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# Introduction to Probability and

## Stocastic Processes - Part I

Lecture 1
Henrik Vie Christensen
vie@control.auc.dk

## Department of Control Engineering

Institute of Electronic Systems
Aalborg University
Denmark

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 1/50

Set Definitions I
A set is a collection of elements. Sets are denoted by
CAPITAL letters, and elements by small letters.
The symbol ∈ means “is an element of”, and ∈
/ means
“is not an element of”.
The symbol ∅ denotes the empty set.
The entire space is denoted by S (Sample Space).
A set is countable if it is finite, or its elements has a
one-to-one correspondence with the integers.
A set A is contained in a set B , denoted A ⊂ B ( or
B ⊃ A), if every element of A is also in B .
The following three statements are always satisfied:
A ⊂ S , ∅ ⊂ A and A ⊂ A

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 2/50

Set Definitions II
A = B if and only if A ⊂ B and B ⊂ A.
The union of two sets A and B , denote A ∪ B , is the set
of all elements that belongs to A or B or both.
The intersection of two sets A and B , denote A ∩ B , is
the set of elements that belong to both A and B .
Two sets A and B are mutually exclusive if
A ∩ B = AB = ∅.
The complement, A, of a set A relative to a set S ,
consists of the elements of S , which are not in A.

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 3/50

Set Definitions III
The Commutative Laws

A∪B = B∪A
A∩B = B∩A

## The Associative Laws

(A ∪ B) ∪ C = A ∪ (B ∪ C) = A ∪ B ∪ C
(A ∩ B) ∩ C = A ∩ (B ∩ C) = A ∩ B ∩ C

## The Distributive laws

A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C)
A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C)

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 4/50

Set Definitions IV
DeMorgan’s Laws

(A ∪ B) = A ∩ B
(A ∩ B) = A ∪ B

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 5/50

The Sample Space
The Sample Space for an experiment is the set of all
possible outcomes of the experiment. The Sample Space is
denoted S .

## A class S , of sets defined on S is called

1. S ∈ S
Sn
2. If Ak ⊂ S for k = 1, 2, 3, . . ., then k=1 Ak ⊂ S for
n = 1, 2, 3, . . ..
3. If A ⊂ S , then A ⊂ S .

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 6/50

Probabilities of Random Events
Definition: A probability measure is a set function whose
domain is a completely additive class S of events defined
on the sample space S such that the measure satisfies the
following conditions:
1. P (S) = 1
2. P (A) ≥ 0 for all A ∈ S
S  P
N N
3. P A
k=1 k = k=1 P (Ak )
if Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ for i 6= j , and N may be infinite

## A random experiment is completely described by a sample

space, a probability measure, and a class of sets forming
the domain set of the probability measure. The combination
of these three items are called a probabilistic model.
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 7/50
Probabilities of Random Events
Relative Frequency Definition (Probability based on experiment): The
number of times the experiment is performed is n, and nA is
the number of times, where the outcome belongs to A ⊂ S .
nA
P (A) = lim
n→∞ n

## Classical Definition: N is the total number of outcomes,

and NA is the number of outcomes that belongs to A ⊂ S .
NA
P (A) =
N

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 8/50

Ex. where the classical definition fails
Willard H. Longcora drilled die experiment:

Thrown a die with drilled pips over one million times, using
a new die every 20,000 throw because the die wore down.

Upface 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total
Rel. freq. 0.155 0.159 0.164 0.169 0.174 0.179 1.00
1 1 1 1 1 1
Classical 6 6 6 6 6 6 1.00

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 9/50

Probabilities of Random Events I
The following is a number of Laws which can be shown
using the definition of a Probability measure

1. P (∅) = 0
2. P (A) ≤ 1
3. P (A) = 1 − P (A)
4. If A ⊂ B then P (A) ≤ P (B)
5. P (A ∪ B) = P (A) + P (B) − P (A ∩ B)
6. P (A ∪ B) ≤ P (A) + P (B)

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 10/50

Probabilities of Random Events II
7. If A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An = S and the Ai ∩ Aj = ∅ if i 6= j , then

P (A) = P (A ∩ S) = P (A ∩ (A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An ))
= P ((A ∩ A1 ) ∪ (A ∩ A2 ) ∪ · · · ∪ (A ∩ An ))
= P (A ∩ A1 ) + P (A ∩ A2 ) + · · · + P (A ∩ An )

