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# FORM DRAG IN FUNCTION OF THE SPHERICITY

Forces balance
∂ ⃗v
F =m∗
⃗ if the mass of the immersed body is constant
∂t
∂ ⃗v
F =∑ ⃗
⃗ F i=m∗
∂t
∂ ⃗v
F =⃗
⃗ F ext − ⃗
F B− ⃗ F D =m∗
∂t
F ext : external force

F ext
⃗ F D : drag force

F B : buoyant force

FD
⃗ Body F ext =m∗⃗a

2
ρ∗C D∗ A p∗v
FD=

FB
⃗ 2
m∗ρ
F B = ρ ∗⃗a

p
2
ρ∗C D∗A p∗v m∗ρ ∂ ⃗v
m∗⃗a − − ρ ∗⃗a =m∗
2 p ∂t
Dividing by m
ρ ρ∗C D∗ A p∗v 2 ∂ ⃗v
( )
1− ρ ∗⃗a−
p 2∗m
=
∂t
If the acceleration that acting onthe body is the gravity , the equation
becomes :
ρ ρ∗C D∗A p∗⃗v 2 ∂ ⃗v
(
1− ρ ∗⃗g −
p ) 2∗m
=
∂t
For a centrifugal field force
ρ 2 ρ∗C D∗ A p∗⃗v 2 ∂ ⃗v
1− ρ ∗⃗r∗⃗
( ) w− =
p 2∗m ∂t
where r : radium of trajectory
w : angular velocity
Terminal velocity (vt): when a solid particle is falling inside a fluid, by the action
of gravity, its velocity increases and it will carry forward until that external forces
are same as the resistance forces. At this point, its acceleration is zero and the
solid reaches a constant velocity, which is called terminal velocity.
ρ ρ∗C D∗A p∗⃗v 2 ∂ ⃗v
( 1− ρ ∗⃗g −
) = =0
p 2∗m ∂t Laminar pattern Stokes showed that :
For spheres F D =3∗ π∗D p∗μ∗ρ
π∗D 2p π∗D 3p /6 Then the terminal velocity is :
A p= ∧m= ρ
4 p
g∗D 2p∗( ρ p −ρ )
vt=
4∗( ρ p −ρ )∗g∗D p
vt =
√( 3∗C D∗ρ ) 18∗μ
Estimate the terminal velocity for a chalk bulk
(ρp=128 lb/ft3) with a diameter of 0.4 in and length
of 34 in, falling in air at 35 °C and 14.5 lb/in2, the
air viscosity is 0.01895 cp. Repeat the
calculations if the solid is a sphere with equivalent
volume to the cylinder.