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Steam Tables

Thermodynamic Properties of Water and Steam

Charts and Tables for Other Fluids

Saturated Water and Steam:


Temperatures from the Triple Point to 100deg C 2
Pressures from the Triple Point to 100kPa 3
Pressures from 100 to 3,000kPa 4
Pressures from 3,000kPa to Critical Point 5
Specific Enthalpy of Water and Steam 6
Specific Entropy of Water and Steam 7
Density of Water and Steam 8
Specific Internal Energy of Water and Steam 9
Enthalpy-Entropy diagram for Steam 10
Temperature-Entropy diagram for Steam 11
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Steam 12

Properties of R-12, CCl2F2 13


Properties of Ammonia, NH3 14
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Ammonia, NH3 15
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Butane, C4H10 16
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Carbon Dioxide, CO2 17
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Methane, CH4 18
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Propane, C3H8 19
Pressure-Enthalpy diagram for Refrigerant R-410A 20
Psychrometric Chart 21
Saturated Water and Steam
Temperatures from the Triple Point to 100deg C
Specific internal Specific
Specific volume energy Specific enthalpy entropy
Temp Pressure m³/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.K Temp
ºC kPa Water Steam Water Steam Water Evaporation Steam Water Steam ºC
t p vf vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg t
0.01 0.610 0.001000 206.5 0.0 2375.3 0.0 2501.4 2501.4 0.000 9.157 0.01
2 0.704 0.001000 180.2 8.4 2378.1 8.4 2496.7 2505.0 0.030 9.104 2
4 0.812 0.001000 157.5 16.8 2380.9 16.8 2491.9 2508.7 0.061 9.052 4
6 0.933 0.001000 138.0 25.2 2383.6 25.2 2487.2 2512.4 0.091 9.001 6
8 1.070 0.001000 121.1 33.6 2386.4 33.6 2482.5 2516.1 0.121 8.951 8
10 1.225 0.001000 106.6 42.0 2389.2 42.0 2477.8 2519.7 0.151 8.902 10
12 1.399 0.001001 94.0 50.4 2391.9 50.4 2473.0 2523.4 0.181 8.853 12
14 1.595 0.001001 83.0 58.8 2394.7 58.8 2468.3 2527.1 0.210 8.806 14
16 1.814 0.001001 73.5 67.2 2397.4 67.2 2463.6 2530.8 0.239 8.759 16
18 2.060 0.001001 65.2 75.6 2400.2 75.6 2458.9 2534.4 0.268 8.713 18
20 2.334 0.001002 57.9 83.9 2402.9 83.9 2454.1 2538.1 0.297 8.668 20
22 2.639 0.001002 51.6 92.3 2405.7 92.3 2449.4 2541.7 0.325 8.624 22
24 2.979 0.001003 46.0 100.7 2408.4 100.7 2444.7 2545.4 0.353 8.580 24
25 3.162 0.001003 43.5 104.9 2409.8 104.9 2442.3 2547.2 0.367 8.559 25
26 3.356 0.001003 41.1 109.0 2411.1 109.0 2439.9 2549.0 0.381 8.538 26
28 3.774 0.001004 36.8 117.4 2413.9 117.4 2435.2 2552.6 0.409 8.496 28
30 4.237 0.001004 33.0 125.8 2416.6 125.8 2430.5 2556.3 0.437 8.454 30
32 4.748 0.001005 29.6 134.1 2419.3 134.1 2425.7 2559.9 0.464 8.414 32
34 5.312 0.001006 26.6 142.5 2422.0 142.5 2421.0 2563.5 0.492 8.374 34
36 5.934 0.001006 24.0 150.8 2424.7 150.8 2416.3 2567.1 0.519 8.335 36
38 6.617 0.001007 21.7 159.2 2427.4 159.2 2411.5 2570.7 0.546 8.296 38
40 7.367 0.001008 19.6 167.5 2430.1 167.5 2406.7 2574.3 0.572 8.258 40
42 8.190 0.001009 17.7 175.9 2432.8 175.9 2402.0 2577.9 0.599 8.221 42
44 9.091 0.001009 16.1 184.2 2435.5 184.2 2397.2 2581.4 0.625 8.184 44
46 10.075 0.001010 14.6 192.6 2438.2 192.6 2392.4 2585.0 0.652 8.148 46
48 11.151 0.001011 13.2 200.9 2440.8 201.0 2387.6 2588.5 0.678 8.112 48
50 12.323 0.001012 12.1 209.3 2443.5 209.3 2382.8 2592.1 0.704 8.077 50
52 13.599 0.001013 11.0 217.7 2446.1 217.7 2377.9 2595.6 0.729 8.043 52
54 14.987 0.001014 10.0 226.0 2448.8 226.0 2373.1 2599.1 0.755 8.009 54
56 16.495 0.001015 9.2 234.4 2451.4 234.4 2368.2 2602.6 0.781 7.976 56
58 18.130 0.001016 8.4 242.7 2454.0 242.7 2363.4 2606.1 0.806 7.943 58
60 19.901 0.001017 7.7 251.1 2456.6 251.1 2358.5 2609.6 0.831 7.910 60
62 21.818 0.001018 7.1 259.5 2459.2 259.5 2353.6 2613.1 0.856 7.879 62
64 23.889 0.001019 6.5 267.8 2461.8 267.8 2348.7 2616.5 0.881 7.847 64
66 26.125 0.001020 6.0 276.2 2464.4 276.2 2343.8 2620.0 0.906 7.816 66
68 28.536 0.001022 5.5 284.6 2467.0 284.6 2338.8 2623.4 0.930 7.786 68
70 31.133 0.001023 5.1 292.9 2469.6 293.0 2333.9 2626.8 0.955 7.756 70
72 33.927 0.001024 4.7 301.3 2472.1 301.3 2328.9 2630.2 0.979 7.727 72
74 36.929 0.001025 4.3 309.7 2474.7 309.7 2323.9 2633.6 1.003 7.698 74
76 40.153 0.001027 4.0 318.1 2477.2 318.1 2318.9 2637.0 1.027 7.669 76
78 43.611 0.001028 3.7 326.5 2479.7 326.5 2313.8 2640.3 1.051 7.641 78
80 47.315 0.001029 3.4 334.8 2482.2 334.9 2308.8 2643.7 1.075 7.613 80
82 51.281 0.001030 3.2 343.2 2484.7 343.3 2303.7 2647.0 1.099 7.585 82
84 55.521 0.001032 2.9 351.6 2487.2 351.7 2298.6 2650.3 1.122 7.558 84
86 60.051 0.001033 2.7 360.0 2489.6 360.1 2293.5 2653.6 1.146 7.532 86
88 64.886 0.001035 2.5 368.4 2492.1 368.5 2288.4 2656.9 1.169 7.506 88
90 70.042 0.001036 2.4 376.8 2494.5 376.9 2283.2 2660.1 1.192 7.480 90
92 75.536 0.001037 2.2 385.2 2497.0 385.3 2278.0 2663.3 1.216 7.454 92
94 81.383 0.001039 2.1 393.7 2499.4 393.7 2272.8 2666.6 1.239 7.429 94
96 87.602 0.001040 1.9 402.1 2501.8 402.2 2267.6 2669.7 1.261 7.404 96
98 94.210 0.001042 1.8 410.5 2504.2 410.6 2262.3 2672.9 1.284 7.380 98
100 101.227 0.001044 1.7 418.9 2506.5 419.0 2257.0 2676.1 1.307 7.355 100

