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Western Mindanao State University

Diplahan External Studies Unit

Poblacion, Diplahan Zamboanga Sibugay

Martial Law in Mindanao

Denalien Aguilar

Tonichi Acocoro

March 2019
Martial Law in Mindanao
A Research

Presented to

Roland D. Agraviador


English III

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

For the Degree of Elementary Education

Major in General Education


Denalien Aguilar

Tonichi Acocoro

March 2019

Denalien Aguilar
Tonichi Acocoro

Martial Law in Mindanao

The declaration of martial law was necessary "in order to suppress lawless violence,
rebellion, for public safety and stop terrorist. Terrorism is now one of the most problematic security
issues affecting the safety and prosperity of our country and rampant in our community, declaring
martial law is necessary to flush out all insurgents who are terrorizing the community and
responsible for provoking harm, intimidation and coercion to the peaceful society. Pres. Duterte
said the growing influence of Islamic State was one of the nation’s top security concerns, and
martial law was necessary to stop it. Martial law allows the president to “call out the armed forces
to prevent or suppress lawless violence, invasion or rebellion”, according to the constitution.

Martial Law can eradicate criminality. There will be quick command and control of huge
population since all civil laws and civil rights are suspended, thus, its neutralize all criminal
offenders responsible for risking the safety and impunity against the society.Restoration of peace
especially in M may indanao is one of the main issues why Martial Law has been declared so that
level of criminal rates can significantly go down and safeguard the welfare of the society. As
President Duterte’s allies said that the declaration of martial law in Mindanao should help
authorities solve “other problems like criminality” in the region, though the threat of the Maute
group was confined to only a small part of it. The Maute group be confined to Lanao, but there are
other problems with regard to security and peace and order in other provinces.

The researchers wish to express our sincere and profound gratitude to the following
persons and institutions who, in one way or other, have contributed to the successful completion
of the study:

To our instructor Mr. Roland Agraviador, for his assistance and valuable suggestions in
the process of the study.

To our parents for their Love and undying support;

And above all, Heavenly Father, who gives his undying blessings, strength, determination
and guidance to the pursuit of the study.
Chapter I


Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public. Typically,
the imposition of Martial law accompanies Curfews, the suspension of civil, civil rights and habeas
corpus and the application or extension of military or military justice.

During the undesirable war in the Islamic city of Marawi, Martial law in Mindanao was
declared and signed by President Rodrigo Roa Duterte under the proclamation No. 216 with the
suspension of privilege of the writ of habeas corpus in the entire Minadanao region. Martial Law
in Mindanao was implemented just to protect the public safety, the lives and the property of people
in Mindanao specially the civillians of Marawi city.

Martial Law in Mindanao declared on May 23, 2017 at around 10pm in the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte declared and signed the proclamation n0. 216 placing the entire Island
of Mindanao under marial law. This was the reaction to reports that the small band of armed men
identifying theme selves as Dawlah Islamiya, had staged attacks around the Islamic city of marawi
while President Duterte was in Russia for an official visit.

Under the constitutions, martial law could last for 60 days. The supreme court majority
decision held that the president need n ot wait for fighting to spread to other regions before placing
those regions under martial law. Through the joint session of congress. Martial law was extended,
from the orginal 60 days to another 5 months until December 31, 2017. At that time, Marawi has
experienced almost daily bombing by government forces. When fighting had died down and the
government declaring victory in Marawi, the people demanded the immediate lifting of Martial
Law in Mindanao. After the breakdown of the GRP and NDFP peace talks, and with Duterte
declaring the CPP-NPA as terrorist organizations, Martial law in Mindanao was extended by
congress for another year. On December of martial law in the whole MInadanao. On December
14, 2017 congress again granted President Duterte’s request for an extension of martial law until
the end of 2018. The regime claimed that martial law is needed to ensure the military’s plan for
rehabilitations of Marawi City.
Conceptual Framework

The conceptual paradigm arranged in this manner to show the difference among the

Independent variable and the Dependent Variable.The dependent variable is the Mindanao. The

independent variable is the Martial law

Martial law Mindanao

Figure 1: Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

Statement of the problem

This study determine the declaration of martial law in the entire Mindanao region was
met with polarized views from the citizens with some reports indicating mixed reactions.
Specifically the following question will be answered.

