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I KADEK ARTAWAN 1713071029



Praise the presence of God Almighty for all Grace, so that I can complete
the preparation of this paper in its form and content which may be very simple. This
paper contains about the earthquake and the process of its occurrence.
We made this paper in order to fulfill the task of the Natural Disaster
Mitigation course. Not to forget, we also thank the various parties who have given
encouragement, motivation, guidance, direction and advice that have been given so
that this paper can be resolved properly. We hope this paper can be used as one of
the references, instructions and guidelines and also useful for increasing knowledge
for readers.
I admit this paper is still lacking. Therefore, I expect the readers to provide
constructive inputs to the perfection of this paper.

Singaraja, February 2019

1.1 Background
The earth is the only planet that can be inhabited by living things in the solar
system. The earth is a planet that has various elements that allow life to take
place. The earth is also a very complex planet and has a variety of lives in it. All
living things occupy the lithosphere of the earth both on land and in the ocean.
But in its development the life of living things on earth is not as well as living
peacefully. Many things that occur in nature and interfere with the survival of
living things themselves, one of them is the existence of natural disasters. Natural
disasters are natural events that have a large impact on the population of living
things, both negative and positive impacts . Many natural disasters that have
occurred in various parts of the world, including nature such as floods, volcanic
eruptions, earthquakes, storms and others.
One of the most frequent natural disasters and almost all of the world has
experienced it is an earthquake. Earthquake ( earthquake) is a vibration in the earth
that occurs as a result of the sudden release of energy. Earthquakes are one of the
negative effects of tectonic processes, where the meeting areas of tectonic plates
collide with each other, the meeting areas of the collision are areas prone to
earthquakes. Where as we know that the Indonesian region is one of the regions
with the most active mountains in the world. In other words, regions in Indonesia
are earthquake-prone areas. Based on the background above, the author wants to
discuss the earthquake .
1.2 Problem Formulation
Based on the background described above, the formulation of the problem
that the author gets is as follows:
1. What is an earthquake?
2. What is mean earthquake intensity and magnitude?
3. What causes earthquakes?
4. How is the process of an earthquake?
1.3 Purpose
Based on the formulation of the problem that has been described above, the
objectives that the author wants to convey are as follows:
1. Explain the definition of an earthquake
2. Explain the intensity and magnitude of earthquakes
3. Explain the causes of earthquakes
4. Describe the process of an earthquake
1.4 Benefits
1. For Author
As for the benefits that the authors get with the compilation of
papers on earthquakes including the authors can improve the ability of how
to write good and correct papers and provide insight to the reader as one
of the additional reference sources regarding earthquakes.
2. For readers
Readers who read this paper will be able to understand the concepts
of earthquakes such as the definition of earthquakes, the causes of
earthquakes, the process of earthquakes, the potential of earthquakes in the
world, and the effects of earthquakes.
2.1 Definition Of Earthquakes
Quoted from Noor, 2011: 249, earthquakes are vibrations in the earth occur
as result of the sudden release of energy that accumulates in deformed rocks where
earthquakes can defined as wave propagation on rock or soil masses originating
from release results kinetic energy originating from within the earth. The energy
sources released can come from the results of plate collisions, volcanic eruptions,
or rock or soil erosion and nuclear explosions. This earthquake emits energy
through the earth in the form of seismic waves (energy propagation caused by faults
or explosions from within the earth). Earthquake is a vibration that felt on the
surface of the earth due to the source of vibration contained in the earth. The
epicenter of an earthquake, which is the point inside the earth where an earthquake
occurs is called a (hypocenter), and the point on the surface of the earth just above
the epicenter is called an (epicenter).

Picture 1: Illustration of the location of the earthquake's focus and epicenter.