8.
n
!
[
P Ai = P (A1 ) + P (A1 A2 ) + P (A1 A2 A3 ) + · · ·
i=1
n−1
\
+P (An Ai )
i=1

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 11/50

Joint and Marginal Probability I
Consider experiment E1 having sample space S1 consisting
of outcomes a1 , a2 , . . . , an1 and experiment E2 having
sample space S2 consisting of outcomes b1 , b2 , . . . , bn2 .
The joint sample space of the experiments is defined as

S = S1 × S2
= {(ai , bj ) : i = 1, 2, . . . , n1 , j = 1, 2, . . . , n2 }

## The probability of Ai ∩ Bj is called the joint probability, and

is denoted P (Ai ∩ Bj ), often abbrevated P (Ai Bj ).

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 12/50

Joint and Marginal Probability II
If the events A1 , . . . , An of the experiment E1 are mutually
exclusive and exhaustive, then for the event Bj ⊂ S2 , and
S = S1 × S2 :

P (Bj ) = P (Bj ∩ S)
= P (Bj ∩ (A1 ∪ A2 ∪ · · · ∪ An ))
Xn
= P (Ai Bj )
i=1

## Since Bj is associated with subexperiment E2 , P (Bj ) is

called a marginal probability.

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 13/50

Conditional Probability
Using the following definitions of probability
NAB NA
P (AB) = , P (A) =
N N
the probability that B will happen given that A has
happened is

NAB NAB /N
P (B|A) = =
NA NA /N

P (AB)
P (B|A) =
P (A)

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 14/50

Joint, Marginal and Conditional Prop.
Relationships:
1. P (AB) = P (A|B)P (B) = P (B|A)P (A)
2. If AB = ∅, then P (A ∪ B|C) = P (A|C) + P (B|C)
3. P (ABC) = P (A)P (B|A)P (C|AB)
4. If B1 , B2 , . . . , Bm are mutually exclusive and exhaustive,
then
m
X
P (A) = P (A|Bj )P (Bj )
j=1

5. Bayes rule
P (A|Bj )P (Bj ) P (A|Bj )P (Bj )
P (Bj |A) = Pm =
j=1 P (A|Bj )P (Bj ) P (A)
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 15/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50

Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## a) Probability of being from manufacturer M2 and having

the defect B1 ?

P (M2 B1 ) =?
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## a) Probability of being from manufacturer M2 and having

the defect B1 ?
145
P (M2 B1 ) = ≈ 27%
530
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

P (B2 ) =?

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50

Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## b) Probability of having the defect B2 ?

11
P (B2 ) = ≈ 2%
530
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

P (M1 ) =?

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50

Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## c) Probability of being from manufacturer M1 ?

140
P (M1 ) = ≈ 26%
530
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

P (B2 |M2 ) =?

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50

Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## d) Probability of having defect B2 given it is from M2 ?

2
P (B2 |M2 ) = ≈ 1, 3%
160
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## d) Probability of having defect B2 given it is from M2 ?

2
P (B2 M2 ) 530 2
P (B2 |M2 ) = = 160 =
P (M2 ) 530
160
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

P (M1 |B2 ) =?

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50

Ex. on joint and marginal probabilities
A number of components from manufacturer Mi for is
grouped in the following classes of defects Bj , i, j = {1, . . . , 4}.

B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 Totals
M1 124 6 3 1 6 140
M2 145 2 4 0 9 160
M3 115 1 2 1 1 120
M4 101 2 0 5 2 110
Totals 485 11 9 7 18 530

## e) Probability of being from M1 , given it has defect B2 ?

6
P (M1 |B2 ) = ≈ 55%
11
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 16/50
Binary Communication Channel
One and zero is transmitted. If
A = one transmitted
B = one is received

P (A) = 0.6
P (B|A) = 0.90
P (B|A) = 0.05

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 17/50

Binary Communication Channel
One and zero is transmitted. If
A = one transmitted
B = one is received

P (A) = 0.6
P (B|A) = 0.90
P (B|A) = 0.05

## P (B) = P (B|A)P (A) + P (B|A)P (A)

= 0.90 ∗ 0.6 + 0.05 ∗ 0.4 = 0.56

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 17/50

Binary Communication Channel
One and zero is transmitted. If
A = one transmitted
B = one is received

P (A) = 0.6
P (B|A) = 0.90
P (B|A) = 0.05

## Probability a one was transmitted given a one was

P (B|A)P (A) 0.90 ∗ 0.6 27
P (A|B) = = = ≈ 96%
P (B) 0.56 28

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 17/50

Statistical Independence
Two events Ai and Bj are statistically independent if

## P (Ai Bj ) = P (Ai )P (Bj )

P (Ai |Bj ) = P (Ai )

exclusive!!

