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February 2010

Rev. 0 Date February 2010

Sheet 2 (17)






5.1. Instrumentation 5
5.2. Piping 5
5.3. Equipment 6


7.1. Preparation 7
7.2. Execution 8

8.1. Preparation 8
8.2. Execution 9


9.1. Preparation 10
9.2. Execution 10

10.1. Preparation 11
10.2. Execution 12
10.3. Results 13


12.1. Application 14

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14.1. Piping 14
14.2. Instrumentation 15
14.3. Equipment 16

15 REPORT 17


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Sheet 4 (17)


This procedure defines general description of cleaning methods to be performed on piping and
equipment to remove all rust, mill scale and grease or other contaminants on surfaces, and any
foreign materials left over from construction, so as to prevent the possibility of physical damage
to the plant equipment, particularly rotating equipment, filters and instruments and to prevent the
formation of corrosive products that could have an adverse effect on performance of catalysts,
absorbents or resins, on the life of equipment, or on product quality.
Cleaning operations shall be carried out systematically until being sure that no foreign and loose
material is left inside the system before Start Up.
This procedure represents a guideline with basic principles for cleaning activities. For further
details, specific procedures will be issued.


 Project Documentation
 Plant Systems Subdivision
 Vendor’s Documentation


Different methods shall be applied for the cleaning activities:

 Water flushing
 Air Blowing
 Mixed Flushing
 Steam Blowing
 Chemical Cleaning
 Mechanical Cleaning
 Oil Flushing


Cleaning should not commence until all related piping and process equipment are fully installed,
the system has been checked for conformance with the P&IDs drawings and the piping systems
have been hydro tested.
The following points will be considered for a proper planning of the activities

 Each circuit to be cleaned has to be provided with a dossier, which shall clearly indicate:
 Circuit to be cleaned marked up on P&ID
 Method used for cleaning. Cleaning medium and maximum operating pressure and
temperature that cannot exceed the circuit design conditions
 Injection points, venting and draining points for outlet cleaning medium

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Sheet 5 (17)

 Items to be removed, isolated and by-passed by means of jumper or spool pipe

 Flanges to be disconnected and blinds to be installed or removed
 Position on manual valves to be clear and sequencing of valve handling to be
 Utility lines will have a priority for cleaning operation so that they are available for cleaning of
process equipment and piping, when allowed.
 The main process, off site or utility lines shall be cleaned from the upstream end after
removing the flanges and fittings at the end of the line. Branches shall be cleaned
sequentially in the same manner.
 In some cases, the fire-water circuit is washed first because it could represent the supply
water source for the flushing activities
 When flushing/blowing of loops includes equipment such as tube side of heat exchangers,
heater tubes, tubes of air fin coolers, blow-out points shall be assigned at the inlet flanges of
such equipment. To prevent debris entering the equipment from its inlet flanges, the
equipment shall be protected. After the above air blowing is completed, the downstream
cleaning can be performed through the equipment.

Circuit having large pipe size can be flushed directly using hydraulic test water, therefore the
preparation activities have to be done keeping in mind this target.


Before cleaning activities it will be required to prepare the circuits by carrying out the following
operations (to be indicated in the line cleaning report):

5.1. Instrumentation

 All different measurement elements (orifices, rotameters, diaphragms, specific pieces) which
might be plugged by dirt, shall be disassembled from the lines
 All control valves will be removed in order to flush from both directions using by pass and in
line valves. Soft seat valves should be removed either
 All thermowells fitted with sensing element shall be removed
 All PSV will be blanked off or removed
 All disassembled parts should be protected against contact with dirtiness and atmospheric
agents (wind, rain etc.). A temporary storage can be prepared. In particular control valves
(and generally the instrumentation) need to be plugged to protect their seats.