1 Why was martial law declared in Mindanao?

2. How long will the martial law in Mindanao last?

3. When did martial law in Marawi ( Mindanao ) ended?

Significance of the study

This study determined the order of martial law to be a positive experience, our institutions need
to work together to ensure that rights are protected and abuses are prevented. It is not enough to
trust the President and military to do the right thing..
Scope and limitation of the study

This study focused on the martial law proclamation that may extinguish “the legitimate
gains of the peace process between the Philippine government and the Moro people”. An its limit
to the civilian population who fight against fierceness in Mindanao..

Operational definition of terms

Martial law - refers to several intermittent periods in Philippine history wherein the Philippine
head of state (such as the President) places an area under the control of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines and its predecessor bodies. Martial law is declared either when there is near-violent
civil unrest or in cases of major natural disasters, however most countries use a different legal
construct like "state of emergency"

War - is a state of armed conflict between states, governments, societies and informal
paramilitary groups, such as mercenaries, insurgents and militias.
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
The undesirable happenings during the reign of Ferdinand Marcos were a worst nightmare
to every Filipino who witnessed its cruelty and vindictiveness. Martial law was never an answer
to the problem of the country during that time. But, by the power vested to Marcos, martial law
was implemented. Ferdinand Marcos ruled the Philippines, for more than 20 years (Dec. 30, 1965
– Feb. 25, 1986. He promised to make the nation great again in his inaugural speech of December
30, 1965. His political venture began with his election to the House of Representatives in 1949 as
a Congressman from Ilocos. He became Senate President in 1963. He was married to Imelda
Romualdez from Leyte. He ran for President as Nacionalista in 1965 election and won over
Macapagal. Nacionalista Party leader Ferdinand Marcos dominated the political scene of the
Philippines for two decades after his election to the presidency in 1965. During his first term,
Marcos initiated ambitious public works projects that improved the general quality of life while
providing generous pork-barrel benefits for his friends. Marcos perceived that his promised land
reform program would alienate the politically all-powerful landowner elite, and thus it was never
forcefully implemented. He lobbied strenuously for economic and military aid from the United
States while resisting significant involvement in the Second Indochina War (1954–75). In his first
term Marcos tried to stabilize the financial position of the government through an intensified tax
collection. He also borrowed heavily from international financing institutions to support a large-
scale infrastructure works projects were built. He improved agricultural production to make the
country self-sufficient in food, especially in rice.
Marcos also tried to strengthen the foreign relations of the Philippines. He hosted a seven-nation
summit conference on the crisis in South Vietnam in October, 1966. In support for the U.S. military
efforts in South Vietnam, he agreed to send Filipino troops to that war zone.
In November 1969 Ferdinand Marcos and Fernando Lopez were re-elected. They defeated
the Liberal Party ticket of Sergio Osmeña, Jr. and Senator Genaro Magsaysay. In winning the
election, Marcos achieved the political distinction of being the first President of the Republic to
be re-elected. The most important developments during the second term of Marcos were the
following: The 1971 Constitutional Convention The Congress of the Philippines called for a
Constitutional Convention on June 1, 1971 to review and rewrite the 1935 Constitution. Three-
hundred twenty delegates were elected. The convention was headed first by former President
Carlos P. Garcia and later by former President Diosdado Macapagal. The Convention's image was
tarnished by scandals which included the bribing of some delegates to make them "vote" against a
proposal to prohibit Marcos from continuing in power under a new constitution. This scandal was
exposed by Delegate Eduardo Quintero. For exposing the bribery attempt, Quintero found himself
harassed by the government. We can’t deny the fact that Marcos has a lot of contribution in the
economy and Government of the Philippines, but we can also determine that he is not the best
president of the Philippines because of his cruelty.On September 21, 1972, Marcos declared
Martial Law. This marked the beginning of the Marcos dictatorship. Proclamation 1081 placed the
entire country under the military. It was signed on September 21, 1972 and announced to the nation
in the evening of September 23, 1972. His main reason for declaring Martial Law as "to save the
Republic" and "to reform society". He explained that the growing violence in the nation, caused
by the leftists and the rightists elements had come to certain magnitude that required martial law.
Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972, and did not lift it until January 17, 1981.
During this time, he called for self-sacrifice and an end to the old society. However, in the
“New Society” Marcos’s cronies and his wife, former movie actress Imelda Romualdez-Marcos,
wilfully engaged in rampant corruption. With her husband’s support, Imelda Marcos built her own