The strength of this earthquake can measured using a device called a

seismograph. Seismograph tools are designed to record seismic waves emitted from
the source of an earthquake. Seismographs are called seismograms. From the
seismogram, it can be seen the intensity or amplitude of the seismic waves emitted
by the source of the earthquake. The intensity of an earthquake or the strength of an
earthquake is based on the amplitude of seismic waves recorded on a seismogram,
and expressed in the Richter scale. An earthquake that can cause
damage usually has a strength (magnitude) above six on the Richter
scale. Earthquakes can be divided into several types, namely as follows:

A. Based on the process of occurrence, the earthquake is divided into 3 namely :

 Preliminary earthquake, the amplitude is small and occurs before a major
earthquake or major earthquake.
 The main earthquake, the amplitude is large so that can be felt by humans.
 Aftershocks occur several minutes or hours after the main earthquake. This
weak earthquake sometimes occurs repeatedly.
B. Based on the depth of his hiposentrum, earthquakes are divided into 3 :
 Earthquakes, hypocenter depths of more than 300 km. This earthquake can
reach the surface, but its amplitude becomes small so it is not dangerous.
 Earthquake-medium, hypocenter depth between 60 and 300 km. In general,
moderate earthquakes rarely cause damage to the surface of the earth.
 Shallow earthquake, hypocenter depth is less than 60 km. Shallow
earthquakes often cause damage to the surface of the earth.
C. Based on physical processes, earthquakes can be classified into 3 namely :
1. Tectonic earthquake
This earthquake was caused by a shift in the continental plate. Tectonic
earthquakes often cause damage to lives. If the epicenter is in the sea, it will
cause a Tsunami, which is a large ocean wave.
2. Volcanic earthquake
This earthquake is caused by magma activity near the surface of the
earth or caused by volcanic eruptions (volcanoes). Volcanic earthquakes
usually have a weak intensity and occur in the area around the erupting
mountain. Damage and casualties are caused more by eruptions than by
3. Earthquake
Collapse earthquakes are caused by rock debris, for example in mining
caves or caused by landslides or rocks. Ruins earthquake has a weak
intensity and occurs locally.
2.2 Earthquake Intensity And Magnitude
The intensity and magnitude of earthquakes that occur on the earth's surface
can be identified through a seismograph device, which is a very sensitive seismic
vibration recording device that is placed in various locations on the Earth's surface,
usually in quiet and far from residential areas. To determine earthquake magnitude
is based on the magnitude of the amplitude of seismic waves recorded on a
seismograph device. The Richter Scale (M) is a unit used to measure the magnitude
of an earthquake magnitude. The unit of earthquake magnitude based on the Richter
scale is 1 to 10. The unit of earthquake intensity and magnitude can also be
measured based on the impact of damage caused by seismic wave vibrations known
as the Mercalli Modification Intensity unit (MMI), this unit value ranges from 1 to
12 ( Noor, 2011: 250, ) . The following is a table about earthquake magnitude and
Table 2.1 Magnitude and Earthquake Strength Classes
Magnitude Earthquake
Earthquake Influence Annual
Earthquake Strength Class
<2.5 Minor Generally not felt, but can
Earthquake be recorded by 900,000
2.5 to 4.9 Light It can always be felt, but
Earthquake only causes minor damage.
5.0 to 5.9 Moderate Causes damage to
Earthquake buildings.
6.0 to 6.9 Strong It is possible to cause major
Earthquake damage, in areas with high 100
7.0 to 7.9 Major Cause serious damage.
≥8.0 Great Can destroy areas close to 1 per 5-10
Earthquake the epicenter. years
Table 2.2 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale (MMI)
Scale of
Damage Impact
I Not felt by most people, only a few people can feel in certain
II Can be felt by some people who are silent / resting. Can move
and drop objects.
III Felt by few people, especially those inside the house, such as
vibrations coming from heavy vehicles passing near the house.
IV Feeling by many people, some people wake up while
sleeping.The plates and windows vibrate and can hear voices
coming from fragments of glassware.
V Perceived by everyone close together. Many people wake up
while sleeping. A crack in the wall of the wall occurred. The
items are turned upside down and the trees are damaged.
VI It was felt by everyone, there was a wall collapse and damage
to the tower / monument.
VII Everyone ran out of the house, badly structured buildings were
damaged. Can be felt by people who are in the vehicle.
VIII The collapse of badly structured buildings, pillars and towers,
collapsed walls. The spread of sand and mud from the ground.
IX Damage to certain structures, some collapsed. Buildings are
removed from the foundation. The soil has cracks and the
pipes are broken.
X Almost all buildings with concrete and wooden structures are
damaged. Broken ground, crooked railroads, and broken pipes
XI Only a few concrete building structures are left. Long cracks
occur on the ground. Pipes were cut and landslides and
railroads were cut off.
XII Total damage. Ground surface waves can be observed and
objects thrown into the air.
Table 2.3 Relationship Between Magnitude and Earthquake Intensity