5.2. Piping

 Completely open all isolation valves along the lines to be cleaned, excluding the valves
which isolate the equipment
 Use compressed asbestos free gaskets for temporary cleaning

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 Verify that any additional pipe supports are required to carry the weight of the piping and
cleaning/test medium
 Verify that all pipe supports, anchors, guides, clamps and similar items are installed as
detailed on the construction drawings
 Check spring hangers are properly installed and the pre-set pin is in place

5.3. Equipment

 Machines (pumps, compressors, expanders, etc.) shall be disconnected from the relevant
piping and protected from cleaning media and dirtness
 Disassemble the vessel demisters (usually they are not assembled and they are installed
after blowing)
 All filters at pump suction shall be opened
 Provisional pump suction will be installed and periodically cleaned, if water flushing is done
by utilizing the kinetic energy of the media enhanced by the pump
 Spraying nozzles must be removed
 All lines connected to exchangers, air coolers and other equipment for which the internal
access is not possible, and if there are not by-pass possibilities, shall be disconnected and
washed or blown without interesting their internal parts. It is suitable to operate as following:

- Disassemble the inlet blind flange and cover the inlet nozzle with an iron sheet
- Wash or blow the inlet line of the equipment until the complete cleaning


All utilities lines shall be flushed with water or blown with steam or air according to the line
HS,MS,LS Steam Lines Blowing Steam
Instrument & Plant Air Blowing Air
Sea Water Flushing Sea Water
Fresh Water Flushing Water
Cooling Water Flushing Water
Industrial Water Flushing Water
Drinking Water Flushing Water
Nitrogen System Blowing Air
Blow Down System Blowing Steam / Air
Fuel Gas, Fuel Oil, Diesel Oil Flushing/Blowing Water / Air
Condensate Flushing Water

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Sheet 7 (17)

Boiler Feed Water Flushing Water

Process Water Flushing Water
Fire Water Flushing Water
Flare system Blowing Air
1. A particular treatment is required for coated piping-equipments due to potential damaging
effect of a blowing / flushing activity on coated surfaces. Generally, for those surfaces,
flushing is the main cleaning method, due to lower fluid velocity and lower friction on
coated surface.
2. Cleaning media has to be substituted with air blowing if piping diameter is too large and
mechanical cleaning cannot be used


Water flushing utilizes the kinetic energy of fluid. Foreign materials such as construction debris
and sand inside the pipes are carried along when they are subjected to the kinetic energy of
fluid flow and ejected at an open end or collected in a temporary strainer. The larger the kinetic
energy is, the heavier the particles which can be moved.

7.1. Preparation

 Fresh water with known chloride content should be used. Attention must be paid where
special metallurgy is used, such as stainless steel pipes or austenitic steel. They must be
cleaned using water with chloride content less than 50 ppm. In case the dissolved salts are
poisonous for catalyst or process condition, final washing should be done with
demineralized water. For stainless steel piping it is also preferable that flushing water is
immediately drained and piping dry out is performed
 Water velocity during the flushing phase shall be higher than 3 m/s. Therefore an adequate
calculation of the flow rate will be provided. During flushing have care about water
 As a general rule, columns should be flushed downward by introducing water in the top (for
example by the reflux inlet), allowing the water to flow down through the column and
draining from the bottom to sewer
 Ensure that dirt and debris is not flushed into the equipments. Moreover, they should be
flushed from the network system and not into it
 Water will be supplied with temporary flexible hoses or temporary lines. Prior to flushing, if
possible, make a manual cleaning to minimize obstruction
 The fire-water circuit should be washed first because it could represent the supply water
source for the flushing activities
 The water should be drained from every low point, using if it will be necessary, compressed
air. Perform piping drying with same air
 The area around the water flushing discharging point should be paved or able to drain the
quantity of water used for flushing

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Sheet 8 (17)

 If the volume of each vessel does not supply an adequate flow rate to all lines (such as to
have plentiful discharges) and the vessel acts as tank, feed the tank with a continuous or
intermittent flow rate
 Prior to fill columns,/drums/vessels or overhead piping systems with water, check that their
foundations/supports are designed to withstand full water weight
 When columns/drums/vessels are used as water reservoir, their vent valves or appropriate
top opening shall be kept open until completion of water flushing. Note: vent valves are to
be locked open or treated as CSO during flushing
 The discharge area is to be suitably drained to protect the area from erosion or flooding and
free of unsealed electrical or other equipment which could be damaged by water.

7.2. Execution
There are different ways of implementing water flushing:

 By injecting a large volume of water by using water from the Tie-In or Fire water as a
source, if applicable;
 By discharging water from a pre-filled column/drum/vessel. Typical example can be the
flushing of suction lines of pumps prior to the pump operation for power flushing;
 By utilizing the kinetic energy of the fluid enhanced by process pump/s. In this case, special
care must be taken for electrical motor overload if pump is designed to run with a low
density medium. Remember to flush the suction, before connecting the pump. Provisional
pump suction strainers shall be installed and periodically inspected and cleaned.