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 2


Saturated Water and Steam
Pressures from the Triple Point to 100kPa

Specific internal Specific


Specific volume energy Specific enthalpy entropy
Pressure Temp m³/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.K Pressure
kPa ºC Water Steam Water Steam Water Evaporation Steam Water Steam kPa
p t vf vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg p
0.611 0.0 0.001000 206.3 0.1 2375.4 0.1 2501.3 2501.4 0.000 9.157 0.611
0.8 3.8 0.001000 159.7 15.9 2380.6 15.9 2492.4 2508.3 0.058 9.058 0.8
1.0 7.0 0.001000 129.2 29.4 2385.0 29.4 2484.8 2514.2 0.106 8.976 1 0.01 bar
1.2 9.7 0.001000 108.7 40.7 2388.7 40.7 2478.5 2519.2 0.146 8.909 1.2
1.4 12.0 0.001001 93.9 50.4 2391.9 50.4 2473.0 2523.4 0.181 8.853 1.4
1.6 14.0 0.001001 82.8 59.0 2394.7 59.0 2468.2 2527.2 0.211 8.805 1.6
1.8 15.9 0.001001 74.0 66.7 2397.3 66.7 2463.9 2530.5 0.237 8.762 1.8
2.0 17.5 0.001001 67.0 73.6 2399.5 73.6 2460.0 2533.6 0.261 8.724 2
2.2 19.1 0.001002 61.2 80.0 2401.6 80.0 2456.4 2536.3 0.283 8.689 2.2
2.4 20.5 0.001002 56.4 85.8 2403.5 85.8 2453.1 2538.9 0.303 8.658 2.4
2.6 21.8 0.001002 52.3 91.3 2405.3 91.3 2450.0 2541.3 0.322 8.629 2.6
2.8 23.0 0.001002 48.7 96.4 2407.0 96.4 2447.1 2543.5 0.339 8.603 2.8
3.0 24.1 0.001003 45.7 101.2 2408.6 101.2 2444.4 2545.6 0.355 8.578 3
3.5 26.7 0.001003 39.5 112.0 2412.1 112.0 2438.3 2550.3 0.391 8.523 3.5
4.0 29.0 0.001004 34.8 121.6 2415.2 121.6 2432.8 2554.4 0.423 8.475 4
4.5 31.1 0.001005 31.1 130.2 2418.0 130.2 2428.0 2558.2 0.451 8.433 4.5
5.0 32.9 0.001005 28.2 138.0 2420.5 138.0 2423.6 2561.5 0.477 8.395 5
6 36.2 0.001006 23.7 151.7 2425.0 151.7 2415.8 2567.5 0.521 8.331 6
7 39.0 0.001007 20.5 163.5 2428.8 163.6 2409.0 2572.6 0.560 8.276 7
8 41.6 0.001008 18.1 174.0 2432.2 174.0 2403.0 2577.1 0.593 8.229 8
9 43.8 0.001009 16.2 183.4 2435.2 183.4 2397.6 2581.1 0.623 8.187 9
10 45.9 0.001010 14.7 192.0 2438.0 192.0 2392.7 2584.7 0.650 8.150 10 0.1 bar
11 47.7 0.001011 13.4 199.8 2440.5 199.8 2388.2 2588.1 0.674 8.117 11
12 49.5 0.001012 12.4 207.1 2442.8 207.1 2384.0 2591.1 0.697 8.087 12
13 51.1 0.001013 11.5 213.8 2444.9 213.8 2380.1 2594.0 0.718 8.059 13
14 52.6 0.001013 10.7 220.1 2446.9 220.2 2376.5 2596.6 0.737 8.033 14
15 54.0 0.001014 10.0 226.1 2448.8 226.1 2373.1 2599.1 0.755 8.009 15
16 55.4 0.001015 9.4 231.7 2450.6 231.7 2369.8 2601.5 0.772 7.986 16
17 56.6 0.001015 8.9 237.0 2452.2 237.0 2366.7 2603.7 0.789 7.965 17
18 57.8 0.001016 8.4 242.1 2453.8 242.1 2363.7 2605.9 0.804 7.945 18
19 59.0 0.001017 8.0 246.9 2455.3 246.9 2360.9 2607.9 0.819 7.927 19
20 60.1 0.001017 7.7 251.5 2456.8 251.6 2358.2 2609.8 0.832 7.909 20 0.2 bar
22 62.2 0.001018 7.0 260.2 2459.5 260.2 2353.2 2613.4 0.858 7.876 22
24 64.1 0.001019 6.4 268.3 2462.0 268.3 2348.4 2616.7 0.882 7.846 24
26 65.9 0.001020 6.0 275.7 2464.3 275.8 2344.0 2619.8 0.904 7.818 26
28 67.6 0.001021 5.6 282.8 2466.4 282.8 2339.9 2622.7 0.925 7.793 28
30 69.1 0.001022 5.2 289.4 2468.5 289.4 2336.0 2625.4 0.944 7.769 30
35 72.7 0.001024 4.5 304.4 2473.0 304.4 2327.1 2631.5 0.988 7.716 35
40 75.9 0.001026 4.0 317.7 2477.1 317.7 2319.1 2636.8 1.026 7.670 40
45 78.8 0.001028 3.6 329.7 2480.7 329.7 2311.9 2641.6 1.061 7.630 45
50 81.4 0.001030 3.2 340.6 2483.9 340.6 2305.3 2645.9 1.091 7.594 50 0.5 bar
55 83.8 0.001032 3.0 350.6 2486.9 350.7 2299.2 2649.9 1.120 7.562 55
60 86.0 0.001033 2.7 359.9 2489.6 360.0 2293.6 2653.6 1.146 7.532 60
65 88.0 0.001035 2.5 368.6 2492.2 368.7 2288.2 2656.9 1.170 7.505 65
70 90.0 0.001036 2.4 376.8 2494.5 376.8 2283.2 2660.1 1.192 7.480 70
75 91.8 0.001037 2.2 384.4 2496.7 384.5 2278.5 2663.0 1.213 7.457 75
80 93.5 0.001039 2.1 391.7 2498.8 391.8 2274.0 2665.8 1.233 7.435 80
85 95.2 0.001040 2.0 398.6 2500.8 398.7 2269.7 2668.4 1.252 7.414 85
90 96.7 0.001041 1.9 405.2 2502.7 405.3 2265.6 2670.9 1.270 7.395 90
95 98.2 0.001042 1.8 411.5 2504.4 411.6 2261.7 2673.3 1.287 7.377 95
100 99.7 0.001043 1.7 417.5 2506.1 417.6 2257.9 2675.5 1.303 7.360 100 1 bar
101.325 100.0 0.001044 1.7 419.0 2506.5 419.1 2257.0 2676.1 1.307 7.355 101.325