Magnitude Scale of
Scale Intensity Characteristics of earthquake influences in
population areas
<3,4 I Only detected by seismographs
3,5 - 4,2 II and III Feels by some people in the building
4,3 - 4,8 IV Feels by many people and the window vibrates
4,9 - 5,4 V It felt by everyone, the plates broke and the door
5.5 - 6.1 VI and VII Minor damage to buildings, fracture floors, and
falling bricks
6.2 - 6.9 VIII and IX Building damage is more severe, the chimney
collapses and houses move on its foundations
7 - 7,3 X Serious damage, twisted bridges, fractured walls,
brick buildings collapsing
7.4 - 7.9 XI Heavy destruction, many buildings collapsed
>8 XII Totally destroyed, objects thrown into the air

2.3 Causes Of Earthquakes

Earthquakes occur due to a number of reasons, experts have even speculated
with various theories that they put forward about the causes of earthquakes, while
the causes of earthquakes are as follows:
1. The collapse of large caves that are below the surface of the
ground. However, in reality the collapse that caused the earthquake was
very unlikely and never even happened.
2. Collision of meteors that reach the surface of the earth. Earth is one of the
planets in the solar system. In our solar system there are thousands of
meteors or rocks and other celestial bodies scattered around the Earth's
orbit. At times the meteors and celestial bodies can fall into the Earth's
atmosphere and sometimes reach the surface of the earth. This falling
meteor will cause vibrations on the surface of the earth if the mass of the
meteor is large enough. This vibration is called a falling earthquake, but this
earthquake rarely happens. This event is very rare and the effect is not too
3. Volcanic eruptions. This earthquake occurs due to magma activity, which
usually occurs before a volcano erupts. This type of earthquake is called a
volcanic earthquake and rarely occurs when compared to tectonic
earthquakes. When the volcano erupts the vibration and shock of the
eruption can be felt up to 20 miles. Volcanoes that will erupt are always
accompanied by earthquakes that vibrate the surface of the earth around it,
this is caused by the movement of magma that will come out of the bowels
of the earth when the mountain will erupt. When the magma moves to the
surface of a volcano, it will move and break the volcanic rocks. This can
cause a vibration that is strong enough and prolonged to cause an
earthquake. Besides the result of the pressure between the magma and the
walls of the volcano, volcanic earthquakes can also be caused by gas
pressure in a very strong eruption and the transfer of magma in the magma
4. Tectonic activity. All earthquakes that have a significant effect come
from tectonic activities, which account for 90% of all earthquake
activities. Her regular tectonic earthquake caused by the process of
mountain formation, formation fracturing, faulting movements of tectonic
plates, and the pull or pressure parts of the vast continent. This earthquake
is an earthquake that generally has a magnitude of more than 5 on the
Richter scale.
5. Nuclear explosion. This earthquake was caused by nuclear explosion. In
general, these events occur in countries that are at war or who are
experimenting with the results of their nuclear assemblies .The strength of
this earthquake depends on the strength of the nuclear impact which causes
vibrations to the surrounding surface .