## Example: Tossing a die, let

A = {2, 4, 6} and B = {5, 6}
Then
P (AB) = 16 = P (A)P (B) and P (A|B) = 1
2 = P (A)
A and B are statistically independent but not mutually
exclusive.
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 18/50
Random Variables
Definition:A random variable X is a function X(λ) : S → R,
such that
1. The set {λ : X(λ) ≤ x} is an event for every x ∈ R.
2. P (X = ∞) = P (X = −∞) = 0.

## Hence for every A ⊂ S there corresponds a set T ⊂ R

called the image of A. For every set T ⊂ R there exists a set
X −1 (T ) ∈ S , called the inverse image of T , which satisfies

X −1 (T ) = {λ ∈ S : X(λ) ∈ T }

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 19/50

From Sample Space to Random Variable
Tossing a die the Sample Space is:

• • • • • • •••
• • •
• • • • • • •••
S A C  
S A C  
X: S A C  
S A C  
S
w AU CW ?  

-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

## The random variable X maps “# of eyes on the Up face

side of the die” to R.

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 20/50

Distribution Function
Definition:The distribution function of the random variable
X is given by FX (x) = P (X ≤ x).

## A distribution function has the following properties:

1. FX (−∞) = 0
2. FX (∞) = 1
3. lim FX (x + ǫ) = FX (x)
ǫ→0
ǫ>0

## 4. FX (x1 ) ≤ FX (x2 ) if x1 < x2

5. P (x1 < X ≤ x2 ) = FX (x2 ) − FX (x1 )

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 21/50

Distribution Function for a fair die
FX (xi )

1 •
5 •
6
4 •
6
3 •
6
2 •
6
1 •
6

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 xi

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 22/50

Joint Distribution Function
Definition:The joint distribution function for the two random
variables X and Y is given by

## FX,Y (−∞, −∞) = 0, FX,Y (−∞, y) = 0, FX,Y (∞, y) = FY (y)

FX,Y (x, −∞) = 0, FX,Y (∞, ∞) = 1, FX,Y (x, ∞) = FX (x)

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 23/50

Discrete Random Variables
Definition:A discrete random variable only takes on a finite
set of values. The probability P (X = xi ) for i = 1, 2, . . . , n is
called the probability mass function.

## A probability mass function has the following properties:

1. P (X = xi ) > 0 for i = 1, 2, . . . , n
n
X
2. P (X = xi ) = 1
i=1
X
3. P (X ≤ x) = FX (x) = P (X = xi )
xi ≤x

ǫ→0
ǫ>0

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 24/50

Probability Mass function for a die
P (X = xi )

2
6 Fair die
1 • • • • • •
6

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 xi

P (X = xi )

2
6 Drilled die
1
• • • • •
6 •
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 xi
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 25/50
Relationships for two Random Variables
X X
1. P (X ≤ x, Y ≤ y) = P (X = xi , Y = yj )
xi ≤x yj ≤y
m
X
2. P (X = xi ) = P (X = xi , Y = yj )
j=1 m
X
= P (X = xi |Y = yj )P (Y = yj )
j=1

P (X = xi , Y = yj )
3. P (X = xi |Y = yj ) =
P (Y = yj )
P (Y = yj |X = xi )P (X = xi )
= Pn
i=1 P (Y = yj |X = xi )P (X = xi )

## 4. X and Y are statistically independent if for all i, j

P (X = xi , Y = yj ) = P (X = xi )P (Y = yj )
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 26/50
Example: Joint distribution
Joint distribution for two fair dies:
X : # of eyes on the Up Face side of die 1.
Y : # of eyes on the Up Face side of die 2.

