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CURRICULUM VITAE

The researchers opted to find the Impact of guidance and counselling

program in preventing teenage pregnancy in senior high in the study area.

There are reported cases of the teenage pregnancies in the senior high school

in Diplahan National High School. The researchers want to know if how the

guidance counsellors do and what are the ways to prevent teenage pregnancies.

Statement of the Problem

The study opted to find the guidance and counseling program: its

relevance towards preventing teenage pregnancy.

Specifically the study sought to answers the research questions:

1. What are the influences on the early teenage pregnancy among senior high

students?

2. What are the intervention of guidance and counselling department in

preventing teenage pregnancy?

3. What are the views of Senior High School students in teenage pregnancy?

4. How the pregnancy affects the academic performance of the students?

5. How often does the guidance counsellor conduct counselling among senior

high school teen parents?

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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Guidance and counselling is a professional field which has a broad range

of activities and services aimed at assisting individuals to understand

themselves, others, school environment and attain abilities to adjust

accordingly. The need for guidance and counselling services in all secondary

schools cannot be overstated due to increasingly complexities of modern life

that have placed heavy demands and responsibilities on secondary school

students. These students are faced with numerous personal, academic, social

and emotional needs and problems when unattended could lead to host

patterns of undesirable behaviours (Weiten, 2007).

School guidance and counselling programs have been introduced to

assist students to overcome and adjust to a host of social and emotional

challenges they experience at home and at school. Virtually, all countries have

established channels to intensify and improve guidance and counselling

services in their respective learning institutions in an attempt to address tenets

of students’ behaviours. The history of guidance and counselling around the

world varies greatly based on how different countries and local communities

have chosen to provide personal, academic, social and emotional adjustment

among the post primary students (Weiten, 2007).

Kaminer (2004) contends that in the United States, the school

counselling profession began as a vocational guidance movement at the

beginning of the 20th century when a systematic school guidance program was

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developed and provided for the consumption by the schools. The movement

emphasized personal issues, social and emotional adjustments in order to

develop and promote students’ character and avoid behavioural problems. In

Japan, the goal of high school guidance counselling services is to help every

student develops abilities of self-understanding, decision making, life planning

studies on the modification of behaviour among students and action taking to

be able to adjust to social and emotional adjustment (Loescher, 2007)

Moreover, in relation Guidance and Counselling in the Philippines,

teenage pregnancy cases rose by 70 percent in the past 10 years. This was

revealed by Percival Cendana, Commissioner of the National Youth

Commission (NYC) and he based it from the study conducted by the United

Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) that ranked the country first in terms of

teenage pregnancy in Southeast Asia. He also cited the NYC’s National Youth

Assessment Study revealed that unplanned pregnant was one of the main

reasons young people do not complete their education.

The National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) 11 data shows a 3.6

percent increase in the number of young Dabawenyas ages 15 to 24 have

become pregnant, from 25 percent in 2003 to 28.6 percent in 2008. The Davao

region has the highest increase in the number of teenage pregnancies

compared to the Zamboanga Peninsula, Socsksargen and Caraga. Both

Northern Mindanao and the Autonomous Region for Muslim Mindanao

experienced a decline in the number of teenage pregnancies by 2.7 percent and

4.9 percent, respectively. Report also added that layer Romeo Cabarde, a family

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planning of the Philippines board member exclaimed that the statistic on

teenage pregnancy and abuse in the Davao region is already at an alarming

stage.

The Department of Education (DepED) encourages public school teachers

though DepED Order No. 39, s. 20016 to conduct research and in-depth study

focusing on the theme about child protection. The Department is committed to

address reported incidents of teenage pregnancy in order to address the need

to assess the effectiveness of previous interventions and the potential of new

approaches to better protect learners in schools. However, there is no study yet

regarding teenage pregnancy in Davao City schools. Hence, this in-depth

qualitative case study would give a clearer, better and deeper understanding

about this present dilemma.

Teenage pregnancy is predominantly viewed in the media, literature and

by government as a social problem. Teenage mothers have become a target of

blame in society as either causing or contributing toward negative social,

political and financial problems (Rolfe, 2008). This blame is prevalent in

dominant discourses that are supposedly driven by ‘moral’ concerns about

teenage sexuality, single-motherhood, the breakdown of the nuclear family and

dependence on others (Rolfe, 2008). As a result of these discourses teenage

mothers are stigmatized and their sense of responsibility, mothering skills and

maturity is questioned. Furthermore teenage mothers’ are blamed for causing

personal and social problems rather than being perceived as a ‘symptom’ of a

deeper/broader problem that is not their own (Rolfe, 2008).

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Effective strategies of prevention of teenage pregnancies and parenthood

need to include sexual education, contraceptive access programmes and

alternatives to pregnancy and parenthood, with a focus on education,

vocational training, academic tutoring and support, career counselling,

employment and involvement in community'' (Slowinski 2001:3). Practitioners

and professionals need to be scientifically and theoretically informed, to have a

critical indepth construction of reflection about what influence their practice

when they deal with the notion of teenage pregnancy and teenage motherhood

(Eraut 1995). The future of the people is usually determined by the way they

construct themselves (Urek 2006).

The researchers opted to find the Impact of guidance and counselling

program in preventing teenage pregnancy in senior high in the study area.

There are reported cases of the teenage pregnancies in the senior high school

in Diplahan National High School. The researchers want to know if how the

guidance counselors do and what are the ways to prevent teenage pregnancies.

Statement of the Problem

The study opted to find the guidance and counseling program: its

relevance towards preventing teenage pregnancy Specifically the study sought

to answers the research questions:

1. What are the influences on the early teenage pregnancy among senior high

students?

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2. How teenage pregnancies affect their academic performance and school

attendance?

3. What are the Career Aspirations of a senior high school teen parent?

4. What are the challenges faces by the students who engage in early

pregnancies?

5. How often does the school administration and guidance counselor conduct

career guidance among senior high school teen parents?

Significance of the study

The outcome of the study will provide the basis for enhancing the general

adoption of a new, positive approach to student life, thereby, ensuring

academic success.