Air Blowing utilizes the kinetic energy of air flow to remove trash and construction debris from
pipes. In air blowing, high velocity must be attained to obtain large kinetic energy since the
specific gravity of air is lower than water. A minimum exit velocity shall be ensured in order to
meet the cleaning requirements.
Instrument quality air will be used to blow instrument air, nitrogen, refrigerant and cold service
lines to ensure free moisture removal. Depending upon availability, nitrogen may also be utilized
to blow nitrogen, cold service or hydrocarbon / process service lines.

8.1. Preparation

 Air blowing will never involve machines. To blow suction and discharge lines a special
arrangement should foresee using bypass or reverse flow
 When air blowing loop includes equipment such as tube side of heat exchangers, heater
tubes, tubes of air fin coolers, blow-out points shall be assigned at the inlet flanges of such
equipment and to prevent debris entering the equipment shall be blinded. After the above
air blowing is completed, the downstream air blowing can be performed through the

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Sheet 9 (17)

 Air blowing will never involve machines. For this purpose, special arrangements (as
bypasses or reverse flow) shall be foreseen to blow suction and discharge lines. As foreign
materials may fly out during air blowing, equipment which could be so affected shall be
 Temporary piping for depressurization (or piping discharging) to atmosphere should be
properly anchored
 The flushing medium is in general oil free air, from portable air compressor or from the utility
air network
 3 to 4 bar is recommended for air reservoir pressure whilst blowing using the accumulation
method. However, design pressure of the systems shall be checked and never exceeded
during air blowing.
 The blowing discharge areas shall be cordoned off with tape, warning notices posted and
patrolled to ensure personnel safety;
 The system to be blown is normally pressurized with air from the network. The equipment
with design pressure lower than operating pressure of network air, must be pressurized
maximum up to equipment operating pressure

It is essential that all accessories such as plugs, blind flanges, manhole covers, etc., are well
tightened during blowing as pressures (even low) can throw objects of considerable dimensions
in the air.

8.2. Execution
Different are the methods that can be normally adopted:

 Air accumulation method: air is accumulated in a column/drum/vessel or pipe then released

into the downstream piping to atmosphere so to remove trash and construction debris,
 Direct blowing method: the pipe to be air-blown is connected to the air supply source using a
temporary pipe or hose and blown directly from source to atmosphere,
 Blowing by running of process compressor/blower: piping connected to a process
compressor or blower can be air blown by operating the compressor/blower discharging to
atmosphere or recirculating through the filters. It is matter of course to investigate in advance
whether or not the process compressor or blower can be used for this purpose,
 Blowing by using rupture disc: the method involves sealing of a system except one end
where a temporary paper, plastic film is installed. The system is then pressurized up to the
membrane rupture pressure.
The method is selected considering the line sizes and the system volume. For small bore piping,
direct blowing at high velocity is normally sufficient. For large bore piping, the other methods are
normally more convenient.

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Sheet 10 (17)

Guideline for air blowing by rupture disk

 Preparation:
Take two or three sheets of plastic film and cut to the appropriate size (cut them according to
gasket external diameter); install the plastic sheets between two asbestos free gaskets; place
the sheets over the selected opening and fasten with the ring flange or plate.
The system does not have to withstand full loop pressure at this stage. Not all of the bolts will be
used, nor will the bolts be tightened to the level required for normal services.
For piping with high diameter, plastic film could be not sufficient as rupture disk because this
material could be not resistant for high diameters using normal pressure for air blowing. To
avoid this inconvenience a rupture disk in aluminium sheet could be used.
 Pressurization
Air or nitrogen can be introduced into the system through a convenient vent valve.
Pressurization should be monitored by a pressure gauge.
Precautions must be taken to avoid exceeding the normal operating pressure where this is
lower than the supply pressure of the pressurizing medium.
As the pressure in the system builds, all covers, manways and valves should be checked to
ensure that any leaks are of a small magnitude. These leaks should be eliminated, if possible.

