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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)

ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213

Design Evaluation of Connecting Rod


Dipalee S. Bedse1
1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Savitribai Phule Pune University
Gokhale Education Society’s R.H. Sapat College of Engineering, Management Studies and Research,
Nasik – 5,India.

Abstract: The connecting rod (CR) is the main moving part and an important component of an internal com-
bustion (IC) engine. The connecting rod is the intermediate member between the piston and the Crankshaft. It’s
primary function is to transmit the push and pull from the piston pin to the crank pin, thus converting the reci-
procating motion of the piston into rotary motion of the crank. The main objective of this paper is to Design
evaluation through Finite Element Analysis for fatigue life of connecting rod used in Hero Honda Motor Cycle.
Structural systems of connecting rod can be analyzed using Finite Element techniques. So firstly a proper Finite
Element Model is developed using Cad software CATIA. Then the Finite element analysis is carried out to de-
termine the stresses and displacement in the present design of the connecting rod for the given loading condi-
tions using Finite Element Analysis software (HYPERMESH). Structural strength for the connecting rod will be
verified over an Universal Testing Machine (UTM) for tensile loading. Based on the observations of the static
FEA and the load analysis results, recommend the best alternative design for the connecting rod.
Keywords: Connecting Rod, Finite Element Analysis, Modeling, Static

I. Introduction
The intermediate component between crank and piston is known as connecting rod. Connecting rod is
also known as conrod and is used to connect the piston to crankshaft. As a connecting rod is rigid, it may trans-
mit either a push or a pull and so the rod rotates the crank through both halves of a revolution, i.e. piston push-
ing and piston pulling. Earlier mechanisms, such as chains, could only pull. In a few two stroke engines, the
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connecting rod is only required to push. Today, connecting rods are best known through their use in internal
combustion piston engines, such as automotive engines. These are of a distinctly different design from earlier
forms of connecting rods, used in steam engines and steam locomotives. One source of energy in automobile
industry is internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engine converts chemical energy into Mechanical
energy in the form of reciprocating motion of piston. Crankshaft and Connecting rod convert reciprocating mo-
tion into rotary motion. Connecting rod is one of the important driving parts of Light vehicle engine it forms a
simple mechanism that converts linear motion into rotary motion that means the connecting rod is used to trans-
fer linear, reciprocating motion of the piston into rotary motion of the crankshaft.[6]

II. Literature Survey


P S Shenoy and A Fatemi (2006) are focused on detailed load analysis under service loading conditions was
performed for a typical connecting rod, Priyank D. Toliya et al. (2013) Static analysis is done to determine the
von Misses stress, elastic strain, total deformation in the present design, M.N. Mohammed et al. (2011)are fo-
cused on to analyze the connecting rod failure. The study applied a finite element analysis and metallographic
examination ,M. Omid et al.(2008) in this case Finite element was first used to calculate the static displacement
and stresses uder the maximum tension and compression and tension loading in the connecting rod of universal
tractor, which when there used for critical points evaluation ,S.B.Chikalthankar et al.(2012)In this case the
work complete connecting rod Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methodology. It was also performed a fatigue
study based on Stress Life (SxN) theory, considering the Modified Goodman diagram ,Adila Afzal et al.(2011)
is investigates and compares fatigue behavior of forged steel and powder metal connecting rods ,R,Luria, et al.
(2013) are focused on the design of a set of dies employed to manufacture a connecting rod by forging a billet
of nanostructured aluminum alloy ,Atish Gawale, et al.(2012) are focused on The design and weight of the
connecting rod, Yongqi Liu and Ruixiang Liu (2013) are focused on the stress distribution and fatigue life of
CR in light vehicle engine were analyzed using the commercial 3D finite element software, ANSYSTM

III. Research Gap


From the literature survey we conclude that most of the studies are done on IC Engines connecting
rod, Heavy Vehicle connecting rod had focus on stress, critical surface of connecting rod ,weight of connecting
rod, the connecting rod failure & structural analysis of connecting rod and all these results are carried out by

203 | P a g e www.ijrerd.com
International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
FEA software and there is no any experimentation and validation results are found .In other side very less re-
search work done on the stress distribution and fatigue life of CR in light vehicle engine are analyzed using the
commercial 3D finite element software. The new analysis will examine the calculations for the stresses and fati-
gue failure of the component

IV. Specification of the Problem


The objective of the present work is to design a connecting rod based upon its fatigue life. CAD model
of connecting rod will be created in CATIA and it’ll be analyzed in HYPERMESH and FEMFAT software. The
Finite element analysis is done to determine the stresses and displacement in the present design of the connect-
ing rod for the given loading conditions using Finite Element Analysis software (HYPERMESH). Structural
strength for the connecting rod will be verified over an Universal Testing Machine (UTM) for tensile loading. As
for the fatigue life determined by the FE analysis the same shall be compared with historical data with the spon-
soring company. Recommend the best alternative design for the connecting rod through experimentation and
validation.