To the Parents -this study will serve as awareness on what causes the early

pregnancies among the senior high students.

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To the Guidance Counselors- this study will give information on how to

increase awareness about teenage pregnancies among senior high school

students. It will also add knowledge to the strategies on the teenage pregnancy

counseling.

To the Teachers/Professors- this will give information on what causes the

teenage pregnancy among the senior high students of Diplahan National High

School. It will also give knowledge to the teachers/professors how teenage

pregnancy affects the academic performance of the students engage in teenage

pregnancy.

To the School Administrator- it will provide information to look for solutions to

prevent teenage pregnancies among the senior high school students. It will be

also a determinant to change the class schedules among the senior high

students.

To the Future Researchers- this study will help them enhance their knowledge

and provide more information on the subject matter. This study will also give

an insight to them and as reference in conducting their research in the future.

Scope and limitation

This study will be conducted in Diplahan National High School,

Zamboanga Sibugay. The respondents of the study will be the selected senior

high school students of Diplahan National High School wherein the profiles of

the respondents are taken from the records available in the Registrar office of

the Diplahan National High School.


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Chapter 2

THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The review of related literature and studies has focused more with
international researches because of limited sources and limited studies that
conducted in relation to preventing teenage pregnancy and the role of the
Guidance and Counsellor towards it.

Guidance and Counselling in the Philippine

The most significant development in Philippine counselling is the

Guidance and Counselling Act of 2014 (Republic Act No. 9258). The act

was intended to professionalize the practice of guidance and counselling

and to create the Professional Regulatory Board of Guidance and

Counselling, which is under the administrative control and supervision of

the professional Regulatory Commission. Prior to 2004, mental health

workers did not need a licence to practice nor was there a regulatory

board to ensure adequate training and ethical practice. Guidance

counsellors pioneered regulation for counselling, and psychologists are

following suit through the Philippine Psychology Act of 2009 (Republic Act

No. 10029), which will regulate psychology and create a professional

regulatory board for licensing psychologists (Kabiling, 2010). Although

mental health providers have the same mission, hierarchy dictates that a

doctoral- level counsellor or psychologist has the highest rank, followed by

the master’s-level counsellor. Other levels within this hierarchy are

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Conceptual Framework

The conceptual paradigm arranged in this manner to show the difference

among the Independent variable (IV) and the Dependent Variable (DV). The

independent variable is the Guidance Counselling Program: Its relevance

towards Preventing Teenage Pregnancy among Senior High School Students.

Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Preventing Teenage Pregnancy


Guidance and Counseling
Program Academic Performance

Senior High School


Pregnant

Moderating Variable

Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

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Figure 1

Operational Definition of Terms

Terms used in the study defined based on the different related literatures

in the study.

Adolescence- The term ‘adolescence’ was recently constructed as a natural

stage of development and defined as a distinct age-related period (Holgate &

Evan, 2006). (Holgate & Evan, 2006).

Motherhood- refers to the pregnant Senior High School students who

experience motherhood at early age.

Guidance Counselor- In this study, it refers to the designated guidance

counsellor that provides leadership in designing, implementing, and evaluating

the program. Coordinates and manages the implementation of the components

of the program and provides professional counselling services.

Guidance and Counseling Program- refers to the psycho-social and academic

assistance given to students to enhance their academic skills, set career goals,

manage healthy relationships, cope with problems, deal with adjustment

difficulties and other developmental issues they face in college.

Senior High School - refers to grade 11 and 12 students who are officially

enrolled in Diplahan National High School during SY 2018-2019, that includes

those who got pregnant 11 and 12 students.

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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the principle, techniques and the researchers

employed instruments to be used in order to attain the objectives of this study.

This chapter includes the research design, research locale, sampling of

procedures, respondents, research instrument, data gathering and the

analysis/treatment data.

Research Locale

This study was conducted Diplahan, officially the Municipality of

Diplahan, is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Zamboanga

Sibugay, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of

32,428 people. A 3rd class municipality in the province usually has its sources

of income concentrated in industrial activities which is mineral based (gold,

coal, and gravel), agri-based (rice milling), and of agricultural based.

Specifically the study will conduct at Diplahan National High School, Senior

High School Department.

Research Design

This study employed qualitative research design. This study attempts

to identify the Guidance and Counselling Program: Its Relevance toward

Preventing Teenage Pregnancy. Qualitative research is concerned with the

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Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the results and discussion of data gathered based

on the research problems of this study. The presentation attempts to answer

the problems congruently. The presentation of the findings of the study is

based on the views and opinions of the Senior High School students of

Diplahan National High School.

The first question that this study sought to answer is “What are the

influences on the early teenage pregnancy among senior high students.”

In searching for the influences on early teenage pregnancy among senior

high school students, the researchers asked key informants on what are the

influences in engaging early teenage pregnancy.

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the following reasons or

influences in early teenage pregnancy among senior high students.

Table 1 shows the different influences of early teenage pregnancy based

on the interview conducted to the respondents.

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Table 1

Influences of Early Teenage Pregnancy

Questions No. of Characteristics Response


Respondents
Influences on the early 3 Technology (Social Media)
teenage pregnancy 6 Having a Boyfriend at early age
among senior high 6 Drinking Alcohol or Going out with
school students? Friends
5
Lack of attention of their parents.
The most influential 3 Technology (Social Media)
among the influences 5 Self-Discipline
that you have 6 Having a boyfriend at early age
mentioned earlier 4 Drinking Alcohol or Going out with
Friends
2 Lack of attention of their parents
The least influential 1 Technology (Social Media)
among the influences 3 Having a boyfriend at early age
that you have 4 Drinking Alcohol or Going out with
mentioned earlier Friends
6 Irresponsible of their actions
6 Lack of attention of their parents
What do you think is 2 Irresponsible of their actions
the reason beyond this 3 Having a boyfriend at early age
influences that could 9 Curiosity about sex
engage in early 3 Drinking Alcohol or Going out with
pregnancy Friends
3 Lack of attention of their parents
As a student, how 2 Listen to your parents/teachers
could you prevent 5 Avoid going out with boyfriend/do
early teenage not try marital sex
pregnancy? 6 Do the right thing and always think
of your future
1 Use contraceptives
3 Focus on your study
3 Avoid drinking too much alcohol

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Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the following reasons or

influences in early teenage pregnancy among senior high students. In the

following transcriptions of the interview conducted.