 Rupture and depressurization

As the pressure builds up, the temporary rupture disk will begin to bulge. It is difficult to foresee
the exact pressure at which the plastic film will rupture. When the disk ruptures, it will carry with
it a large amount of rust, dirt and other debris. Depressurization will depend on the pressure
reached and the system volume. The procedure should be repeated. More sheets of plastic film
can be used to increase the rupture pressure
A minimum of three blows should be used; additional blows must be performed if the
commissioning team judges the result not satisfactory.


Mixed Flushing cleaning utilize kinetic energy of air plus impact action of water on the surface to
be cleaned.

9.1. Preparation

 Define and prearrange the mixed flushing circuit (single equipment or group of them)
 Define the discharging points (quick opening valve or rupture disk can be used).
 Close all shut down valves in order to isolate the system from the other equipment excluded
from mixed flushing
 Fill the circuit with water

9.2. Execution

 Pressurize the system with compressed air

 Discharge to the atmosphere through a quick opening valve or rupture disk

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 Repeat the operations for each section until complete cleaning

It is essential that all accessories, such as plugs, blind flanges, manhole covers, etc. are well
tightened during blowing as pressures (even low) can throw objects of considerable dimensions
in the air.
Moreover, small objects at high speed in an air stream can injury the personnel and damage the


Steam blowing utilizes the heat effects and kinetic energy of steam flow. Steam can be used for
continuous or intermittent blowing. The advantage of the intermittent blowing is that, between
two successive blowing, pipes cool down and contract; this permits detachment of mill scale and
rust from the internal pipes surface.

The steam blowing can be used only for Steam, Boiler Feed Water, Steam Condensate
networks and for the “hot” circuits.

10.1. Preparation

 Steam blowing shall be carried out in the sequence from upstream to downstream as
Common Header → Unit Header → Sub-Header → Branch Lines
After the steam blowing of upstream section is completed, the downstream can be started
to steam blow through the equipment.
 Before starting the steam blowing activity, the Utilities panel operating personnel shall be
notified on the following matters, to prevent boiler operational upsets during steam blowing
caused by BFW consumption and steam demand variations:
 Steam blowing schedule
 Approximate steam consumption and duration
 Actual opening and closing of the steam valve for each steam blow
During steam blowing, a close communications between the user and producer shall be
 Ensure pipes are designed at the maximum steam temperature especially for the expansion
and have sufficient anchorage up to the blow-off point.
 Steam traps shall be disconnected at first while the upstream connecting lines are steam
blown. As soon as the upstream lines are confirmed clean, the steam traps shall be put
into service by ensuring and its functionality shall be inspected.
 Steam blowing generates noise and is liable to interfere with other works. Could be
necessary, in some cases, to take appropriate measure such as installing a temporary
silencer/damper at the blow off point especially of SH steam or SM steam, and with
diameter of 6" and more, and scheduling the blows outside of normal working hours.

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Sheet 12 (17)

 Steam and debris shall be blown to a safe location. Temporary lead pipes, vents etc. shall
be installed at blow-off points as required to direct steam and debris to safe areas.
 The blow off area will be cordoned off in compliance with site safety regulations.
 Exposed piping will be checked for non-contact with combustible materials such as scaffold
boards etc. to prevent the possible outbreak of fire.
 Temporary pipe should have an adequate size, not to create flow restrictions
 Close all vent valves on the system
 Open all drain valves on the system to drain all trapped water
 Make sure that steam line, upstream the isolation valve to be used for steam blowing is at
operating pressure and temperature and free of condensate. Upstream steam traps shall be
in service
 If required, install a temporary manometer to monitor piping operating conditions, while
blowing the system
 If required, install a steam cleaning target, which should have same characteristics:

- Square shaped, with enough surface to cover the exhaust steam path
- Brackets should hold the target at about one pipe diameter away from the plane of the
exhaust steam
- Made of Aluminum plate 1/8” (3.175 mm)
- Where pipes diameter are larger, strip targets may be used

10.2. Execution
The good result depends on the steam velocity, temperature and number of blows.
Steam blowing is considered effective if the steam blowing velocity is equal or higher (1 to 1.5
time) than steam velocity during operation. If possible, the steam conditions should be at least
80% of design pressure, temperature and flow.
Cool down period between two different blows shall be at least 180 minutes for not insulated
pipes and 480 minutes for insulated pipes.

