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ETHIOPIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

MEKELLE UNIVESITY

SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Department of mechanical

engineering

Thermo fluid specialization

Scientific research methodology and seminar


ASSIGNMENT 2 ON RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

By: Moges alemu Id no. Eitm/pr069/10

Submitted to: Mr. Akatew


 Review of one journal
1. A study and comparison of frictional losses in free-piston
engine and crankshaft engines by:
Boru Jia⁎, Rikard Mikalsen, Andrew Smallbone, Anthony Paul Roskilly

Research questions
 What is the difference between Crank shaft engines and free piston engines?
 What are the causes of major friction losses on CSE relative to FPE?
General objective
 To study and compare frictional losses in free-piston engine and crankshaft engines.

Specific objectives
 To review and compare Friction mechanisms between a free-piston and crankshaft
engine of similar size.
 To estimate and discuss the frictional loss of each mechanism.
 To make simulation using stribeck diagram during different situations.
 To compare the results in order to make a conclusion.

Research design and Methods


 The research design that is used by the author is comparative type of research design
to distinguish the CSE from the FPE mechanisms during different situations &
according to equipment requirements that are assumed main friction sources and
focuses on differences and attempt to draw a conclusion about them. [5]
Friction mechanisms FPE CSE
Piston assembly Piston rings Yes
Piston skirt No
Crankshaft bearings No Yes
Valve trains Yes Yes
Linear electric generator Yes No

Table 1 above shows Main friction mechanisms of FPE & CSE


Research methods
 Referring related documents
 Developing of detailed sub-models
 Stribeck diagram was used to simulate the piston ring friction

Results
 The main friction mechanisms are identified to be the piston assembly including three
piston rings and piston skirt, the valve train system, the crank and bearing system for
the CSE, and the linear electric generator for the FPE.

Table 2 frictional loss comparisons of CSE & FPE

Parameters[unit] CSE FPE


Piston rings frictional loss [W] 2299.4 2489.0
Piston skirt frictional loss [W] 810.2 0
Crank & bearing frictional losses [W] 1508.9 0.0
Valve train system [W] 1724.4 1724.4
Linear electric generator [W] 0.0 265.4
Total frictional loss [W] 6342.9 4478.8
Engine indicated power [W] 44070.0 50064.0
% of total frictional loss to indicated power % 14.4 8.9

Simulation models for each friction mechanism are discussed, and frictional losses are
calculated and compared in Table 2. It is noted that the engine indicated power of the FPE is
somewhat higher than that of the CSE, which can also be found from the pressure
displacement diagram the area enclosed of the FPE is larger.[5]

The FPE doesn’t show advantage on piston ring friction loss over the CSE, and the frictional
loss from the piston ring is even higher. However, the elimination of the crankshaft system
reduces the frictional loss of the FPE, and the total friction loss of the FPE is nearly half of
the CSE. [5]
Table 3 Summary preparation of 5 different journals that are made on wind turbine

Paper title Objectives Methods Main results Point of interest

Optimization To design a Referring Deflection and Way of minimizing


design, modelling rectangular shape documents buckling of blade buckling &
and structural blade. decreases. deflection of
Preparing a model
analysis of wind turbine blade to
To attain the using ANSYS Over all power
mill blade increase its life.
highest possible software to make output increases.
power output under analysis using on it
particular
atmospheric
conditions.

To prepare model

Design, Analysis and To design turbine Developing model Increased blade Modelling
Optimization of blade with notch using CATIA strength. considerations.
Aerodynamic
To enhance the Making analysis Reduces Method used to
Parameters of Wind
passive & active using ANSYS deformation. increase the blade
Turbine Blade
techniques to strength.
Minimized velocity
control the flow &
& pressure. Method used to
the loads on the
analyse the model.
turbine blades Higher stress &
strain values.

Design & Analysis To increase the Modelling the Decreased drag force The way of
of a Wind Turbine efficiency by blade with solid reducing drag force
Increases lift force.
Blade with Dimples reducing air drag work & analysis is to in order to
15% increase of
to Enhance the made using CFD increase lift force.
By addition of power in dimpled
Efficiency through
dimples to the blade turbine than in
CFD with ANSYS
turbine blade plain blade turbine.
R16.0
A Brief Research, Maximize Q-Blade, CATIA, Increased shear Way of reducing
Study, Design & aerodynamic solid works& stress &strain values power generating
Analysis on Wind efficiency or power ANSYS software Deformation of components
turbine extracted from the are used for blade is reduced. (reducing weight)
wind modelling and
Modelling and
structural analysis
analysing
software’s

The design, To design & Referring Inductive losses are Selection of turbine
construction & construct small documents. Reduced. axis based on
analysis of scale horizontal Long term Power coefficient of different
horizontal wind wind turbine measurements & turbine = 0.26. parameters.
turbine for small observation. Overall efficiency =
Way of analysing
scale electric energy 17 %.
Tasting and aerodynamic
production
calibration. properties.