According to the first informant she said that: “Technology and Boyfriend

influence her for early pregnancy.” (Grade 12-STEM-F1- 10/17/2018) Another

student said (Grade 12-ICT-F2- 10/17/2018) she said that: “Sa kawalan ng

attention sa magulang para sa kanila kong papasok sila sa pag papamilya,

madali nalang ang daloy ng kanilang buhay” (Grade 12-ICT-F2- 10/17/2018)

Another key informant (Grade 12-STEM-F3- 10/17/2018) said that: “sa tingin

ko ang impluwensya sa maagang pag bubuntis ay yong maaga rin nagkaroon

ng karilasyon tulad ng pagkaroon ng boyfriend.” And other key informant

(Grade 12-STEM-F4- 10/17/2018) said that: “I think they must blame each

other, kay ilaha ng binuhatan sagaran sa mga batan-on karon.” Other key

informant also said that: “Para sa akua ang mga naka influence sa sayo nga

pag kaburos sa mga batan-on karon kay ang mga barkada ug ubang kaila nga

mao pay murag mo push sa ila para mabuhat nila nga butang.” (Grade 12-ICT-

F5- 10/17/2018); On the other hand key informant (Grade12-STEM-M1-

10/17/2018) said that: “The influence of friends, lack of guidance and lack of

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family support; According to another key informant (Grade12-STEM-F6-

10/17/2018) she said that: “Para sa ako ang naka inpluwensya kaayo kay

kanang sa pag inom-inom og tungod pud anang mga barkada”; Other key

informant (Grade 12-STEM-M2-10/17/2018) he said that: “For me, the

influence engaging to early teenage pregnancy most is the boyfriend of yours,

second is the technology or social media that really addicted to every time”;

“Para sa akin ang makaka influence sa maagang pag aasawa ay boyfriend

dahil siya ang nag papasaya sakin.” (Grade 12-STEM-F7- 10/17/2018); other

key informant (Grade 12-STEM-M 3- 10/17/2018) he said that: “I think, hindi

nila makayanan ang lahat ng pagsubok ng darating sa kanila dahil sa maagang

pag bubuntis dahil hindi pa sapat sa tamang edad” na magkaroon ng anak.

Dahil narin sa pagkakaroon ng kasintahan or bad influence by their friends;

“Boyfriend ang isa ka ra rason nganung maburos ang uban studyante nga bayi”

(Grade 12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); “Kawalan ng attention kasi sa tingin nila

wala ng oras ang kanilang mga magulang at ang iba dahil sa mga kaibigan na

may bisyu”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018) other informant she said: “The

most influential influences are having a boyfriend”. (Grade 12-STEM F9-

10/17/2018); Other key informant (Grade 12-STEM M5-10/17/2018) he said:

“Wala sila galantaw unsay maayong buhaton ug dili angay buhaton, kabalo me

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nga kagustuhan rin nila but in the end magmahay ra sila”.; other informant she

said: “For me the most influential influences are going out with friends i know

they can do a lot things that’s not good for them.”; (Grade 12-ICT F10-

10/17/2018); other informant (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018) he said that:

“The influence of friends. Why? Because as we can see in our society today

many adults or teenagers are with their “kabarkadas” or friends” their family.

They must take time to their friends and bonding to hem that’s why

whatever the deeds of the other is the deeds of all.” (Grade 12-STEM M6-

10/17/2018); other key informant he said that: “Ang mas influensya sa akong

naingon ganiha kay kanang uban uban ka sa imong mga maka barkada mao

nay maka daot na sayo ka maburos.” (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018); In

other hand he said that: “the most influence for early pregnancy is the person

who committed with love that you really give for everything for him just because

that loves of you.” (Grade 12-STEM M8-10/17/2018); “para sa akin ang mas

pinaka influence ay ang mga teknolohiya dahil ito ang mag bigay aral sa akin.”

(Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018); other Key informant he said that: “is doing

their responsibility in their child.” (Grade 12-STEM M10-10/17/2018)

The second question that this study sought to answer is: “The most

influential among the influences that you have mentioned earlier”

Based in the interview conducted, the intervention of guidance and

counselling department in preventing teenage pregnancy. It revealed the

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following reasons or influences in early teenage pregnancy among senior high

students. According to the first informant (Grade 12-STEM-F1- 10/17/2018)

she said that: “Boyfriend ang isa ka rason nganung maburos ang uban

studyante nga bayi.”; Another Key informant (Grade 12-ICT-F2-10/17/2018)

she said that: “Kawalan ng attention ng kanilang mga magulang."; According to

other informant (Grade 12-STEM-F3- 10/17/2018) she said: “Ang pinaka

impluwensya sa nabanggit ko ay ang pag kakaroon ng boyfriend”; Other key

informant said: “Wala jud sila gapanglantaw unsay maayong buhaton ug dili

angay buhaton" (They don’t think what is right and wrong thing to do) (Grade

12-STEM-F4-10/17/2018); another informant she said:”Drinking too much of

alcohol with friends may lead you doing a bad thing” (Grade 12-ICT-F5-

10/17/2018); “The influence of friends. Why? Because as we can see in our

society today many adults or teenagers are with their “kabarkadas” or friends

“their family. They must take time to their friends and bonding to hem that’s why

whatever the deeds of the other is the deeds of all” (Grade 12-STEM-M1-

10/17/2018); In other hand (Grade 12-STEM-M2- 10/17/2018) he said that:

“the most influence for early pregnancy is the person himself who committed with

love that really give for everything for him because of love.”; another informant