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 3


Saturated Water and Steam
Pressures from 100 to 3,000kPa
Specific volume Specific internal energy Specific enthalpy Specific.entropy
Pressure Temp m³/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.K Pressure
kPa ºC Water Steam Water Steam Water Evaporation Steam Water Steam kPa
p t vf vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg p
100 99.7 0.001043 1.6942 417.5 2506.1 417.6 2257.9 2675.5 1.303 7.360 100 1 bar
110 102.3 0.001045 1.5497 428.8 2509.3 428.9 2250.8 2679.7 1.333 7.327 110
120 104.8 0.001047 1.4285 439.3 2512.2 439.4 2244.2 2683.6 1.361 7.298 120
130 107.2 0.001049 1.3255 449.1 2514.9 449.3 2237.9 2687.2 1.387 7.271 130
140 109.3 0.001051 1.2367 458.4 2517.4 458.5 2232.0 2690.5 1.411 7.247 140
150 111.4 0.001053 1.1594 467.1 2519.7 467.2 2226.4 2693.6 1.434 7.223 150
160 113.4 0.001054 1.0915 475.3 2521.9 475.5 2221.1 2696.5 1.455 7.202 160
170 115.2 0.001056 1.0313 483.1 2524.0 483.3 2216.0 2699.3 1.475 7.182 170
180 117.0 0.001058 0.9776 490.6 2525.9 490.8 2211.1 2701.9 1.495 7.162 180
190 118.7 0.001059 0.9294 497.8 2527.8 498.0 2206.4 2704.4 1.513 7.144 190
200 120.3 0.001061 0.8858 504.6 2529.5 504.8 2201.9 2706.7 1.530 7.127 200 2 bar
220 123.3 0.001063 0.8102 517.5 2532.8 517.7 2193.3 2711.1 1.563 7.095 220
240 126.1 0.001066 0.7468 529.5 2535.9 529.8 2185.3 2715.1 1.593 7.066 240
260 128.8 0.001069 0.6928 540.7 2538.6 541.0 2177.8 2718.8 1.621 7.040 260
280 131.2 0.001071 0.6464 551.3 2541.2 551.6 2170.6 2722.2 1.647 7.015 280
300 133.6 0.001073 0.6059 561.3 2543.6 561.6 2163.8 2725.4 1.672 6.992 300
320 135.8 0.001075 0.5703 570.7 2545.9 571.1 2157.3 2728.4 1.695 6.971 320
340 137.9 0.001078 0.5388 579.7 2548.0 580.1 2151.0 2731.2 1.717 6.950 340
360 139.9 0.001080 0.5106 588.3 2550.0 588.7 2145.1 2733.8 1.738 6.931 360
380 141.8 0.001082 0.4853 596.6 2551.8 597.0 2139.3 2736.3 1.758 6.913 380
400 143.7 0.001084 0.4625 604.4 2553.6 604.9 2133.7 2738.6 1.777 6.896 400 4 bar
420 145.4 0.001085 0.4418 612.0 2555.3 612.5 2128.4 2740.9 1.795 6.880 420
440 147.1 0.001087 0.4229 619.3 2556.9 619.8 2123.1 2743.0 1.813 6.864 440
460 148.8 0.001089 0.4055 626.4 2558.4 626.9 2118.1 2745.0 1.829 6.849 460
480 150.4 0.001091 0.3896 633.2 2559.9 633.7 2113.2 2746.9 1.845 6.835 480
500 151.9 0.001093 0.3749 639.8 2561.3 640.4 2108.4 2748.8 1.861 6.821 500
550 155.5 0.001097 0.3427 655.5 2564.5 656.1 2097.0 2753.0 1.898 6.789 550
600 158.9 0.001101 0.3157 670.0 2567.5 670.7 2086.2 2756.9 1.932 6.760 600
650 162.0 0.001104 0.2927 683.7 2570.1 684.4 2076.0 2760.4 1.963 6.733 650
700 165.0 0.001108 0.2729 696.6 2572.6 697.4 2066.2 2763.6 1.993 6.708 700 7 bar
750 167.8 0.001112 0.2556 708.8 2574.8 709.6 2056.9 2766.5 2.020 6.685 750
800 170.5 0.001115 0.2405 720.4 2576.9 721.3 2048.0 2769.2 2.047 6.663 800
850 173.0 0.001118 0.2270 731.4 2578.8 732.4 2039.3 2771.7 2.071 6.642 850
900 175.4 0.001121 0.2150 742.0 2580.5 743.0 2031.0 2774.0 2.095 6.623 900
950 177.7 0.001124 0.2042 752.1 2582.2 753.2 2023.0 2776.2 2.118 6.604 950
1,000 179.9 0.001127 0.1945 761.9 2583.7 763.0 2015.2 2778.2 2.139 6.587 1,000 10 bar
1,050 182.1 0.001130 0.1856 771.2 2585.2 772.4 2007.6 2780.1 2.160 6.570 1,050
1,100 184.1 0.001133 0.1775 780.3 2586.5 781.5 2000.3 2781.8 2.180 6.554 1,100
1,150 186.1 0.001136 0.1702 789.0 2587.7 790.3 1993.1 2783.4 2.199 6.538 1,150
1,200 188.0 0.001139 0.1634 797.5 2588.9 798.8 1986.1 2784.9 2.217 6.524 1,200
1,250 189.9 0.001141 0.1571 805.7 2590.0 807.1 1979.3 2786.4 2.235 6.509 1,250
1,300 191.7 0.001144 0.1513 813.6 2591.0 815.1 1972.6 2787.7 2.252 6.496 1,300
1,400 195.1 0.001149 0.1409 828.9 2592.9 830.5 1959.6 2790.1 2.285 6.469 1,400
1,500 198.4 0.001154 0.1318 843.4 2594.6 845.1 1947.2 2792.3 2.315 6.445 1,500
1,600 201.5 0.001159 0.1238 857.1 2596.1 859.0 1935.2 2794.2 2.345 6.422 1,600
1,700 204.4 0.001163 0.1167 870.3 2597.3 872.3 1923.6 2795.8 2.372 6.400 1,700
1,800 207.2 0.001168 0.1104 882.9 2598.5 885.0 1912.3 2797.3 2.399 6.380 1,800
1,900 209.9 0.001172 0.1048 895.0 2599.5 897.2 1901.3 2798.5 2.424 6.360 1,900
2,000 212.5 0.001177 0.0996 906.6 2600.4 909.0 1890.7 2799.7 2.448 6.341 2,000 20 bar
2,100 214.9 0.001181 0.0950 917.9 2601.1 920.3 1880.3 2800.6 2.471 6.323 2,100
2,200 217.3 0.001185 0.0907 928.7 2601.8 931.3 1870.1 2801.4 2.493 6.306 2,200
2,300 219.6 0.001189 0.0869 939.2 2602.4 942.0 1860.2 2802.2 2.514 6.289 2,300
2,400 221.9 0.001193 0.0833 949.4 2602.9 952.3 1850.5 2802.7 2.535 6.273 2,400
2,500 224.0 0.001197 0.0800 959.3 2603.3 962.3 1840.9 2803.2 2.555 6.258 2,500
2,600 226.1 0.001201 0.0769 968.9 2603.6 972.0 1831.6 2803.6 2.574 6.243 2,600
2,700 228.2 0.001205 0.0741 978.3 2603.8 981.5 1822.4 2803.9 2.593 6.228 2,700
2,800 230.1 0.001209 0.0715 987.4 2604.0 990.8 1813.3 2804.1 2.611 6.214 2,800
2,900 232.1 0.001213 0.0690 996.3 2604.1 999.8 1804.4 2804.2 2.629 6.200 2,900
3,000 233.9 0.001217 0.0667 1005.0 2604.2 1008.6 1795.7 2804.3 2.646 6.187 3,000