power base. She became governor of Metropolitan Manila and minister of human settlements. The
previously nonpolitical armed forces became highly politicized, with high-ranking positions being
given to Marcos loyalists. In 1979 the United States reaffirmed Philippine sovereignty over U.S.
military bases and continued to provide military and economic aid to the Marcos regime. When
martial law was lifted in 1981 and a “New Republic” proclaimed, little had actually changed, and
Marcos easily won reelection.It was believed that the true reason why Marcos declared martial
was to perpetuate his rule over the Philippines. The 1935 Constitution limited the term of the
President to no more than eight consecutive years in office. Marcos extended the period of Martial
Law beyond the end of his term in 1973.
He abolished the Congress of the Philippines and over its legislative powers. Thus, Marcos became
a one-man ruler, a dictator. Marcos described his martial law government as “constitutional
authoritarianism”. Perhaps the constitution did not say that martial law will last, it’s the president
personal decision. Although the courts remained in the judiciary, the judges of all courts, from the
Supreme Court down to the lowest courts, became "casuals". Their stay in office depended on the
wishes of the dictator.
Under the martial law Marcos disregarded the constitution. For instance, he violated the
provision which guaranteed the Bill of Rights (Article III). Upon his orders, the military picked up
and detained thousands of Filipinos suspected of subversion. Among them were his critics and
political opponents namely Senator Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., Francisco "Soc"Rodrigo, Jose W.
Diokno and Jovita R. Salonga. Hundreds of detainees were tortured by their captors. Some
disappeared and were never found again. As a result of the foregoing measured, the crime rate in
the country was reduced significantly. People became law-abiding. But these good gains did not
last long. After a year of martial law, crime rates started to soar. By the time Marcos was removed
from power, the peace and order situation in the country had become worse.
This communist insurgency problem did not stop when Marcos declared Martial law. A
government report in 1986 showed that the NPAs already numbered over 16,000 heavily-armed
guerillas. The NPAs waged a vigorous war against government forces They staged ambuscades
and engaged in terrorist activities such as assassination of local officials who were known to be
engaged in corrupt activities. The NPA killer squads were called Sparrow Units. They were feared
in the areas under their control.
Even priests and nuns who were witnesses to the oppression of the Marcos dictatorship
join the NPAs. One of the priests who joined the NPA was Father Conrado Balweg of the Society
of the Divine Word (SVD). He became a rebel folk hero to the ethnic tribes in the Cordilleras in
Northern Luzon. As of July 1993, Balweg claimed to reports: "I am still in charge". Student’s
protests on the prevailing conditions of the country saddled the second term of Marcos in office.
Large throngs of students went out into the street of Manila and other urban centers to denounce
the rampant graft and corruption, human rights violation, high tuition fees, militarization and
abuses of the military, the presence of the U.S. Military bases and the subservience of the Marcos
Administration to U.S. interests and policies/ The most violent student demonstration took place
on January 1970 when thousands of student demonstrators tried to storm the gates of Malacañang.
Six students were killed and many were wounded. This event came to be know as the "Battle of
The most prominent student at that time Edgar Joson and Nilo Tayag. The radical student
groups during this period were the Kabataang Makabayan (KM) and the Samahang
Demokratikong Kabataan (SDK). The communists took advantage of the situation and used the
demonstrations in advancing its interests. Because of the perceived deplorable condition of the
nation, the communist movement subdued by President Magsaysay in 1950's, revived their
activities and clamor for reform. A more radical group, the Maoists, who believed in the principles
of Mao-Tse-Tung (leader of China) took over the communist movement. They reorganized the
Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and created a new communist guerilla army called the
New People's Army (NPA). The communists took advantage of the growing discontent with the
Marcos. Administration to increase the number and strength. As a strategy, they actively supported
a number of anti-Marcos groups. They infiltrated several student organizations, farmers, laborers
and even professionals. The NPA gradually increased its ranks and spread to other parts of the
country as far as Mindanao.

Chapter III
Methodology of Research
This chapter presents descriptive methods used of research .It includes research locale,
data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.
Locale of the study
The study will be conducted in the Philippines. The respondents will be interviewed in
their houses or any comfortable place that the respondent will choose to.

Respondent of the study

This study was

Data gathering procedure

The researchers also gathered respondents who worked in Saudi Arabia. The researchers will use
an semi-structured interview which is used when the researchers have a list of broad questions
that must be addressed in the interview. Furthermore, the researcher will use pen and paper to
note in detail the respondents.