(Grade 12-STEM-F7- 10/17/2018) said: “para sa akin ang mas pinaka

influence ay ang mga teknolohiya at sosyal media.” (Grade 12-STEM-F7-

10/17/2018); she said that: “It because, they do what they want to do without

thinking the consequences.” (Grade 12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); According to

other informant said: “Lack of attention of the parents to their parents and less

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guiding their children to their studies.” Grade 12-STEM F9-10/17/2018);

“having a relationship with opposite sex is the most common reason in early

pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM M5-10/17/2018); another informant said:”Pag

babarkada, mga bisyu at pag sama sa maling tao”.(Grade 12-ICT F10-

10/17/2018);other informant (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018) he said that:

“The most influential influences are the TV show because they watch some

scandal or sex video in the TV or in their mobiles and laptop”. (Grade 12-STEM

M7-10/17/2018); “pressured by their love ones, because their partners forced

them to do the sex that’s why some of the teenager got pregnant”. (Grade 12-

STEM M8-10/17/2018).

The third question that this study sought to answer is: “What do

you think is the least influential among the influences that you have mentioned

earlier? Why?”

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the least influential among

the influences. “Using technology can lead teenager to commit in marital sex”.

(Grade 12-STEM-F1-10/17/2018); another informant she said that: “ang pina

ka prone ay ang pag kakaroon ng ka relasyon habang bata pa at hindi sakto sa

edad”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3-10/17/2018); On the other hand she said “para sa

akoa kini nga butanga, dapat natu ni likayan kay ang pag buros sa batan-on

karon dili mayo kay tungod sa kaliwat sa kinabuhi nila”. (Grade 12-STEM-F4-

10/17/2018); another informant (Grade 12-ICT-F5-10/17/2018) also said

that:”para sa akoa mao ang ubang kaila kay kasagaran man gud labaw nag

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naa kay nakaila nga nakahimona ana o sayo sab naburos kay murag

maimpluwesnsyahan sab ka nga himuon nang butanga”. (For me, their friends

that had already experienced having sex are those student got pregnant early

are the most influential.); another informant said that: “the least, on the early

pregnancy is the family because family is the one who mould as a person”.

(Grade 12-STEM-M2- 10/17/2018); “the second least influence ay ang hindi

maayos ang pag-aalaga sa mga anak”. (Grade 12-STEM- F7- 10/17/2018);

another informant said that: “Drinking too much of alcohol and going out with

friends especially stranger, the chances the student get pregnant”. (Grade 12-

ICT M4-10/17/2018); another “Going home late at night may lead you in early

teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM M8-10/17/2018); and according to

informant said that: “They carried away by their feelings maybe because they

follow their heart over their mind”. (Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018)

The fourth question that this study sought to answer is: “What do you

think is the reason beyond this influences that could engage in early pregnancy?

Why?”

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the reasons beyond the

influences that could engage in early teenage pregnancy.

According to the first informant (Grade 12-STEM-F1- 10/17/2018) she

said that: “They are curious to important matters”; “kay mao naman na ang bag-

ong generation karon”. (Grade 12-ICT-F2- 10/17/2018); another informant she

said that: “maybe it’s because in times of difficulty, bad influence by their

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friends and they can’t prevent by their feelings”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3-

10/17/2018); “the curiosity of teenagers about sex”. (Grade 12-STEM-F4-

10/17/2018); according to another “the generation and the environment”.

(Grade 12-ICT-F5- 10/17/2018); and “Craving for knowledge about teenage

pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM- M1-10/17/2018); another informant she said

that: “Dahil sa tindi ng damdamin na hindi nila mapigilan at mga bisyong hindi

nila maiwasan yun ang kadalasang rason kung bakit maagang nabubuntis ang

kabataan ngayon”. (Grade 12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); according to informant

said that: “Sa tingin ko itong impluwensya na ito ay nagsisilbing daan para sa

mga magka relasyon ngayon"(Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); according to

other informant she said: “Dahil ito ang main isyu, para sa mga kabataan

walang awa sa kanilang nga magulang na nahihirapan sa pag hahanap buhay

para sa kanila”. (Grade 12-STEM F9-10/17/2018); on the other key informant

said: “Dahil sa bata pa silang nabubuntis at hindi pa nila kaya ang mga gawain

bilang isang magulang at maging isang responsable sa nangyari”. (Grade 12-

STEM M5-10/17/2018); other key informant said that: “Once you tried to go

out with friends and drink too much alcohol, they are just putting you to bad

situation and may cause of trouble”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018);

another key informant said that:” The reason is, there is no guidance happened

at all. If there is no guidance then they cannot hear of they cannot see the reality

of life as a human”. (Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018)

The fifth question that this study sought to answer is: As a student, how
could we prevent these influences to prevent early teenage pregnancy?

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Based in the interview conducted, it revealed how to prevent these
influences to prevent early teenage pregnancy.

According to the first informant she said that: “consult your parents”.

(Grade 12-STEM-F1- 10/17/2018); “para nako dili mag padala sa mga sweet

na relasyon”. (Grade 12-ICT-F2- 10/17/2018); “as a student it can prevent it by

using the rright way and stop the diamond feeling, or else they will regret it in

the end”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3- 10/17/2018); another key informant “by the

guidance of your parents you have to follow what they say what the rule they

want” (Grade 12-STEM-F4- 10/17/2018); “we can prevent it by looking back

the situation and of your family and always think that our past situation is very

poor so I have to continue my study and commit the pleasure after graduate”.

(Grade 12-ICT-F5- 10/17/2018); another key informant said “The student

should use contraceptives”. (Grade 12-STEM-M1- 10/17/2018); and “para

sakin para maiwasan ang maagang pag bubuntis kailangan nating isa-isip ang

tama at kung ano ang maaring kahihinatnan. Dapat munang pag isipan bago

pumasok sa isang sitwasyon.” (Grade 12-STEM-F6-10/17/2018); “focus

studying and think the important reason in your life avoid the things that would

encourage you in this activity”. (Grade 12-STEM-M2-10/17/2018); “We should

think of what’s the consequences, we should follow the advice of our parents

and we must think of our future”. (Grade 12-STEM-F7- 10/17/2018); “as a

student we need to prevent early teenage pregnancy for example if you have a

boyfriend he want to try the marital sex the girl should refuse, think before you

click”. (Grade 12-STEM-M3- 10/17/2018); “As a student we have to be careful

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of our actions, do not enter first the kingdom of love so that we can finish our

studies on time”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); “We should do the right thing

for our own good, and use out time in studying, sports other important matters”.

