and economic side to be able to plan, organise, control, and
manage the work, whereas the traditional engineering or management
requirements focus only on the technical side which lead them to
understand the techniques for achieving the work.

4. Cost/risk/performance optimisation
Many people use a domestic heating boiler, which needs care to keep it as
longer as possible. But the question is, do these people know how to
optimise the maintenance strategy of this material? The main part in a
domestic heating boiler is a burner which needs cleaning as it becomes
dirty. So in this case we have to consider the cost of cleaning and the loss
of efficiency (extra fuel cost for example as a sign of performance loss).
As an example of how to optimise the maintenance (cleaning) strategy of
this burner, we assume that the deterioration is linear and this material
loses 10% of performance after 5000 hours of operation which costs
DA10/hour extra fuel and the total cost of cleaning is DA2000.

The results are shown is this graph


Optimum

By combination between cleaning cost and performance loss cost we


found that the optimum time for cleaning the boiler is after 1500 hours of
operation.
In a more complex maintenance strategy the deterioration will not be
linear and in addition to direct cost which is the maintenance cost, and the
performance loss we have to consider other factors such as penalty,
operating loss, the impact of maintenance …etc
In more complex optimisation decision which leads to an increase in
reliability/performance/safety, we have to consider:
 Reliability & Risk
 Operational Efficiency
 Lifespan
 Compliance
 Shine …. (17)
To estimate the significance of each one, a checklist of questions is
needed to be asked
If we consider the risk, performance loss and cost of cleaning for the
heating boiler the Optimum time to check the boiler is shown in the graph
bellow:

Optimum

NB: the values of risk are based on the assumption (Y = aX² + b).
Y: Cost, X: Time (a and b are constants)
References:
(1) John Moubray, RCM II second edition
(2) Fredrik Backlund, Doctoral Thesis: Managing the Introduction of Reliability-Centred
Maintenance, RCM 2003
(3) CMMS Technology concepts Group, Inc (www.gotcg.net)
(4) http://www.pemms.co.uk/pemmsfaqs.html
(5) Alanna Harris RCM engineer, ppt presentation NAVAIR Depot April 22, 2004
(6) RCM success start with CMMS (www.CMMSdatagroup.com)
(7) Root Cause Analysis for Beginners
(8) https://www.spider.hpc.navy.mil/index.cfm?RID=TTE_OT_1000064
(9) http://www.ciras.iastate.edu/quality/rootcauseanalysis.asp
(10) OneMusic Industry Jobs - Tour Manager Skills (page 9).htm (www.bbc.co.uk)
(11) Patrick Forsyth; Building the Team
(12) How to Build a Great Team - Total Leadership - CIO Magazine Apr 15,2004.htm
(13) You’re in Charge Now! The first-time manager’s survival kit JULIE-ANN AMOS
3rd edition
(14) REMARCNEWSLETTER IT Manager - Skills and Qualities.htm
(http://www.remarc.co.uk/remarcnews/Default.aspx)
(15) Matrix of skills Michael Heavener Matrix of Skills.htm
(16) Education and training in asset management, PPT presentation John Woodhouse, The
Woodhouse Partnership Ltd
(17) Finding the right mix of costs, risks & performance 2001, John Woodhouse, The
Woodhouse Partnership Ltd