From various theories that have been stated, this theory of tectonic plates is
considered the most appropriate. This theory states that the earth is enveloped
by several hard rigid plates (the lithosphere layer ) which are above the softer layer
of the lithosphere and the plates continue to move at a speed of 8 km per year to 12
km/year . The movement of these tectonic plates causes the energy to
accumulate slowly . Tectonic earthquakes then occur because of the release of
energy that has long been buried.
The area most prone to earthquakes is generally at the meeting of tectonic
plates. The meeting of two tectonic plates will cause a relative shift in the plate
boundary, including:
1. Subduction , is the boundary of two plates, one of which is infiltrated into
the bowels of the earth and the other is lifted to the surface. Examples of
convergent plate boundaries with subduction type are the Indonesian
Archipelago as part of the Eurasian continental plate with Indo-Australian
oceanic plates to the south of Sumatra, Java, NTB, and NTT. Illustration of
subduction can be seen in the picture below.

Picture . Illustration of subduction zone in Indonesia,


2. Extrusion , which is the withdrawal of one plate to another.

3. Transcursion , which is a vertical movement of one plate against another.
4. Accretion , which is a slow collision that occurs between oceanic plates and
continental plates.
2.4 The Process Of Earthquakes
There are many types of earthquakes that occur, in general there are tectonic
and volcanic earthquakes, but tectonic earthquakes dominate the earthquake.
1. The process of tectonic earthquakes
The process of tectonic earthquakes is grouped into fault shift theory and
elasticity theory of elasticity. The theory of fault shift begins in the movement of
the earth's interior when the mantle convection force suppresses the earth's
crust. Because the crust is brittle, it results in a shift in the fault. From a fault shift,
an earthquake emerges in the form of energy flow that propagates to the
surface. Whereas in the theory of elasticity elasticity occurs when an earthquake is
caused by a shift or fault in a good fault that a fault or a fault falls. Fault occurs
because rocks experience continuous pressure. When the rock has begun to saturate,
the rock will be broken to release energy from the pressure and pull. At the time of
receiving pressure it will be bent but when it gets pulled it will return to
normal. That is what is called the elasticity theory of elasticity.
The dynamics of the earth make it possible for earthquakes. This is illustrated
by the movement of the plates that make up the earth's crust such as the movement
of oceanic plates because thereis a continuous process of rising magma to the
surface ( sea-floor spreading ) from the skin of the earth in the oceanic expansion
zone. This process drives oceanic plates that float on a layer that is solid but very
hot and can flow slowly. When oceanic plates infiltrate under the continental plate
there is friction which impedes the process of infiltration.

Picture 2: Plate movements that cause earthquakes

The slowdown in the infiltration motion caused an accumulation of energy in
the subduction zone and fault zone. As a result, in the zone there will be pressure,
pull and shift. The movement of the plates in the world allows interaction between
the plates with one another. For subduction zones, earthquakes occur because of the
interaction between two plates that are mutually pressing so that considerable
energy accumulates. The earthquake itself occurs because the condition of the rocks
on the plate or lithosphere breaks.
Rock breaks occur due to rocks experiencing energy saturation caused by
continuous withdrawal and pressure, when the elasticity of the rock is saturated, the
rock will release the accumulated energy from the pull and pressure obtained
earlier. Where when you receive pressure, the rock will bend and when you receive
the pull of rock it will return to normal, this is what is called 'Elastic Rebound
Theory'. The release of this accumulated pressure energy occurs over a period of
An earthquake in the subduction zone due to a fault in the rock layer, or lithosphere
can be eithershallow earthquake (shallow earthquake), secondary(intermediat
earthqu),and in (deep earthquake). The earthquake stage due to the interaction of
two tectonic plates can be briefly explained as follows:
a. The first stage of the two plates collides at the subduction zone with shear
b. The second stage of the plate above starts to bend so that a hill forms above
it while the shear stress continues to increase. At this stage the speed of
seismic waves decreases.
c. The third stage occurs cracks in the rock and reaches the balance limit. At this
stage seismic waves increase again.
d. The fourth stage is an earthquake due to broken rocks, slips or locked rocks
being released and a certain amount of energy will be released. Then this
energy will propagate in all directions in the form of longitudinal waves (P
waves) and transverse waves (S waves) that this wave propagation will
destroy the buildings above it.
e. The fifth stage occurs a new balance when the earthquake finishes.

