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A WELCOME BRIEFING (01:30) .........................................................................3 B AIRBUS DOCUMENTATION ( 00:15) .............................................................3 C The MMEL and MEL...........................................................................................6 N.01 COCKPIT PREPARATION (00:20)..........................................................8 N.02 DEPARTURE BRIEFING (00:10) .............................................................9 N.03 ENGINE START (00:15) ..........................................................................10 N.04 PUSH BACK (00:05) ................................................................................11 N.05 TAXIING (00:10)........................................................................................12 N.06 TAKE-OFF AND INITIAL CLIMB (00:25) ..............................................14 N.07 CLIMB (00:05) ...........................................................................................17 N.08 CRUISE (00 :20) .......................................................................................19 N.09 DESCENT AND APPROACH (00:15) ...................................................21 N.10 ARRIVAL (00:15) ......................................................................................27 N.11 ILS APPROACH (00:15) .........................................................................30 N.12 RAW DATA ILS (00:10) ...........................................................................32 N.13 GLIDE SLOPE FROM ABOVE (00:15) .................................................34 N.14 NON PRECISION APPROACH (00:25) ...............................................35 N.15 CIRCUIT & VISUAL APPROACH, (00:10)............................................40 N.16 CIRCLING APPROACH (00:15) .............................................................42 N.17 LANDING (00:10) ......................................................................................44 N.18 GO-ROUND (00:15) .................................................................................47 N.18 DIVERTING (00:10).................................................................................49 T.01 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS .................................................51 T.02 FLYING REFERENCES (00:15).............................................................60 T.03 USE OF ATHR (00:10)............................................................................61 T.04 USE OF AP and FD (00:10) ...................................................................63 T.05 MODE REVERSIONS AP & FD (00:10)................................................65 T.06 FLIGHT CONTROLS (00:15) ..................................................................68 T.07 RECOVERY FROM APPROACH TO STALL (00:20).........................73 T.08 ECAM (00:30) ............................................................................................74 T.09 FMS NAVIGATION (00:20) .....................................................................79 T.10 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING (00:20) ..........................................83 T.011 VAPP DETERMINATION (00 :10)......................................................89 F.00 INTRODUCTION TO THE FAILURE PHASE ......................................91 F.01 ENGINE ABNORMAL STARTS (00:15) ................................................91 F.02 ENGINE FAILURES REJECTED TAKE-OFF (00:15 + video) ..........93 ENGINE FAILURE OR FIRE AFTER V1 (00:20).................................................94 ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE (00:10) .............................................................. 100 ALL ENGINE FLAME OUT (00:20)..................................................................... 102 ENGINE RELIGHT IN FLIGHT (00:10) .............................................................. 103 F.03 DUAL FMGS FAILURE (00:15) ........................................................... 104 F.04 TOTAL FCU FAILURE (00:15) ............................................................ 106 F.05 DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE (00:25)................................................ 107 F.06 EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION (00:20) .............. 110 F.07 NO FLAPS OR NO SLATS (00:20) ..................................................... 113 F.08 NO FLAPS PLUS NO SLATS (00:15) ............................................... 115 F.09 DUAL RADIO ALTIMETER FAILURE (00:10)................................... 116 F.10 UNRELIABLE SPEED / ALTITUDE (00:10) ..................................... 117 F.11 COCKPIT SMOKE (00:15) ................................................................... 119 G.01 WINDSHEAR (00:20) ............................................................................ 120 This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

2/136 G.02 G.03 G.04 G.05 G.06 G.07 S.01

Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes TCAS (00:10) ......................................................................................... 127 USE OF RADAR (00:10) ..................................................................... 128 WET RUNWAYS (00:05) ..................................................................... 130 FLIGHT IN SEVERE TURBULENCE (00:05)................................... 131 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (00:15)....................................... 131 RVSM AIRSPACE (00:05)................................................................... 134 SIMULATOR INFORMATION ............................................................. 134

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

A

WELCOME BRIEFING (01:30)

Trainees newly arrived in our Training Centre need to complete our documentation for recording purposes, to be introduced to the facilities and to be introduced to Airbus documentation. The Welcome Briefing should be scheduled in a classroom, but if it is conducted for a single crew can be performed in a Briefing Room. For each crew you will need their Course schedule, Trainees’ files, Golden Rules Card, and the Welcome “PowerPoint” presentation either on the Airbus Network or on CD for your laptop. Prepare the classroom and initialise the Briefing from the Network or from CD. Meet the Trainees in the Welcome room where the Hostess gives an Introduction to Toulouse and the Training Centre. She usually finishes by taking photos and the Trainees are ready for you around 09:00 (but this depends on how many there are on a particular day). Escort your trainees to the classroom (or Briefing Room) and commence by getting the trainees to complete their files with licence number, passport information and flying experience. On completion check each file for correct compilation. Explain the role of the course coordinator. You now present the “Welcome Briefing presentation” which introduces the Training Centre, the Courses and their phases, the schedule and training equipment. The Golden rules video introduces some Airbus concepts. Hand out the paper explaining the FCOM contents and ask for any questions After the “Welcome Briefing” you carry out the Training Centre walkaround. During your tour of the Ground and First Floors emphasise the position of toilets, prayer room (if applicable), Trainees lounge, Gift Shop, Restaurant, briefing rooms, Training Devices and Simulators. Take the Trainees to the FAST office where they collect their laptops and then to the VACBI room where you hand them over to the GSI. Take the completed files to the Trainees Office.

B

AIRBUS DOCUMENTATION ( 00:15)

To explain the generic Airbus documentation used during the course you will need the Trainees Booklet, FCOM Volumes l to 4 and the QRH, and the Loft and Skill Test Supplement Booklet The Trainees Booklet is the trainees personal file while undergoing training and contains the syllabus for his course. It must accompany him for all sessions.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

FCOM VOLUME I This manual contains a technical description of the aircraft systems. . In volume 1 the chapter numbers correspond to the ATA (Air Transport Association) 100 BREAKDOWN chapter numbers. Once the CBT phase is successfully completed Volume 1 will become the prime source of information on aircraft systems. The full six digits are used in the MEL and the MMEL. Pressurization & Ventilation Auto Flight Communications Electrical Equipment Fire Protection Flight Controls Fuel Hydraulic Ice and Rain Protection Indicating & Recording Systems Landing Gear Lights Navigation Systems Oxygen Pneumatic Water &Waste System Auxiliary Power Unit Doors Power Plant The classification of the systems is in alphabetical order apart from the last three systems. The list below details the ATA chapter numbers used in FCOM Vol. A. At the beginning of each chapter there is a contents list. controls and indications are described. Each chapter covers a specific system. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the first two of which refer to a particular aircraft system. Chapter 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 49 52 70 System Air Conditioning. A list of abbreviations and symbols used in all documentation is included at the beginning of the manual.4/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The generic FCOM contains a full and in depth description of the generic aircraft technical systems and associated procedures from a pilots point of view. This volume will be of use in the Ground phase of the course to reinforce and compliment the lessons learnt on the CBT. The main components. This represents the official reference for the classification of airplane systems and/or functions. The ATA breakdown consists of six digits. The cautions and warnings associated with each system are included in each chapter as is the electric bus distribution. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. However the CBT should be considered the prime source of technical information. 1.

This volume is of use during the performance course. h. performance and pre-flight planning. FCOM VOLUME 3 This volume contains chapters on Operating Limitations. Each bulletin may deal with one or more subject. These do not appear on ECAM and it is not necessary to consult this volume during ECAM procedures. e. Supplementary Techniques: This chapter begins with a definition of operating speeds etc. It will continue to be of use in line operations. Abnormal and Emergency Procedures: This section is a complete list of all the ECAM failure messages and other failures requiring the use of the QRH. and during Line Orientated Flight Training (LOFT) exercises. Each section in the main body of this chapter corresponds to the relevant ATA chapter number. b. flight crew procedures or changes to limitations. C. Most of the sections conform to the ATA 100 breakdown. The rest of the chapter contains information concerning systems and operational situations. a. Operating Limitations: This chapter inc ludes limitations required by the regulating Authority and contained in the Flight Manual. g. . f. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Only bulletins applicable to the generic aircraft are included. Supplementary Techniques. FCOM VOLUME 2 This manual contains information on loading.5/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes B. c. In Flight Performance: Contains information on performance for use in flight. Within each ECAM procedure there are notes which amplify the procedure. FCOM Bulletins: Are used to provide supplementary operational information normally falling outside the content of the FCOM. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The generic FCOM used in all our training does not (normally) contain any OEB’s. OEB’s: These are used as the fastest way to advise operators of revised or significant new technical information. in-flight performance and single engine operation. The section on operating techniques contains information on such topics as rejected takeoff. Abnormal and Emergency procedures. Further information is given to assist in planning and preparing for a single engine landing. In the chapter introduction there is information on ECAM use and task sharing. Normal Procedures: This chapter contains all information on Airbus Standard Operating Procedures and techniques required for the conduct of a normal flight. engine failure after V1 etc. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Some OEB’s may have an impact on the safe conduct of flight operations and these are reproduced in the QRH. Also included is performance information for special operations (contaminated runway. d. Single Engine Operations: This chapter details the possible strategies following an engine failure in flight.). OEB’s are not approved by the airworthiness authorities and will be superseded by a modification or service bulletin. It is used in all Training sessions and in flight. ETOPS etc.

The MEL is the Minimum Equipment List published by the operator and approved by the local authorities. . It may sometimes duplicate the information already contained in Volumes 1 and 3. At the front of the QRH there is an important note concerning task sharing and ECAM procedures. LOFT AND SKILL TEST SUPPLEMENTAL BOOKLET This booklet contains RTOLW charts for all airports involved in the Loft and Skill Test scenarios and extracts from the Master Minimum Equipment List to cover potential need during these sessions. Normal procedures and task sharing are detailed. or the MEL (once accepted by an Airline). or maintenance actions are required before dispatch. FCOM VOLUME 4 This volume provides in depth information about the FMGS principles. Section 2 – Associated operational procedures. All training sessions require the QRH. it is necessarily at least as restrictive as the MMEL. The MMEL (before delivery to an Airline). Section 4 – List of ECAM warnings associated to the dispatch conditions.6/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes D. Most Abnormal and Emergency procedures are presented to the crew on ECAM. as fo r FCOM. allows an aircraft to be dispatched with some items of equipment or some functions inoperative. Also included are in flight performance. The document consists of 4 sections: Section 1 – List of pieces of equipment which may be inoperative for dispatch. C The MMEL and MEL The MMEL is the Master Minimum Equipment List published by the A/C manufacturer (Airbus). G. however the aim is to have all the information regarding the FMGS in one book. F. procedures and interface. and the rectification interval applicable. In certain stated cases specific limitations or procedures apply. E. The normal checklist is printed on the back of the QRH along with the ON GROUND EMERGENCY EVACUATION checklist. FCOM REVISIONS QUICK REFERENCE HANDBOOK (QRH) As the documentation is generic it is not subject to revisions. the full six figures of This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The QRH contains checklists which cannot be presented on ECAM and additional emergency and abnormal procedures which may be required by ECAM. Each item or piece of equipment listed in the MEL is identified using the ATA 100 format (Air Transport Association 100). Section 3 – Associated maintenance procedure. operational data and OEB’s.

A specific OPERATIONAL procedure or limitation applies (O). loss of EPR mode with N1 rated mode…).some systems which must be turned off. brake failure. Not to be confused with the MMEL/MEL is the "Configuration Deviation List" (CDL) in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) where allowable missing items are detailed. C or D) is not yet expired. General Operational Rules for the MEL: 1. 21 refers to the Air Conditioning – 52 to the Air cooling system – 01 for the Air Conditioning Pack.If the failed item is NOT mentioned in the MEL. MAN ENG START …) and . 3. SPD. Check at the end of MEL chapter 0 (General) the ATA summary. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.the potential Applicable Special procedures (e. The Rectification interval (CAT A.the potential Applicable Performance Penalties (e. the dispatch is NOT possible with the failed item. . in order to identify the ATA number associated to the failed system. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. .the potential Flight Domain Limitations (e. MTOW. 2. If a particular item is not mentioned in the MMEL/MEL then dispatch is not allowed.g. FLX …).g. and check: . any decision to continue the flight shall be subject to pilot judgement and good airmanship.If the DISPATCH is POSSIBLE. . B. read carefully the description provided as well as the conditions under which the DISPATCH is. The MMEL/MEL refers to items that are inoperative. . . If a particular item is not mentioned in the CDI then dispatch is not allowed. In case an OPERATIONAL procedure or limitation applies. Enter chapter 2 with the ATA number. check whether . A placard is required (*) and/or. . The commander may refer to the MEL before any decision to continue the flight is taken This is particularly true for those failures which might affect the take-off performance (e. the crew must refer to MEL. If a failure occurs or a component or a function is inoperative up to the commencement of the flight (being the “point at which an aircraft begins to move under its own power for the purpose of preparing for Take-off” JARMMEL/MEL. and/or. refer to MEL chapter 2. or use the list of ECAM caution titles in Chapter 4 to identify more precisely the full six figure ATA number related to this failure. Go to MEL chapter 1 and carefully identify the item associated with the failure: .g. A specific MAINTENANCE action applies (M). or is not possible. as opposed to missing. loss of spoilers. If a failure occurs during the taxi phase before the start of the take-off roll. .005(d) ie commences to taxi).7/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes this breakdown are used: for example 21-52-01.g. CONF …).If the failed item is mentioned. and/or .

some items are mandatory for ETOPS dispatch. call for the maintenance specialist and refer to MEL chapter 3 to determine the necessary actions. Buzz the cockpit from the ground to ask if you can disconnect the ground power and finally close the cargo doors before push back. This is specifically mentioned in the MEL. NOTE: When the MEL asks for both a maintenance and operational procedure. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. finish refuelling the aircraft. Don’t let yourself become fixated on the IOS to the point you don’t follow the trainees in their procedure. . some extracts will be provided when necessary for specific simulator exercises. N. Initially you can help you trainees when the configuration is incorrect but after a few sessions they should be able to do it themselves.01 COCKPIT PREPARATION (00:20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Detailed information on preparing the cockpit for departure is to be found in the FCTM and in Volume 3. INSTRUCTION On entering the simulator the trainees commence the preparation and you commence the setting up of the simulation. the MMEL will be used for LOFT exercises only. In order to save time we use the Transit Cockpit Preparation for our usual procedures. Then set up the environment according to the session guide (you don’t have to follow the guidelines exactly to the letter … the Trainees should listen to the ATIS as broadcast and not on the session guide to know if it is summer or winter!). the maintenance action has to be performed before applying the operational procedure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In order to heighten the reality aspect think of the order in which you initialise the simulation. As the Trainees get settled into their seats set up the obvious things they can see first like disarmed slides and open doors. Be aware that in case of an ETOPS sector. During the training. You are now ready to put on your Pursers Cap and ask if it is ok to close the door as the pax are all on board. Finally.8/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes 4. even when the simulator has not been left in the correct Transit configuration. If a PLACARD or MAINTENANCE actions is required.