## The joint probability mass function for X and Y is

1
P (X = i, Y = j) = for i, j ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 6}
36
and the joint distribution function
y
x X
X 1 xy
FX,Y (x, y) = = for x, y ∈ {1, 2, . . . , 6}
36 36
i=1 i=1

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 27/50

Expected values, mean and variance
The average or expected value of a function g of a discrete
random variable X is
Xn
E{g(X)} = g(xi )P (X = xi )
i=1

## The mean is defined as the expected value of the variable:

Xn
E{X} = µX = xi P (X = xi )
i=1

## The variance of a discrete random variable is defined as

Xn
E{(X − µX )2 } = σX2
= (xi − µX )2 P (X = xi )
i=1

## σX is called the standard deviation.

Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 28/50
Die example!!
X : # of eyes on the Up Face side of a fair die.
The mean value:
6
X 1
E{X} = µX = xi P (X = xi ) = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6) ∗ = 3.5
i=1
6

The variance
6
X 35
E{(X − µX )2 } = σX
2
= (xi − µX )2 P (X = xi ) = ≈ 2.9
i=1
12

## If g(xi ) = x2i then:

6
X 91
E{g(X)} = x2i P (X = xi ) = ≈ 15.2
i=1
6
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 29/50
Expected values, mean and variance I
If the probability mass function is not known, but the mean
and the varians are known, Tchebycheff’s inequality can be
used to evaluate the probability of a random variable
2
σX
P [|X − µX | > k] ≤
k
The expected value of a function of two random variables is
defined as
n X
X m
E{g(X, Y )} = g(xi , yj )P (X = xi , Y = yj )
i=1 j=1

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 30/50

Expected values, mean and variance II
The correlation coefficient is defined as
E{(X − µX )(Y − µY )} σXY
ρXY = =
σX σY σX σY

## σXY is called the covariance.

The correlation coefficient ρXY ∈ [−1, 1],
if X and Y are independent, then ρXY = 0 and
if they are linearly dependent, then |ρXY | = 1.
Note: ρXY = 0 does NOT imply statistical independence!

EXY = 0

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 31/50

Expected values, mean and variance III
The conditional expected values are defined as
n
X
E{g(X, Y )|Y = yj } = g(xi , yj )P (X = xi |Y = yj )
i=1
Xm
E{g(X, Y )|X = xi } = g(xi , yj )P (Y = yj |X = xi )
j=1

## The conditional mean value is

X
E{X|Y = yj } = µX|Y =yj = xi P (X = xi |Y = yj )
i
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 32/50
The Uniform Probability Mass Function
The Uniform Probability Mass Function is given by
1
P (X = xi ) = , i = 1, 2, . . . , n
n
Example: Fair die
P (X = xi )

2
6

1 • • • • • •
6

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 xi
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 33/50
The Binomial Probability Mass Function
The Binomial Probability Mass Function.
If P (A) = p, and the experiment is repeated n times, let X
be a random variable representing the number of times A
occurs, then
 
n k
P (X = k) = p (1 − p)n−k , k = 1, 2, . . . , n
k
n n!
where k = k!(n−k)! .

## The mean value and variance of a binomial random

variable are
2
µX = np and σX = np(1 − p)

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 34/50

Example: The Binomial Prob. Mass Fct
For n = 10 and p = 0.5

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 35/50

Example: The Binomial Prob. Mass Fct
For n = 10 and p = 0.25

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 36/50

Poisson Probability Mass Function
Assume
1. The number of events occurring in a small time interval
∆t → λ′ ∆t as ∆t → 0.
2. The number of events occurring in non overlapping time
intervals are independent.
Then the number of events in a time interval T have a
Poisson Probability Mass Function of the form

λk −λ
P (X = k) = e , k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
k!
where λ = λ′ T .
2 = λ.
The mean and the variance are µX = σX

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 37/50

Example: Poisson Prob. Mass Fct
For λ = 0.9

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 38/50

Binary communication system Ia
3 1
X : input, 0 or 1, with P (X = 0) = 4 and P (X = 1) = 4
Y : output, due to noise:
3 7
P (Y = 1|X = 1) = and P (Y = 0|X = 0) =
4 8
Find P (Y = 1) and P (Y = 0)

P (Y = 1) = P (Y = 1|X = 0)P (X = 0)
+P (Y = 1|X = 1)P (X = 1)
     
7 3 3 1 9
= 1− + =
8 4 4 4 32
23
P (Y = 0) = 1 − P (Y = 1) =
32

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 39/50

Binary communication system Ib
3 1
X : input, 0 or 1, with P (X = 0) = 4 and P (X = 1) = 4
Y : output, due to noise:
3 7
P (Y = 1|X = 1) = and P (Y = 0|X = 0) =
4 8
Find P (X = 1|Y = 1)

P (Y = 1|X = 1)P (X = 1)
P (X = 1|Y = 1) =
P (Y = 1)
3
 1
4 4 2
= 9
=
32
3

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 40/50

Binary communication system IIa
Binary data are sent in blocks of 16 digits over a noisy
communication channel. p = 0.1 is the probability that a digit
is in error (independent of whether other digits are in error).

