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RESULTS FOR EXPERIMENTS

Reactor volume = 1.5 L Flowrate = 200 mL/min


Temperature = _____ oC

Total flow Inlet Outlet


Flow rate rate of concentratio concentratio Conversio
Flow rate Residence Outlet
of solutions, Inlet n of NaOH, Conductivit n of NaOH, n,
Temperature of NaOH,
Et(Ac), time, τ (min) conductivit
Time (°C) FNAOH F 0 (mL/min)
(Self- CNaOH (M) y CNaOH (M) X (%)
(min) FET = F NAOH + FET calculate)
y (mS/cm) (from (from (Self-
(mL/min) (mS/cm) calculate)
(mL/min) (Self- calibration calibration
calculate) curve) curve)
Inlet Outlet
0 32.8 32.7 200 202 402 3.7313 12.82 0.0630 8.06 0.0290 53.9683
5 32.6 32.6 201 203 404 3.7129 13.46 0.0676 6.77 0.0198 70.7101
10 32.4 32.4 201 203 404 3.7129 13.33 0.0666 6.76 0.0197 70.4204
15 32.0 32.2 201 203 404 3.7129 13.19 0.0656 6.80 0.0200 69.5122
20 30.31 31.9 201 206 407 3.6855 13.33 0.0666 6.86 0.0204 69.3694
25 31.4 31.7 201 209 410 3.6586 13.15 0.0654 6.86 0.0204 68.8073
30 31.3 31.4 201 209 410 3.6586 13.11 0.0651 6.86 0.0204 68.6636
F0,avg =
τavg = 3.6961
405.8571
RESULTS FOR EXPERIMENTS

Reactor volume = 1.5 L Flowrate = 300 mL/min


Temperature = _____ oC

Total flow Inlet Outlet


Flow rate rate of concentratio concentratio Conversio
Flow rate Residence Outlet
of solutions, Inlet n of NaOH, Conductivit n of NaOH, n,
Temperature of NaOH,
Et(Ac), time, τ (min) conductivit
Time (°C) FNAOH F 0 (mL/min)
(Self- CNaOH (M) y CNaOH (M) X (%)
(min) FET = F NAOH + FET calculate)
y (mS/cm) (from (from (Self-
(mL/min) (mS/cm) calculate)
(mL/min) (Self- calibration calibration
calculate) curve) curve)
Inlet Outlet
0 32.9 32.7 285 305 590 2.5424 13.44 0.0674 9.53 0.0395 41.3947
5 32.9 32.8 289 305 579 2.5907 14.35 0.0739 8.23 0.0302 59.1340
10 32.9 32.8 289 305 594 2.5253 14.39 0.0742 8.15 0.0296 60.1078
15 32.9 32.8 286 305 591 2.5381 14.05 0.0718 8.12 0.0294 59.0529
20 32.9 32.8 285 308 593 2.5295 14.12 0.0723 8.09 0.0292 59.6127
25 32.9 32.8 283 308 591 2.5381 14.15 0.0725 8.08 0.0291 59.8621
30 32.9 32.8 285 309 594 2.5253 14.23 0.0731 8.06 0.0290 60.3283
F0,avg = τavg =
590.2857 2.5413
12
y = 140x + 4
10

8
Conductivity
(mS/cm)

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Concentration of NaOH (M)

Figure 2.1: Calibration Curve

80

70

60

50
Conversion,
X (%)

40

30

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Reaction Time (min

Figure 2.2: Conversion, X (%) vs Reaction Time for flowrate 200 mL/min
70

60

50
Conversion,

40
X (%)

30

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Reaction Time (min)

Figure 2.3: Conversion, X (%) vs Reaction Time for flowrate 300 mL/min
Appendices: Calculations

Calculation of 200 mL/min

1. Concentration of NaOH, CNaOH (M) obtained from calibration curve equation


The calibration curve, the equation is:
y = 140x + 4

For inlet concentration, from inlet conductivity at


 0 min, y = 12.82 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0656 M
x = (y – 4)/140  20 min, y = 13.33 mS/cm
x = 0.063 M y = 140x + 4
 5 min, y = 13.46 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0666 M
x = (y – 4)/140  25 min, y = 13.15 mS/cm
x = 0.0676 M y = 140x + 4
 10 min, y = 13.33 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0654 M
x = (y – 4)/140  30 min, y = 13.11 mS/cm
x = 0.0666 M y = 140x + 4
 15 min, y = 13.19 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0651 M
For outlet concentration, from outlet conductivity at
 0 min, y = 8.06 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0200 M
x = (y – 4)/140  20 min, y = 6.86 mS/cm
x = 0.0290 M y = 140x + 4
 5 min, y = 6.77 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0204 M
x = (y – 4)/140  25 min, y = 6.86 mS/cm
x = 0.0198 M y = 140x + 4
 10 min, y = 6.76 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0204 M
x = (y – 4)/140  30 min, y = 6.86 mS/cm
x = 0.0197 M y = 140x + 4
 15 min, y = 6.80 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0204 M

2. Conversion, X obtained from formula below:


𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻−𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻
X= × 100%
𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻

