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HI Pump Intake Design - 1998

Appendix B

Sump Volume

Tnis appendix is not part of this standard, but is presented to help the user in considering factors beyond the stan-
card sump design.

B-1 Scope pump, and the motor design. With' increasing numbers
of allowable starts per hour, the requirement for active
~"is section on pump sump volumes pertains to con- sump volume is reduced. AI:ernating the starting
stant speed pumps. For adjustable speed pumping, pump in multiple pump' installations also greatly
sump volume may not need to be considered (assum- reduces the required active sump volume.
log certain pump controls) except for a requirement
mat the sump volume must be large enough to ke·ep For pumping systems dealing with solids-bearing liq'
currents sufficiently low. uids, allowing the pump sump level to fluctuate wi.1I cre-
ate differences in flow patterns that may minimize
B-2 General solids sedimentation and particle buila-up on the
• intake surfaces .
Most pumping systems that transfer liquids (as
opposed to circulating systems) utilize some fonm 0' a There are several methods to calculate the required
pump sump. A pump sump acts as an intermediate active sump volume. The sequence with WhlCil the
buffer zone capable of absorbing inflow fluctuations pumps are brought on and off line plays an important
relative to pumping capacity. The pump sump is often role as does the total number of pumps. An active
!.:sed for intenmediate storage to allow constant sP€"'d sump volume that is too small reduces motor, pump, •
pumps to work in an on/off mode while the pump sump and electrical equipment life by excessive starting and
is being filled and emptied. This operation allo»,s for stopping. A pump station with a sump volume that is
tile most efficient use of constant speed pumps. A too large is expensive to build, and the larger volume
pump sump should also act to distribute the inflow to may increase. the risk of undesirable hydraulic patterns
tile various pumps in a pumping station in such a ....-ay due to stagnant zones and zones of low liquid velocity.
!hat good hydraulic inflow conditions exist at each For domestic sewage, the increased storage time pro-
pump during various operating conditions. motes septicity during periods of low flow. Since an
increase in the active volume often is a=mplished by
I~ new construction as well as in upgrading existing constructing a deeper station, a larger volume leads to
pump stations, it is important to know the required higher pumping head and consequently a higher
active sump volume. This volume is defined by the energy usage. In a situation where contaminated or
~Ighest start level and lowest stop level in the pump solids-bearing liquid is pumped, a larger pump sump
sump. The minimum required sump volume can be would al30 be more difficult to maintain in a clean
calculated and it depends on the inflow to the pump state.
station, the pump capacities, their allowed cycle time
(number of starts per hour allowed for pump, drive, To calculate the minimum sump volume for an apalica-
starters, etc., as applicable), and their operating tion with constant speed pumps, start WIth the follow-
,;equence. The limiting parameter is the cycle time. ing relationship:
The volume has to be sufficiently large not to exceed
me number of starts per hour specified by the motor!
T = (VOI+ Val) (6.1 )
P<Jmp manufacturer. For the Simplest case (one pump Ojn 0- Ojn
c""rated at constant speed), the maximum number of
starts per hour occurs when the inflow is 50% of the
;:ump capacity. For multiple pumps, the operating
sequence also affects the volume required. The nur.,-
ber of starts per hour a pump and motor system can
T = The pump cycle time in minutes, i.e .. the
time between two consecutive starts (time
sustain is detenmined by the selection of starting
to fill and empty).
equipment. load and inertia characteristics of the

. ~ ".' ¥.'

HI Pump Intake Design -1998

Vol = The effective sump volume, Le., the vol- 8-3 Minimum sump volume sequence
ume between the start level and the stop
) level in liters (cubic feet). The required active sump volume and cycle time in
relation to pump capacity can be calculated by using
Qin = The inflow into the pump station in Ilmin Equation B.1 in combination with the corresponding
(cubic feet per·minute). pump and system head curves.

Q = The pump flow rate in Ilmin (cubic feet per When the second pump is brought on line, the flow
minute). rate in the sy-stem increases, thus producing increased
losses. This scenario effectively reduces the capacity
Differentiating the equation shows that the maximum of each pump running (see Figure B.2).
number of starts per hour occurs at an inflow rate
which is/half of the pumping rate. Each volume must be calculated with the appropriate
pump capacity.
Rearranging Equation B.1 and solving for Vol,:
Example 8-1-A (A station with two duty plus one
standby pump) has three constant speed pumps, each
(B.2) with a capacity of 150 Us (2400 gpm) at 15 m (50 tt),
which is the first duty point on the system curve. The
second duty point is 250 lis (4000 gpm) at 16.7 m
Where: • (55 tt) (two pumps together). What is the minimum
sump volume using sequence 1 operation and 10
V9/, = The active sump volume for pump 1 in starts per hoor?
liters (cubic feet).
Convert the pump flow rates to Ilmin (cfm), by multi-
T = Pump cycle time (.time to fill and empty) in plying with 60 (7.48 gallons per cubic foot).
150 lis = 9000 Umin (2400 gpm = 320 cfm)
Q,n = The inflow into the station in Umin (cubic
feet per minute). 250 Us = 15,000 Ilmin (4000 gpm = 535 cfm)