V. Objectives
a) Find out the problem areas by studying the existing system of linkages in which identify the different para-
meters such as stresses, deflection and fatigue failure of the component for redesign of the connecting rod.
b) CAD model of connecting rod will be created in CATIA and it’ll be analyzed in HYPERMESH software.
c) To conduct test on Universal Testing Machine to find stress and deflection of existing connecting rod.
d) To analyze the alternative geometry for connecting rod using suitable tools such as HYPERMESH software.
e) To recommend the best alternative design for the connecting rod through experimentation and validation.

VI. Specification of Existing Connecting Rod


Specifications of Splendor 100CC Engine
 Displacement : 97.2CC
 Bore X Stroke : 50 X 49.5 (in mm)
 Max. Power : 5.5kW@8000rpm
 Max. Torque : 7.95Nm @5000rpm
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 Compression Ratio : 9:1

TABLE I
Dimensions of Connecting Rod
Sr. Parameters Value
no.
1. Length of connecting rod 123mm

2. Outer Diameter of Big end 39.02mm

3. Inner Diameter of Big end 30.19mm

4. Outer Diameter of small end 17.75mm

5. Inner Diameter of Small end 13.02mm

TABLE III
Material Properties of Connecting Rod[11]
Material Selected Carbon Steel

Young’s Modulus(E) 210 Gpa

Poisson’s Ratio 0.27- 0.3

Density 7860 Kg/mm3

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
Tensile Strength 400-500 Mpa

Compressive Strength 400 to 1000 Mpa

Tensile Strain 10-20(%)

VII. Mathematical Calculation


A. Pressure Calculation
 Density of Petrol (C8H18), ρ = 750 Kg/m3
= 750 x 10 -9Kg/mm3
 Operating Temperature, T = 293.15 K
 Mass = Density x Volume
m = 750x10 -9 x 97.2x10 = 72.9x10-3 Kg
 Molecular weight of petrol, M =114.228x10 -3 Kg/mole
 Gas constant for petrol, R = 8314.3/114.228x10-3 = 72.79x10 3J/Kg.mol.K
From Gas law equation
PV = mRT

P = mRT/V = 72.9x10 -3x72.79x10 3x293.15/ (97.2x10 3)


= 16 MPa

B. Design Calculation
 Gas Force = Pressure x Cross section area of piston
Fl = P x π/4 x D2= 16xπ/4x502 = 31415.93 N

 Inertia Force
Stroke length, l = 123mm IJRE RD

Max. Angular speed, ω = 2πNmax/60 = 2xπx8000/60 = 837.76 rad/s


 Crank radius, r = 49.5/2 = 24.75 mm
 n = l/r= 123/24.75 = 4.97

C. Inertia force
 FI = m ω 2r(cosθ+cos2θ/n)
= 72.9x10 -3x837.76 2x24.75x10 -3x (1+1/4.97)
= 1521.1 N

D. Bending Stress due to inertia force


 Mmax = mω 2r X (l/9√3)
= 72.9x10 -3x837.76 2x24.75x10 -3x(0.123/9√3)
= 9.9918 Nm = 9991.8 Nmm
From connecting rod drawing
 Ixx = 1/12 (10.4x133 – 2x2.6x7.83)
= 1698.43 mm4
 Zxx = Ixx/5.2= 1698.43/5.2= 326.62 mm3
 σmax = Mmax / Zxx = 9991.8/326.62
= 30.59 MPa

E. Fatigue Calculation
 σmax = 30.59 MPa
 σmin = - 30.59 MPa

F. Amplitude Stress
 σa = (σmax - σmin) / 2 = (30.59 – (-30.59))/2
= 30.59 MPa

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
G. Mean Stress
 σm = (σmax + σmin) / 2 = (30.59 + (-30.59))/2
= 0 MPa
H. For Forged Steel
Yield strength, Sy = 625 MPa
Ultimate strength, Sut = 827 MPa
Fatigue endurance strength, Se’ = 0.5 σut
= 0.5X827
= 413.5 MPa
I. Endurance limit
Se = ka* kb* kc *kd* ke* kf* Se’
= 0.8*1.2*1*1*1*1*413.5= 396.96 MPa
From modified Goodman line
σa/Se + σm/Sut = 1/n=(30.59/396.96) + (0/827)
= 1/n = 0.077
n = 12.98
As σm = 0

J. Finite Life
N = (σa / a)1/b
a = (f Sut)2 / Se
where f = 0.82
a = (0.82x827)2/396.96= 1158.49
b = - [log(f Sut) / Se]/3
= - [log(0.82x827/396.96]/3 = - 0.077
N = (30.59/1158.49)-1/0.077
= 3.145 x 1020 Cycles

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VIII. Methodology
A. Finite Element Analysis Method
Connecting rod was modeled by taking the designed parameter of rod and then by using the CATIA
software solid modeling has done which is shown in Fig.1 And saved within this program in *.IGES format. The
model is imported in HYPERMESH and then the mechanical characteristics of the connecting rod are estab-
lished: density - 7860 Kg/mm3, Young’s modulus – 210 GPa, Poisson’s ratio - 0.3, etc.