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 4


Saturated Water and Steam
Pressures from 3,000kPa to Critical Point
Specific volume Specific internal energy Specific enthalpy Specific entropy
Pressure Temp m³/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg kJ/kg.K Pressure
kPa ºC Water Steam Water Steam Water Evaporation Steam Water Steam kPa
p t vf vg uf ug hf hfg hg sf sg p
3,000 233.9 0.001217 0.06669 1005.0 2604.2 1008.6 1795.7 2804.3 2.646 6.187 3,000 30 bar
3,200 237.5 0.001224 0.06250 1021.7 2604.2 1025.7 1778.5 2804.2 2.679 6.162 3,200
3,400 241.0 0.001231 0.05878 1037.8 2604.0 1042.0 1761.8 2803.8 2.710 6.137 3,400
3,600 244.3 0.001238 0.05546 1053.3 2603.6 1057.7 1745.6 2803.3 2.740 6.114 3,600
3,800 247.4 0.001245 0.05248 1068.1 2603.1 1072.9 1729.6 2802.5 2.769 6.092 3,800
4,000 250.4 0.001252 0.04979 1082.5 2602.4 1087.5 1714.1 2801.5 2.797 6.070 4,000
4,200 253.4 0.001259 0.04734 1096.4 2601.6 1101.7 1698.8 2800.4 2.823 6.050 4,200
4,400 256.2 0.001266 0.04511 1109.8 2600.7 1115.4 1683.7 2799.1 2.849 6.030 4,400
4,600 258.9 0.001273 0.04306 1122.9 2599.6 1128.8 1669.0 2797.7 2.873 6.011 4,600
4,800 261.5 0.001279 0.04118 1135.6 2598.5 1141.7 1654.4 2796.2 2.897 5.992 4,800
5,000 264.0 0.001286 0.03945 1148.0 2597.3 1154.4 1640.1 2794.5 2.920 5.974 5,000 50 bar
5,200 266.5 0.001293 0.03784 1160.0 2595.9 1166.8 1625.9 2792.7 2.943 5.956 5,200
5,400 268.9 0.001299 0.03635 1171.8 2594.5 1178.8 1612.0 2790.8 2.965 5.939 5,400
5,600 271.2 0.001306 0.03496 1183.3 2593.0 1190.6 1598.2 2788.8 2.986 5.922 5,600
5,800 273.5 0.001312 0.03366 1194.6 2591.5 1202.2 1584.5 2786.7 3.007 5.906 5,800
6,000 275.7 0.001319 0.03245 1205.6 2589.8 1213.5 1571.0 2784.5 3.027 5.889 6,000
6,200 277.8 0.001325 0.03131 1216.4 2588.1 1224.6 1557.6 2782.2 3.047 5.874 6,200
6,400 279.9 0.001332 0.03024 1227.0 2586.3 1235.5 1544.3 2779.9 3.066 5.858 6,400
6,600 282.0 0.001338 0.02923 1237.4 2584.5 1246.3 1531.1 2777.4 3.085 5.843 6,600
6,800 284.0 0.001345 0.02828 1247.6 2582.6 1256.8 1518.1 2774.9 3.103 5.828 6,800
7,000 285.9 0.001351 0.02738 1257.7 2580.6 1267.2 1505.1 2772.3 3.121 5.814 7,000 70 bar
7,200 287.8 0.001358 0.02652 1267.6 2578.6 1277.4 1492.2 2769.6 3.139 5.799 7,200
7,400 289.7 0.001365 0.02572 1277.3 2576.5 1287.4 1479.4 2766.8 3.157 5.785 7,400
7,600 291.5 0.001371 0.02495 1286.9 2574.4 1297.4 1466.6 2764.0 3.174 5.771 7,600
7,800 293.3 0.001378 0.02422 1296.4 2572.2 1307.1 1454.0 2761.1 3.190 5.757 7,800
8,000 295.1 0.001384 0.02352 1305.7 2569.9 1316.8 1441.3 2758.1 3.207 5.743 8,000
8,200 296.8 0.001391 0.02286 1314.9 2567.6 1326.3 1428.8 2755.1 3.223 5.730 8,200
8,400 298.5 0.001398 0.02223 1324.0 2565.3 1335.8 1416.2 2752.0 3.239 5.717 8,400
8,600 300.2 0.001404 0.02162 1333.0 2562.9 1345.1 1403.8 2748.8 3.255 5.703 8,600
8,800 301.8 0.001411 0.02104 1341.9 2560.4 1354.3 1391.3 2745.6 3.271 5.690 8,800
9,000 303.4 0.001418 0.02049 1350.6 2557.9 1363.4 1378.9 2742.3 3.286 5.677 9,000
9,200 305.0 0.001425 0.01996 1359.3 2555.3 1372.4 1366.5 2738.9 3.301 5.665 9,200
9,400 306.6 0.001432 0.01945 1367.9 2552.7 1381.4 1354.2 2735.5 3.316 5.652 9,400
9,600 308.1 0.001439 0.01896 1376.4 2550.1 1390.2 1341.8 2732.0 3.331 5.639 9,600
9,800 309.6 0.001446 0.01848 1384.8 2547.3 1399.0 1329.5 2728.5 3.345 5.627 9,800
10,000 311.1 0.001453 0.01803 1393.2 2544.6 1407.7 1317.2 2724.9 3.360 5.614 10,000 100 bar
10,500 314.7 0.001470 0.01697 1413.7 2537.4 1429.1 1286.4 2715.5 3.395 5.583 10,500
11,000 318.2 0.001489 0.01599 1433.8 2529.9 1450.2 1255.6 2705.8 3.430 5.553 11,000
11,500 321.5 0.001507 0.01509 1453.6 2522.1 1470.9 1224.7 2695.6 3.463 5.523 11,500
12,000 324.8 0.001527 0.01427 1473.1 2513.8 1491.4 1193.6 2685.0 3.496 5.493 12,000
12,500 327.9 0.001547 0.01350 1492.3 2505.3 1511.6 1162.4 2674.0 3.529 5.463 12,500
13,000 331.0 0.001567 0.01278 1511.3 2496.3 1531.6 1130.8 2662.5 3.561 5.433 13,000
13,500 333.9 0.001589 0.01212 1530.1 2486.9 1551.5 1098.9 2650.4 3.592 5.403 13,500
14,000 336.8 0.001611 0.01149 1548.7 2477.0 1571.3 1066.6 2637.8 3.623 5.372 14,000
14,500 339.6 0.001634 0.01090 1567.3 2466.6 1591.0 1033.7 2624.7 3.654 5.341 14,500
15,000 342.3 0.001658 0.01034 1585.8 2455.7 1610.7 1000.2 2610.9 3.685 5.310 15,000 150 bar
15,500 344.9 0.001684 0.00981 1604.4 2444.2 1630.5 965.9 2596.4 3.716 5.279 15,500
16,000 347.5 0.001711 0.00931 1622.9 2432.1 1650.3 930.8 2581.1 3.746 5.246 16,000
16,500 350.0 0.001740 0.00883 1641.7 2419.2 1670.4 894.6 2565.0 3.777 5.213 16,500
17,000 352.4 0.001771 0.00837 1660.6 2405.5 1690.7 857.2 2547.9 3.808 5.179 17,000
17,500 354.8 0.001804 0.00793 1679.8 2390.9 1711.4 818.3 2529.7 3.840 5.143 17,500
18,000 357.1 0.001841 0.00750 1699.4 2375.1 1732.6 777.6 2510.1 3.872 5.106 18,000
18,500 359.4 0.001881 0.00708 1719.6 2358.0 1754.4 734.6 2489.1 3.905 5.067 18,500
19,000 361.6 0.001926 0.00667 1740.7 2339.3 1777.3 688.8 2466.1 3.940 5.025 19,000
19,500 363.7 0.001978 0.00626 1762.8 2318.5 1801.4 639.3 2440.7 3.976 4.980 19,500
20,000 365.9 0.002039 0.00585 1786.6 2294.9 1827.4 584.6 2412.0 4.016 4.930 20,000 200 bar
20,500 367.9 0.002114 0.00543 1812.9 2267.4 1856.3 522.5 2378.8 4.059 4.874 20,500
21,000 369.9 0.002213 0.00498 1843.7 2233.6 1890.1 448.1 2338.2 4.110 4.807 21,000
21,500 371.9 0.002365 0.00446 1883.9 2187.5 1934.7 348.6 2283.4 4.178 4.718 21,500
22,000 373.8 0.002766 0.00363 1966.0 2094.9 2026.9 147.8 2174.6 4.318 4.547 22,000
22,105 374.1 0.002717 0.00272 1959.0 1959.0 2019.1 0.0 2019.1 4.306 4.306 22,105 Critical point