The main steps areas follow:

 Crack open the battery limit steam valve by pass or the steam valve itself and start to warm
up the system to be blown
 Make sure that a small amount of steam is flowing (1-2 tons/hrs)
 Make sure that from the first drain valve (close to battery limit or to the operating valve)
condensate start to come out. Do not increase steam flow if condensate is not coming out
 According to the magnitude of the system, slowly increase the steam flow and make sure
that, starting from the first drain closed to the admission point, first condensate and after
steam is coming out. Check all drain valves of the system
 Throttle drain valves starting from the closest one to the admission system to increase
header steam pressure:

1. Blow steam at 1½ times maximum service velocity (1 hour)


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Sheet 13 (17)

2. Shut down and allow line to cool (2 to 3 hours)

3. Repeat Steps 1 through 3

4. Mount target and repeat Steps 1 through 3

5. Continue blowing with Steps 1 through 3 until target results are satisfactory.

6. After satisfactory target is obtained, allow line to cool thoroughly (10 hours)
and blow again to assure system cleanliness.

7. When the successive targets with a through cooling period between blows are
obtained, the line is indicated as clean.
 In case water (condensate) is not coming out from drains, in order to be sure that connected
pipes are not plugged take note of their position. During cool down phase, when circuit is at
atmospheric pressure, connect a hose pipe with clean water to back fill the pipe, checking if
they are free.
 Check pipe and expansion joint pipe supports (it is not rare to find pipe support welded to
the steel structure). If this happens, close steam admission valve to the system and rectify
 Check pipe supports positions against pipe racks (beam). Pipe support should always been
in the middle of the beam. In case a support has moved too far from the centre but still on
the beam, stop steam admission and rectify.
 In case one pipe support has fallen down from the beam do not stop steam flow but do not
increase it and make proper arrangement to lift the pipe. There is a danger of pipe rupture if
steam is cut and pipe is cool down. Support can move back touching the beam.
 During initial heating stage the whole piping should be inspected and ensured that it is free
to move and supports are in right position.
 Blow should first be made at low pressures to remove large objects in the piping and
gradually raising the flow, during later blows, to the designed or required flow.

10.3. Results
Effectiveness of steam blowing depends of users typology (i.e. steam turbine requirements are
different from steam network to heat exchangers). For rotating equipments, acceptable criteria
is done by manufacturer of referring to an international standard. For piping network a
qualitative inspection can be done and confirmed


Cleaning is performed circulating a chemical solution through the system to be clean.

A specific and detailed procedure will be provided separately (refer to SPC.PR.CMS.0004).


The lines cleaning, performed using scrapers or wire brushes, is acceptable in case of short
pipe length and sufficiently large diameter.

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Sheet 14 (17)

Other methods using water at high pressure to remove dirtiness from piping that is sufficiently
resistant to the standard cleaning methods are for example, Retrojetting and Aquamilling
Detailed procedure for those applications are generally performed by Service Supplier/Vendor.

12.1. Application
All large diameter piping (18" diameter and larger) should be wire brushed and swept out or
vacuumed clean as far as possible.
The channel covers on heat exchangers should be removed, wire brushed and swept clean.
All vessels, columns and tanks should be inspected internally and mechanically cleaned as
required. Care must be taken to remove all scale and rust from nozzle connections (especially
in the base of the equipment), support rings, trays and internal fittings. The use of an industrial
vacuum cleaner is particularly effective for the clean-up work.
For the large areas to be cleaned, e.g. in bulk storage tanks, it may be expedient to call a
specialist contractor (if available) to carry out sand or grit blasting.


The cleaning method is performed circulating oil, heating up and cooling down it or through
piping vibration (by rubber hammer or pneumatic vibrator).
A specific and detailed procedure will be provided separately (refer to SPC.PR.CMS.0005).


The cleaning procedures shall be repeated for each section until the discharges are without
calamine and deposits and surfaces checks of involved items provide a good result. Cleaning
can be considered completed when the checks in different discharging points have confirmed
the effective cleanliness of the concerned circuits.
If water has been utilized for flushing, drain all low points and verify that the circuit is completely
After cleaning operations, piping reinstatement and the removing of provisional equipments are
required. These activities shall be carried out as soon as possible in order to keep all
equipments clean and ready for use.