(Grade 12-STEM F9-10/17/2018); “As a student we can prevent early teenage

pregnancy by giving a respect to our self and avoid of having a relationship

boyfriends/girlfriends”. (Grade 12-STEM M5-10/17/2018); “As a student I

want to prevent it, they should go home early and avoid meeting in the dark

place. So that we need to prepare our self for the future.” (Grade 12-ICT F10-

10/17/2018); “do not try to drink alcohol and maybe avoid of having a

relationship and somehow we have to choose who will be the right person for

us”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018); “For me, not all have the intention to

commit in marital sex, but we have to avoid it so that we will not regret in the

end”. (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018); “As a students, we should follow

parent’s advice and also to the consent of our teachers because they are the one

who knows better than us”. (Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018); “Maybe, I’ll be

the one to avoid to the person that will influence me to do the marital sex”.

(Grade 12-STEM M10-10/17/2018)

The sixth question sought to answer is: How the school

administrations respond to the issues in the early teenage pregnancy?

Based in the interview conducted, the informants revealed that the

intervention of guidance and counselling department in preventing teenage

pregnancy by way of conducting symposium about sex education and career

guidance in relation to early teenage pregnancy.

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Table two shows the intervention in preventing teenage pregnancy.

Table 2

Intervention in Preventing Teenage Pregnancy

Questions No. of Characteristic


Respondents Response

How the school 1 I didn’t feel the presence of our


administrations administration
respond to the issues 15 They guide by giving advice,
early teenage they let us understand how
pregnancy? hard to become a young parent
by immediate actions
4 By conducting a symposium
lecture about sex and the effect
of it

Is your school 18 Yes


conduct a 1 No
symposium about sex 1 I don’t know
education and
teenage pregnancy?

Does the guidance


counsellor conduct 20 Yes
career guidance in
relation to early
teenage pregnancy?

Does your guidance 17 Yes


counsellor monitor 1 No
those pregnant 2 Maybe
students and others?

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that the school

administration responded about early teenage pregnancy. As revealed by the

key information in the transcription during the interview.


23
According to the first informant (Grade 12-STEM-F1-10/17/2018) she

said that: “I didn’t feel the presence of our admin in teenage pregnancy in our

school”.; On the other hand key informant (Grade 12-ICT- F2- 10/17/2018) she

said that: “by giving them an advice for us”.; and other informant said that:

“Gipasabot ug ayu ang mga estudyante kabahin ani nga isyu kasi dili basta

manganak sa ing arong kabataa”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3-10/17/2018); “by giving

warning to all the students or symposiums”. (Grade 12-STEM-F4-10/17/2018);

“the lecture the student about sex and the effect of it”. (Grade 12-ICT-F5-

10/17/2018); another key informant said “they respond with immediate

actions”. (Grade 12-STEM-M1- 10/17/2018); and “they should talk to the

teenager”. (Grade 12-STEM-M2-10/17/2018); other informant said “our school

conducted a symposium on how to prevent early teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-

STEM-F7-10/17/2018); “Always give the students an advice to avoid of early

teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-ICT F10-10/17/2018); and “By giving an advice

to the students and giving them an idea about the issue”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-

10/17/2018); “Teach the students how to prevent the issue of getting pregnant

at early age”. (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018); “They always said to avoid

hanging out with friends at late night especially those bad influence”. (Grade 12-

STEM M8-10/17/2018); Another key informant “They teach us how to prevent

40
about the issues and we have to focus more in our studies for our future”. (Grade

12-STEM M9-10/17/2018); “In our school I heard a lot of issues about teenage

24
pregnancy but they gave as some lectures to prevent it.” (Grade 12-STEM M10-

10/17/2018);

The seventh question that this study sought to answer is: Is your school

conducts symposium, conferences about sex education and teenage pregnancy?

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that school conducts

symposium, conferences about sex education and teenage pregnancy.

According to the first informant “I don’t know if our admin has an action

about the issues”. (Grade 12-STEM-F1-10/17/2018); “yes para makahuman og

skwela ang mga studyante”. (Grade 12-ICT-F2-10/17/2018); “yes, kasi

makatabang ni sa tanan nga mga kabataan kaya nag conduct ng meeting ang

skwelahan para mayo sapag sabot about early pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM-

F3-10/17/2018); “not in my school but I heard some school they do”. (Grade 12-

STEM-F4-10/17/2018); “yes for us to know what the situation about the sex

education and teenage pregnancies”. (Grade 12-ICT-F5-10/17/2018); “yes

because teenage pregnancy case are growing in high rates”. (Grade 12-STEM-

M1-10/17/2018); “oo upang maiwasan ang maagang pag bubuntis”. (Grade

12-STEM-F6- 10/17/2018); “Yes because there are many students are involved

in teenage pregnancy especially on the senior high students”. (Grade 12-STEM-

M2-10/17/2018); “yes so that all of the students are aware of that early

teenage pregnancy and they could prevent it”. (Grade 12-STEM-F7-

10/17/2018); and “Yes, so that we are aware and we have learning’s about

early pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM-M3- 10/17/2018); another “Yes, so that we

25
have an idea and learning to prevent early teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-

STEM-F8-10/17/2018); another “Yes, for us to avoid this kind of

circumstances”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); “Yes, to let the students

understand what they need to learn about the early teenage pregnancy”. (Grade

12-STEM F9-10/17/2018); “Yes, they should give a sex education for the

student to avoid early teenage pregnancy” (Grade 12-STEM M5-10/17/2018);

“Yes, so there are aware about the early teenage pregnancy and let the student realized

that is not easy to have a family at early age” (Grade 12-ICT F10-10/17/2018);“Yes,

order for us to prevent at early age”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018); “Yes,

explain to the students how to prevent early teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-

STEM M7-10/17/2018); “Yes, so that I’m aware about the issues”. (Grade 12-

STEM M8-10/17/2018); “Yes, this is important to the students to let them aware

about the early teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018)

The eight question that this study sought to answer is: Does the guidance

counsellor conduct career guidance in relation to early teenage pregnancy?