Qp1 = The flow rate of pump 1 in Umin (cubic feet The highest pump cycling frequency occurs when the
per minute). inflow equals 50%' of the pump flow with one pump
running, therefore the Vol 1 is determined for Qin = 5 Us
Two operational sequences for multi-pump stations (159 cfm).
Pump Cycle Time 1 in Metric Units:
Sequence 1 The pumps start and stop at individ-
ual levels; as the level rises in the
sump, each pump is sequentially
T = 60 1~ 60 = 360 seconds
brought on-line until the inflow is sur-
passed. As the level falls, each
pump is brought off line in reverse
order (see Figure B.1).

Sequence 2 The pumps start as in sequence 1,

but all pumps continue to operate to
the minimum stop level (see Figure
B.1 ).
Vol l = 13,500 liters
The staggered stop levels in sequence 1 results in a
lower energy consumption, but may require a larger Vol2 is calculated with the following equation. An itera-
() active sump volume. tion or trial and error show that the shortest cycle time
occurs for Om = 200 lis (424 cfm).


HI Pump Intake Design - 1998




StartP2 Dt ::::::u
Sequence 1 Sequence 2

Start P1 Stop P2

All Off Stop P 1 All Off Stop All

Figure B.l - Operational sequences

- Total head 1 pump running

Vo/, = 6(159)(318 -159)
Head ~" System head 318
I '<~,___ / JO~~~ head
:~~:c -+---'-'-' 1'<1 _,,~mps
1-, running
Vo/, = 477 cubic feet

VOl2 is calculated with the following equation, An itera-

COl 0 02 Flow tion or trial and error show that the shortest cycle time
occurs for Ojn = 200 lis (424 cfm).
Figure B.2 - Pump and system head curves

360(200-': 150)(250-200)
= 6(424_318)(535-424)
(535 - 318)

(250 - 320) Vol2 = 325 cubic feet

90001ite-s Thus. the minimum sump volume is:

VOltot= Vo/ , + Vo/2 =
802 cubic feet for this example.
Minimum Sump Volume Sequence 2
OP2 = the flow wrth two pumps running
The pumps start as in sequence 1. The difference
Thu~, the minimum sump volume is: here is that all pumps continue to run until the liquid
reaches the low level shut off. The calculation for VOir
VOl tot = Vo/ , + VcI:< = 22.500 liters is the same as for sequence 1; however. the following
equation must be used for Vol2 (only for two pumps).
for this example.

In US Units:

T = 60 = 6 mint::es Where:
T =
Pump cycle time in minutes.

VO/ , Vo/, = Active sump volume for pump 1, liters

(cu tt).


HI Pump Intake Design - 1998

Active sump volume for pump 2, liters In US Units:

(cu tt) .
T = 6 minutes
0"," The inflow into the station in IImin (cfm).
V I = 6(381-318)(535-381)
0P1" Flow rate with pump 1 running, Ilmin (cfm). ° 2· 535-318
477 x 535(381 - 318)
0P2" The combined flow rate with 2 pumps run-
ning, Umin (cfm).
Va/1 "·477 cubic feet

Val2 = 74 cubic feet

T(Ojn - Qp1)( 0p2 - Ojn)
Vo/ 2 =
0p2- 0p1 Total active volume is:
Vo/ 1 Qp2(Ojn- °p1) VoITOT " Vo/1 + Vo/2 " 551 cubic feet
Thus, operational sequence 2 requires less active vol-

An ~~ration or trial and error process is used to deter-
ume than operational sequence 1.

mine that the shortest cycle time occurs when Ojn = 8-4 Decreasing sump volume by pump
180 Vs (381 cfm). This inflow is used to calculate the
mimmum Vo1 2 .
By designing the control system for alternating pump
In Metric Units: starts, twice as many starts per hour (for a station with
two operational pumps) can be obtained, reducing the
T = 360 seconds sump volume by 50% and distributing the pump oper-
ating time evenly between pumps. In a critical applica-
V I = 360( 180 - 150)(250 - 180) tion, a two-pump station may have an installed spare
°2 250-150 pump in addition to the main pumps. Consideration
13,500' 250(180 -150) should be given to the system and application before
180(250 -150) utilizing this sump volume reduction technique.

Vo/1 " 13,500 liters

Vo/2 = 1,935 liters

Vo/TOT = Vo/1 + Vo/2 " 15,435 liters