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25-10-2016

MANOEUVRING
GZV/ GRADE II

3 COURSE BLOCKS
• 1 Grade I Repetition Propellers, Rudders, Manoeuvring data, Watch
keeping.
Grade II hydrodynamics, Twin Propellers, Configuration,
Manoeuvring

• 2 Grade I Repetition Some manoeuvres with current, wind, anchor.


Storm and shallow manoeuvres, Taking pilot,
Entering Harbour
Grade II Towing at sea. Dangers of tug use in port

• 3 Grade I/ II Subjects still to discuss. Repetition Grade II


subjects
Exam preparation

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Hydro dynamics
Hydro dynamics is caused by fluids in motion. Here the fluid is water.

Our vessel itself, rudder and propeler are body’s under influence of this
fluid in motion

Where noticable:
• The behaviour of the vessel in making a turn
• Interaction during overtaking and passing another vessel
• Bankeffect
• Shallow water effect (Squat)
• Unexpected effect when using bowthruster or forward tug whilst making speed ahead
• The special shape of a rudder and a propellerblade
• Duct or Nozzle around the propeller

A1

A2
v1
V2
Continuity Law
The amount of liquid passing a random cross section of
a tube (river-waterflow) per time unit is constant
When the tube gets narrower, the velocity of the liquid
will increase
In formula: A1 x v1 = A2 x v2

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Bernoulli’s Law

• ½mV2 + P1 = constant
• Which means that:
When the speed increases, the pressure in the (here)liquid
will reduce

When the speed decreases, the pressure in the (here)liquid


increases

Propellers
See book for the items:

• The Pitch
• Propeller speed
• Slip
• Suction/Pressure
plane
• Right/Left handed
• Fixed/Variable
Right handed – fixed propeller

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Ship’s behaviour
Explain the movement of the stern of a vessel equipped with a

• Fixed pitch
• Right handed (Rh)
• Engine ahead
• Engine astern
• Left handed (Lh)
• Engine ahead
• Engine astern

• Variable pitch
• Right handed engine ahead as fixed Rh pitch, engine astern as fixed Lh
• Left handed engine ahead as fixed Lh pitch, engine astern as fixed Rh

Ship’s behaviour

CONCLUSIONS:

• The direction of the movement of the stern of the vessel


is the turning direction (wheeling) of the propeller

• The wheeling effect with engine ahead is hardly


noticeable, on astern however the influence is
significantly

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Thrust Water inflow


Lift force (stuwkracht)

α
Cross section
topblade RH Ve
propeller seen (speed)
from above
Vrpm
Drag
(weerstand

• Engine full ahead


Propeller and •

α = (optimal) angle of inflow
Lift perpendicular on inflow
Bernoulli • Forward thrust

Stopping on the Lift



Engine slow ahead
Ve

Vrpm
Drag

Lift
• Engine slow ahead, speed still
- Thrust high
• Negative inflow angle
• Lift perpendicular on inflow
• Gives a stern thrust

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Fixed RH propeller
engine astern

Ve
-Vrpm
Drag

Lift
- Thrust • Engine half astern, speed still
forward
• Negative inflow angle
• Lift perpendicular on inflow
• Stern thrust

Propeller and
Bernoulli

-
Vrpm Drag
-
Ve

Lift
- Thrust • Engine half astern, stern
speed
• Negative inflow angle
• Lift perpendicular on inflow
• Stern thrust

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Type of propellers (also see book)

Type of Propeller - Azipod

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Type of Propeller - Propeller Duct

Type of Propeller - Water jet

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Type of propeller- Voith Schneider

Tugs and Ferries

Bow Thrusters

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Bow- and stern thrusters

Bow- and stern thrusters


• Bow- and stern thrusters can only be used at lower
speeds. WHY?

• Moving backwards, the bow thruster is a great help in


steering. Why?

• Your vessel is equipped with both stern thruster and


bow thruster. While proceeding foreward to the berth,
you like the bow to move to starboard. Which thruster
do you use to achieve this movement?

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Bowthruster and steering torque

.
P

Short and long arm of a couple


P= Pressure point

.P

RUDDERS
Workings
• Effectively wake bent
• Minimal drag = small rudder angles, achieved by a wing shaped
profile giving a Lift force

vertical foil

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Rudder types – Spade rudder

Rudder types – Flap rudder

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Rudders - Mariner Semi Balance


Rudder

Upper part: Wing


Profile (compare with
Oertz rudder)

Lower part: Balance

Rudders – Fishtail Rudder

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Rudder and forces


• What movements makes a vessel after giving starboard
rudder

• Leaning shortly over to starboard


• Turns to starboard
• Tranverse movement to port (kick)
• Leaning to port during turn
• Loss of speed

• Explain with the book these movements of the ship

Manoeuvring data
• Turning circle difference deep and shallow
waters !