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that majority of the senior


high school student answered “yes” in the question, the guidance counsellor
conduct career guidance in relation to early teenage pregnancy.

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the views of Senior High


School students on teenage pregnancy Table 3 shows the views of Senior High
School students on early teenage pregnancy.

26
Table 3
Views of Senior High School on Teenage Pregnancy

Questions No. of Characteristic


Respondents Response
What is your 1 Naughty and always committing pre-
views view on the marital sex.
early teenage 2 They are influenced by their friends.
pregnancy? 2 You don’t have freedom if you already a
parent.
3 Just understand their situation as
pregnant woman.
1 They have to continue of what they
started.
3 Lock of guidance and have a problem in
life
2 It is difficult to have a child if you don’t
have a job, it can destroy your life.
1 They don’t think about their future, and
flirty to their girlfriend.
4 Curious about sex, and too much drunk
of alcohol and going out with friends.
1 Too much love with their
boyfriends/girlfriends and irresponsible
Do you think that
teenage 19 Yes
pregnancy could
be prevented 1 No
earlier?
Do you think that
engaging in early
pregnancy is a
hindrance in 20 Yes
reaching future
aspiration?
What are your 10 Study hard
views to prevent 5 Avoid hanging out and drinking with
early teenage friends
pregnancy? 2 Do not flirt too much
3 Be responsible of your action
Follow up questions were asked to the guidance counsellor like: “Does

your guidance counsellor monitors to those pregnant students and to others?

Why or Why not?”

27
Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that the guidance

counsellor monitors those pregnant students and others.

According to the first informant “They monitor pregnant students to

prevent it and they can help”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3- 10/17/2018); “yes, our

guidance counsellor always monitored”. (Grade 12-STEM-F4-10/17/2018);

“yes for they to know that teenage pregnancy is not good”. (Grade 12-ICT-F5-

10/17/2018); “oo, syempre kapag may mga kabataan na nabubuntis binibigyan

kaagad nila ito ng pansin, upang mabigyan ng payo para sa kanilang

ikakabuti”. (Grade 12-STEM-F6-10/17/2018); “Yes, because they want to know

if the students to know if the situations are bearing the child and if the students

that is involved is continuously studying”. (Grade 12-STEM-M2-10/17/2018);

“yes, so that they monitor those students and help them prevent the early

teenage pregnancy”. (Grade 12-STEM-F7-10/17/2018); “yes kay para mas

mahatagan pa og security ang ubang batan-on”. (Grade 12-STEM-M3-

10/17/2018); “Yes, so they are aware of how many students experiencing the

same situation and also to guide other students”. (Grade 12-STEM-F8-

10/17/2018); said also “Yes, make sure the students are not committed those

problems”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); on the other informant “Yes, they

need to monitor the students and let them aware about the issue”. (Grade 12-

STEM F9-10/17/2018); “Yes, they always monitor the student especially in

their monthly maternal check-up”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018); “Yes, they

are aware and monitor the conditions of the pregnant students”. (Grade 12-

STEM M7-10/17/2018); “Yes, they always monitor them”. (Grade 12-STEM M8-

28
10/17/2018); ”Yes, so that other students know the situation on how to be a

young parent”. (Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018);

The tenth question that this study sought to answer is “What is your

view on the early teenage pregnancy?”

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that the student view on

the early teenage pregnancy.

According to the first informant “Bigaon, katol og gapangita”. (Grade 12-

STEM-F1- 10/17/2018); “para nako sila ay nag mamadali ng pag-aasawa, kay

nadala sila sa ilang mga friends etc.” (Grade 12-ICT-F2-10/17/2018); “kung

isaka sa maagang pag bubuntis wala na kay freedom sa tanan nimo buhaton

kaya ayaw sa mag biga-biga para mka buot ka sa imong buhaton”. (Grade 12-

STEM-F3-10/17/2018);“it is very hassle and difficult for a young lady to bare

the child”. (Grade 12-STEM-F4- 10/17/2018); “sabte nalang ang mga

studyante na naburos”. (Grade 12-ICT–F5-10/17/2018); “ang masasabi ko lang

sa mga kabataang maagang pag bubuntis ay dapat nilang ipag patuloy kung

anuman ang maging kahinatnan nito”. (Grade 12-STEM-M1- 10/17/2018); “the

involved teenage are lacking guidance. They have problem in their life”. (Grade

12-STEM-F6-10/17/2018); “It can destroy your life”. (Grade 12-STEM-M2-

10/17/2018); “maghirap sila og alaga sa ilang anak kay ana wala silay

trabahu-on’”. (Grade 12-STEM-F7-10/17/2018); “Flirty to their girlfriends”.

(Grade 12-STEM-M3-10/17/2108); “They don’t think about their future”. (Grade

12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); “Because of their curiosity that’s why they commit a

29
marital sex”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); “They are naughty sometimes

nice”. (Grade 12-STEM F9-10/17/2018); “Too much drunk of alcohol and going

out with friends”. (Grade 12-STEM M5-10/17/2018); “Always going out with

friends”. (Grade 12-ICT F10-10/17/2018); “They are more focus on hanging out

with friends than studying”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018); “Always going

out with their boyfriends/girlfriends”. (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018);

“Hanging out with friends and boyfriends/girlfriends”. (Grade 12-STEM M8-

10/17/2018); ”Too much love with their boyfriends/girlfriends”. (Grade 12-

STEM M9-10/17/2018);

The eleventh question that this study sought to answer is “Do you think

that teenage pregnancy should prevent earlier in the future? Why or why not?”