2. The process of volcanic earthquakes

Volcanic earthquakes come from the phenomenon of erupting mountains or
disasters due to the release of magma from the bowels of the earth. Mountain has
an active period, where mountains can erupt and emit magma due to existing
pressure and rock energy which is already time to be released or erupted. Mountain
eruptions usually begin with vibrations or friction between the magma and the
bowels of the earth which eventually cause an earthquake. If the mountain is in the
sea it will cause an earthquake accompanied by ocean waves or a tsunami
disaster . Volcanic earthquakes can occur initially starting from the dynamic
process of magma and also the liquid that is in the bowels of the earth. This dynamic
process has hydrothermal properties which are very sensitive to heat, so it is very
easy to react. In addition to the dynamic process of hydrothermal magma, a fluid or
fluid process that is also dynamic occurs due to a temperature gradient and magma
3. The process of extraterrestrial earthquakes / collisions
Quakes that are quite rare, but still feared by many people. This earthquake is
called an extraterrestrial earthquake caused by a meteor or celestial body entering
and hitting the Earth's atmosphere. This is done by the atmosphere in order to
protect it from the earth and not reject objects to enter. So that it causes vibration
and finally feels or an earthquake occurs.
4. General Earthquake Process
a. Plate Tectonics (Tectonic Plate)
According to the Tectonic Plate theory, the outermost layer of our earth is
made of a thin and hard plate that each moves to each other relative to the
other. This movement happened continuously since this earth was created until
now. Plate Tectonic Theory emerged since the 1960s, and until now this theory
has succeeded in explaining various geological events, such as earthquakes,
tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, as well as how mountains, continents and
oceans are formed.
Tectonic plates are formed by the continental crust or oceanic crust, and
the upper rock layers of the Earth's mantle. The continental crust and oceanic
crust, along with the top layer of the mantle are called the lithosphere. Material
density in oceanic crust is higher than density in continental crust. Likewise,
the elements of matter in the oceanic (mafic) crust are heavier than the elements
in the continental crust (felsic).
Under the lithosphere there is a layer of molten rock called the
asthenosphere. Because the temperature and pressure in the asthenosphere are
very high, the rocks in this layer move like fluid.
The lithosphere splits into several tectonic plates that intersect with each
other. The following are the names of tectonic plates that exist on earth, and
their location can be seen in Tectonic Maps.

b. Plate Movement
Based on the direction of movement, the boundary between plate tectonics
with one another (plate boundaries) is divided into 3 types, namely divergent,
convergent, and transform. In addition there are other types that are quite
complex but rare, namely triple junction where three crustal plates meet.
 Divergent limits
It occurs on two break apart tectonic plates. When a tectonic plate breaks,
the lithosphere layers thin and split, forming divergent boundaries.
 Convergent Limits
Occurs when two tectonic plates are consumed in the direction of the
earth's crust, which results in both moving towards each other (one slip
beneath another).
 Transform Limit
Occurs when two tectonic plates slide each other, which is parallel but
opposite. Both of them do not give each other nor support each other. This
transform limit is also known as a transform fault.