in normal and abnormal situations.initial cleared altitude and trajectory. FLX.Use of the Radar … This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Task sharing and areas of responsibility need to be clearly explained. The briefing must be LOGICAL and CONCISE. . The trainees should work towards completing the Transit preparation in 20 minutes (Full preparation 30 minutes) to the point where they are ready to start the engines.Essential points of the ATC clearance . . .MSA – any Constraining SID ALT CSTR. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Beware of a Briefing that is too generic because each take off is an individual event and should be covered by the specifics of that procedure. It should be done before Engine Starting when the workload is low so that both pilots have a clear understanding of what they are about to do. Use of Anti Ice and APU.Normal departure When specific data is mentioned it shall be cross-checked on the associated peripheral (V speeds. Take-off and initial climb. . Should the take-off conditions change after engine start. SID etc).Transition altitude . then a short briefing concentrating on the main changes should be carried out.Pushback and Engine Start considerations.02 DEPARTURE BRIEFING (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The objective of the Take off briefing is for the PF to inform the PNF of his intended course of actions during Taxi. INSTRUCTION Listen to the Briefing to make sure you understand what is said. The following KEY ITEMS shall be mentioned: .9/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes From the above you can see that your Preparation from the IOS does not involve your continual attention during the approximately 20 minutes it should take a crew to prepare for engine start.Specific runway / weather condition.Expected taxi path . N. Use the different MCDU pages to brief while the other pilot cross checks with the relevant documentation. . The Take-off Briefing is to be completed prior to engine start. so you can devote time to monitoring the Trainees while they carry out their preparation. . Ensure good crew communication and mutual cross-checking.

motoring speed during a manual start. or generic in nature. and who actually STOPS the A/C. It detects these phenomena and takes the appropriate action (reducing the fuel flow. Bleed pressure not checked. or a STALL. During an AUTO START procedure the FADEC protects the engines against a HOT start. or cutting it off. As the training scenarios frequently involve much repetition.10/136 - Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes - Reminder of major NOTAM. too long. Hand not on the ENG MASTER switch for a manual start. During a MAN START the FADEC ensures a PASSIVE monitoring of Engine parameters. Therefore ensure he is not distracted during your briefing. ENG START selector left at IGN/START after start completion. Stopwatch not used or not started at ENG MASTER SW ON ENG MASTER switch ON below max. and it is up to the pilot to initiate a shut down if parameters are about to be exceeded. The MANUAL START procedure is used in some specific cases. As the PNF is a vital crew member in Normal and Abnormal situations he should be in a position to devote his attention completely to the Briefing so he will be in the loop at all times. cranking the engine. plus If the T/O is continued the EO ACCEL ALT. …). or Visual Circuit altitude and expected procedure etc) Take–off Alternate procedure (as applicable) Potential overweight landing with associated configuration (QRH). Minimum initial climb altitude (MSA. attempting a new start etc. N. Look out for Briefings that are incomplete. Abnormal situations. not in sequence. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. . Some Common Errors to highlight are: APU Bleed not on. with potential warnings. If T/O is rejected then who calls STOP. a HUNG start. once your crews have achieved a good level it may not be necessary to give a complete briefing if the main points have been well understood during the previous exercise. MEL or CDL item.03 ENGINE START (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The engines are normally started using the AUTO START procedure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

This can take a few sessions for trainees to get correct so be aware of this problem. When cleared for pushback by ATC and the ground crew asks the pilots to release the brakes you only have to remove the Wheel Chocks by deselecting them and the Push Back will start.04 PUSH BACK (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Aircraft like the A320 are usually parked at an Air Bridge and thus require a Push Back prior to taxi. . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. As Airbus philosophy is for the Flying Pilot to carry out the engine start as the PF there is a rôle reversal for the scans depending on who has started the engines.11/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION When the Engines are stabilised after the starting sequence the crew perform their “After Start Scans”. If this function is present simply disconnect the NWS at some convenient stage during the cockpit preparation and connect the NWS after the Parking Brake has been applied after pushback. If this dedicated function is not present we have to cheat the system into displaying a NWS Disconnect ECAM message before pushback. We normally do not have the ability to simulate a “Power Push” where the nose wheel steering is pressurised and the CM1 is told by the ground crew what steering inputs to make while the aircraft is moved by pushing with a rotating wheel against the left main wheels. The Wheel Chocks prevent movement but now we have an ECAM message NWS Disconnect. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The usual procedure is with a tug. INSTRUCTION Depending on the type of simulator you have will dictate whether you have a dedicated NWS Disconnect / Connect function. Monitor the Ground Speed for the termination of the Push Back and when the value is zero ask the pilots to apply the Park Brake straight away as failure to do this at once will result in the aircraft moving forward under idle thrust. Monitor that their feet are on the floor as they should not apply any braking effort during push back. N. Normally the message appears as a result of initiating a push back so what is required is to insert the Wheel Chocks and (with doors and hatches still open if desired) and initiate the Push Back. The Push Back tractor will automatically disconnect when the Push back is complete.

This graph shows the relationship between input on the tiller and the resulting nosewheel deflection. The relationship between the tiller and the nose wheel angle is not linear.05 TAXIING (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The Nose Wheel Steering is “taxi by wire” and all turn demands are computer controlled. but the force o n the tiller is light and independent of the deflection.12/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes N. You can see that a large tiller deflection near the Zero position results in a small nose wheel deflection. one continual application from 130 kts down to taxi speed will cause the same amount of wear as one short application to slow from 15 to 10 kts. Effectively. Considerable wear and rise in temperature can occur during taxi due to successive brake applications. . Consequently. The brakes are carbon brakes. but as the deflection increases the effect is multiplied. which then immediately oxidizes). With Carbon Brakes at each brake release there is (almost instantly) a small amount of oxidation of the surface which is removed at the next brake application. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. When taxiing in a straight line the rudder pedals can be used in order to relax the “steering hand” however all turns should be initiated with the tiller (max speed 10 kts). If this occurs release some pressure on the tiller and thus reduce the turn demand. when taxiing in a straight line it is easy to make small corrections. This is where the wear occurs (from removing the oxidized material and exposing a clean surface. However when the nosewheel is at a large angle to the fuselage a small tiller deflection results in a large turn demand from the steering computers which will result in jerkiness.

If the ATC modifies the take-off or departure clearance. Monitor that when cleared to taxi they switch on the Taxi light. The Flight Control check can be performed before taxiing commences. Differential thrust is allowed and can assist during the turn (to a maximum of 55%N1 or 1. INSTRUCTION Before taxiing. .05EPR) Differential braking is not to be used due to the possibility of undue stress of the undercarriage components. NWS is then lost as well. FCU (possibly RMP) and a short briefing conducted to confirm those modifications. Monitor speed during turns to less than 10 kts. Before crossing the Holding point the Before T/O checklist should be completed down to the line. When the parking brake is engaged. the packs should be switched off just prior to completing the before take-off checklist. A 180° turn on the runway requires a specific procedure provided in FCOM Volume 3. When a packs off take-off is planned. anticipate the steer out.13/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes During taxi the brake temperature should not generally rise above 150°C before T/O for proper RTO. Thus consider using brake fans during taxi if the wheel temperature gets closeto that value. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If braking problems are encountered during taxi release the foot brake and select the A/SKID . so use differential braking to steer the aircraft. They should not let the G/S drop below 8 kts during the manoeuvre in order to avoid stopping. pressing the pedals has no effect. (In case of an APU auto shutdown during T/O. this gives both the required engine performance and at the same time passenger comfort. If during any stage of taxiing they have to stop and remain stopped (at the Holding Point for example) ensure they apply the parking Brake. confirm NWS is available by checking NW STREERG DISC amber MEMO is not displayed on ECAM. Don't use brake fans during T/O. If this check is carried out during the taxi it must be done in an uncongested area as one pilot will be “head down” during the check. this must be reflected on the MCDU. and Air Conditioning is desired during the take-off the APU BLEED may be used with the PACKS ON. Then use pedal braking with care by modulating the pressure. until the thrust is manually reduced.) If they are going to use APU bleed for take off only select APU bleed on just before take off as there is a possibility of fumes entering the cabin during taxi. If the T/O has to be performed with the PACKS OFF for performance reasons.NWS switch to OFF. Crossing the Holding Point is the cue for the PF to call for the checklist below the line. When exiting a sharp turn. the engine thrust is frozen. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

before setting FLEX or TOGA power. This means you should not fail the brakes when they are facing the terminal. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. NAV mode will disarm and RWY TRK mode will engage on the FD after lift off and will guide the A/C on the runway centre line.05 EPR. In the event of a tail strike an immediate return to land should be considered. it is important not to waste any runway length lining -up so a rolling take-off is recommended. The FD does not provide a rotation rate order. rotate the aircraft smoothly at 3º / second towards 10º nose up. Early rotation. Set the power in two stages by allowing the engines to stabilise at approximately 50% N1 / I. During this time the control laws will blend into flight mode. If ATC requests you to maintain runway centre li ne. The FADEC converts the Flex temperature entered on the Takeoff Performance page into an N1 or EPR value. simply turn the HDG selector and select the desired HDG target.14/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If you wish to insert a Loss of Braking do it where you will not get involved in negative training.06 TAKE-OFF AND INITIAL CLIMB (00:25) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION EXTRA INFORMATION HEAVY WEIGHT CROSSWIND BACKGROUND While turning onto the runway. but wait until they have a straight unobstructed taxiway in front of them. and when airborne continue rotation towards 15º to follow the SRS. N. The engine page will be automatically displayed on the SD. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The achievement of this specific value (N1 or EPR) as shown on the Upper ECAM screen is what the PNF checks to ensure that the Power is “Set”. The PNF is to check power is set correctly according to the called out FLEX ºC and to call “Power Set” before 80 kts. Use the rudder pedals to steer the A/C once you aligned with the runway centre li ne. over-rotation and excessive pitch rate (or any combination) may all cause a tail strike (refer to FCOM bulletin). but a pitch order to fly the T/O speed profile once airborne. . FLEX or TOGA thrust must be achieved before reaching 80 kts. Ensure FMA annunciation’s are called (including the Flex ºC) and a check of the FM position update is performed. At VR. The Nose wheel steering effect of rudder displacement reduces with increased speed and at 130 kts rudder control is purely aerodynamic.

Ensure a positive speed trend before flap retraction). the message LVR CLB flashes in the FMA Thrust Column until the thrust levers are placed in the CLB detent. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. VSI and RA for confirmation of positive climb. Runway wasted during line -up and initial power setting. late. the target speed is set automatically to initial climb speed. If you clear them to takeoff from the holding position apply sufficient thrust to move forward and turn into the takeoff direction (about 8 kts ground speed) and without any action on the brakes set the thrust for takeoff. Retract Flaps when the IAS>F with a positive speed trend. (The F and S speeds are the minimum speeds for flap retraction and not speeds at which retraction is essential. The FMA annunciation RWY is confirmation of LOC reception for this function. Once established i n departure complete the after take-off items and then the after take-off checklist. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and with a positive speed trend. Not starting the CHRONO. Use of nosewheel steering tiller during take-off roll. Retract Slats when the IAS>S with a positive speed trend. Aircraft held on the brakes duri ng power application. PACK I should be selected on at thrust reduction and PACK 2 when the slats have been retracted INSTRUCTION A rolling takeoff is recommended where possible. Reduce aircraft pitch attitude. If there is a n active Localiser for the departure runway. so if the take-off is commenced from a standstill monitor that they place their heels on the floor with toes on the rudder pedals. and when confirmed from these three sources should announce “Positive Climb” at which call the PF commands “Gear Up” The default values for THR RED and ACCEL ALT are both 1500 ft AGL in the FMS but in cases of noise abatement are modifiable by the pilot as required. At thrust reduction altitude. If a packs off take-off was carried out. Reaching the ACCEL ALT. . reduce thrust to the climb detent.15/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In case of low visibility take off visual cues are the primary means to track the runway centre line. the PFD yaw bar reproduces the LOC and provides assistance in case of fog patches. The PNF should monitor the altimeter. or missed. (by default 250 kts below FL100) so there is a significant pitch down order on the FD bar. Beware of the following common errors. FMA callouts incomplete.

The guidance law also includes attitude protection during take-off (18º. This in itself should not create a problem except where the “Gear Up” call is made too soon after the “Rotate” call (in other words before the “Positive Climb” call). “Power set” call missed or made before parameters stabilised and checked. and consequent overcontrolling at rotation EXTRA INFORMATION 1.16/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FMA callouts not acknowledged. take off close to V2 mini may have to be achieved. This is why the IAS actually flown is neither V2 + 10 (All Engines Operating) nor V2 (One Engine Inoperative). . the SRS commands a pitch leading to an IAS = V2 +10 and. rotate at VR (not before) and input a constant and smooth rotation without any aggressive or abrupt aft action on the side stick (particularly when a positive attitude has been achieved already). In order to avoid a tail strike. It is therefore to be used whenever performance allows. Half fo rward stick not applied. The take-off SRS mode provides a pitch command to fly a given speed schedule during the take-off segments. or 22. VSI and RA. More information about the SRS function: A simplified description is that with all engines operative. 2. If an engine were to fail after the “Rotate” call there will be a measurable delay before the aircraft is safely airborne and the undercarriage can be retracted (with the additional drag occasioned by the opening of the Gear Doors). This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. but during rotation it is not intended to provide pitch rate command.5º in windshear) and flight path angle protection ensuring a minimum vertical speed of +120 ft/min. HEAVY WEIGHT TAKE-OFF A significant problem with a Heavy Weight Take-Off compared to a Take-Off performed at a normal “Training Weight” is that after initiation of rotation the main undercarriage wheels remain in contact with the ground for a measurable amount of time. “Positive climb” call made without confirming on altimeter. that with one engine inoperative. Forward side stick above 100 kts. A further consideration is that when CONF 1 + F is chosen. The recommended flap configuration to provide best tail clearance at take off is CONF 2. it commands a pitch giving the greater of the current speed or V2. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

05 EPR) but relatively fast above this value we check to see if both engines have reached this value corresponding to the TLA before advancing both thrust levers to the take off setting. As engine response is slow below 50% N1 (1.05 EPR) and the aircraft commences rolling and accelerating due to the applied thrust. or a tailwind component. For this reason only a very limited amount of into wind side stick is used. As the thrust increases towards the 50% N1 (1. We therefore adopt the following strategy. as the thrust indication passes the 50% N1 (1. In a conventional aircraft the ailerons are applied “into wind” to counteract the extra lift developed by the into wind wing. Keep the stick full forward until 80 kts and then progressively release your input to neutral by 100 kts. In a normal situation this is acceptable but in a tailwind.15 EPR) and. However with an Airbus FBW aircraft the placing of the side stick “into wind” will result in raising the spoilers on the into wind wing and so effect performance and controllability.05 EPR) mark place the thrust levers in the FLX or TOGA detent before 40 kts. Commence setting the thrust in the same manner as a normal take off but with full forward side stick.05 EPR during the aircraft acceleration phase). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Simulator motion limitations may make the crosswind takeoff seem as if the aircraft is not tracking the runway centreline but once rotation is commenced this limitation is transparent. The managed speed profile takes into account GW. On rotation the side stick is centralised so as not to give a roll demand.17/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CROSSWIND TAKE OFF A specific technique is used to set the take off thrust when there is a crosswind greater than 20 kts. CRZFL. (This procedure prevents the thrust from plateauing at 50% N1 or 1. Altitude and Speed constraints so Managed Speed is the best speed for economy climb. we don’t want to consume runway without the correct thrust set. or crosswind. CI.07 CLIMB (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The transition to CLIMB phase occurs at the ACCEL ALT when SRS mode disengages and the speed target goes to the initial climb speed. As the aircraft speed increases this into wind aileron is reduced so that at rotation the ailerons are neutral. Selected speed can be used in climb as required. This means that the aircraft will be moving along the runway with the thrust equivalent to about half thrust while we check that both engines are giving the same amount of thrust.05EPR) value move the thrust levers to approximately 70% N1 (1. . In a Normal Take off the thrust is set to 50% N1 (1. In the previous FMS phase (Take off) the Climb speed may be pre-selected on the FMS Performance This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. N.