14.1. Piping

 Check that bolts, nuts, are according construction specification, they have same length and
if they are in a good statement (no rust and surface cleaned)
 Spring hangers, slippers pads, etc. have to be replaced according to the construction
drawings and released when the reassembly is completed
 Spring hangers have to be set according to final load
 Check that no misalignment in coupling flanges that can create line stresses
 Threads on screwed piping, plugs etc, must be checked and the items replaced using PTFE
tape where required
 All temporary connections have to be removed and relative coupling flange connections will
be blinked off
 Check that atmospheric conditions allow to have reinstallation without dirtiness entry (check
weather conditions and eventually preserve coupling activities by proper covering)

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Sheet 15 (17)

 All the temporary blind flanges have to be removed

 All the hatches have to be closed
 All coupling flanges and counter flanges have to be checked in order to ensure that they are
mounted according mechanical good practice; gaskets, bolts, nuts are according
 Valve packing and pump gland packing will be changed if necessary
 Connect the machines with the related piping, removing blind disks and using final gaskets.
 Verify that check valves (reinstall the flappers if removed) and globe valves are installed
correctly (check flow direction)
 Re-install spray nozzles
 Expansion bellows are mounted according to the Vendor’s instructions
 Piping and equipments reinstatement are generally followed by Tightness Test or Leak Test

14.2. Instrumentation
Control valves shall be reinstalled in correct way. It will be important to check that:
 Remove plugs from flanges (if placed for temporary storing)
 Proper gasket are used
 Valve seats are clean
 Direction of flow is correct (particularly for three ways valves)
 Copper connection are fixed
 Handwheel is free and operable
 Double diaphragm valves are properly piped

Check control valves calibration, to evaluate any deviation.

 Operators shall stroke the control valves for 0 and 100% opening and report deviation.
 Stroke of valves shall be obtained from control room action.

The following operations shall be performed:

 Check and record limit stop percentage of control valves
 Identify the action of the controller (direct, inverse or split range)
 Check the position of valve on air failure
 Define sequence on split range system (if required)
Orifice plates, rotameters and diaphragms will be reinstalled, according to design specifications.
Orifice flanges related both to the guaranteed utilities consumption and to the certified flow rate
of feed inlet and products outlet shall be inspected for smoothness at the welded joints.
Once the orifice plate is installed, check:
 Correct installation (direction and minimum straight length of pipe are respected)
 Flange taps position is correct

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Sheet 16 (17)

The above operations for lines and circuits commissioning shall be indicated on the
corresponding flushing reports.
In case of PSV’s disassembly due to cleaning activities, they will be reinstalled checking that:
 PSV’s are installed in correct place and in vertical position
 Proper gaskets are used
 It is verified the absence of any obstruction on the assembly (blinds etc)
 Atmospheric PSV vents shall have a drain hole in the lowest point and must be properly
 PSV’s upstream and downstream block valves, if any, have to be open and bypass valves, if
any, close
 No liquid can be collected and be stagnant in discharge line to the Blow Down header
 Pilot valves, if any, are correctly piped

All the instrumentation will be installed / connected according specifications. Following checks
will be done:
 Reinstall the sensitive elements inside thermowells
 Verify instrument type, range and size conformity
 Verify correct position and correct TAG number according P&ID indication
 Reinstallation has to be done according drawings details
 Verify correct alignment of manifold (transmitters etc.)
 Check gaskets in on line instrumentation (thermo wells, thermocouple, on line analyser etc.)
 Verify that all the auxiliary (instruments air, power voltage) are available
 Loop check (if request)

14.3. Equipment
Internals of equipment, such as demister and coalescer pads, grids, rushing rings, shall be
installed after flushing.
After installation, supervised by mechanical inspector,check:
 Fixing of demister and coalescer pads
 Proper installation of other internals before boxing-up

The above mentioned checks should be done using manufacturer drawings.

Package items (supplied by Vendor) or plant skids could be excluded by flushing / blowing
Generally, they have been supplied from factory including all cleaning certification made off site.
In that case, it will be necessary to check if all the Preservation recommendations are correctly
in place.
Otherwise, once the skid will be inspected, a cleaning procedure can be applied depending on
skid typology or service.

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Sheet 17 (17)


This activity will be certified using the proper report coming from activities control plan for
commissioning purpose document and recorded properly.


The personnel involved in the operations shall follow and comply with the safety points in the
relevant procedure for this activity.


Attachment 1: Steam Blowing Check List

Attachment 2: Air Blowing Check List
Attachment 3: Water Flushing Check List