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 5


Specific Enthalpy of Water and Steam
Pressure (kPa) 0 10 50 100 500 1,000 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 22,105 25,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 100,000
Critical
Pressure (bar) 0.1 1 10 100 Pressure 1000
Sat. temp. (º C) 45.9 81.4 99.7 151.9 179.9 212.5 250.4 275.7 295.1 311.1 342.3 365.9 374.1
Sat. specific
enthalpy Water 192.0 340.6 417.6 640.4 763.0 909.0 1087.5 1213.5 1316.8 1407.7 1610.7 1827.4 2117.4
(kJ/kg) Steam 2584.7 2645.9 2675.5 2748.8 2778.2 2799.7 2801.5 2784.5 2758.1 2724.9 2610.9 2412.0 2117.3

Temp (º C) Specific Enthalpy (kJ/kg) Temp (º C)


0 2502 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 22.1 24.9 29.8 39.5 49.0 95.0 0
25 2548 104.9 104.9 105.0 105.3 105.8 106.7 108.6 110.4 112.3 114.1 118.7 123.2 125.2 127.8 132.3 141.3 150.3 194.1 25
50 2595 2593 209.3 209.4 209.7 210.2 211.0 212.7 214.5 216.2 217.9 222.2 226.5 228.2 230.7 235.0 243.5 251.9 293.8 50
75 2642 2640 313.9 314.0 314.3 314.7 315.5 317.1 318.7 320.3 322.0 326.0 330.0 331.7 334.0 338.1 346.1 354.2 394.2 75
100 2689 2687 2683 2676 419.3 419.7 420.5 422.0 423.5 425.0 426.5 430.3 434.0 435.6 437.8 441.6 449.2 456.9 495.1 100
125 2736 2735 2731 2727 525.2 525.5 526.2 527.6 529.0 530.4 531.7 535.2 538.8 540.2 542.3 545.8 552.9 560.1 596.2 125
150 2784 2783 2780 2776 632.2 632.5 633.1 634.4 635.6 636.9 638.1 641.3 644.5 645.8 647.7 650.9 657.4 664.0 697.9 150
175 2832 2831 2829 2826 2801 741.2 741.7 742.8 743.9 744.9 746.0 748.8 751.6 752.8 754.4 757.3 763.1 769.1 800.3 175
200 2880 2880 2878 2875 2855 2828 852.6 853.4 854.3 855.1 856.0 858.2 860.5 861.5 862.8 865.2 870.3 875.5 903.7 200
225 2929 2928 2927 2925 2908 2886 2836 967.1 967.6 968.1 968.7 970.2 971.8 972.5 973.5 975.3 979.2 983.5 1008.1 225
250 2978 2977 2976 2974 2961 2943 2902 1085.4 1085.3 1085.3 1085.4 1085.8 1086.4 1086.7 1087.2 1088.1 1090.6 1093.5 1113.6 250
275 3027 3027 3026 3024 3013 2997 2964 2886 1210.0 1209.2 1208.4 1206.9 1205.9 1205.6 1205.3 1205.0 1205.2 1206.3 1220.4 275
300 3077 3077 3076 3074 3064 3051 3024 2961 2884 2785 1342.3 1337.2 1333.3 1331.9 1330.2 1327.8 1324.6 1323.0 1328.8 300
325 3127 3127 3126 3125 3116 3105 3081 3029 2968 2897 2809 1484.8 1474.3 1470.7 1466.3 1460.1 1451.1 1445.2 1439.4 325
350 3177 3177 3176 3175 3168 3158 3137 3092 3043 2987 2923 2692 1645.6 1635.0 1623.5 1608.4 1588.2 1575.2 1552.6 350
375 3228 3228 3227 3227 3220 3211 3192 3154 3112 3066 3016 2859 2603 2310 1848 1791 1743 1717 1669 375
400 3280 3280 3279 3278 3272 3264 3248 3214 3177 3138 3096 2975 2818 2733 2580 2151 1931 1875 1790 400
425 3331 3331 3331 3330 3324 3317 3303 3272 3240 3206 3171 3071 2953 2895 2806 2614 2198 2060 1915 425
450 3384 3383 3383 3382 3377 3371 3357 3330 3302 3272 3241 3156 3060 3016 2950 2821 2513 2284 2044 450
475 3436 3436 3436 3435 3430 3424 3412 3388 3362 3336 3308 3235 3153 3117 3064 2965 2740 2519 2177 475
500 3489 3489 3489 3488 3484 3478 3468 3445 3422 3398 3374 3309 3238 3207 3162 3081 2903 2720 2313 500
550 3596 3596 3596 3596 3592 3587 3578 3560 3541 3521 3501 3449 3393 3369 3336 3275 3149 3020 2590 550
600 3705 3705 3705 3705 3702 3698 3690 3674 3658 3642 3625 3582 3538 3518 3491 3444 3346 3248 2860 600
650 3816 3816 3816 3816 3813 3810 3803 3790 3776 3762 3748 3712 3675 3660 3637 3599 3521 3442 3108 650
700 3929 3929 3929 3928 3926 3923 3917 3906 3894 3882 3871 3840 3809 3796 3778 3746 3681 3617 3332 700
750 4043 4043 4043 4043 4041 4038 4033 4023 4013 4003 3993 3967 3940 3929 3914 3887 3833 3780 3537 750
800 4159 4159 4159 4159 4157 4155 4150 4142 4133 4124 4115 4092 4070 4060 4047 4024 3979 3934 3726 800

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 6


Specific Entropy of Water and Steam
Pressure (kPa) 10 50 100 500 1,000 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 22,105 25,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 100,000
Critical
Pressure (bar) 0.1 1 10 100 Pressure 1000
Sat. temp. (º C) 45.9 81.4 99.7 151.9 179.9 212.5 250.4 275.7 295.1 311.1 342.3 365.9 374.1
Sat. specific
entropy Water 0.650 1.091 1.303 1.861 2.139 2.448 2.797 3.027 3.207 3.360 3.685 4.016 4.458
(kg/kg.K) Steam 8.150 7.594 7.360 6.821 6.587 6.341 6.070 5.889 5.743 5.614 5.310 4.930 4.458

Temp (º C) Specific Entropy (kJ/kg.K) Temp (º C)