Apply local regulations. a high angle of climb is required after T/O for noise or obstacles. During climb. . select ARPT on EFIS Control panel and COPY the ACTIVE FPLN into the Secondary. the predictions on the FPLN page assume the selected speed is kept until the next planned speed modification in the FPLN. You can also clear any manually inserted navaids on the NAVAID page. whenever ATC clears you to climb to a FL. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. so pre-select. If 200 kts is pre-selected for initial climb (retaining the normal SPD LIM of 250kt until passing FL100 in the flight plan). If ATC requires you to expedite your climb through a given FL: .000 ft. Reasons for this may be as follows: ATC requests a specific speed. 275 kts is predicted to be maintained until the next phase (TOC in this example). or OP CLB if ATC gives radar vectors or clears you direct to a given FL. you can select STD. and green dot as best climb gradient speed. If ATC gives you a small level change (e. Typically. it is a good practice to look at the ECAM MEMO so as to ensure that some items have not been omitted: e. If at a higher altitude the pilot selects a turbulence speed (e. or select that speed a tight turn after T/O. so pre-select the speed you want. If you are already in the Climb phase a speed is selected on the FCU. this is not allowed. The given FL is either defaulted to the FCU target altitude.18/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes page. 275 kt) and there is no SPD CSTR or SPD LIM till top of climb (TOC). . Climb mode management The recommended AP/FD modes in climb are CLB if ATC clears the aircraft along the FPLN.or use a higher V/S (but beware of the reducing IAS). so select the turbulence speed according to the QRH When selected speed is used. The PERF CLB page provides predictions to a given FL in terms of time and distance assuming Managed Climb mode.g. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. then the predictions on the FPLN page assume that 200 kts is maintained from the ACCEL ALT up to 10. Other drills: . In most areas of the world. If used at T/O.When crossing 10. Prolonged turbulence. all constraints are considered in these predictions. or it can be manually inserted. LDG LT OFF / SEAT BELTS OFF (according to flight conditions). the tilt was around + 4°. so pre-select the speed you want. .g.000 ft (the SPD LIM) where managed speed is supposed to be resumed. tilt the antenna down so as to get ground returns on the top of the ND.g. with all engines operative. turbulence speed may be considered as best rate of climb speed.select a lower speed on the FCU for best speed / altitude trade off. In other areas such as in the US. disregarding any ALT CSTR. even when below the Transition Level. from 7000 to 8000) use the V/S mode for smoother guidance and less thrust variation. so as to allow full autotuning.During CLB adjust the RADAR TILT for the conditions.

The REC MAX ALT indicates the present climb capability of the aircraft. Optimum altitude (OPT) is the altitude at which the aircraft covers the maximum distance per kilogram of fuel according to the aircraft current GW.08 CRUISE (00 :20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND At the top of climb set TCAS to ALL. For short sectors the most economic cruise altitude is not necessarily the achievable maximum.05. The OPT FL is provided on PROG page function of (GW. winds at different levels and a minimum of 5 minutes in the cruise. Navigation accuracy should be checked regularly and monitored using raw data as required. Selecting a cruise altitude not more than 2000 ft above optimum will maintain fuel efficiency and a sensible manoeuvre margin. It is limited to FL 390 and is not a function of the CI. This is the current OPT FL. use selected guidance and navigate using raw data. conduct a check of the ECAM system pages. Cruise Altitude Profile For efficient performance try to fly close to the OPT FL during the cruise. If FMGS navigation performance is unsatisfactory. CI. The FMGS PROG page gives a n optimum altitude and a recommended maximum altitude. Recommended Maximum (REC MAX) altitude ensures a 0. Recommended maximum altitude is limited to FL 390.15 In Flight Performance has a graph enabling selection of the best cruise altitude on short sectors). . See also G. (FCOM 3.3 g buffet margin and a minimum rate of climb (300 ft/min). cost index and aircraft weight. Selection of cruise altitude and speed will depend on several factors including the overall sector length. Try to avoid a 180º radar vector after takeoff but instead use a combination of SID’s to give practice in various manoeuvring and constraints to contend with. WIND …).06 “Global Positioning System”.19/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION The session syllabus gives a runway direction for the session and it is up to you to manage the session so that there is no wasted time flying to a Convenient position to start the next exercise. A few zig zag radar vectors will maintain the reality. N. CI. (or BELOW if within 2000 ft of FL 390). deviation from ISA. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. A single Step Climb (SC) can be inserted in order to optimise This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Do not ever freeze the simulator position if the crew can realise the fact. It is much more realistic to give a variety of vectors. and periodically throughout the cruise.

So when reaching a lower FL. A Step Climb will not be accepted if it does not ensure at least one minute of flight time at the new altitude. In order for the FMGS to enter the cruise phase (ALT CRZ) and for the F-PLN page predictions of fuel on arrival (destination and alternate) to be correct.. according to the following rule: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. the ALT CRZ is usually updated except if within 200 NM from destination. the CI is then a low figure. Once the CI is inserted along with the FPLN. This ensures that the proper initial cruise Mach Number is targeted and with the A/THR in MACH mode. It is important to have the FMA altitude annunciation ALT CRZ at the initiation of cruise for fuel efficiency. cruise. . The Cost Index is computed by the Airline Flight Operations department. . In such a case. FL but also as a function of headwind component and ISA variations. or if known while in Climb phase can be pre-selected in the cruise phase. This minimizes the fuel consumption and is more comfortable for the passengers. This FIXED MACH is to be SELECTED on the FCU. check ALT CRZ on the FMA. the FMS computes the ECON SPD/MACH PROFILE for CLB/CRZ/DES.If fuel consumption is the essential economical factor on a given sector. CI = 0 represents Maximum Range. CI is a high figure. The crew must be aware that the target Mach will vary not only as a function of GW. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. .If flight time is the essential economical factor.000 ft) or SPD CSTR. The Cost Index is a number through which the economic strategy of the flight is determined. They are therefore realistic. To do this determine the waypoints where a wind or temperature entry is necessary. If you have to descend to a lower CRZ FL. GW.20/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes the profile for high gross weight conditions. If it is not displayed. CI = 999 represents minimum time. the CI comes up automatically. It can be assigned to each CORTE in the FMS data base. If ATC requires a FIXED MACH. the AP altitude control is SOFT which allows the aircraft to deviate +/. CRZ FL etc. The cost index determines the speed/Mach profile for all flight phases (climb. insert the current level as CRZ FL on PROG page. Many Airlines fly with a fixed CI as the variation in the price of fuel is difficult to keep current. Flying MANAGED SPD/MACH in cruise ensures the best economical flight. All predictions are updated accordingly down to the next S/C or T/D. and is called ECON SPD/MACH. thus minimising thrust variations. …. It is recommended to fly MANAGED SPD/MACH during cruise. descent).50 ft from the target. Forecast winds and temperatures should also be entered in the F-PLN at appropriate points along the route so that accurate predictions will be calculated. this is a tactical clearance. when inserting the Co Rte on INIT A page. The MANAGED SPD PROFILE includes the ECON SPD/MACH as well as the ATC restrictions such as SPD LIM (250 kt/10. The cost index takes into consideration the price of the fuel and the flight time. the cruise altitude in the PROG page and the FCU altitude must be the same.

Select CSTR (for MORA) on the PF EFIS Control panel and ARPT on the PNF side.Review the main ECAM pages: MEMO and ENG / BLEED / ELEC / HYD / FLT CTL / FUEL. and the temperature at the initial CRZ FL. . XTRA fuel. and note any significant parameter deviations.09 DESCENT AND APPROACH (00:15) BACKGROUND DESCENTS INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Ensure the concept of ALT and ALT CRZ is well understood. insert the o ffset into the FPLN. and temperature. ADR2 and ADR3 on the PFDs. and also on the stand-by altimeter). When checking fuel. at the next waypoint where wind differs by 30° or 30 kts and temperature by 5°. Repeat these drills approximately every 45 minutes If there is weather. N. INSTRUCTION There are not many occasions for flight in cruise during training. check correct fuel distribution. If GPS is primary. use the LATERAL OFFSET function to determine how many NM left or right of track are required for avoidance. insert wind DIR/SPD. Adapt ND range to circumstances and modify the RADAR TILT as a function of the ND range. the validity of the altitude reading has to be checked periodically (between ADR1. Selection of a higher altitude on the FCU than that entered in PROG will automatically update the PROG page with a new cruise altitude. EFOB at Waypoint & Destination. unless an amber navigation message comes up. Having done this review the FUEL predictions. Once cleared by ATC. Periodically check the FUEL ESTIMATES. Additionally any step climbs should be included in the F-PLN. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.Cross check the FMS NAV ACCY using available raw data.21/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes at the first waypoint in cruise. In RVSM airspace. this check is not really necessary. All predictions will then be meaningful. and FOB + Fuel Used = Initial Fuel (in order to detect a leak). Periodic Drills to be achieved in cruise . and automatic sequencing of the FPLN will occur. . balance.

One pilot (normally the pilot who will carry out the landing) now programs the FMGS for the arrival procedure (the PF can however ask the PNF to do this for him). During the cruise the crew should make themselves aware of any NOTAMs that will affect their arrival. Be watchful for late. whereas specific data is checked on MCDU or other peripherals. MANAGED DESCENT This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The FMS computed TOD has taken into account all constraints. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. When he has completed his briefing he takes control of the aircraft and the other pilot now checks what is in the FMS with his approach charts.PLN data is cross-checked on ND PLAN and on the charts. It is important that planned procedures are briefed rather than making a generic brief. F. If required a navigational accuracy check should be carried out prior to commencing the descent or 50 NM from destination at the latest.22/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND Before reaching the Top Of Descent (TOD) position as computed by the FMGS we have to prepare for the expected Arrival and carry out a Briefing so the PNF is aware of what to expect during the Approach. Any errors are thus exposed. visibility requirements.03. Having prepared for the Descent and Approach and carried out the Approach Briefing we are now ready to commence our descent. FCOM 3. From the METAR and TAF they should know what sort of weather conditions to expect and this will be confirmed from the ATIS. DESCENTS A. .16 details the items to be Briefed. Landing (or possible Go-Around). rushed descent and approach preparation and briefing which can lead to important items being omitted. go around procedures and any special requirements that apply. In order to the programming he hands over control during the FMGS preparation. If no data is inserted for the approach 200 NM from the Destination. To avoid “two heads down” during the briefing the pilot who is not flying the aircraft carries out a briefing using his approach charts and FMS.As for the T/O briefing. Roll Out and taxi to the parking stand. So we will either initiate descent when it suits us (at the FMS computed TOD position) or ATC will require an early or late descent initiation. Ensure they include the date and page numbers of the charts you are using. an ENTER DEST DATA message comes on the MCDU to remind the crew to prepare for the arrival.

If the speed reaches the lower limit. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The managed DES mode guides the A/C along the FMS pre-computed descent profile and so will meet all constraints on descent to the FCU selected altitude in the Flight Plan. However the actual external conditions might not be as predicted and if Anti Ice is used the idle thrust is increased. the current speed decreases towards the lower limit of the speed target range to keep the A/C on path with IDLE thrust. The AP/FD guides the aircraft on the pre-computed profile. the current speed increases towards the higher limit of the speed target range to keep the A/C on path with IDLE thrust. the ATHR remains at THR This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. according to the pilot’s entries for descent speed and wind as well as any altitude constraints. the A/C speed is allowed to vary within a given range around the Nominal Target Descent Speed ?y 20 kts (limited to b VMAX) to give some flexibility to DES mode and keep the A/C on path when external conditions vary. . then SPEED mode engages on the A/THR. Consequently when DES mode is engaged with Managed Speed. to keep the A/C on path at that lower speed.23/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Managed descent (DES) makes the best use of A/C speed within the target range and of thrust (Idle or Speed mode on A/THR) to meet the descent profile and is the normal method of initiating a descent. SPEED / DES. Case a): If the trend is to get below the desired path. THR IDLE / DES. The corresponding FMA readings are THR DES / DES. If the speed reaches the higher limit. Case b): If the trend is to get above the desired path. Therefore DES mode is available if NAV is engaged.

So if speed brakes are not extended. DES mode will guide the A/C on a shallow descent converging towards the descent profile (1000 ft/min or less depending on the circumstances) with the ATHR in SPEED mode. the INTCPT point will slowly move away from you until it gets close to an altitude constrained waypoint and then the EXTEND SPD BRAKE message appears on the PFD. Once you are cleared to descend you will have a prediction of where you will intercept the profile from the computed TOD point by the blue symbol. If DES mode is engaged and then the speed is selected. It assumes the extension of ½ SPD BRAKE. monitor VDEV and the symbol to recover the descent path. The intercept point is then at a fixed position along the flight plan on the ND and it indicates the location where the descent path will be intercepted. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. if ATC requires an early descent. Thus the VDEV will slowly increase. Consequently DES mode will do its best to keep the A/C on the descent profile but the speed will not deviate from its target. the descent profile is unchanged. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. . If descent is delayed and we pass the computed TOD point a DECELERATE message appears in white on the PFD (this message can be cleared by using the FMGS CLR key). Therefore when HIGH ABOVE PATH. However.24/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes IDLE but the AP will not allow the speed to increase more than the higher limit to track the descent path. If the Descent is delayed a decrease in speed (subject to ATC) towards green dot will let us loose altitude more quickly once descent commences (as we resume normal speed). This technique allows an altitude constraint to be matched with minimum use of speed brakes.

RECOVERING IDEAL PROFILE If you are below the desired profile in OPEN DES.25/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If (when above the profile) it is computed that the required profile will not be regained. (or increase it subject to ATC). If you are above the desired profile in OPEN DES. If a speed increase is required (maybe due to ATC) then using a selected speed in excess of optimum will command the autothrust to speed mode. as the aircraft applies power to keep on profile. Monitor progress of the descent on the PROG page and on the ND. adjust the rate of descent by selecting and varying the speed or V/S. By monitoring the ND. and consider speed brake usage. the simplest way of regaining the profile is to select and reduce the V/S. which remains at idle but has an effect on pitch attitude and V/S. OPEN DES must be selected and speedbrake used as appropriate. In other words. Selecting only speedbrake in DES mode will not achieve an increase in rate of descent. B. Once the profile has been regained. Don’t try to reduce speed during descent as with This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The speedbrake has no effect on the thrust. a white MORE DRAG message is displayed. selecting a Heading does not induce any change in A/C pitch behaviour. OPEN DESCENT Selecting OPEN DES (by pulling the ALT knob) will command idle thrust and no constraints will be considered on descent to the FCU selected altitude. If HDG is pulled. If. the level off point can be found and the PROG page gives the deviation from the planned profile C. as power will be applied to maintain the aircraft on profile and at target speed. DES mode reverts to V/S. an increased rate of descent is required. you need to reduce your energy level so maintain your speed. At lower altitudes the energy circle is useful. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. for any reason. . or resume OPEN DES. It is then time for the pilot to increase / decrease the V/S target or select OPDES depending on circumstances.

the A/C will automatically decelerate to the holding speed at a point indicated by the speed change symbol when in NAV mode. If in OPEN DES mode a higher selected speed is advisable.26/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes idle thrust this will only move your level off point away from you. At 10.PLN. and set TCAS to BELOW. thus giving a shallower descent profile. all other predictions assume one pattern. The procedure for terrain checking is especially important with thrust at idle. Conditions requiring the use of anti-ice are listed in FCOM 3.04. and anti-ice is used. the yoyo indicates the instantaneous VDEV between the A/C current altitude. and the altitude the A/C should fly at the exit fix of the holding pattern so as to be there on the descent path. The FMS computes the holding at green dot speed taking into consideration the ICAO holding speed limits function of altitude (subject to holding table): 230 kts up to FL140 240 kts between FL140 & FL200 265 kts above FL 200 If managed speed is used. LDG Lights / Seat belts / ILS button as required. Select Radar on the PF side and TERRAIN ON ND on the PNF side. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Clean configuration is recommended for fuel considerations. D. F. Various Drills during the descent Before TOD. in OPEN DES mode. A rule of thumb calculation for descent is that track miles to run should equal three times your height in thousands of feet. OVERVIEW In all modes the ideal profile is tracked by the VDEV indicator on the PFD.000 ft. adjust the TILT up along with descent progress. press CSTR button on EFIS CTL panel. The effects of engine and wing anti-ice on descent profile can be marked. The holding pattern is not included in the descent path computation since the FMS does not know how many patterns will be flown. If RADAR is to be used. or ALT the aircraft will slow up more efficiently. If already in the descent. insert the holding pattern in the F. Exact figures are given in QRH chapter 4. while in the holding pattern. half speedbrake will counteract the effects of the added thrust due to the anti-ice. Alternately. speedbrake can be used. The Last Exit Time and Fuel details are accessed by making a Lateral Revision at the Hold and then selecting the HOLD prompt. it is usual to see an increase in speed in DES mode. If speed increases to the upper bracket. select destination VOR/DME needle. DES mode guides the A/C down at -1000 ft/min. HOLDING PATTERNS If ATC requires the A/C to hold.30 E. as the idle NI / EPR is increased. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. At all times bear in mind terrain and MSA considerations. When in ALT*. Once the A/C enters the holding pattern. .