## X : Number of errors per block. X has a binomial

distribution.
 
16
P (X = k) = (0.1)k (0.9)16−k , k = 1, 2, . . . , 16
k

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 41/50

Binary communication system IIb
X : Number of errors per block. X has a binomial
distribution.
 
16
P (X = k) = (0.1)k (0.9)16−k , k = 1, 2, . . . , 16
k

## Find the variance of X

2
σX = np(1 − p) = (16)(0.1)(0.9) = 1.44

Find P (X ≥ 5)

P (X ≥ 5) = 1 − P (X ≤ 4)
4  
X 16
= 1− (0.1)k (0.9)16−k ≈ 0.017
k
k=0
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 42/50
Continuous Random Variables
A continuous random variable can take any value in an
interval of the real line. For a continuous random variable
the probability density function (pdf) is defined by

dFX (x)
fX (x) =
dx
Properties:
1. fX (x) ≥ 0
R∞
2. −∞ fX (x)dx = 1
Ra
3. P (X ≤ a) = FX (a) = −∞ fX (x)dx
Ra
4. P (a ≤ X ≤ b) = b fX (x)dx
Ra
5. P (X = a) = a fX (x)dx = lim fX (a)∆x = 0
∆x→0
Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 43/50
Two Continuous Random Variables
The joint probability density function

d2 FX,Y (x, y)
fX,Y (x, y) = ≥0
dxdy

## The joint distribution function can be found as

Z y Z x
FX,Y (x, y) = fX,Y (µ, η)dµdη
−∞ −∞

## Since FX,Y (∞, ∞) = 1, then

Z ∞Z ∞
fX,Y (µ, η)dµdη = 1
−∞ −∞

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 44/50

Two Continuous Random Variables I
The marginal and conditional density functions are obtained
as follows:
Z ∞
fX (x) = fX,Y (x, y)dy
−∞
Z ∞
fY (y) = fX,Y (x, y)dx
−∞
fX,Y (x, y)
fX|Y (x|y) = , fY (y) > 0
fY (y)
fX,Y (x, y)
fY |X (x|y) =
fY (y)
fX|Y (x|y)fY (y)
= R∞
−∞ fX|Y (x|λ)fY (λ)dλ

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 45/50

Two Continuous Random Variables II
Two random variables are statistically independent if

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 46/50

Expected values I

Z ∞ Z ∞
E{g(X, Y )} = g(x, y)fX,Y (x, y)dxdy
−∞ −∞
Z ∞
µX = E{X} = xfX (x)dx
−∞
Z ∞
2
σX = E{(X − µX )2 } = (x − µX )2 fX (x)dx
−∞
σXY = E{(X − µX )(Y − µY )}
Z ∞Z ∞
= (x − µX )(y − µY )fX,Y (x, y)dxdy
−∞ −∞
E{(X − µX )(Y − µY )}
ρXY =
σX σY

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 47/50

Expected values II
Conditional expected values are defined as
Z ∞
E{g(X, Y )|Y = y} = g(x, y)fX|Y (x|y)dx
−∞

## If X and Y are independent then

E{g(X)h(Y )} = E{g(X)}E{h(Y )}

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 48/50

Example
The joint density function of X and Y is
fX,Y (x, y) = axy 1 ≤ x ≤ 3, 2 ≤ y ≤ 4
fX,Y (x, y) = 0 elsewhere

Find a:
4Z 3 4  2 
3
x
Z Z
1 = axy dx dy = a y dy

2 1 2 2 1
Z 4
= a 4y dy = 24a
2

1
so a = 24

## Introduction to Probability and Stocastic Processes - Part I – p. 49/50

Example (continued)
The marginal pdf of X :
1 4 x
R
fX (x) = 24 2 xy dy = 4 1≤x≤3
fX (x) = 0 elsewhere

## The distribution function of Y is

FY (y) = 0 y≤2
FY (y) = 1 y>4
1 y 3 1 y
R R R
FY (y) = 24 2 1 xv dx dv = 6 2 v dv
1 2 − 4)
= 12 (y 2≤y≤4