0 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.001 -0.010 0
25 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.366 0.366 0.365 0.365 0.363 0.362 0.361 0.361 0.359 0.356 0.353 0.337 25
50 8.175 0.704 0.704 0.703 0.703 0.703 0.702 0.701 0.700 0.699 0.697 0.694 0.693 0.692 0.690 0.685 0.681 0.658 50
75 8.316 1.015 1.015 1.015 1.015 1.014 1.013 1.012 1.010 1.009 1.006 1.003 1.002 1.000 0.997 0.991 0.985 0.958 75
100 8.448 7.695 7.361 1.306 1.306 1.305 1.304 1.302 1.301 1.299 1.295 1.292 1.290 1.288 1.284 1.277 1.270 1.237 100
125 8.572 7.821 7.492 1.581 1.581 1.580 1.578 1.576 1.574 1.572 1.568 1.563 1.561 1.559 1.555 1.546 1.538 1.500 125
150 8.688 7.940 7.613 1.842 1.841 1.840 1.838 1.836 1.833 1.831 1.826 1.821 1.819 1.816 1.811 1.801 1.791 1.747 150
175 8.799 8.052 7.727 6.941 2.091 2.089 2.087 2.084 2.082 2.079 2.073 2.067 2.064 2.061 2.055 2.043 2.032 1.983 175
200 8.904 8.158 7.834 7.059 6.694 2.330 2.327 2.324 2.321 2.318 2.310 2.303 2.300 2.296 2.289 2.276 2.263 2.207 200
225 9.004 8.259 7.936 7.168 6.815 6.415 2.561 2.557 2.554 2.550 2.541 2.532 2.529 2.524 2.516 2.500 2.486 2.422 225
250 9.100 8.356 8.033 7.271 6.925 6.545 2.793 2.788 2.783 2.778 2.767 2.757 2.752 2.747 2.737 2.718 2.701 2.629 250
275 9.192 8.448 8.126 7.368 7.027 6.661 6.228 3.021 3.014 3.008 2.994 2.980 2.974 2.967 2.955 2.932 2.912 2.828 275
300 9.281 8.537 8.216 7.460 7.123 6.766 6.361 6.067 5.791 3.247 3.226 3.207 3.200 3.190 3.174 3.145 3.120 3.021 300
325 9.367 8.623 8.302 7.548 7.214 6.864 6.477 6.211 5.983 5.757 3.478 3.448 3.437 3.422 3.400 3.361 3.329 3.210 325
350 9.450 8.706 8.385 7.633 7.301 6.956 6.582 6.333 6.130 5.944 5.442 3.728 3.706 3.680 3.643 3.586 3.542 3.396 350
375 9.530 8.786 8.465 7.715 7.385 7.044 6.679 6.442 6.254 6.089 5.705 5.227 4.755 4.032 3.930 3.829 3.764 3.579 375
400 9.608 8.864 8.543 7.794 7.465 7.127 6.769 6.541 6.363 6.212 5.881 5.554 5.399 5.142 4.473 4.113 4.003 3.762 400
425 9.683 8.940 8.619 7.870 7.543 7.207 6.855 6.633 6.463 6.320 6.021 5.751 5.636 5.472 5.150 4.503 4.273 3.944 425
450 9.757 9.013 8.693 7.945 7.618 7.284 6.936 6.719 6.555 6.419 6.140 5.902 5.806 5.674 5.442 4.946 4.588 4.125 450
475 9.828 9.085 8.764 8.017 7.691 7.359 7.015 6.802 6.642 6.510 6.247 6.028 5.943 5.829 5.637 5.255 4.908 4.306 475
500 9.898 9.155 8.834 8.087 7.762 7.432 7.090 6.880 6.724 6.597 6.344 6.140 6.062 5.959 5.790 5.470 5.173 4.485 500
550 10.032 9.289 8.969 8.223 7.899 7.571 7.234 7.029 6.878 6.756 6.520 6.335 6.266 6.176 6.034 5.778 5.549 4.833 550
600 10.161 9.418 9.098 8.352 8.029 7.702 7.369 7.168 7.021 6.903 6.678 6.505 6.441 6.360 6.233 6.011 5.818 5.151 600
650 10.284 9.541 9.221 8.476 8.154 7.828 7.497 7.299 7.155 7.040 6.822 6.658 6.599 6.523 6.406 6.205 6.034 5.427 650
700 10.403 9.660 9.340 8.595 8.273 7.949 7.620 7.423 7.281 7.169 6.957 6.799 6.742 6.671 6.561 6.375 6.219 5.664 700
750 10.517 9.774 9.454 8.710 8.388 8.065 7.737 7.542 7.402 7.291 7.084 6.931 6.876 6.807 6.702 6.527 6.382 5.870 750
800 10.628 9.885 9.565 8.821 8.500 8.177 7.850 7.657 7.517 7.408 7.204 7.054 7.001 6.935 6.833 6.666 6.529 6.050 800

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 7


Density of Water and Steam
Pressure (kPa) 10 50 100 500 1,000 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 22,105 25,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 100,000
Critical
Pressure (bar) 0.1 1 10 100 Pressure 1000
Sat. temp. (º C) 45.9 81.4 99.7 151.9 179.9 212.5 250.4 275.7 295.1 311.1 342.3 365.9 374.1
Sat. density Water 990 971 959 915 887 850 799 758 722 688 603 490 368
(kg/m³) Steam 0.0681 0.309 0.590 2.67 5.14 10.04 20.09 30.8 42.5 55.5 96.7 170.8 368

Temp (º C) Density (kg/m³) Temp (º C)