N. the Final Approach from FAF to landing or minimum. However. from IAF to the activation of approach phase indicated by the (DECEL) pseudo waypoint. the Initial Approach. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. 2. when you are training you can ens ure that ATC only talks to them at suitable times. On the other hand you must be aware of how long they need to prepare so that they are in a good geographical position for the next exercise when they have finished their preparation. ATC does not know what is being said in the cockpit at a given point of time.27/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION Avoid giving radar vectors that cause the crew to rush their preparation or briefings.10 ARRIVAL (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND All approaches can be divided into 3 segments. . INITIAL APPROACH a) FM NAV ACCY check using raw data (only if GPS is not primary). 1. the Intermediate Approach from (DECEL) to FAF and 3. as in real life. In each of these parts there are various actions required which have to be carried out irrespective of the approach from which the landing follows. Once the training part of the given sequence is complete you can then give ATC instructions at any time. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

is computed assuming a decelerated approach technique. the stabilised approach where the A/C reaches FAF in Landing CONF and at VAPP. An example of this could be when on radar headings the flight plan is sequenced to the FAF by deleting the intervening positions so that our flight plan looks like thisPPOS F-PLN DIS CONTINUITY This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. AP/FD Lateral/Vertical managed modes may be used and EGPWS set ON. Attitude associated to FD crossbars is used to fly ILS approaches. for radar vectoring). Hence. the decelerated approach where the A/C reaches the FAF in CONF1 and S speed. When NAV mode is engaged. insert VAPP as a SPEED CSTR at the FAF. below 2000 ft AGL. and as a consequence which display mode will be used on the ND’s and which guidance modes may be used with AP/FD. the pilot will continue the deceleration and configuration changes so as to be stabilized at VAPP in Landing Configuration by 1000 ft (IMC. c) Activate the APPR Phase Activate the Approach to commence speed reduction to Green Dot. Then. Speed control now passes to the Flap Lever handle. This is the normal procedure for an ILS Approach. . INTERMEDIATE APPROACH The Intermediate Approach is required to guide the aircraft onto the correct final trajectory having decelerated to the correct speed. if you wish to fly an NPA (or a stabilized approach).28/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The result of the NAV ACCY check determines the strategy on how to conduct the approach. b) Select the BEST FLYING REFERENCE for the approach. This is the normal procedure for all approaches other than an ILS. if check is positive or GPS is Primary the PF and PNF ND on ARC or ROSE NAV. in order to get a valid (DECEL) waypoint. When HDG mode is selected (e. The FPV is strongly recommended for Non Precision or Visual Approaches. E.g.g. the Approach phase activates automatically when sequencing the position. 500 ft VMC). As the position has to be placed on a flight plan leg a problem can arise when being radar vectored to a final intercept with no valid FROM point. a) Deceleration The FMS computes a pseudo waypoint (called DECEL) (indicated by the symbol on the FPLN shown on the ND). indicating where to start the deceleration towards approach speed VAPP. you have to manually activate the Approach phase to cause the deceleration. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. altitude and configuration to the FAF.. There are two approach techniques and their use is dictated by the type of approach to be carried out.

This means that we will decelerate to Green Dot speed but after this speed reduction has taken place we will maintain Green Dot until we take the first stage of flap which reduces our speed to S speed. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and auto retracts when A319 and A320 Flaps are full. b) Configure Once the Approach has been activated speed control passes to the flap lever handle. If the capture or engagement is abnormal. which in this case is CI14R and as such may not be correct. .XTK and FPLN for managed APPR (GPS primary). b) Monitor the Final Approach using raw data by monitoring the LOC . FINAL APPROACH a) Monitor the Final Approach mode engagement of G/S * or FINAL. preferably below 220 kts. If the A/C has a tendency to be fast and/or high on final. If ATC requests you to maintain a given speed you can select any speed down to VLS. If ATC clears the interception of the Final approach trajectory along the FPLN route. needles or XTK). Don’t use SPD BRK on final. Therefore if we want to achieve VAPP at the FAF we need to be conscious of the distance required to slow up to that speed and configure accordingly. Once cleared for the Approach by ATC. If desired you can select flap to give yourself a larger margin above VLS (which will reduce as you configure). or select Final descent path FPA reaching FAF. EXTEND LANDING GEAR earlier. The Aircraft must be stabilised in Landing CONF at VAPP by 1000 ft (IMC. so as to be ready to react. VDEV . 500 ft VMC) If there is a significant change in tower wind before reaching 1000 ft AGL ask the PNF to modify it on PERF APPR. c) Managed speed is recommended to benefit from the GS MINI SPEED function. which have little efficiency at low speed. when needed. When the speed has recovered bring the thrust levers back into the CLB detent.G/S deviation symbols for ILS. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.29/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CI14R FI14R LFBO14R As the DECEL point can only appear superimposed on the flight plan it will in this case be coincident with the commencement of the flight plan. use NAV mode if FM ACCY CHECK is OK. take over by selecting the correct FPA.XTK + needles / DME / ALT for NPA (non GPS primary) and Needles / DME / ALT / Time for NPA when FM NAV ACCY check is negative. push the levers forward above the CLB detent (but below MCT) until the speed trend arrow indicates acceleration. c) Final axis intercept Refer to applicable raw data (LOC. ARM the APPR (for ILS or a Managed NPA). VDEV . A321 flaps are 3 or full Keep your hands on the thrust levers when the A/THR is engaged on final. If for any reason the speed drops below VAPP significantly.

SRS / GA TRK will engage. From 250 kt in level flight deceleration to S speed with extension of CONF I will take approximately 5 NM.11 ILS APPROACH (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Prior to commencing an ILS all the required navigation aids should be identified. The normal approach is a decelerated approach (when there are no constraints) with glideslope interception occurring at S speed and flight continuing to 2000 ft AAL (minimum) at this speed at which time the aircraft should be configured for landing. Enforce the correct sequencing of the Flight Plan. Two useful gates in descent are 250 kt at 9000 ft AAL. If visual on reaching the MDA or DH disconnect the AP (and FD’s for NPA). If not visual Go-round. At very light weights the use of managed speed may produce speeds slower than desirable in a radar or procedural pattern in which case the use of selected speed is recommended. and displayed as necessary. and continue to land if the A/C is properly established. . The energy circle is a useful indication of distance required to touchdown.30/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Be aware that if you move thrust levers to the TOGA position. 30 NM from touch down and 250 kt at 3000 ft AAL. In case a major navigation problem occurs such as loss of raw data. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. As always the FMGS position should be checked against raw data. In our training in the simulator the aircraft is frequently in a state where a stabilised approach is the wisest choice (in This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. they should check the audio ident. Go around altitude must be set on the FCU. Because of the nature of our training this is one area that needs to be monitored well. To standardise this procedure for all applications we set the go round altitude when the A/C current altitude is below the Go -round altitude. INSTRUCTION Your radar vectors should give the trainees some little time to settle down before making their Approach and Landing. therefore the PNF should closely monitor the performance of the PF and be ready to take control if necessary. 15 NM from touchdown. N. or a wrong display. Check ILS IDENT so that if there is no ident. or loss of FM NAV ACCY the approach should be discontinued and a go around made. The final approach phase is one in which pilot incapacitation is both more likely and more critical.

Red LAND warning is triggered. and below the missed approach altitude set the missed approach altitude on the FCU. A stabilised approach is recommended where the Glide Slope angle is greater than 3. LOC and GS deviation indexes are lost. If the Glide Slope is being captured at or below 2000ft AAL select Conf 2 when one dot below the Glide Slope. Ground transmitter failure. the FPLN may be incorrectly sequenced or the go-around will have to be flown using selected modes. This increases their situational awareness by having the Flight Plan in view on the ND. airspeed deviation of +10 kts or -5 kts. In such a case. If the failure lasts more than several seconds. If there is no go-around procedure displayed.FD goes to HDG. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. After glide slope capture.31/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Alternate Law for example) so ensure your trainees use a suitable technique according to circumstances. proper monitoring and immediate take over if anything seems abnormal. Loss of ILS 1 + 2 receiver.5°. ILS scales and FD bars flash. A check of the TO waypoint will indicate that the FPLN is correctly sequenced. go round. and check that a blue go-around procedure is displayed on the ND. The aircraft should be stabilised in the approach configuration by 1000 ft AAL (500 ft in VMC) or a go around should be performed. 2. When you disconnect the autopilot avoid the temptation to make inputs on the sidestick. There is normally no technical reason why an Autoland should not be performed with a CAT I ILS however this requires proper visual references (at least CAT I). If R/A < 200 ft. . or LOC / GS deviation of more than 1 dot. or an incorrect procedure displayed. in which case immediately go round (RED LOC and GS flags . in which case the AP/FD will remain ON with LOC and GS modes and this is because such a failure is most commonly transient. There are two types of ILS failures to be considered: 1. CAT l will be displayed until a valid Radio Altimeter signal is obtained. or in case of Red LAND warning. The PNF should monitor the aircraft flight path during the final approach and call out any V/S greater than 1000 fpm. In order to train for the “worst” situation the pilots should refer to the ILS deviation scales ONLY on the PFD. As the requirements of Low Visibility Procedures are not in force for CAT 1 operations there is a possibility of unstable signals below the CAT 1 minima. At training weights the aircraft may not decelerate fast enough so in this case extend the gear before Flap 2.ILS scales removed – AP trips off . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The aircraft will be stabilised and tracking towards the runway.

12 RAW DATA ILS (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A requirement of the Skill Test is for the Trainee to perform a CAT l ILS using raw data. V/S scale and finally the LOC and GS deviation scales). Anticipation of LOC interception is through the cross track information on the ND. To enhance situational awareness the ND should display the flight plan and the ILS deviation scales are viewed on the PFD. beware of false captures. smooth corrections in pitch and bank to maintain FPV in the desired position. Flight Director. selected track index. If the clearance is given at a large distance. . Engagement of LOC* and LOC should always be monitored carefully by the crew to confirm the inbound course is correct. INITIAL APPROACH Select FPV as flying reference This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. INSTRUCTION Ensure the trainees arm the correct mode! If you only clear them for LOC capture they should only arm the LOC. or large angle from the axis. A. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Conversely. Reinforce the basic premise that speed is controlled by the thrust levers and profile is controlled by the side stick. N. To gain benefit from our glass cockpit the Flight Path Vector (Bird) should be used for this approach. As the Flight Directors are selected off you will see (on the horizon line) the blue track index corresponding to the selected TRK. Ensure your trainees are aware (by the end of their training) that our aircraft are very efficient! This can be emphasised by making a decelerated approach with a tail wind. if you clear them for an ILS then the Approach push button should be pressed arming the G/S and LOC for capture. or Auto Thrust. Raw data is defined as without the Auto Pilot. In this case they will probably have to lower the gear before taking Flap 2. Describe the specific indications on the PFD (FPV. Speed trend.32/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Avoid the tendency to “duck under” the glideslope or to turn towards the runway as in a crosswind as you will be blown off the final path. Consequently aim for small.

initiate the interception of the GS by smoothly easing the FPV down to the GS flight path angle of –3º. Decelerate so as to reach FAF in CONF FULL at VAPP For LOC intercept use the ND information such as cross track error. fly the FPV 1º up or down to recover. when flying the FPV onto the TRK the LOC is not centred then make an adjustment to your flown track to come back onto the correct path. Thus it may be affected by IRS data drift amongst others (TRK). Activate the Approach in order to get the Managed Speed information on the Speed scale of the PFD and so reduce the PF workload in that his speed target is automatically correct for the flap setting. fly the FPV back to the blue TRK index on the horizon If the GS index starts to deviate. The Flight Director will come up automatically. as once you are established on the LOC the TRK index should remain directly above the FPV and in line with the Track made good index. INTERMEDIATE APPROACH Select TRK to ILS course in order to display the blue track index on the PFD horizon line. fly the FPV in the direction of the LOC index relative to the blue TRK index on the horizon Once on the LOC. A typical TRK error at the end of a flight is 1° to 2°. If the LOC does not remain centred after you have established on it make small changes to your track to regain it. Once re-established. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. FINAL APPROACH When 1/2 dot below the GS.33/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes B. . If. and pointer movement. When the LOC begins to move fly the FPV to the blue TRK index. GO AROUND If a go around is required. the speed trend arrow is an excellent aid in maintaining the correct approach speed. The blue TRK index should remain on the LOC course for reference. Only CAT I approaches can be flown with such a technique. fly the FPV back to the GS flight path target. If LOC index starts to deviate. D. As the A/THR is not used for this approach. The PF calls for GOROUNDFLAP and the PNF retracts one stage of flap and monitors the This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The BIRD is computed out of IRS data. push thrust levers to TOGA and proceed as usual. C.

It is a requirement to be stable by 1000 ft AAL. It is important that there is good crew communication in the cockpit so that the PF intentions are clearly understood by the PNF. The LOC must be captured (LOC* or LOC) for GS capture to take place. or late vectors. If the Intercept point as shown by the blue bent arrow symbol on the ND is too close to the runway consider going around. but established on the LOC.13 GLIDE SLOPE FROM ABOVE (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Irrespective of the reason the aircraft finishes above the glide slope. Arm the GS (if not already done). Pull the V/S knob and select minus 1500 fpm 3. This can be due to an ATC requirement. On the FCU set the aircraft altitude above you (to prevent undesired ALT* due to the balloon effect of extending flap) 2. The sequence of events can be dictated by specific events but generally is as follows – 1.34/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes climb by reference to the Radio Altimeter. Too high a descent rate can result in the This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. 4. Failure to follow instrument flying techniques common to all aircraft. or slow response from the pilot or the aircraft. Monitor the descent. The maximum descent path is obtained in CONF FULL. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. VSI. Usually such a situation can be foreseen and the pilots should configure so as to be in a high drag situation when cleared to descend (to reduce the acceleration effect of the subsequent steeper than normal descent). INSTRUCTION Watch out for the following Common Errors Poor scanning leading to over controlling in pitch and roll in order to chase the LOC and GS Use of FPV as “primary” reference for pitch corrections. and Altitude and when a climb is confirmed by all three instruments calls “Positive Climb” at which the PF commands “Gear Up”. N. When we are authorised to descend prompt action is required to capture the GS and to be established in stable flight before 1000ft AAL. Nevertheless. . the rate of descent should be carefully monitored to avoid exceeding speed limits and high sink rate GPWS warnings.

for example). This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.35/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes speed either reaching VMAX and a resulting mode reversion or an excess of speed in the later stages of the approach. It is possible to combine these two procedures so that our lateral navigation is Managed and our vertical navigation is Selected. or Flight Path Angle. N. If we suspect an error we can always revert to a “Selected” approach where we manoeuvre the aircraft (by hand. An enhancement of this first group of approaches is where the lateral and vertical parts of the approach are encoded so that the FMS can fly the same approach using the GPS to ensure the aircraft is in the correct position at all times. so that the aircraft is at a given height at a given distance from the ground based aid. . ADF and LOC approaches where ground based information is used as the primary source of information for lateral navigation and vertical navigation is controlled by the pilots inputs. or Relative bearing – ADF. and DME). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. or AP) to follow the ground indications. This is the “Managed Approach” that we demonstrate to our trainees and our progress must be confirmed by reference to the “Raw Data” which is the ground based information (inbound Radial – VOR. or light aircraft crossing the approach path below them. For both these reasons it is more desirable to have them established on the LOC but not cleared to descend until almost full scale fly down indication. Point out the symbol where they will regain the profile and ensure it is at least 3+nm from the threshold. Vertical na vigation is performed by controlling the vertical speed.14 NON PRECISION APPROACH (00:25) BACKGROUND MANAGED APPROACH SELECTED APPROACH LOCALISER APPROACH INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Non Precision Approaches can be broadly separated into two groups. If the ground based signals were removed there would be no information in the cockpit with which to continue the approach. Tell them to maintain their altitude and do not descend for whatever reason (helicopter. or you will get GS* and LOC* at the same time. The first is the conventional VORDME. This is the case where the pilot adjusts the Heading of the aircraft to counter the effect of wind so that the aircraft flies along a path that is fixed in relation to the ground based aid. INSTRUCTION When you give radar vectors for this exercise there is always the possibility that they will either be too high when established on the LOC to be stabilised by 1000ft.