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the students think about


the prevention in teenage pregnancy earlier in the future. Explain.

According to the first informant “no because it’s done”. (Grade 12-STEM-
F1-10/17/2018); “for me the early teenager pregnancy should be prevent earlier

in the future. Because someday you should be finish your goals”. (Grade

12-ICT-F2-10/17/2018); “oo, malikayan ni nga isyu kung ikaw mismo nag

huna-huna sa imong future ug ikaw nakahibalo kung unsa imong gibuhat kaya

ayaw sa pagdali ug buros”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3-10/17/2018); “yes because

pregnancy comes in a right time or if you old enough”. (Grade 12-STEM-F4-

10/17/2018); “it depends upon the situation”. (Grade 12-ICT-F5-10/17/2018);

“yes to prevent overpopulation property and stupidly”. (Grade 12-STEM-M1-

10/17/2018); “oo maiwasan talaga ang maagang pag bubuntis kung makikinig

30
sila sa mga payo ng magulang”. (Grade 12-STEM-F6-10/17/2018);“yes if

teenager is knowledgeable enough toward this issue”. (Grade 12-STEM-M2-

10/17/2018); “yes if you follow your parents”. (Grade 12-STEM-F7-

10/17/2018); “yes because early pregnancy can cause puberty within your

child”. (Grade 12-STEM-M3-10/17/2018); also said “They have to follow the

advice of their parents”. (Grade 12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); “So that they aware

about the issue and to prevent it”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); “So that

they have an idea about the issues”. (Grade 12-STEM F9-10/17/2018);“To

prevent the issue and to let student aware about consequences”. (Grade 12-

STEM M5-10/17/2018); “They should always listen to their parents”. (Grade

12-ICT F10-10/17/2018); “They should follow their parent’s advice and they

should aware about the issues”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018); “Yes, let

them realized and prevent the issues”. (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018); “The

student should avoid committing the marital sex”.(Grade 12-STEM M8-

10/17/2018); “The student should avoid committing the marital sex”. (Grade 12-

STEM M8-10/17/2018);”Yes, they are the one responsible of their actions”.

(Grade 12-STEM M9-10/17/2018)

The twelve questions that this study sought to answer is “Do you think

that engaging in early teenager pregnancy is a hindrance in reaching future

aspiration?”

31
Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that majority of senior high

school student answered “yes” in the question Do you think that engaging in

early teenager pregnancy is a hindrance in reaching future aspiration?”

The thirteenth question that this study sought to answer is “What are

your views that may prevent early teenage pregnancy?”

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed the students views that

may prevent early teenage pregnancy.

According to the first informant “They should study hard”. (Grade 12-

STEM-F1- 10/17/2018); “dili mag laag-laag”. (Grade 12-ICT- F2-10/17/2018);

“dili mag laag sa gabie”. (Grade 12-STEM-F3-10/17/2018); “dili mag biga2”.

(Grade 12-STEM-F4-10/17/2018); “dili mag padala sa uyab”. (Grade 12-STEM-

F7-10/17/2018); “dili mag dali-dali”. (Grade 12-STEM-M3-10/17/2018); “They

should focus on their studies”. (Grade 12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); “Focus on

their studies so they can finish schools on time”. (Grade 12-ICT M4-
10/17/2018); “Study hard focus on other important matter”. (Grade 12-STEM
M5-10/17/2018); “Study hard always”. (Grade 12-ICT F10-10/17/2018);
“Avoid going out with friends”. (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018); “Do not drink
too much alcohol”. (Grade 12-STEM M8-10/17/2018)

In searching how pregnancy affects the academic performance of the

students of Senior High School, the researchers asked key informants on how

pregnancy affects the academic performance of the students.

Based on the interview conducted, the information revealed that teenage


pregnancy affects the academic performance of the students.

32
The fourth question that sought to answer was: “How the pregnancy
affects the academic performance of the students?”

Table 4

Effects of Teenage Pregnancy on Academic Performance

Questions No. of Characteristic


Respondents Response

Does being teenage 20 Yes


pregnancy affect the
academic performance?

What is your advice to 8 Study hard


other students to prevent 6 Avoid the temptation and
in engaging teenage having a relationship
pregnancy? with opposite sex
1 Stop watching
pornography and avoid
going out with friends
5 Listen to the advice of
counsellor and parents

49
The fifteenth question that this study sought to answer was “What is

your advice to other students to prevent in engaging early teenage pregnancy?”

Based in the interview conducted, it revealed that majority of the Senior

High School students answered “yes” in the question that being teenage

pregnancy does it affects the academic performance.

According to the first informant “study hard” (Grade 12-STEM-F1-

10/17/2018); “listen to your parents” (Grade 12-ICT-F2-10/17/2018); “mag

behave” (Grade 12-STEM-F3-10/17/2018); “iwasan jud ang uyab-uyab” (Grade

12-STEM-F4-10/17/2018); “daily mag dali-dali sa love” (Grade 12-ICT-F5-

33
10/17/2018); “be strong sa mga temtasyon”(Grade 12-STEM-M1-10/17/2018);

“dili mag padala sa barkada” (Grade 12-STEM-F6-10/17/2018); “stop watching

pornography” (Grade 12-STEM-M2-10/17/2018); “di mag kuyog-kuyog sa

barkada” (Grade 12-STEM-M3-10/17/2018); “Always listen to their parents

and study well”. (Grade 12-STEM-F8-10/17/2018); “Do not flirt too much”.

(Grade 12-ICT M4-10/17/2018); “Avoid going out with friends at night”. (Grade

12-STEM F9-10/17/2018); other “Study hard and focus on their schooling”.

(Grade 12-STEM M5-10/17/2018); another informant “Study hard and always

listen to their counsellor” (Grade 12-ICT F10-10/17/2018); also “Always listen

to the advice of their counsellors”. (Grade 12-STEM M6-10/17/2018); and

“Study hard always”. (Grade 12-STEM M7-10/17/2018);according to the

informant “Avoid hanging out with friends”. (Grade 12-STEM M8-10/17/2018)

The fifth question that this study sought to answer was: “How often that

the counsellor conducts counselling among Senior High School teen parents?”