0 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1007 1010 1011 1012 1015 1019 1024 1045 0
25 997 997 997 997 998 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1004 1006 1007 1008 1010 1014 1018 1038 25
50 0.0673 988 988 988 988 989 990 991 991 992 994 997 997 999 1001 1005 1009 1028 50
75 0.0624 975 975 975 975 976 977 977 978 979 981 983 984 986 988 992 996 1015 75
100 0.0582 0.293 0.590 958 959 959 960 961 962 963 965 967 968 970 972 976 980 1000 100
125 0.0545 0.274 0.550 939 939 940 941 942 943 944 946 949 950 951 954 958 963 983 125
150 0.0512 0.257 0.516 917 917 918 919 920 921 922 925 928 929 930 933 938 943 965 150
175 0.0484 0.243 0.487 2.504 892 893 894 896 897 898 901 904 906 907 910 916 921 945 175
200 0.0458 0.230 0.460 2.353 4.86 865 867 868 870 871 875 878 880 882 885 891 897 924 200
225 0.0435 0.218 0.437 2.223 4.55 9.64 835 837 839 841 845 849 851 853 857 864 871 901 225
250 0.0414 0.207 0.416 2.108 4.30 8.97 799 802 804 806 812 817 819 822 826 835 843 877 250
275 0.0395 0.198 0.396 2.006 4.07 8.43 18.33 760 763 766 773 779 782 786 792 802 812 851 275
300 0.0378 0.189 0.379 1.914 3.88 7.97 17.00 28 41.2 716 726 736 739 744 752 765 778 824 300
325 0.0362 0.181 0.363 1.830 3.70 7.57 15.93 25.40 36.5 50.3 665 680 686 693 704 723 739 795 325
350 0.0348 0.174 0.348 1.754 3.54 7.22 15.05 23.68 33.4 44.6 87.2 601 613 626 644 672 694 764 350
375 0.0334 0.167 0.335 1.684 3.39 6.90 14.29 22.28 31.0 40.8 72.0 130.4 220.1 507 559 610 641 731 375
400 0.0322 0.161 0.322 1.620 3.26 6.61 13.62 21.10 29.1 37.9 63.9 100.6 122.4 166.5 358.4 524.2 577.7 694.5 400
425 0.0310 0.155 0.311 1.561 3.14 6.35 13.03 20.08 27.6 35.5 58.4 87.3 102.2 126.9 188.6 394.9 498.2 655.7 425
450 0.0300 0.150 0.300 1.506 3.03 6.12 12.50 19.18 26.2 33.6 54.2 78.8 90.7 109.1 148.5 270.8 402.2 614.8 450
475 0.0290 0.145 0.290 1.454 2.92 5.90 12.01 18.38 25.0 32.0 50.9 72.6 82.7 98.0 128.3 209.9 315.0 572.3 475
500 0.0280 0.140 0.280 1.407 2.82 5.69 11.57 17.65 24.0 30.5 48.1 67.7 76.7 89.9 115.2 177.9 256.9 529.0 500
550 0.0263 0.132 0.263 1.320 2.65 5.33 10.79 16.39 22.1 28.1 43.6 60.4 67.9 78.6 98.3 143.2 195.4 445.2 550
600 0.0248 0.124 0.248 1.244 2.49 5.01 10.12 15.33 20.6 26.1 40.1 55.0 61.5 70.7 87.4 123.5 163.6 374.3 600
650 0.0235 0.117 0.235 1.176 2.36 4.73 9.53 14.41 19.4 24.4 37.3 50.8 56.6 64.8 79.4 110.3 143.6 321.0 650
700 0.0223 0.111 0.223 1.115 2.23 4.48 9.01 13.60 18.2 22.9 35.0 47.3 52.6 60.1 73.2 100.6 129.4 282.0 700
750 0.0212 0.106 0.212 1.060 2.12 4.26 8.55 12.89 17.3 21.7 32.9 44.4 49.3 56.2 68.2 93.0 118.7 252.9 750
800 0.0202 0.101 0.202 1.011 2.02 4.05 8.14 12.25 16.4 20.6 31.2 41.9 46.5 52.9 64.0 86.8 110.2 230.5 800

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 8


Specific Internal Energy of Water and Steam
Pressure (kPa) 0 10 50 100 500 1,000 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 22,105 25,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 100,000
Critical
Pressure (bar) 0.1 1 10 100 pressure 1000
Sat. temp. (ºC) 45.9 81.4 99.7 151.9 179.9 212.5 250.4 275.7 295.1 311.1 342.3 365.9 374.1
Sat. specific
internal energy Water 192.0 340.6 417.5 639.8 761.9 906.6 1082.5 1205.6 1305.7 1393.2 1585.8 1786.6 2045.3
(kJ/kg) Steam 2438.0 2483.9 2506.1 2561.3 2583.7 2600.4 2602.4 2589.8 2569.9 2544.6 2455.7 2294.9 2045.3

Temp (º C) Specific Internal Energy (kJ/kg) Temp (º C)


0 2375 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 -0.7 0
25 2410 104.9 104.9 104.9 104.8 104.8 104.7 104.6 104.4 104.3 104.1 103.7 103.4 103.2 103.0 102.6 101.9 101.2 97.8 25
50 2446 2444 209.3 209.3 209.2 209.1 209.0 208.7 208.4 208.1 207.8 207.1 206.4 206.1 205.7 205.0 203.7 202.4 196.5 50
75 2481 2480 313.9 313.9 313.8 313.7 313.4 313.0 312.6 312.2 311.7 310.7 309.7 309.3 308.7 307.7 305.8 304.0 295.7 75
100 2516 2516 2512 2507 418.8 418.7 418.4 417.8 417.2 416.7 416.1 414.7 413.4 412.8 412.1 410.8 408.3 405.9 395.1 100
125 2552 2552 2549 2545 524.6 524.4 524.1 523.3 522.6 521.9 521.2 519.4 517.7 517.0 516.0 514.4 511.2 508.1 494.6 125
150 2588 2588 2586 2583 631.7 631.4 630.9 630.0 629.1 628.2 627.3 625.1 622.9 622.0 620.8 618.7 614.8 611.0 594.3 150
175 2625 2624 2623 2620 2601 740.1 739.5 738.3 737.2 736.0 734.9 732.1 729.4 728.3 726.8 724.3 719.4 714.8 694.5 175
200 2662 2661 2660 2658 2643 2622 850.3 848.8 847.4 845.9 844.5 841.0 837.7 836.3 834.5 831.3 825.4 819.7 795.4 200
225 2699 2698 2697 2696 2684 2667 2628 962.3 960.5 958.6 956.8 952.4 948.2 946.5 944.2 940.3 932.9 926.1 897.1 225
250 2736 2736 2735 2734 2724 2710 2680 1080.3 1077.8 1075.4 1073.0 1067.3 1061.9 1059.7 1056.7 1051.8 1042.6 1034.2 999.6 250
275 2774 2774 2773 2772 2763 2752 2727 2668 1202.1 1198.7 1195.4 1187.5 1180.2 1177.3 1173.4 1167.1 1155.3 1144.7 1103.0 275
300 2812 2812 2811 2810 2803 2793 2773 2725 2667 2591 1328.3 1316.6 1306.1 1302.0 1296.6 1287.9 1272.3 1258.7 1207.5 300
325 2851 2851 2850 2849 2843 2834 2817 2778 2732 2678 2610 1462.3 1444.9 1438.5 1430.3 1417.5 1395.7 1377.5 1313.6 325
350 2890 2890 2889 2888 2883 2875 2860 2827 2790 2748 2699 2520 1612.3 1599.0 1583.6 1561.9 1528.7 1503.2 1421.8 350
375 2929 2929 2929 2928 2923 2916 2903 2874 2843 2808 2770 2651 2449 2210 1799 1738 1677 1639 1532 375
400 2969 2969 2968 2968 2963 2957 2945 2920 2893 2864 2832 2741 2619 2552 2430 2067 1855 1788 1646 400
425 3009 3009 3009 3008 3004 2999 2988 2965 2941 2916 2889 2814 2724 2679 2609 2455 2097 1960 1762 425
450 3050 3050 3049 3049 3045 3040 3030 3010 2989 2967 2943 2879 2806 2772 2721 2619 2365 2160 1881 450
475 3091 3091 3090 3090 3087 3082 3073 3055 3036 3016 2995 2940 2878 2850 2808 2731 2549 2361 2002 475
500 3132 3132 3132 3132 3128 3124 3116 3100 3082 3064 3046 2997 2943 2919 2884 2821 2678 2525 2124 500
550 3217 3217 3216 3216 3213 3210 3203 3189 3175 3160 3145 3105 3062 3044 3018 2970 2870 2764 2366 550
600 3303 3302 3302 3302 3300 3297 3291 3279 3267 3254 3242 3209 3174 3159 3138 3101 3023 2942 2593 600
650 3390 3390 3390 3390 3388 3385 3380 3370 3360 3349 3338 3310 3281 3269 3252 3221 3158 3094 2796 650
700 3480 3480 3479 3479 3478 3475 3471 3462 3453 3444 3435 3411 3386 3376 3361 3336 3284 3231 2978 700
750 3571 3571 3571 3571 3569 3567 3563 3555 3548 3540 3532 3511 3490 3481 3469 3447 3403 3358 3142 750
800 3664 3664 3664 3664 3662 3660 3657 3650 3643 3636 3629 3611 3593 3585 3574 3556 3518 3480 3292 800

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 9


4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9
4200 4200

4000 4000

Enthalpy - Entropy diagram for Steam


3800 3800

3600 3600

3400 3400
Specific Enthalpy (kJ/kg) .