Otherwise an approach in selected mode is requied. As the Deceleration point is based on a decelerated approach you need to insert a speed constraint of VAPP at the FAF. We aim to fly the NPA as much as possible like a stabilised ILS with similar procedures. in this hypothetical case we would initiate an immediate go round as we would have no raw data with which to check our progress. then vertical selected guidance (NAV / FPA). . with correct sequencing. or where an incorrect vertical coding has been identified in the navigation database. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. However if altitude corrections are necessary due to large differences from the ISA temperature. should be used. However. RNAV approaches are normally flown using lateral and vertical managed guidance (FINAL APP mode). Flight crews are extensively trained to use this system during their type rating course so no specific training is required to use the FMGS for RNAV approaches. The AP/FD guidance modes for a Managed approach are referred to the FMS FPLN and this is confirmed during the approach by reference to the raw data. The second group of approaches do not use any ground based data but are solely based on GPS information and are called “RNAV GPS Approaches”.36/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes An important technical point for a Managed Approach is that if the ground signals are removed there is no change in the aircrafts flight path down to the MDA as the aircraft is being guided by the information coded into the arrival as contained in the FMS. The Airbus aircraft RNAV system is the FMGS. where the ground generated LOC beam is captured Managed approaches (la teral and vertical or only lateral) are only available if they are in the FMGS database and the GPS is Primary or the NAV ACCY check is positive and the procedure has been validated by the Company concerned. The ILS push button must be set to OFF in order to get VDEV information on the PFD (exception for LOC only approaches) This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Configure to reach the FAF in CONF FULL and at VAPP. In this case the aircraft is guided by GPS to a point in space where a descent is commenced on a specific path to a minimum altitude from where a visual landing can be achieved or a missed approach carried out. An exception to this is a Localiser approach. This is why the crew must ensure that the FMS data is correct and accurate. If for any reason GPS PRIMARY is LOST then a GPS defined approach cannot be performed and a VOR or NDB approach can only be continued by changing to a Selected Approach. For all Non Precision Approaches a stabilised approach is recommended (but is not mandatory). A positive NAV ACCY check can be confirmed even if LOW accuracy is indicated on the PROG page.

TRK / FPA. NAV/FPA. INTERMEDIATE APPROACH: Check deceleration occurs at the decel point. VDEV being computed along the remaining FPLN to destination. ALL NPA’s PRIOR TO APPROACH: Insertion of correct approach in MCDU Set VAPP as a constraint at the FAF Check all constraints in FPLN match approach plates Check Navigation accuracy Select and identify radio aids required for approach Conduct the Approach briefing and cross check the minima Keep A/THR engaged to use managed speed Monitor the proper sequencing of the FPLN.37/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The Briefing for the Approach must specify the type of approach to be performed and the intended guidance modes (FINAL APPR. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Vertically Selected approach remain in NAV The monitoring o f the interception must be achieved using the applicable raw data depending upon the result of the NAV ACCY CHECK or whether GPS is PRIMARY. During the briefing confirm the correct navigational aids and course settings are tuned (manually as applicable) for the approach. particularly if HDG is selected. (The NAV and APPR NAV modes are always guiding the A/C along the ACTIVE LEG of the FPLN. Cleared for a Selected approach ?elect an interception TRK on FCU. if not yet already there). s Cleared for a Laterally Managed.) Cleared for a Managed approach ?ress the APPR P/B (the VDEV p indication will now be visible. and the managed VERTICAL mode ensures VDEV = 0. . calling mode changes AT MDA: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. or activate approach phase 10 NM prior to FAF Select FPD Ensure raw data is correctly displayed Verify accuracy is HIGH on PROG page or NAV ACCY positive Complete approach checks when cleared for APP Crosscheck FPD approach track with approach plates Ensure raw data is correctly displayed FINAL APPROACH: Ensure landing configuration achieved prior to FAF Start CHRONO at FAF Crosscheck altitudes and distances with those published on approach plate Set go around altitude Monitor raw data and FMA. or HDG V/S) and task sharing procedures and the importance of crosschecking.

PLN. Non precision approaches must be properly coded in the Navigation Data Base so as to be satisfactorily flown with the APPR NAV / FINAL managed modes. If the check is OK. The coding of the vertical part of the approach must be verified by the airline. and you must not insert DIR TO an intermediate waypoint of the final approach segment in Managed Mode. disconnect autopilot and both Flight Directors and continue visually or perform a go around if there is insufficient visual references. or an Airline has not validated the procedure the crew may elect to fly the approach with NAV / FPA modes. Use A/THR and Managed speed. FINAL APPR does not engage at start of descent. select a Flight Path Angle to recapture the Final Descent Path and so fly towards DEV 0. select TRK / FPA and fly according to your raw data. If for any reason. If during the final approach the message NAV ACCY DNGRADED appears. Once VDEV = 0. you may try to re-engage APPR. Should there be any doubt on the vertical F. NOTE : At the earlier of MDA -50 ft or MAP the autopilot will disconnect if in FINAL APP mode.0º (ensure you remain in ALT) and approaching the FAF pull the FPA knob to activate the descent. (the pre-selection will remain for 40 seconds when it automatically returns to dashes. use start of descent blue symbol on the ND. SELECTED APPROACH The Selected non precision approach procedure is necessary when the NAV ACCURACY check is negative (or the approach is not in the database) and Raw data must be used for cross check throughout the approach. You are not allowed to modify the Final Approach F. you may continue. Set Go Around Altitude when you have passed below that altitude. the message GPS PRIMARY LOST appears while flying a GPS approach immediately INTERRUPT the approach by going round. With GPS PRIMARY. immediately refer to raw data. MANAGED APPROACH Monitor the engagement of FINAL APP mode. provided the NAV ACCY CHECK is OK.PLN data (clear waypoints or modify altitude constraints). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. however if the check is NEGATIVE. If during the final approach. . If you are concerned about This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. VDEV and FMA on the PFD. monitor VDEV / XTK / FPLN on ND and confirm by needles on ND and DME versus altitude. Pre-select FPA –3.38/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If visual. Track to the FAF having intercepted the inbound track and select TRK / FPA. Airbus does not recommend levelling off at MDA.

INSTRUCTION Watch out for the following potential errors Raw data information not monitored closely throughout approach. if there is no distance scale on the profile you may level off at MDA until the MAP which in this case will usually be station passage of the relevant Navigation Aid. NAV accuracy not confirmed or checked. TRACK / FPA selected late. but closer to the threshold. Be aware that some companies add an amount (say 50ft) to a published MDA in order to treat it like a Decision Altitude. Go around altitude set incorrectly. LOCALISER APPROACH As for all Non Precision Approaches.1º and a new 40 seconds commences). the recommended flying reference is the Flight Path Vector and the recommended FG modes for the final approach are LOC / FPA with A/THR and managed speed. On final approach.39/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes the possibility of your setting disappearing just before activation cycle the setting up or down by 0. Aircraft descent preparation late. Confusion between managed and selected. VAPP not stabilized at FAF. Incomplete or rushed briefing. If you are not visual at MDA you must go around immediately as there will be no possibility of achieving a safe landing if you subsequently get visual at the MDA altitude. TO waypoint validity not checked on ND Navigation aids not manually tuned and course not inserted. However. coming to the FAF prepare the FPA selection and at the FAF activate the descent by activating the FPA mode by pulling the knob. The Minimum Descent Altitude is not a decision altitude (as is the case with an ILS). If you have a horizontal distance scale you will reach the MDA in position to continue on the same profile to touchdown. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Going below MDA. When cleared to intercept the LOC press the LOC P/B on the FCU to arm LOC mode and monitor LOC*. . using A/THR and Managed speed. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Monitor the final approach using the LOC deviation scale and cross check the descent with the DME data. initiate your FPA descent momentarily before the FAF so as to establish your descent on the profile given by the chart. With your TRK corresponding to the Final Approach Course. Monitor Raw data for accuracy both Laterally and Vertically.

As large aircraft have largely different centre of gravity positions our visual perceptions of our approach path can vary from one approach to the next. and as the FD’s are off the blue track index gives us a target for our track. . or on descent to 1500ft AAL.3nm before the FAF during a vertically selected approach. The visual approach is flown using the Flight Path Vector. or established practice. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If a normal “Circuit” is performed the aircraft will turn onto downwind in a continuous 180º turn at approximately 200 – 220 kts. (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A visual approach is performed whenever we are visual in the circuit area but not lined up on final. The FCU track target is selected to the downwind leg course. N. A technique such as this is part of the Initial Operating Experience training given by a TRE and only in accordance with specific National Regulations. This will place the aircraft at a certain distance abeam the runway. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Approaching the downwind leg. activate the APPR PHASE. Change the reference to the Flight Path Vector to facilitate manual flight. we can join the final approach path (Final) from any direction.15 CIRCUIT & VISUAL APPROACH. A/THR ON with managed speed and the Autopilot and Flight Directors off. Typical Visual Circuit – Lateral Profile The ND should be set to ROSE NAV 10 nm scale to assist the pilot to visualise his position in the circuit from mid-downwind. The downwind leg is normally flown at. This means that although we are performing a visual approach we are dependant on confirming our flight path from internal as well as external cues. Depending on ATC instructions. As the aircraft is configured on downwind and base the speed will reduce and as a consequence a square base leg should be flown to compensate for the reduced turn radius due to the lower speed.40/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes You are not allowed (from a legal point of view) to teach initiating the descent 0.

During our turn onto final.Ask for RWY TRK (start base turn) and CONF2. Where there are close spaced parallel runways it is possible to conduct a “side-step manoeuvre” to land o n the other runway. During base commence a shallow descent (top of the birds fuselage on the horizon. With correct sequencing of the flight plan we will have our distance off the centre line visible on the ND and at normal circuit speeds and no tail or head wind we need about 0.9 nm to complete a 90º turn onto final. If you can monitor the glide slope indication on base be guided by its information. the A/C is stabilised in the landing configuration.41/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Entering the downwind leg with the Approach activated means that Flap 1 can be selected so that the downwind leg is commenced at S speed. or when rolled out. As this is a visual procedure it should not be programmed but flown according to external cues. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. with the fin above the horizon ie 1º ND) and extend the Landing Gear. (2.5 nm abeam is a good figure to aim for). End of downwind . If below the GS don’t continue descent! Normally when at 90º to the runway take FLAP 3. Whe n stabilised the bird should be at º3 ND. Both pilots should maintain a lookout for other aircraft both entering and when in the circuit. The actual wind velocity on base is shown on the ND and this information allows the PF to adjust his flight path for a head or tailwind in his turn onto final. Resist the tendency to turn before asking for the track index to be turned onto the inbound track. The pilot on the runway side should ensure he keeps the runway in sight in conditions of poor visibility. If the turn onto final is not completed accurately and the aircraft is displaced from the runway centre line on rolling out of the turn onto final a This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. On base leg you should be gradually descending towards the GS. If there is an ILS on the landing runway press the ILS pushbuttons and watch the Glide Slope indication. Don’t rely on the TCAS to override basic airmanship. which you should capture as you roll out on final. With the flight plan sequenced correctly our final leg will be active so we can see our off track error and so judge our distance abeam the runway. select Full Flap so that by 500 ft. We must be stabilised in the landing configuration by 500 ft AAL and if not we must carry out a go around. The PNF should be ready to cancel any warnings associated with the landing on a runway not in the Flight Plan. Abeam landing threshold (and at 1500 ft AAL) commence timing for 45” ± 1” / 1 kt head or tailwind. .

shallow approach angle. A332. and with all engines operating. If the Instrument approach is a NPA then a stabilised approach is flown. Once the Approach has been activated the target speed with landing flap is VAPP as shown by the magenta v symbol. Late disconnection of the Auto Pilot or FD’s Approach not stabilised by 500 ft AGL or a late go round decision. The aircraft configuration for the Instrument approach is a function of the aircraft performance and the actual conditions. . or “ducking under” during the approach.16 CIRCLING APPROACH (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A “Circling Approach” is flown when the landing runway is different from the instrument approach runway. It is important that this corrective action is just that and not a new trajectory to the touchdown zone. A333. A345. and the circling pattern This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and the ceiling and visibility do not permit a normal circuit to be flown once visual. INSTRUCTION Insist on a go round if not stabilised by 500ft. and not to fly from the displaced position to the threshold. The A321. the approach is flown in the Landing configuration minus one stage of flap. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. if not before as a function of the Instrument approach. Hands not on the Thrust levers below 1000 ft AGL Continued descent on base leg when below the GS Not reacting to the presented information on PFD and ND when VMC N. If an ILS is used then a decelerated approach can be flown. Beware of the following common errors. Overbanking. The A318. A346 are all classed as Category D aircraft and the minimum circling visibility is 3600 metres to reflect the higher approach speeds of these aircraft. A320. As we roll out on final we normally fly i nto a headwind.42/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes correction needs to be made. High sink rate. As a general principle. The operation of GS Mini is completely transparent to the pilot. In other words the correction is intended to put the aircraft back on the extended runway centreline on the correct approach profile. or flying through final. A319. and if this headwind component is considerable we will see the GS Mini function adjust out target speed to a higher value. A342. A343 are all classed as Category C aircraft and thus the minimum circling visibility is defined under the JAA as 2400 metres visibility. The FPV will be selected ON at the commencement of the circling. on a side-step.

If a sharp turn is expected. Make sure that the arrival procedure on the landing runway is a runway only arrival and not an ILS. Approaching MDA (and visual) push VS zero to level off. In the vicinity of 15 kts from an arc 30º either side of the runway should suffice. (In an A320 you will stabilise 80 – 90 feet below the point at which you pressed VS zero and remember that MDA stands for Minimum Descent Altitude and not Minimum Decision Altitude). since it is no lo nger part of the FPLN. The missed approach must be flown with raw data. The Final Instrument approach (all engines operating) is flown in CONF3 with the Landing Gear down and speed managed. and to have to disregard it.43/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes is flown visually (so the FD’s are off). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. A runway arrival will give a CF position at 5nm and 1500ft which is good for seeing the extended runway centreline. NOTE: The recommended configuration for the instrument approach with all engines operating is Conf 3. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Remember to only turn in a “safe” direction during such a procedure. If at any stage during the procedure you loose visual contact with the landing runway Go-round using the procedure applicable to the Instrument approach just conducted. unless ATC advises otherwise. . until properly on trajectory. The reason for landing gear being selected down early is not to trigger the landing gear not down red warning. Landing Gear down and managed speed. keep FLAP3 (or FLAP2) and selected speed to minimise the turn radius. INSTRUCTION In order to perform this exercise realistically you must first of all insert a headwind on the final approach to land that is sufficiently strong enough to preclude a downwind landing from the Instrument Approach. Don’t put the cloud base too close to the MDA so that there is no conflict in the trainees mind that they are visual and should expect to remain so.