For conversion, X (%) at


 0 min  15 min
0.0630−0.0290 0.0656−0.0200
X= × 100% X= × 100%
0.0630 0.0656
X = 53.9683% X = 69.5122%
 5 min  20 min
0.0676−0.0198 0.0666−0.0204
X= × 100% X= × 100%
0.0676 0.0666
X = 70.7101% X = 69.3694%
 10 min  25 min
0.0666−0.0197 0.0654−0.0204
X= × 100% X= × 100%
0.0666 0.0654
X = 70.4204% X = 68.8073%
 30 min X = 68.6636%
0.0651−0.0204
X= × 100%
0.0651

3. Residence time, 𝜏 obtained from formula below:


𝑉𝑃𝐹𝑅
Residence time, 𝜏 =
𝐹0

1000 𝑚𝐿
Volume of PFR = 1.5 L ×
1𝐿
= 1500 mL

For residence time at


 0min 𝜏 = 3.7129 min

𝜏=
1500 𝑚𝐿  20min
402 mL/min
1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
𝜏 = 3.7313 min 407 mL/min

 5min 𝜏 = 3.6855 min

𝜏=
1500 𝑚𝐿  25min
404 mL/min
1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
𝜏 = 3.7129 min 410 mL/min

 10min 𝜏 = 3.6586 min

𝜏=
1500 𝑚𝐿  30min
404 mL/min
1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
𝜏 = 3.7129 min 410 mL/min

 15min 𝜏 = 3.6586 min


1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
404 mL/min

F0,avg 𝑥
4. Reaction rate constant, k = ( )
𝑉𝑃𝐹𝑅 𝐶𝐴𝑂 1−𝑋
405.8571 𝑚𝐿/𝑚𝑖𝑛 70.7101
= 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ( )
(1500 𝑚𝐿)(0.0630 ) 1−70.7101
𝑚𝐿
= -4.3564 mol.mL/min.

5. Rate of reaction, rA = kCA2


= (-4.3564 mol.mL/min) (0.0198 mol/mL)2
= -0.001708 mol/mL.min

Calculation of 300 mL/min

1. Concentration of NaOH, CNaOH (M) obtained from calibration curve equation


The calibration curve, the equation is:
y = 140x + 4

For inlet concentration, from inlet conductivity at

 0 min, y = 13.44 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140


y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0718 M
x = (y – 4)/140  20 min, y = 14.12 mS/cm
x = 0.0674 M y = 140x + 4
 5 min, y = 14.35 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0723 M
x = (y – 4)/140  25 min, y = 14.15 mS/cm
x = 0.0739 M y = 140x + 4
 10 min, y = 14.39 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0725 M
x = (y – 4)/140  30 min, y = 14.23 mS/cm
x = 0.0742 M y = 140x + 4
 15 min, y = 14.05 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0731 M

For outlet concentration, from outlet conductivity at


 0 min, y = 9.53 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0294 M
x = (y – 4)/140  20 min, y = 8.09 mS/cm
x = 0.0395 M y = 140x + 4
 5 min, y = 8.23 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0292 M
x = (y – 4)/140  25 min, y = 8.08 mS/cm
x = 0.0302 M y = 140x + 4
 10 min, y = 8.15 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0291 M
x = (y – 4)/140  30 min, y = 8.06 mS/cm
x = 0.0296 M y = 140x + 4
 15 min, y = 8.12 mS/cm x = (y – 4)/140
y = 140x + 4 x = 0.0290 M

2. Conversion, X obtained from formula below:


𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻−𝑂𝑢𝑡𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻
X= × 100%
𝐼𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑁𝑎𝑂𝐻

For conversion, X (%) at


 0 min  10 min
0.0674−0.0395 0.0742−0.0296
X= × 100% X= × 100%
0.0674 0.0742
X = 41.3947% X = 60.1078%
 5 min  15 min
0.0739−0.0302 0.0718−0.0294
X= × 100% X= × 100%
0.0739 0.0718
X = 59.1340% X = 59.0529%
 20 min X = 59.8621%

X=
0.0723−0.0292
× 100%  30 min
0.0723
0.0731−0.0290
X = 59.6127% X= × 100%
0.0731

 25 min X = 60.3283%
0.0725−0.0291
X= × 100%
0.0725

3. Residence time, 𝜏 obtained from formula below:


𝑉𝑃𝐹𝑅
Residence time, 𝜏 =
𝐹0

1000 𝑚𝐿
Volume of PFR = 1.5 L ×
1𝐿
= 1500 mL

For residence time at


 0min 𝜏 = 2.5381 min

𝜏=
1500 𝑚𝐿  20min
590 mL/min
1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
𝜏 = 2.5424 Ml 593 mL/min

 5min 𝜏 = 2.5295 min

𝜏=
1500 𝑚𝐿  25min
579 mL/min
1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
𝜏 = 2.5907 min 591 mL/min

 10min 𝜏 = 2.5381 min

𝜏=
1500 𝑚𝐿  30min
594 mL/min
1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
𝜏 = 2.5253 min 594 mL/min

 15min 𝜏 = 2.5253 min


1500 𝑚𝐿
𝜏=
591 mL/min
F0,avg 𝑥
4. Reaction rate constant, k = ( )
𝑉𝑃𝐹𝑅 𝐶𝐴𝑂 1−𝑋
590.2857 𝑚𝐿/𝑚𝑖𝑛 60.3283
= 𝑚𝑜𝑙 ( 1−60.3283 )
(1500 𝑚𝐿)(0.0674 )
𝑚𝐿

= -5.9370 mol.mL/min.

5. Rate of reaction, rA = kCA2


= (-5.9370 mol.mL/min) (0.0290 mol/mL)2
= -0.004993 mol/mL.min