 Convergent Limits
There are 3 kinds of convergent boundaries, namely 1) between
continental plates and oceanic plates, 2) between two oceanic plates, and
3) between two continental plates.
1. Convergent continental plates - oceans (Oceanic-Continental)
When an oceanic plate plunges beneath a continental plate, this plate
enters the asthenospheric layer where the temperature is higher, then
melts. In the lithospheric layer directly above it, a volcanic mountain
range is formed. While on the seafloor right where the subduction
occurs, oceanic trenches are formed.
2. Convergent oceanic plate — ocean (Oceanic — Oceanic)
One oceanic plate slides down the other oceanic plate, causing a ditch
to form on the seabed, and a parallel line of volcanoes to the ditch, also
on the seabed. Some of the volcano's peaks arise to the surface, forming
volcanic island chains.
3. Convergent continental plates - continents (Continental-Continental)
One of the continental plates dips beneath the other continental
plates. Because both are continental plates, the material is not too dense
and not heavy enough to sink into the asthenosphere and melt. The area
in the colliding area hardens and thickens, forming a mountain range.

5. Earthquake Mechanism
The simple occurrence of an earthquake can be explained because it is
"broken", or because of a fault (also called a fault or commonly called a "fault" by
geologists). What is broken? Broken is rock, layers of rock that compose the surface
of the earth. maybe the rock can indeed be layered and can be broken, even before
the fracture is bent (folding) first. Below I try to show some pictures that show it
turns out to be around us even though we rarely pay attention to it.
In general there are three types of faults or faults, according to the mechanism,
thrust fault or reverse fault, horizontal fault or strike slip, and normal fault. in
general it can be said that an earthquake occurs when a rock breaks, whether it
breaks and rises, breaks and shifts, or breaks and falls.
Fault occurs because rocks experience continuous pressure or pull. If the
elasticity of the rock is saturated, then the rock will be broken to release energy
from the pressure and pull. When receiving rock pressure it will bend, and after
releasing the pressure the rock will return to its original shape, this is known as
"Elastic Rebound Theory".
Thus it further explains why the subduction zone lane is an earthquake
pathway, or is the place where the epicenter occurs. Subduction zone is a zone
where the meeting of two plates, so that's where the place has experienced
continuous pressure for millions of years ago until now. When the pressure energy
gets bigger and the elasticity of the rock is saturated, it breaks to release the pressure
energy. So the earthquake happens "NOT" because the collisions of two plates like
2 cars collide with each other whose origins are far apart and suddenly collide with
each other so that it happens crashes, indeed for subduction zone earthquakes occur
because of the interaction between two plates that are compressing each other so
that the accumulation of energy is large enough, the earthquake itself occurs due to
the condition of rocks in the plate (crust) and / or broken lithosphere to release the
pressure energy that has accumulated there during the period certain time. The
mechanism for releasing earthquake energy also varies and is still an interesting
study for researchers in the fields of geosience and seismicity.
Earthquakes that occur in the subduction zone in Indonesia can be shallow
earthquakes, intermediate earthquakes, and deep earthquakes. I will not discuss this
matter in this description because the mechanism of the three types of earthquakes
is different and requires a separate description for the discussion. How about
earthquakes on land? The basic concept is the same, it occurs because of the
pressure or pull of the earth's tectonic conditions, geological conditions and
morphological conditions.
So even on land, new faults can occur as a result of tectonic earthquakes or
due to geological processes that result in new faults (quarter faults) whether it is
due to landslides or due to large volcanic earthquakes, or other geological
How for faults that are already on the ground, such as a long Sumatran fault
stretching and divided into several segments ?, For faults that already exist on land,
it will be a weak zone. The point is that the area becomes an earthquake-prone area
because the rock is broken, so it can shift back when it gets pressure or pull. Plus
the earthquake in the fault area can be triggered by another earthquake which gives
enough pressure to the fault area. Earthquake activity in Indonesia is one of the
highest in the world, if from all readers there is a time to visit the National
Earthquake Center BMG operational building on the 3rd floor there can be seen the
Seismotectonic Map of Indonesia, which shows seismic activity in Indonesia. It can
be seen that Indonesia has a high vulnerability to earthquakes.
Diakses pada tanggal 19 Februari 2019

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