Fig.1 Connecting Rod Using CATIA software

1) Meshing
The next stage of the modeling is to create meshing of the created model. The mesh should be finer and
accurately represent the geometry in the critical areas i.e. the areas where stress, strain, deformation and loading
is going to be important. Here we done solid meshing because A part with all the three dimensions (x, y, z in a
Cartesian coordinate) comparable are usually meshed with solid elements. The mesh model of connecting rod is

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
as shown in fig.2

Fig. 2 Mesh at fillet zone

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Fig. 3 Meshing of Connecting Rod

2) Load Diagram of Connecting Rod


A CATIA model of connecting rod is used for analysis in HYPERMESH. Analysis is done with the
pressure of 16 Mpa load applied at the piston end of the connecting rod which is calculated by using mathemati-
cal calculations and fixed at the crank end of the connecting rod. It is shown in Fig.4

Fig. 4 Load of Connecting Rod

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
3) Results and Discussion
For the finite element analysis 16Mpa of pressure is used. The analysis is carried out using CATIA and
HYPERMESH software. The pressure is applied at the small end of connecting rod keeping big end fixed. The
maximum and minimum von-misses stress, strain, shear stress, and factor of safety are noted from the
HYPERMESH

Fig. 5 Stress Component

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Fig. 6 Displacement Plot

Name Maximum Minimum


2
Von-misses 431.11N/mm 0.28 N/mm2
stress
Displacement 0.18 mm 0.0 mm

B. Experimentation
1) Experimental Setup Information
The specs for the UTM (Universal Testing Machine) used for the Test are as below
Make: Star Testing System (India) - Software based
Model No: SPS 248
Type: DC Servo Control
Speed for loading: 5mm/min to 500mm/min

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213

Fig. 7 UTM Machine

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Fig 8 Tensile Test Set Up [EthikaEngg. Solution pvt ltd. Pune ]


2) Observation Chart
Load (N) Deflection (mm) Max
stress(N/mm2)
31000 0.1812 431.153

IX. FEA and Experimentation Result


From FEA and Experimentation test we get the same result for stresses and deflection. Analyze the al-
ternative geometry for connecting rod using CAE software. Recommend the best alternative design for the con-
necting rod through experimentation and validation

Test Experimentation FEA


Deflection (mm) 0.1812 0.18
Max 431.153 431.11
stress(N/mm2)

X. Need of Modified Geometry


After studying existing model of connecting rod we found that the stress concentration is more at neck
radius portion of crank and pin end so to reduce this stress and improve its fatigue life we modify the geometry
by making some changes in the present design.

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
XI. MODIFIED GEOMETRY
Geometry changes: Change in web thickness and radius in neck portion

Fig .9 Base Model

Base model having Neck radius at Crank and Pin end are 20 and 12 mm respectively.

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Fig .10 Modified Model

New modified model having Neck radius at Crank and Pin end are slightly greater than base model as
22and 15 mm respectively and we do again FEA process on redesign model we get results as given below in fig.

Fig. 11 Redesign Connecting Model

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213

Fig. 12 Redesign Displacement Plot

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Fig. 13 Redesign Stress Component

XII. Fatigue Life Analysis


We find out Fatigue life of connecting rod by using FEMFAT Software. Following fig. shows the
FEMFAT results, Firstly we give the Material properties for forged steel and after which we get S-N Curve for
the same Material

Fig. 14 FEMFAT Material Properties

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213

Fig. 15 S-N curve of Connecting Rod

From S-N Curve we get the value of Number of load cycle at stress 1000(N/mm 2 )

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Fig. 16 Scalar value of Base Model

Fig. 17 Scalar value of Modified Model

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International Journal of Recent Engineering Research and Development (IJRERD)
ISSN: 2455-8761
www.ijrerd.com || Volume 02 – Issue 07 || July 2017 || PP. 203-213
Model Average Fatigue Life
(No. Of cycles)
7
Base model
8.9 *10
19
Modified Model
3.333*10

XIII. Discussion & Conclusion


According to this study, Finite element method is used to find out the stress, strain , deflection critical
points and fatigue life time of reciprocating components like connecting rod . In this case present Hero Honda
Motor Cycle connecting rod fatigue life is 8.9*107 no. of cycles. In order to improve fatigue life of connecting
rod we make small changes in geometry of connecting rod ie. We increase neck radius thickness from 20mm to
22mm at crank end and 12mm to 15mm at pin end and after finding fatigue result on FEMFAT software we can
increase life up to 3.333*10 19 no. of cycles.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors of this present work acknowledge the technical support given by Ethika Engg. Solutions
India pvt ltd.

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