• Stopping distance in the formular: mv2 !


compare with advance turning
circle !
• Speed tests

• MOB manoeuvres tests Williamson turn test on bridge

• Zig zag tests For checking course stability

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Turning circles – stopping distance

Know the expressions. Explain why diameter turning circle larger in shallow water. Explain speed
reduction. Why speed reduction less in shallow water? And so on

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Speed reduction

Crash Stop
Crash stop
vessel Full
ahead-full
astern
Speed 12 knots
Q: In how many
minutes stopped?
(7½ mins)
Q: In what distance?
(1100 meter)
Q:After how many
minutes speed 4
knots?
(4½ mins)

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Controlled stop with engine and low


frequency rudder cycling (only effective on deep
water)

stopped

By using the Stopping on the Lift principle(reduce revolutions of the propeller


step by step) as well as speed reduction by the drag of the rudder and vessel.
The final astern manoeuver should be given to stop the vessel and to turn the
vessel into the original heading (depending left/right prop)

Chapter 4 Standing and handing over


the Watch

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The watch
• Standing the watch is taking care of navigation and act
when needed
• Warn the captain instantly upon any doubt as to safety
• The watches
0-4 middle watch
4-8 morning watch
8-12 forenoon watch
12-16 afternoon watch
16-20 evening watch
20-24 first watch

The watch
• Handing over the watch
• be in time to consider the oncoming navigation
• Handling over: al relevant information as course(s), speed, drift,
ships, lights, dangers, and so on
• Heading and course both given in figures 150 = one five zero
• What’s the difference between heading and course
• REPEAT ALL and what does it means
• Hard a starboard Starboard a bit Starboard a bit more
• Starboard 30 Ease to 20 Midships
• Steady Steady as she goes Course 3 4 5

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GRADE 2 TWIN SCREW


• Twin propellers (two screws) improve
1. operating reliability and 2. maneuverability.
• With twin props the shafts mostly are at equal distance from the center
line. The further the shafts are away the easier the ship will turn

• The propellers can be inturning or outturning . Fixed or variable.


• Most vessels are equipped with outward rotating fixed propellers, or
inward rotating variable propellers. WHY?
• The maneuverability is improved when the vessel is equipped with two
rudders and a bow thruster

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Outturning fixed propellers - one


rudder • Port propeller left handed
• Starboard propeller right handed
• Turn over starboard with port engine
ahead and sb engine astern
• Two momentums are effecting the
propeller:
• One because of one propeller
reversing while the other one is still
in forward gear
• The other one due to wheeling
propeller effect.
• Both momentums together will
increase the turning.
• With slow speed the rudder to
starboard has none or little effect

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Inturning fixed one rudder


• Port propeller right handed
• Starboard propeller left handed
• Turn over starboard with port
engine ahead and sb engine astern
• Two momentums are effecting the
propeller:
• One because of one propeller
reversing while the other one is still
in forward gear
• The other one due to wheeling
propeller effect but now
counteracting
• So both will oppose each other and
therefore making turning more
difficult or even impossible

Mooring and unmooring twin screw


• Fixed inturning
• Fixed outturning
• Variable pitch inturning
• Variable pitch outturning
• With
• one or two rudders
• bowthruster or bow-and sternthruster
• bowsprit
• Non parallel propeller shafts

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Unmooring 2

conventional twin screw ship fixed-


outturning

port starboard

left handed right handed


propeller propeller

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one propeller
(sb) working
ahead

wheel effect

one propeller
(sb) working
astern

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wheel effect

one propeller (sb)


working astern, the
other propeller
(port) ahead

when the rudder force


is also applied the
vessel will rotate even
faster

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Inward turning fixed pitch


propellers

port starboard

right handed left handed


propeller propeller

Inward turning fixed pitch


propellers
one propeller (sb) working on
astern

wheel effect

When the vessel has inward turning


propellers the momentum between the
two propellers is outweighed by the
wheel effect

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Traverse with outward turning propellers without


bow thruster

Port engine/prop/rudder
pushes stern to starboard

Starboard engine /prop pulls


the stern backwards and to
port

Only with little or no wind!!

Traverse outturning fixed props with


the aid of a bowthruster

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2 x Traverse inturning fixed props


with the aid of a bowthruster

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