 Individual review of journals

The work deals with the design and optimization of new wind turbine blade which is carried
out on basis of different parameters like shape profile of blade, maximum Stresses, strain and
deflection on blade surface because turbine blade is the key component to extract the energy
from the wind. These parameters are very important for consideration. And the new blade
design is required to develop possible amount of power out of the wind because efficiency of
the wind turbine depends basically on the shape of the blade and on the forces that are
applied on the blade such as lift and drag forces. [1]

The project aims to evaluate the aerodynamic performance in order to improve the aero
dynamic properties that minimize the variations in pressure, velocity and turbulence
characteristics to a greater extent along the cross-section of the blade and using appropriate
material for the construction of a wind turbine blade leads to extract more power from the
wind get better efficiency. The aero dynamic characteristics are improved by introducing a
notch which also increases the strength of the blade. The strength of the blade material is
selected by developing model using software and making analysis on different properties
such as the introduction of a notch increases stress and strain values and lowers the total
deformation which increases stability of the blade. The optimum combination to get a better
aerodynamic efficiency is achieved by introduction of notches along with usage of FMl
(fibber metal laminates) composite material. [0]

In this research, an attempt is made to increase the efficiency through the changes in surface
topology of wind turbines through computational fluid dynamics. Dimples on the other hand
are very efficient in reducing air drag as is it evident from the reduction of drag and increase
in lift in golf balls. The predominant factors influencing the efficiency of the wind turbines
are lift and drag which are to be maximized and minimized respectively. In this research,
surface of turbine blades are integrated with dimples of various sizes and arrangements
and are analysed using computational fluid dynamics to obtain an optimum combination.
The analysis result shows that there is an increase in power with about 15% increase in
efficiency. Hence, integration of dimples on the surface of wind turbine blades has
helped in increasing the overall efficiency of the wind turbine. [6]

This project describes about the principle and working of wind turbine as they are becoming
popular in the renewable energy world. Primary objective in wind turbine design is to
maximize the aerodynamic efficiency, or power extracted from the wind. The blade is
designed using different types of aerofoils which are oriented at different angle of attack and
the blade design is responsible for the efficiency for the wind turbine. The designs of blades
are done using Q-BLADE software, the power output is also determined using this software
which uses Blade Elemental Theory. The comparative study is done considering the power
output of the designed wind turbine blades and the existing wind turbine blade. Structural
analysis is performed by ANSYS software. [2]

The study deals with designing and construction of horizontal axis wind turbine in order to
get higher performance by increasing the lift force by optimizing the angle of attack
according to the wind speed. The study uses three blade rotors which is connected to the
electric without gear mechanism generator to convert the generated torque into electrical
power the electrical components are also designed with their controlling systems store the
extracted energy effectively and manufacturing process of the components is described and
based on the data analysis the energy production potential for different wind speed has been
evaluated. [4]

 Full review of five papers

The previous studies which has done on wind turbine deals with the design and optimization
of new wind turbine blade which is carried out on basis of different parameters like shape
profile of blade, maximum Stresses, strain and deflection on blade surface because turbine
blade is the key component to extract the energy from the wind. These parameters are very
important for consideration. And the new blade design is required to develop possible amount
of power output of the wind because efficiency of the wind turbine depends basically on the
shape of the blade and on the forces that are applied on the blade such as lift and drag forces
[1] but these forces are also improved by the aero dynamic properties that minimize the
variations in pressure, velocity and turbulence characteristics to a greater extent along the
cross-section of the blade and using appropriate material for the construction of a wind
turbine blade leads to extract more power from the wind get better efficiency. The aero
dynamic characteristics are improved by introducing a notch which also increases the
strength of the blade [3] also dimples on the other hand are very efficient in reducing air drag
as is it evident from the reduction of drag and increase in lift in golf balls. The predominant
factors influencing the efficiency of the wind turbines are lift and drag which are to be
maximized and minimized respectively by integrating the surface of the turbine with various
sized dimples because of the dimples arrangements results 15% power increment [6] Primary
objective of wind turbine design is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency, or power
extracted from the wind. The blade is designed using different types of aerofoils which are
oriented at different angle of attack and the blade design is responsible for the efficiency for
the wind turbine. The designs of blades can be modelled using Q-BLADE software, the
power output is also determined using this software which uses Blade Elemental Theory. The
comparative study is done considering the power output of the designed wind turbine blades
and the existing wind turbine blade. Structural analysis is performed by ANSYS software to
observe the performance of the wind turbine [2] but mostly in order to get higher
performance by increasing the lift force by optimizing the angle of attack according to the
wind speed horizontal axis wind turbine is used also weight reduction on the turbine
mechanism and energy storage mechanism improves efficiency of the turbine. [4]
Reference
[1] Vaibhav R. Pannase1, A. M Shende2,’ ‘Optimization, Design, Modelling and Structural
Analysis of Wind Mill Blade,’ International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics
Research Vol. 2, No. 3, July 2013.

[2] KunduruAkhil Reddy1, KalyanDagamoori2, ArimalaParamasivamSruthi3, Sai Apurva.N,4


Nimmala Naga Maha Lakshmi Naidu5, A.Vamsi Krishna Reddy6, Beri Rajesh7,
KudaKiranKumar8, ChithaluriShivasri9, SumamaYaqub Ali10’, A Brief Research, Study,
Design and Analysis on Wind turbine Vol. 5 No 7 | Iss. 10 | October 2015.

[3] E. VIJAYARAGAVAN1, V. VIJAYDesign2, ‘Analysis and Optimization of Aerodynamic


Parameters of Wind Turbine Blade,’ International Journal of Applied Engineering Research
Vol. 10 No.68 July 2015.

[4] ] L.’ Staňo, V. Chudoba, M. Morvová The design, construction & analysis of horizontal
wind turbine for small scale electric energy production, 57-69, 2016

[5] Boru Jia⁎, Rikard Mikalsen, Andrew Smallbone, Anthony Paul Roskilly, ‘A study and
comparison of frictional losses in free-piston engine and crankshaft engines,’ Applied
Thermal Engineering 140, 217-224, 2018.

[6] M. Rajaram Narayanana, S. Nallusamy, M. Ragesh Sathiyan, Design & Analysis of a


Wind Turbine Blade with Dimples to Enhance the Efficiency through CFD with ANSYS
R16.0, ‘Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. M G R Educational and Research
Institute, Chennai-600095, Tamilnadu, India 2018.