The guidance counsellor conducting counselling among senior high

school teen parents, the researchers asked if how many teen parents are

reported in their school. The guidance counsellor stated that as of school year

2016-2017 to present we have catered teenage mothers, 4 of them have been

dropped out from school, 2 are already finished senior high school and 10 are

still studying.

The researchers also asked the Guidance Counsellor if they give support

and intervention during the early teenage pregnancies of the students. The

guidance counsellor stated that they rendered counselling session to the teen

34
mothers, refer to school nurse for allowing them to take vitamins and we refer

them to seek pre-natal check-up at the municipal health center for their baby’s

good condition while they are at their womb and of course for free

immunization for the baby. Teenage mothers really need counselling to

overcome their challenges they encountered.

The researchers also asked the Guidance Counsellor on the support

given to the teen mothers in senior high school. The guidance counsellor stated

that giving them assistance, advises, counselling and support are the needs of

teenage mothers, we cannot expel them at school because education for all and

the best that we can give them is understanding although there are blames and

struggles within the family but we cannot rewind the past all we can give them

was the assistance and hopes that even when get pregnant they can continue

to reach their goals and ambitions.

The researchers asked the guidance counsellor on the conduct of career

guidance seminars to the teenage mothers. The guidance counsellor

intervention plans that include conducting symposium on teenage pregnancy,

mounting advocacy program for students to be aware of teenage pregnancy.

Furthermore the guidance counsellor seeks support coming from the school

principal, teachers and stakeholders as to the needs to realize the advocacy.

35
Chapter 5

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusion and the

recommendation considered from the results and the findings of the study.

Summary

The aims of the study is to find what are the influences on the early

teenage pregnancy among senior high students, the intervention of the

guidance counselling department in preventing teenage pregnancy, the views of

senior high school students on teenage pregnancy, how the pregnancy affects

the academic performance of the students, does the guidance councillor

conduct counselling among senior high school teen parents.

This study employed qualitative research design, this study attempts to

identify the guidance counselling program: its relevance towards preventing

teenage pregnancy. Qualitative research is concern with the opinions,

experiences and feelings of individual producing subjective data. Qualitative

research describes social phenomena as they occur naturally. This study was

conducted in Diplahan National High School as related to the Guidance

Counselling Program: Its relevance towards preventing teenage pregnancy,

among the student-respondents during school year 2018-2019. There were 20

students and one guidance counsellor of Diplahan National High School who

were the respondents of the study. The researchers used interview guide as an

instrument to gather the data needed for the study.

53

36
Findings

The findings of the study are the following:

1. The influences behind engaging in early teenage pregnancy are poverty, lack

of parental guidance and peer pressure.

2. Influences can prevent early pregnancy is by doing the right thing,

diverting attention, attending church, sports, studies, other matters and use

contraceptive.

3. The School administration and guidance counsellor immediately respond to

the issue on early pregnancy.

4. The school guidance counsellor conducts career guidance, symposium, and

conferences about sex education.

5. Students viewed early pregnancy that affect not just physically but also

emotionally.

6. The guidance counsellor stated that the reported cases of pregnant students

of which 4 of them have been dropped from school, 2 are already finished

senior high school and 10 are still studying.

7. The guidance counsellor stated that they rendered counselling session to the

teen mothers and monitors the teen parent after bearing the child.

8. The guidance counsellor counsel the teen parent by giving assistance, proper

counselling and support are the needs of teenage mothers.

54

37
Conclusions
The following conclusions are formulated based on the findings of the
study:
1. The influences of early pregnancy are lack of parental guidance, peer
pressure, curiosity about sex and environment factors.
2. School administration intervene by immediately taking actions to the cases,
monitors the situation of the teen parent and refer for proper counselling.
3. Based on the views of the students, teen parent are emotionally affected and
will not continue their studies because they will focus more on their family
rather than their studies.
4. Guidance counsellor rendered proper counselling session, monitors the teen
parent and refers to the medical personnel for medical attentions.

Recommendations

The recommendations of the study are the following


1. School administration may shift the class in Diplahan National High School
into whole day instead of until night classes.
2. School administration and the guidance counsellor may seek cooperation to
other stakeholders to intensify the sex education and the campaign of
preventing teenage pregnancy.
3. Teachers may guide their student and seek the help of the Guidance
counsellor to refer for proper counselling among teenage mothers.
4. Guidance counsellor may conduct monthly symposia, conferences and
seminars on career guidance, sex education and early teenage pregnancy issue.
5. Teens that are active in sex should use contraceptives to avoid getting
pregnant early.

55

38
Appendix B

INTERVIEW GUIDE

For Senior High School Students

We, the BEED IV students of the Western Mindanao State University,


Diplahan External Studies Unit taking up Bachelor of Elementary Education
major in General Education id presently conducting study about “GUIDANCE
AND COUNSELLING PROGRAM: ITS RELEVANCE TOWARDS PREVENTING
TEEMAGE PREGNANCY”

As key information of this study, the confidentiality of your statement of


your identity is our top priority. You have the right to reject. To withdraw in the
interview process if there are some questions that you are not comfortable with.

Questions

1. What do you think are the influences in engaging to early teenage


pregnancy?
2. What do you think is the most influential among the influences that you
have mentioned earlier?
3. What do you think is the least influential among the influences that you
have mentioned earlier?
4. What do you think is the reasons beyond this influences that could
engage in early teenage pregnancy?
5. As a student, how could we prevent these influences to prevent early
teenage pregnancy?
6. How the school administrations respond to the issue in the early teenage
pregnancy?
7. Is your school conducts symposium, conferences about sex education
and teenage pregnancies?
8. Does the guidance counsellor conduct career guidance in relation to
early teenage pregnancy?
9. Does your guidance counsellor monitors to those pregnant students and
to others?
10. What is your view on the early teenage pregnancy?

39