The system memorises the attitude at 50 ft. At approximately 20 ft the thrust levers should be moved to the idle detent. . Consequently as the speed reduces. if you are late in retarding the thrust levers in a MANUAL landing. The aircraft will maintain pitch and roll attitudes resisting any atmospheric disturbance until 50 ft when the landing mode becomes active. The RETARD call out (at 20 ft / 10 ft for an Autoland) is a reminder for the pilot to retard the thrust levers. the system reduces (over 8 seconds) the pitch attitude to minus 2º. The Flare technique is thus very conventional. if he hasn’t already done so. As the projected picture they are looking at out of the cockpit windows is in 2D (and not 3D as in reality) a lesser visibility makes definition of the runway particularly hard. not later than 1000 ft AGL. Remember that if Auto Thrust is engaged it will remain engaged until the thrust levers reach the idle detent.17 LANDING (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Conducting an autoland from an ILS approach is the only occasion where we don’t take control of the aircraft with the autopilot disconnected and land it manually. During the final visual segment of the approach it is very important not to over control with the sidestick. As the aircraft descends through 30 ft. When reaching 50 ft RA. N. the PF should have one hand on the THRUST LEVERS and the other one on the side stick. As a basic rule for all approaches. Therefore the correct technique is to move the thrust levers smartly to the idle position when you no longer need the engine thrust during the flare. look out well ahead of the A/C. Consequently. and that attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the pilot will have to pull back on the side stick to maintain a constant path. In order to assess the Flare and the A/C position versus the ground. This should apply irrespective of Auto Pilot and Auto Thrust selection. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.44/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In order for the crew to see the runway on downwind a minimum visibility of around 5000 metres should suffice. the A/THR will add thrust during the Flare to keep the A/C on target speed. Remember we are teaching a procedure and not checking their ability to see a runway in poor visibility. the pitch law blends into flare mode. If we disconnect the AP at the MDA or DH on an ILS the aircraft is moving on a stable trajectory and all that is required is to flare and reduce the thrust to land. Landing mode is only a pitch mode and roll control is the same as normal law until the wheels are on the ground.

Do not try and control the roll out with the NWS tiller. Common faults are too high speed drop below VAPP (pitch up to avoid high sink rate).The pilot must be aware that there are aircraft geometry limitations in pitch and in bank not only to prevent incurring a tailstrike but to prevent scrapping the engine pod. De-rotation should be commenced as soon as the main wheels have touched. so pitch attitude should be monitored in the flare. prolonged hold off to do grease the landing. a full decrab might lead to a significant into wind aileron input causing a significant bank angle.5º (landing gear compressed). The recommended technique for a crosswind landing is (during the flare) to apply rudder to align the A/C on the runway centre line and counteract the rolling tendency with side stick (with possibly very slight wing down into a strong wind). The DECEL light means that the desired rate of deceleration is being achieved. . There is a tendency to pitch-up due to the effect of the spoilers extending behind the Centre of Gravity.1° flight path angle associated to a 10 kts speed decay in the manoeuvre.45/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The typical pitch increment in Flare is approximately 4° which leads to a . Tail strike occurs (A320) at 13. Smoothly control the de-rotation. At touch down the ground spoilers will deploy automatically which may give a slight pitch up as mentioned above. A comfortable nose wheel touc hdown will be achieved if the stick is maintained just aft of neutral during de-rotation. The green DECEL light on the AUTO / BRK panel enable the crew to monitor whether the selected rate of deceleration is achieved. Side stick input creates a down force on the wheels on the into wind side due to the aileron deflection This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. During the Roll Out use the rudder pedals to keep the aircraft on the runway centreline. which may not be the case when the Braking Action is poor. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In case of crosswind various precautions need to be considered. These include avoiding deflecting the stick into wind. NOTE: In a strong crosswind. Remember that the autobrake can operate without the DECEL light illuminating.5º or 11. In such conditions. Ground spoiler deployment will enable autobrake operation (if selected). Initially the rudder will be aerodynamically effective and below around 100 kts the Nose Wheel Steering function commanded by the pedals will take over. a partial decrab is preferable. the flaps or the wing tip. It will not assist in aircraft control but has adverse side effects on braking. and flare too high and consequently no control of the de-rotation once the main wheels are on the ground. Automatic ground spoiler deployment will occur with both main landing gear compressed or with one MLG on the ground and reverse thrust selected. The aircraft has a tendency to nose down naturally as the aft stick applied for the flare is relaxed towards neutral.

. but below about 70 kts their efficiency drops rapidly. the contact area of the tires with the runway.3g). (MAX is only used for take-off). You may use either Manual braking or Autobrake. If necessary use differential braking. the effectiveness of the brakes and anti skid system. and it creates a differential drag effect due to spoiler retraction on the out of wind side. With Carbon brakes. In other words the DECEL light is not an indicator of the Autobrake operation. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The DECEL light indicates that the selected deceleration rate is being achieved. on wet and contaminated runways the directional control of the A/C may be more difficult. the wear is directly linked to the number of pedal applications. Pressing the pedals and modulating the pressure without releasing the pedals is therefore a recommended technique for minimizing the brake wear. the friction coefficient between the tires and the runway. the runway condition and also the brake temperature and wear.46/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes and spoiler activation. The thrust reversers have a significant braking effect at higher speeds. the Thrust Reversers and the Wheel Brakes are the three means of retardation on the ground. Auto brake controls a given deceleration rate (LO: 0. With maximum manual braking and with anti skid operative the typical deceleration rate is 10 kts/sec (or . At lower speeds. Thus the braking efficiency depends upon the A/C speed. The Ground Spoilers contribute to the aircraft deceleration by aerodynamic drag and they increase considerably the wheel braking efficiency by increasing the load on the wheels. In cases of lateral control problem in high crosswind landings reduce the reverse thrust to idle. The Ground Spoilers. but that the selected decele ration rate is being achieved. Autobrake may be used in LO or MED for landing. In an emergency situation it is permissible to keep Maximum Reverse thrust down to aircraft stop. The wheel brakes are the main factors in aircraft deceleration on ground.5g). Their efficiency is independent to the runway condition. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The antiskid system maintains the skidding factor close to the point providing maximum friction force. the load on wheels. The brake force from wheels are a function of the load on the wheels.15g and MED: 0. The Maximum reverse thrust is obtained between N1 values of 70% to 85%. The Actual Landing distances demonstrated in flight test and provided in the FCOM and QRH does not include the use of reversers (which constitute a safety margin). skidding or locked wheels). These differential effects favour the weather-cocking tendency of the aircraft. the wheel speed (free rolling.

If the CM2 is flying and you are looking through the main window of CM1 you may think that CM2 is not aligned very well. The Rejected Landing is discussed at the end of this briefing.47/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Use of Autobrake minimises the number of brake applications and so the brake wear. . During a Go-round the aircraft remains airborne during the whole exercise. The auto brake may also be disconnected by action on the respective AUTO / BRK pushbutton (not recommended as both pilots should be heads up during the landing roll) or by pushing down the speedbrake control lever. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. unless not needed. Consequently it is recommended to use it when available. However the normal method of disarming the Autobrake is by even pressure on both brake pedals. The PNF should monitor spoiler deployment (ECAM WHEEL page). If they have problems landing check they are looking at the far end of the runway during the flare. This is not to be confused with a Rejected Landing where the aircraft wheels can touch the runway during the exercise.18 GO-ROUND (00:15) BACKGROUND REJECTED LANDING INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A Go-round implies a discontinuation of an Approach at the MDA but can occur at any stage of the approach. even when visual below the MDA. If the CM1 is positioned exactly over the centreline. N. Autobrake should be disconnected before 20 kts is reached. pressure needs to be applied to one brake pedal only. then CM2 will also be positioned exactly over the centreline. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Idle reverse may remain selected until the airplane is at taxi speed. To disconnect the Autobrake. Reduce reverse thrust to idle at 70 kts. This is a feature of the projected visual where both pilots see exactly the same picture. Max reverse (or idle reverse depending on airport regulations or airline policy) should be selected immediately after main gear touchdown. operation of reverse thrust (E/WD) and the operation of Autobrake (green DECEL light on AUTO/BRK panel) and notify the PF of any abnormal indications INSTRUCTION It is an important concept that the aircraft should be aligned with the centreline of the runway during the landing.

on selecting TOGA and with at least Flap 1 selected the FD’s appear automatically in HDG/VS mode. The go-round can be flown with two autopilots engaged. The approach must be Activated to get out of Go-round mode and back to Approach mode if another approach is planned. To initiate a Go-round push the thrust levers forward to the TOGA detent and command GOROUNDFLAP. VAPP or IAS (at time of Go-round). In every case you must either select NAV (by pushing) or HDG (by pulling) to exit the GA TRK mode. If this is not the case. GA TRK mode guides the A/C on the memorized track at the time of TOGA selection.48/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes A Go-round is frequently unexpected. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. On hearing the command GOROUNDFLAP the PNF retracts the flap lever one step. ask the PNF to engage NAV mode and if the aircraft is on a trajectory that will cross the Missed Approach path it will be captured. . SRS mode remains active until reaching the GA Acceleration Altitude (as inserted in the FMGS). but when another lateral or vertical mode is selected. If the situation permits you may reduce thrust to MCT or CLB when established in pitch. Not only does this action command TOGA thrust from all engines but with at least Flap 1 selected then SRS and GA TRK modes engage. As a consequence of entering the Go-round phase the Missed approach procedure for the Approach just flown becomes the ACTIVE FPLN (so a correctly sequenced flight plan is required). or a different procedure is to be used select HDG mode as suitable. one autopilot will drop out. or will not be well positioned at the MDA don’t delay your decision to carry out a go-round. but always initiate the go-round by selecting TOGA first so that the system sequences the correct events. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The speed target will become green dot when GA ACCEL ALT is reached. Irrespective of whatever FD mode you had. monitor the speed carefully because there is no low speed protection in ALT * mode. The previously flown approach will be automatically inserted into the FPLN after completion of the missed approach procedure. In the event of an engine failure in combination with a low altitude capture (ALT*). Once positive climb is observed by the PNF (confirmed as on take-off) the POSITIVE CLIMB call is made and the PF orders GEAR UP The SRS mode guides the A/C to the Maximum of VLS. or engagement of any other pitch mode (ALT* for example). In order to fly the MISSED APPR. If during the approach you feel the A/C is not properly stabilised. An early go-round is safer than a last minute one.

a Go -round or missed approach must be considered: If there is a loss or a doubt concerning situation awareness. Beware of the following Common Errors. Some procedures have speed limits and bank angle constraints built into them so give them guidance on how to cope with these. N. Wrong selection of lateral mode. altitude. If the approach is unstable in speed.18 DIVERTING (00:10) BACKGROUND TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE DIVERTING IN CRUISE DIVERTING AFTER A MISSED APPROACH INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. or obeying speed. With Airbus Fly By Wire aircraft the aircraft will be in pitch Direct. REJECTED LANDING A Rejected landing differs from a Go Around in that the aircraft configuration is not changed during the procedure. flight path (vertical or lateral) or configuration. Flap retraction completed before acceleration altitude. . in such a way that most probably it won' t be stable by 1000 ft AAL (IMC. or Flare. Rotation too slow and / or delayed. If there is a malfunction which jeopardises the safe completion of the approach. If a situation arises which may lead to a potentially unstable approach. An exa mple of this procedure is when below the Alert height for a CAT lll approach a landing is not possible. Law and the loads on the side stick are increased and auto trim may not be available resulting in a different feel to the manoeuvre. Remember that once a Missed Approach has been initiated it is too late to refer to the charts to ascertain if there are any constraints to be met. and altitude constraints. INSTRUCTION Ensure the trainees are aware of the specific Go-round procedure before they have to carry it out. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. bank angle. 500 ft VMC). It is possible that the main wheels touch the ground.49/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Once the aircraft has started the final approach. Does not maintain the speed target ±10 kts Not knowing. If adequate visual cues are not obtained at MDA or DH. If any GPWS/TCAS or Windshear alert occurs.

TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE In good weather conditions it is obvious that after a serious problem during or after take-off the aircraft will return to the Departure airfield and land. and the ceiling must be taken into account when the only approaches available are non-precision and/or circling approaches. and with no aircraft problems it is probably reasonable to expect a long delay before the flight can be resumed. and then using the DIR TO function create a new routing for the flight. or after a Missed Approach the attention of the crew will be focused on this unusual event and they need to be reminded that only one head at a time must be down. This Take-off Alternate must be closer than – a) Two engine aircraft .one hour flight time at one engine-out cruising speed based on the actual take-off weight or an approved diversion time at one engine-out cruising speed for ETOPS. DIVERTING IN CRUISE If during cruise an event occurs that requires a landing at an airport other than the destination then the crew will divert to this new airport. Whether it is done from take-off to a Take-off Alternate. b) Three or four engine aircraft .two hours flight time at one engine out cruising speed based on the actual take-off weight Any airport selected as Take off Alternate must comply with the following a) During a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome the visibility will be at or above the applicable landing minima. Don’t forget to keep your company advised by whatever means is possible (even by asking ATC to advise them). in cruise due to a Medical Emergency. DIVERTING AFTER A MISSED APPROACH After performing a Go-round you must decide whether to make another approach or divert to your alternate. Once the aircraft is cleaned up you will This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.50/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND Diverting is an event not often practiced. b) Any limitation related to one engine inoperative operations must be taken into account. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. . However if the weather conditions at your Departure are such that the visibility is below landing minima a Take-off Alternate is required. Having advised ATC and received approval (if required) a New Destination is inserted at a convenient waypoint and the flight plan is completed as required. The flight plan for the Take-off Alternate is inserted in the Secondary Flight Plan and if it is required the only action needed is to Activate the Secondary Flight Plan. In such a case.

or how. T. instead of an Alternate Flight Plan you have a Secondary Flight Plan then simply Activate the Secondary Flight Plan by pressing the SEC FPLN key and line selecting the Activate key.51/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes be at green dot speed and in Go-round phase. In this case Activate Approach in order to change the FMGS from Go-round mode to Approach mode and then on the Progress page insert a Cruising Flight Level. The FMGS needs to know you intentions in order to provide meaningful predictions. By carrying out a Lateral Revision at the TO WPT we can now ENABLE ALTN. . This causes the Climb mode to become active with normal Climb performance (250 kts). In both the above cases the target speed will become 250 kts and predictions will be correct. The third case is where you have not prepared for you diversion. This can be changed during the FMGS preparation as it can in real life. You must be in HDG. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and we can perform a DIR TO any convenient point in the new Active Plan. or TRK mode to do this (not NAV). There are 3 possibilities to indicate to the FMGS your planned course of action. If in cruise you want to change the Alternate in the Flight Plan remember that the Alternate is paired with the Destination so line select the destination to access the Alternate. Now perform a DIR TO a suitable point. If. Scrolling through the flight plan you will see that the Alternate Flight Plan is in blue and as such it is not possible to navigate with this flight plan as it stands. INSTRUCTION In our Training Scenarios it is possible to practice all these events if you structure the FMGS preparation to suit. Perform a DIR TO a suitable point along your desired track and laterally Line select this point and insert a new Destination and then build up the flight plan as required. If you insert a CORTE you will get the information for ALTN that is part of the CORTE.01 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL TAKE OFF CLIMB CONSIDERATIONS CRUISE CONSIDERATIONS DESCENT CONSIDERATIONS APPROACH CONSIDERATIONS This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and these three possibilities depend on whether. and this action makes the blue Alternate Flight Plan a green Active Flight plan. you have prepared for this phase of flight.