3200 3200

3000 3000

2800 2800

2600 2600

2400 2400

2200 2200

2000 2000

1800 1800
4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9
Specific Entropy (kJ/kg.K)
H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Temperature - Entropy diagram for Steam

750 750

650 650

550 550
Temperature (K)

450 450

350 350

250 250
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Specific Entropy (kJ/kg.K)
H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 11
0 500 1000 1500
Steam
2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
100 1000

10 100

1 10
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
0.1 1

0.01 0.1

0.001 0.01
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 12


Properties of R-12, CCl2F2
Saturated Superheated
Saturation Specific volume Specific enthalpy Specific entropy by 20K by 40K
temperature Pressure (m3/kg) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg.K) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg.K) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg.K)
(deg C) (MPa) Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
t P vf vg hf hg sf sg h s h s
-40 0.0643 0.00066 0.2428 164.0 334.0 0.8583 1.5875 345.2 1.6334 356.7 1.6771
-35 0.0808 0.00067 0.1963 168.4 336.4 0.8769 1.5824 347.8 1.6281 359.4 1.6715
-30 0.1004 0.00067 0.1603 172.8 338.8 0.8951 1.5779 350.3 1.6233 362.1 1.6665
-25 0.1237 0.00068 0.1320 177.3 341.2 0.9132 1.5738 352.8 1.6189 364.8 1.6619
-20 0.1509 0.00069 0.1097 181.7 343.5 0.9309 1.5701 355.4 1.6151 367.5 1.6578
-15 0.1825 0.00069 0.0918 186.2 345.9 0.9485 1.5668 357.9 1.6117 370.1 1.6542
-10 0.2189 0.00070 0.0773 190.8 348.2 0.9658 1.5639 360.4 1.6087 372.8 1.6510
-5 0.2607 0.00071 0.0656 195.4 350.4 0.9830 1.5613 362.9 1.6060 375.4 1.6481
0 0.3083 0.00072 0.0559 200.0 352.7 1.0000 1.5590 365.3 1.6035 378.1 1.6456
5 0.3621 0.00072 0.0480 204.7 354.9 1.0168 1.5569 367.7 1.6014 380.6 1.6434
10 0.4228 0.00073 0.0413 209.4 357.1 1.0335 1.5550 370.1 1.5995 383.2 1.6414
15 0.4907 0.00074 0.0358 214.2 359.2 1.0501 1.5532 372.5 1.5978 385.8 1.6396
20 0.5665 0.00075 0.0311 219.0 361.2 1.0665 1.5516 374.8 1.5963 388.3 1.6381
25 0.6507 0.00076 0.0271 223.9 363.2 1.0829 1.5501 377.1 1.5950 390.8 1.6367
30 0.7438 0.00077 0.0238 228.9 365.2 1.0992 1.5487 379.3 1.5938 393.2 1.6356
35 0.8464 0.00079 0.0209 233.9 367.0 1.1154 1.5473 381.5 1.5927 395.6 1.6345
40 0.9591 0.00080 0.0184 239.0 368.8 1.1315 1.5459 383.6 1.5917 397.9 1.6336
45 1.0824 0.00081 0.0162 244.2 370.5 1.1477 1.5445 385.6 1.5907 400.3 1.6327
50 1.2171 0.00082 0.0143 249.5 372.1 1.1638 1.5431 387.6 1.5898 402.5 1.6320

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 13


Properties of Ammonia, NH3
Saturated Superheated
Saturation Specific volume Specific enthalpy Specific entropy by 20K by 40K
temperature Pressure (m3/kg) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg.K) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg.K) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg.K)
(deg C) (MPa) Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour Liquid Vapour
t P vf vg hf hg sf sg h s h s
-40 0.0717 0.00145 1.553 59.4 1448 0.438 6.394 1527 6.701 1597 6.930
-35 0.0931 0.00146 1.217 78.9 1453 0.521 6.292 1533 6.595 1603 6.821
-30 0.1194 0.00148 0.964 98.5 1458 0.602 6.194 1538 6.494 1609 6.717
-25 0.1515 0.00149 0.772 118.1 1463 0.682 6.100 1544 6.398 1614 6.618
-20 0.1901 0.00150 0.624 137.7 1467 0.760 6.010 1549 6.306 1620 6.523
-15 0.2362 0.00152 0.509 157.4 1471 0.837 5.923 1554 6.218 1625 6.433
-10 0.2907 0.00153 0.418 177.2 1474 0.912 5.840 1558 6.134 1630 6.347
-5 0.3548 0.00155 0.347 197.0 1477 0.986 5.759 1563 6.053 1635 6.265
0 0.4294 0.00157 0.289 216.9 1479 1.060 5.681 1567 5.975 1639 6.185
5 0.5158 0.00158 0.243 236.9 1481 1.132 5.605 1570 5.900 1644 6.109
10 0.6151 0.00160 0.205 257.0 1483 1.202 5.531 1574 5.828 1648 6.036
15 0.7285 0.00162 0.175 277.1 1483 1.272 5.459 1577 5.758 1652 5.966
20 0.8575 0.00164 0.149 297.3 1484 1.341 5.388 1579 5.691 1655 5.898
25 1.0032 0.00166 0.128 317.7 1483 1.409 5.319 1582 5.625 1659 5.832
30 1.1672 0.00168 0.110 338.2 1483 1.476 5.252 1584 5.561 1662 5.768
35 1.3508 0.00170 0.096 358.8 1481 1.543 5.185 1585 5.499 1664 5.707
40 1.5554 0.00173 0.083 379.6 1479 1.609 5.119 1586 5.439 1667 5.647
45 1.7827 0.00175 0.072 400.6 1476 1.674 5.054 1587 5.379 1669 5.589
50 2.0340 0.00178 0.063 421.9 1472 1.739 4.990 1587 5.322 1671 5.532

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 14


Ammonia NH3
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
1000 10000

100 1000

10 100
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
1 10

0.1 1

0.01 0.1
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 15


Butane C4H10
-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
10 100

1 10
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
0.1 1

0.01 0.1
-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 16


Carbon Dioxide CO2
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200
100 1000

10 100
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
1 10

0.1 1
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 17


Methane CH4
-1000 -900 -800 -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
100 1000

10 100
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
1 10

0.1 1

0.01 0.1
-1000 -900 -800 -700 -600 -500 -400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 18


Propane C3H8
-400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
100 1000

10 100
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
1 10

0.1 1

0.01 0.1
-400 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 19


R-410A (50/50 CH2F2 / CHF2CF3 by mass)
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
10 100

1 10
Pressure (MPa)

Pressure (bar)
0.1 1

0.01 0.1
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Enthalpy (kJ/kg)

H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 20


0.030

0.028
Psychrometric Chart
0.026
Barometric Pressure 101.325 kPa
Basis - per kg of dry air
0.024

0.022

Specific Humidity - Moisture Content (kg/kg)


0.020

0.018

0.016

0.014

0.012

0.010

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.000
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50
Dry Bulb Temperature (ºC)
H-W U. For internal teaching use only. 21