78. the COST INDEX will be HIGH (999 is MIN TIME). For each sector. The cost of a given sector depends not only on the fuel consumption but also on other factors such as Over flight charges. With Cruise Wind variations and temperature changes the Cruise Mach number will vary. duty time constraints leading to a night stop will modify the costs index of a given sector. For example. Performance Data T/O Segment Reminder – Twin Engined aircraft This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Wind gradient. . Price of flight time (crew. TAKE OFF Unreliable Speed Indication If during the take off phase you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH. maintenance etc). If you wish to fly at a given fixed cruise mach number. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The greatest variables are FUEL and MAINTENANCE. It is essential to understand that once the CI is defined for a given sector. the MANAGED SPEED PROFILE will be computed by the FMS. Price of fuel at origin and at the destination leading to possible fuel tankering. as it varies also with GW and cruise altitude. Once a COST INDEX is determined for a given sector.52/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes GENERAL The A320 has been designed to cruise at a Mach Number of 0. as well as the OPTIMUM FLIGHT LEVEL and OPTIMUM STEP. the airline determines a cost factor: The COST INDEX (CI) accounts for variable items. Before ACCEL ALT set TOGA thrust and PITCH 15° After the ACCEL ALT set CLB thrust and PITCH 10°. and if time is the essential economical factor on a given sector. if the fuel consumption is the essential economical factor on a given sector the COST INDEX will be LOW (0 is MAX RANGE). select it on the FCU so that all your predictions will be updated. flight plan constraints (such as constant Mach) and Aircraft GW itself. and after another 15 seconds FLAP 0. this allows the FMS to generate a CLIMB / CRUISE / DESCENT SPEED profile which will minimize the cost by balancing the cost of fuel against the cost of time. However despite the fact that the crew costs are fixed. After 15 seconds select FLAP1.

Definition of speeds associated to Take-off VMCG: mini control speed on the ground. VMBE: maximum braking energy speed. V1: Committal speed for Take off. VMU: minimum unstick speed is the speed at which the aircraft can safely lift off the ground and continue take off. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. at which the brakes can absorb all the energy required.28 Vs1g. using primary controls only (no NWS). VMBE becomes a limiting factor at high OAT on long runways. tires automatically deflated and potential fire. V1 call out must be made so that “ONE” is called when V1 is reached. the better is the a/c climb out gradient in the take off segments.53/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The engine out acceleration altitude must be at least higher than the minimum altitude required for obstacle clearance. There is typically 1 sec between VEF and V1 (which leads to approx 4 kts). VMCA: minimum control speed with one engine out using maximum rudder deflection and 5° bank angle towards engine inoperative. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The higher the flap setting. A rotation initiated before VR leads to a potential tail strike. VR: rotation speed. but is limited to the altitude reached at the end of clean up with 10 minutes TOGA thrust. It must be between 1. The higher is V2.13 Vs1g and 1. VEF: engine failure speed allowing the crew to recognize the failure and act when reaching V1. VMU is a function of GW. . the greater the tail clearance. Aircraft configuration and altitude. Maximum rudder force 68 kg / Max lateral deviation on ground 30 ft. V2: minimum speed reached at 35 ft with one engine failed. An RTO achieved in such circumstances may lead to very hot brakes. Allows the aircraft to reach V2 at 35 ft with engine failed.

The decrements are often not provided on the RTOW charts but as defaulted values in a FCOM specific table. FLEXIBLE TEMP for T/O reduced thrust .ANTI ICE: the same factors apply. The higher the FLX. . Whenever maximum T/O thrust is not necessary due to aircraft GW or/and runway conditions. the engine thrust is lower than in STD conditions. Vmax tire = 195 kt FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKE OFF PERFORMANCE: There are obviously many factors influencing the take off performance such as aircraft GW. By determining an assumed value of outside air temperature which would allow the engines to provide the thrust required to take off the aircraft in the current conditions. or a ?TFLEX decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied. since the ?TFLEX decrement compensates for the thrust drop caused by the AIR COND. This temperature value is called FLEX TEMP. aircraft configuration. outside conditions (OAT.1 VMCA On Single Aisle family. a weight decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied.RTOW chart use.05 VMCA VLOF = V MAX TIRE V2 = 1. . Thus in case QNH is below STD a weight decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied for MTOW. or a ?TFLEX decrement must be applied. FLX TEMP . the runway available and the obstacles. In that case if PACKS are supplied by engine bleed a weight decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied for MTOW. which have still to be corrected by other influencing factors which must be taken into account: . this means that beyond TREF the maximum thrust of the engine reduces. Those factors allow the basic T/O DATA to be determined. the more the thrust is reduced. pressure). or a ?TFLEX decrement must be applied to compensate this thrust drop. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. or FLX TEMP and associated speeds are determined on a DRY runway. this allows the thrust to be reduced. wind. All A320 engines are high by-pass Turbo Fan engines FLAT RATED until a given temperature called TREF.QNH different from standard: in case of low pressure.AIR COND ON: the basic T/O data is often provided on the RTOW charts supposing AIR COND OFF.Runway WET: this affects the acceleration/stop capability of the aircraft (as well as possibly. it is efficient to reduce the T/O thrust in order to save engine life. Thus once MTOW and associated T/O speeds.OAT [° C] 8º 14º 20º 25º 29º EFFECTIVE THRUST 5 10 15 20 23 REDUCTION [%] This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.54/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Relations between all those speeds: VMCG = VEF = V1 = VMBE VR = 1. its lateral controllability in case of crosswind). . . The percentage of the effective Thrust reduction is a function of (FLX TEMP – OAT). NO speed decrease is to be applied.

VARIOUS OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKE-OFF Brakes Carbon brakes are quite efficient when hot (100 °C) or partly worn.FLX T/O N1 / EPR = MAX CLB N1 / EPR. Do not use brake fans during take off or if you experience a wheel fire. A tire failure causes longer T/O distances. Tires Under inflation is one of the major causes of tire failure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.8 m This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.0 m ASDA line up allowance (180° turn) 26. The HOT BRAKES caution comes up at 300 °C indicating that if the L/G is retracted. .55/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FLX is limited as follows: .1 m 25. .FLX TEMP by definition >TREF and OAT. With normal tire pressure (around 180 PSI) the aquaplaning speed on standing water is around 120 kt. but cool with the gear down before retraction. Line Up allowance Line up allowances after a 90° turn or 180° turn are included in the take off data determination so the following values are for information only. ASDA A 319 A 320 A 321 ASDA line up allowance (90° turn) 23. Do not retract hot brakes. However if the line up is not performed correctly the length of runway still available is reduced. The Braking coefficient is a measured value that gives you an indication of how well your aircraft brakes will succeed in stopping your aircraft when compared to optimum braking in ideal conditions.4 m 27.5 m 28. and on slush around 130 kt. do not take off.Max authorised FLX THRUST reduction 25%. . However the Carbon brake temp increases rapidly with brake application. there is a potential risk of fire caused by this temperature being spread to the hydraulic system. If your brakes are hot before take off. If the pressure is low they heat up faster and may cause a breakdown of the rubber material.5 m 35. When under inflated there is a braking action when the tire is rolling so they tend to heat up. Tire wear favours Aquaplaning.

34 NM either side of track.34 NM either side of track.1% of GW) is compensated by enough Cruise time at the higher level.56/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CLIMB CONSIDERATIONS Unreliable Speed Indication during Climb If during the climb phase you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH.Net flight path must be positive and 1000 ft above all obstacles. The FMGS definition is based on gross weight. .Gross climb gradient with one EO shall be at least 1.05. Ensure normal CLB THRUST PITCH 7° until passing FL 100 will result in (approximately) ?50 kts IAS 2 PITCH 5° from FL100 to FL200 will result in (approximately) ?80 kts IAS 2 PITCH 3° above FL?00 will result in (approximately) M 0.76 2 PERFORMANCE DATA En Route climb gradient (from 1500 ft AAL at departure): . Pitch of 2° NU with an N1 of 82 % for an approximate M 0.76 above FL250 NOTE: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. A step climb should be considered if there is not a significant additional headwind at higher altitude and the additional fuel consumed in climb (0. The Maximum Climb gradient speed is the speed which allows the aircraft to reach a given altitude within the shortest distance.1 % with a 0.DOT G. .Drift down net slope after an Engine failure 2000 ft above all obstacles. and Maximum altitude at maximum climb thrust with 300ft/min VS The FMGS definition is different in that a 0.15) is defined as the lower of: Maximum altitude at maximum cruise thrust in level flight. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Max climb gradient speed = G.DOT speed is close to the best L/D ratio speed CRUISE CONSIDERATIONS Unreliable Speed Indication If during cruise you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH.15) is defined as the altitude at which the aircraft covers the maximum distance per unit of fuel (best specific range).8% decrement for Net climb gradient Obstacle clearance criteria (two engined aircraft): . Optimum altitude (FCOM 3. Maximum altitude (FCOM 3. cost index and temperature.05. 4.20).3g buffet margin is considered and this then becomes the Recommended Maximum Altitude (FCOM 4.03. 4.

The MAX [MAX ALT] above which managed modes are no longer available is defined by the 0. . The crew may elect to fly higher if necessary. The VDEV is an excellent cue to monitor the descent when in NAV mode or when in HDG (TRK) modes as long as XTK is within 5 NM. In case the ETA at destination is beyond schedule and ETA is an important cruise management factor on the sector. When the a/c is above the desired path s ?elect a higher speed (as allowed by ATC) and extend the speed brake in Open Descent and ?eep high speed until ALT*. DESCENT CONSIDERATIONS Unreliable Speed Indication If during descent you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH. All predictions are updated accordingly in cruise till next STEP or T/D. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. When in HDG (TRK) modes.3 g boundary by a message. it computes the ENERGY CIRCLE displayed on the ND which represents the distance required to descend from present altitude down to landing elevation. When selecting a SPD on the FCU (for turbulence). Thrust Idle and adopt a Pitch of 2°ND for approximately 0. . it is preferable to use N1 as reference in such circumstances.In case ATC requires the aircraft to fly at a fixed cruise mach number.The FMS MAX REC ALT is 0. He will be advised that he is flying beyond the 0. insert SCHEDULE TIME of ARRIVAL as time constraint at destination. select it on the FCU. also called the YOYO). FMS updating Insert WINDS and TEMP at successive waypoints of the cruise. The FMS will adapt the ECON SPD profile so as to best match the ETA time constraint. where the FMS assumes that Managed speed will be resumed. descent winds (if significant) are inserted. . It is not necessary to insert them at all waypoints but when wind velocity or temperature vary by more than approx 30°/30 kt and 5°. and k then select a lower speed (or Activate Approach) and retract the speed brake when getting close to intended target speed.3 g buffet limit altitude. The FMS gives assistance to properly carry out the descent provided the lateral FPLN and vertical FPLN are properly filled in. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.2 g limit. on the EFIS PFD and MCDU PROG page the VERTICAL DEVIATION of the A/C compared with the computed descent profile (VDEV.76 / 280 kt. the A/C is still guided on the original descent path. It provides. and PERF APPR page completed. The level off symbol on the ND along the F PLN or TRK LINE shows the position where the A/C will reach the FCU altitude in the current AP/FD mode.57/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Even on IAE engines where the thrust is controlled using EPR. The wind in descent has a significant influence on the descent FPA and thus on the descent distance so that ? ith a tailwind the FPA w decreases and GND DIST increases. The FMS computes a descent profile. and to decelerate from descent speed to VAPP (including SPD LIM) and land.

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EMERGENCY DESCENT One of the goals of the High Speed Emergency Descent is to reach a lower level (FL < 140) without triggering the PAX O² mask deployment. Thus the emergency descent is achieved with IDLE THRUST, HIGH SPEED (up to VMO-MMO if failure permits), and with the SPD BRAKES extended. On A320, the rate of descent is approximately 6000 ft/mn; which means that it takes approximately 5 mn to descend from FL 390 to FL 100, and approximately 40 NM. HOLDING SPEED AND CONFIGURATION The MAXIMUM ENDURANCE HOLDING is achieved with CLEAN CONF at G. DOT speed (actually the speed is slightly lower than max L/D ratio speed). NOTE: The descent profile is computed as the succession of several descent segments. From TOD to the first constrained waypoint the descent segment is called “Idle segment” and it assumes a given speed profile with thrust equal to IDLE + ?. This ? allows a more flexible guidance of the aircraft on the precomputed descent path, when out side conditions vary or Anti Ice is selected. The Idle Factor on the A/C STATUS page is used to adjust the ?; a negative value increases the descent path angle.

APPROACH CONSIDERATIONS
Unreliable Speed Indication If during descent you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH At Green Dot speed, clean aircraft configuration, set N1 to the aircraft weight value in tons. On final approach, landing configuration, set N1 to the aircraft weight value minus 2%. Performance Data There are runway distance limitations based on the Landing Distance Available and the Actual Landing Distance required from the FCOM & QRH. Before Departure the Landing Distance Available at Destination must at least equal Actual Landing Distance factored as shown below. Dry Rwy Wet Rwy Contaminated Rwy LDA =ALD/0.6 LDA wet =1.15 ALD/0.6 LDA contaminated =1.15 ALD/0.6 AND =1.15 ALD for actual conditions

In case of a problem in flight which has an effect on the Landing Performance the Required Landing Distance is the ALD for the existing conditions factored by a figure given in the FCOM and QRH for the particular failure or combination of failures.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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Go-round requirements are predicated on one or two engines operating (for a two engined aircraft) APPROACH CLIMB: minimum gross gradient 2.1 % - One Engine Operating / TOGA / LDG GEAR UP / FLAPS one detent up, as compared to approach configuration. LANDING CLIMB: minimum gross gradient 3.2 % - All Engines Operating / Thrust after 8 sec from flight idle /L/G DN, FLAPS in APPR CONF. The A320 is never landing climb limited. PCN/ACN The Aircraft Classification Number must be lower than the Pavement Classification number. PCN varies with the life of the pavement since it is a function of the traffic, traffic distribution etc. On a FLEXIBLE pavement (asphalt - concrete) occasional movements with ACN = PCN + 10 % are allowed. On a rigid pavement (concrete surface) occasional movements with ACN=PCN + 5% are allowed. Actual Landing distance / Landing distance with autoland Actual landing distance CONF FULL is the basic distance to which a factor is applied when in an Abnormal Configuration. This factor is given in the QRH in order to determine the required landing distance in such a configuration. The distances given with the use of Autobrake are not to be used for this calculation. APPROACH SPEED VAPP In most cases in normal configuration the FMS computes VAPP considering the wind inserted by the pilot in PERF APPR and the landing configuration selected. In case of suspected wind shear or downburst, or in case of strong gusty cross wind, the FMS VAPP may be ove rwritten by the pilot (up to VLS + 15 max). In such a case, use MANAGED SPEED in approach. In case of ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION determine VAPP from the QRH procedure and use SELECTED SPEED in approach. MISSED APPROACH CLIMB GRADIENT The crew must be aware that the 2.1% approach climb gradient requirement has nothing to do with the actual climb gradients which may be necessary in a missed approach. The crew must consider the obstacles, which are in the missed approach flight path. The SAFE ALTITUDE to use as a reference for acceleration is either the published missed approach altitude, the relevant sector altitude, or the MSA. In case of very low temperatures below ISA the target altitudes must be corrected by a large amount.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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T.02 FLYING REFERENCES (00:15)
BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION

BACKGROUND
On the PFD two flying references may be selected: These are the ATTITUDE symbol, and the FLIGHT PATH VECTOR (also called the BIRD). The Attitude symbol is the primary reference for Dynamic Manoeuvres such as T/O and GO-ROUND. An action on the side stick has an immediate effect on the A/C attitude and thus the pilot can immediately and accurately control this parameter. The Flight Path Vector (FPV) represents the A/C trajectory. It is directly affected by the Aircraft inertia so as there is a delay it is unsuitable for dynamic manoeuvres. However the FPV is well suited when the pilot wishes to fly a stabilised trajectory. Except for the T/O and GO AROUND cases the FPV can be used in all flight phases. It is particularly recommended for Non Precision Approaches and Visual Flight. If the Flight Directors are ON, the internal Flight Guidance parameters are a function of the flying reference you select: If the FPV is off, the guidance will be HDG-V/S, with the Flight Director. If the FPV is on, the guidance will be TRK-FPA, with the Flight Path Director. During Approach the FPV is a very efficient flying reference because it displays the aircraft trajectory, As a consequence the pilot is made aware of Wind Direction changes and of a Downburst phenomena. Combined with the GS MINI function the FPV enhances a pilots situational awareness. Knowing the drift experienced by the aircraft on reaching the MDA assists the pilot to know where to look for the runway. The FPD is commanding a trajectory. Following it will give a trajectory that is stabilised by reference to the ground. The Flight Path Director should be switched off for visual flight. The FPV shows the present lateral track and present flight path angle relative to the aircraft. It is dynamic and indicates where we will be if all else remains the same. If any changes are introduced, the FPV will show the result of these changes.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

then a repetitive ECAM caution is triggered.03 USE OF ATHR BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION (00:10) BACKGROUND The ATHR computer (part of the FG within the FMGS) interfaces directly with the FADEC (Fully Automatic Digital Engine Control). a message on the FMA reads LVR ASYM to remind the crew. and sends to the FADEC the thrust targets to acquire and maintain a target speed when in SPEED mode. and the thrust is controlled manually by the FADEC to the thrust lever position. T. which engages the ATHR. CRZ. LVR CLB flashes on FMA as a reminder. because there is no operational reason to be in that situation. ATHR is displayed blue in the FMA. Any thrust lever position between the CLB detent and IDLE will give a message on the FMA to restore the normal position in the CLB detent. The FMA displays MAN THR white. If one thrust lever is set below the CLB detent. DES and APPR) the maximum thrust commanded by the ATHR will be MAX CLB (unless the thrust levers are placed forward of the climb detent). ATHR armed means that the ATHR is armed for reengagement when the thrust levers are placed back into the CLB detent (or below). For the rest of the flight (CLB. A short demonstration will save a long explanation. . IDLE …) when in THRUST mode. With the ATHR active the normal position for the thrust levers is the CLB detent. you control the thrust manually to the thrust lever position. In such a case. The ATHR works in two modes. or THRUST. The ATHR remains active with the thrust levers in any position between CLB and just above IDLE. or the FLX detent. The ATHR is armed as indicated blue on the FMA.61/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION The easiest way to brief the FPV is by using the 2D Faros trainer in the Briefing rooms or on your laptop. This technique is used This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If you set all thrust levers beyond the CLB detent while the ATHR is on. SPEED. At T/O the thrust levers are set either full forward to TOGA. either bring all thrust levers back into CLB detent or disconnect the ATHR. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. If all thrust levers are set below the CLB detent with the ATHR on. and to achieve a specific thrust setting (CLB. the PF moves the thrust levers back into the CLB detent. When reaching the THR RED ALT.

(but this gives an ECAM warning as this is not by design the normal disconnection method as the thrust will be frozen until the thrust levers are moved). ALPHA FLOOR When the aircraft Angle of Attack passes a threshold called ALPHA FLOOR. With TOGA thrust the aircraft will increase speed and when the conditions for Alpha Floor no longer exist the thrust remains at TOGA but now the FMA indicates TOGA LOCK. It is inhibited if one engine is unserviceable.62/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes when the A/C speed drops significantly below the desired target. Therefore the correct method is move the thrust levers so that the TLA corresponds to the current thrust as indicated on the N1 or EPR indication before ATHR disconnection. If you are slow to move the thrust levers you will get an ECAM “Autothrust limited” message. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Once you are satisfied with the A/C speed or acceleration. which may be normally commanded in this case. bring the thrust levers back into CLB detent. because MCT is the maximum thrust. (meaning that the A/C has decelerated below ALPHA PROT). In case of EO. set the thrust levers to FLX or TOGA. To recover normal operations it is necessary to disconnect the Auto Thrust to cancel the TOGA signal and then to resume Manual or Auto Thrust as required. and so get a smooth transition to Manual thrust flight. Alpha Floor is available in Normal Law from lift off to 100 ft R/A at landing. the ATHR is commanded ON automatically and sends the FADEC a signal for TOGA thrust. If you use this technique duri ng approach and you go beyond MCT you will activate the Go-round mode. It is also possible to press the ATHR P/B on the FCU. To reengage the ATHR press the ATHR push button on the FCU and place the thrust levers as applicable. . (regardless of thrust lever position). As this TOGA signal is an ATHR function the thrust remains at TOGA while the ATHR remains on. DISCONNECTING The two normal methods for Auto Thrust disconnection are – pressing the Instinctive Disconnect button on the thrust levers or by placing all thrust levers back to Idle. USAGE ATHR is recommended throughout the flight and It can be used in most failure cases. throughout the rest of the flight. Pressing the Instinctive Disconnect button gives Manual Thrust so if the thrust levers are in the Climb detent then by disconnecting the ATHR you are asking for Climb thrust. You may also disconnect the ATHR by placing the thrust levers in IDLE. ATHR is reengaged. the levers will be in MCT detent. At take off. The ATHR system is This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.

If this is not done the thrust will remain at idle while ever the Autopilot is engaged. ATHR is engaged and operates in a mode. GO AROUND Push all thrust levers to TOGA. During APPROACH below 1000ft AAL place your hand on the thrust levers in case additional thrust is needed in gusty conditions. The signals to the computers can come from direct pilot input on the sidestick. you may consider placing the thrust levers back to MCT or CLB detent if very high climb performance is achieved. At THR RED ALT. ATHR is armed. The FMA will flash LVR MCT. Go Around phase activates and Missed Approach + previously flown approach become the active FPLN).04 USE OF AP and FD (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Fly By Wire aircraft normally operate with deflection of primary flight control surfaces controlled by computers. T. from the autopilot in response to a pilot input on the FCU. . bring the thrust levers smoothly to IDLE. depending on the AP/FD vertical mode. until this is done. There is NO automatic RETARD except in AUTOLAND and this must be confirmed by the PF by placing the thrust levers in IDLE. Show them the ECAM message and the THR LKD message by disconnecting on the glareshield switch. ENGINE FAILURE When the FADEC senses an engine failure the ATHR system requires the PF to place the thrust lever of the “good” engine in the MCT detent so that the thrust can be increased to this level. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. with an associated aural warning. or from the autopilot in response to a signal from the Flight This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.63/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes then armed. The “RETARD” call out at 20 ft RA (10 ft RA for autoland) comes as a reminder if the thrust levers are above idle. once TOGA is set and the A/C is established in pitch. Do not delay the thrust reduction as the thrust is maintained at a level to maintain the speed and this will induce floating and late touchdown. FLARE When thrust retardation is required. INSTRUCTION Get each trainee to disconnect and reconnect the autothrust a number of times (with the Autopilot engaged) so they will instinctively learn the correct method. ATHR is then OFF. place the thrust levers in the CLB detent. The thrust is controlled to TOGA by the FADEC with MAN TOGA on FMA. (Additionally SRS / GA TRK modes engage. and to reduce thrust on landing. either THR or SPEED. In case of a Go Around at low weight. or at a higher height.

When the AP is OFF. It may be used down to the A/C landing roll out in case of AUTOLAND. If the Autopilot is engaged it follows the Flight Director orders to fly the flight profile laterally and vertically. The pilot chooses Managed modes when he expects the aircraft to fly the FPLN he has inserted in the FMS. and the PNF confirms. If GPS accuracy is Low use Selected mode and monitor using Raw Data. within the limitations provided in FCOM. the PF selects targets and modes. This means that when you have to achieve a short term action (HDG. Some Companies have restrictions on the use of Managed mode and some Companies use a combination of modes by using Managed lateral guidance and Selected vertical guidance. The FCU: When the AP is ON. speed) five seconds after lift off. The MCDU is the Long Term Interface. and down to MDA in other approaches. the PF asks the PNF for selection. The FCU is the Short Term Interface. If the Autopilot is engaged and the Flight Directors are turned off the pilot selects on the FCU the targets he wants the Autopilot to follow. It may also be used in case of engine failure without any restrictions. It automatically disconnects when the normal flight envelope is significantly exceeded. It is not permitted to use the Auto Pilot in any Abnormal Configuration (includes slats / flaps abnormal). INTERFACES The 2 main interfaces to the AP and FD are the FCU and the MCDU. ENGAGMENT The AP can be engaged when the aircraft is within the Flight Envelope (attitude. The FCU and MCDU should be used according to the following rules to follow Airbus SOP’s and so ensure safe operation. . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. vertical and speed revisions on the MCDU. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. or speed for example) you select it on the FCU. The actual deflection of the flight control surface is the same in all these cases. When the pilot is flying the aircraft by hand the Flight Director gives the targets required for lateral and vertical navigation according to the flight profile in the FMS or as selected on the FCU. If the autoflight system becomes degraded due to one or more failures the flight control surfaces are still moved as required but predominantly by direct pilot input on the side stick. He chooses Selected modes for specific interventions. As a general design rule managed mode may be used when GPS is primary and the active FPLN is both correct and correctly sequenced. This means that in most cases (except DIR TO) you will prepare the long term lateral. MODES The AP/FD operates in Managed or Selected modes.64/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Management System. bank.

then the ATHR controls Speed. there is an associated ATHR mode change.). Low altitude time consuming entries into MCDU are to be avoided. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the PF may make a selection himself but must announce it to the PNF. The modes are therefore manually engaged by the pilot. G/S etc. but they may change automatically according to logics dictated by the integration of AP/FD/ATHR. T. and a systematic crosscheck must be carried out. Any major entry on the MCDU must be crosschecked. are short and which bring obvious operational advantages. Thus. AP and FD OFF. INSTRUCTION Some pilots coming from older aircraft do not initially follow the FD commands accurately. FPA. Activate SEC FPLN. DIR TO. Flight Director and Auto thrust follow the logic the pilots apply to control the aircraft. V/S. An action on the FCU must be confirmed by a check of the related Target and Mode on the PFD and FMA. If you do not want the Flight Director It is strongly recommended to set both Flight Directors off as this ensures ATHR SPEED mode. The PF must call the FMA mode changes to the PNF When you hand fly the aircraft with the Flight Directors on keep the attitude symbol centred on the cross bars. The operation of the Auto Pilot. the integration of FMS wi thin AP/FD/ATHR.e. the logical sequence of modes and the mode reversions. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.g. ENABLE ALTN. The MDCU: The same philosophy applies. When the AP/FD pitch mode controls a vertical trajectory (e. then the ATHR controls SPEED. when there is an AP/FD pitch mode change. Until your trainees get used to the correct technique you should keep reminding them. . The FD is designed to be followed exactly and not in an approximate fashion. If there are no AP/FD pitch modes – i.65/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In case of urgency and the PNF is using R/T with ATC. Examples include the tower wind. RADNAV entry. The choice of mode is a strategic decision of the pilot. or restricted to those which are essential. ALT.05 MODE REVERSIONS AP & FD (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The AP/FD and ATHR operate in given modes.

the FMS considers this FPLN both Laterally and Vertically. VERTICAL MODE ENGAGED CLB. LOSS OF NAV MODE The pilot engages a mode on one axis. capture and then track this altitude.66/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes When the AP/FD pitch mode controls a speed (e. MODE SEQUENCE The design logic is such that if a pilot selects a climb mode towards a target altitude. THR IDLE). EXP DES ALT* active FCU ALTITUDE SELECTION CHANGE Below current altitude Above current altitude Any change VERTICAL MODE SWITCHES TO V/S on current V/S V/S on current V/S V/S on current V/S This reversion to V/S (or FPA) mode at the current V/S (or FPA) value. the AP/FD provides the order to climb. and FINAL APP. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. this applies irrespective of whether the autopilot is engaged or the aircraft is being hand flown. This reversion is caused by loss of NAV mode.). The integration of the FMS in the AP/FD/ATHR When a pilot has defined a FPLN. Typically this is LOC. G/S. OP DES etc. FCU ALTITUDE CHANGE The pilot changes the FCU ALT target making the active vertical mode impossible to achieve. because he wishes the AP/FD to intercept a given trajectory. This reversion is caused when there is pilot action on the ALT selector knob while the aircraft is climbing or descending. Therefore the Flight Guidance component of the FMS will guide the A/C along the LAT FPLN (NAV – APP NAV modes) as well as the VERT FPLN (CLB – DES – FINAL modes).Thus when you engage a mode you will automatically ARM the next sequential mode. or when entering a discontinuity. The pilot may also Arm himself a mode. Managed Vertical modes can only be used if Managed Lateral mode is used. does not modify the pitch of the A/C.g. EXP CLB DES. Again. S uch Mode Changes occur when they are ARMED and therefore are indicated in BLUE on the PFD. OP CLB. OP DES. . CONDITIONS CLB engaged DES engaged EVENT Loss of the lateral managed mode: NAV Loss of the lateral managed mode: NAV CONSEQUENCE OP CLB engages V/S engages This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. OP CLB. then the ATHR controls Thrust (THR CLB. The mode reversions automatically ensure the aircraft stays within the flight envelope following pilot actions (which may have been inadvertent). It applies equally whether the aircraft is being hand flown or if the autopilot is engaged. for example selecting a HDG. which DISENGAGES the ASSOCIATED mode on the OTHER AXIS.

and consequently of V/S (FPA) mode on FD to regain the target speed. OP DES EVENT lAS = VLS -2 kt lAS= VLS . whichever is the greater. the aircraft cannot achieve the V/S demanded. but the priority is to maintain the V/S. The airplane is trying to maintain a V/S and a speed. Automatic engagement of SPD mode on A/THR. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. FD engaged AP Off A/THR active (CL thrust) CLB. speed will decrease (climbing) or increase (descending) up to a maximum.17 kt CONSEQUENCE Automatic engagement of SPD mode on ATHR. and consequently of V/S (FPA) mode on FD to regain the target speed. or VLS. After this point. which can be unexpected. CONDITIONS REVERSION OCCURS CONSEQUENCE WHEN V/S or FPA too high to IAS = VLS (or VLS-5 if The IAS remains at VLS be followed in climb target is VLS) (or VLS-5) V/S or FPA too high to IAS = VMAX (or VFE+2) The IAS remains at be followed in descent VMAX The Mode Reversions. are an additional reason to properly monitor the FMA. a mode reversion will occur to protect the aircraft from entering a potentially hazardous situation. whichever is lower.67/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FD ORDERS NOT FOLLOWED These reversions occur when the aircraft is in manual flight and the pilot fails to follow the FD bars. CONDITIONS FD engaged AP Off A/THR active (IDLE thrust) DES. or VMAX. When this is not possible. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. . OP CLB lAS = VMAX +4 kt where VMAX= VFE or VLE or VMO/MMO EXCESSIVE V/S When an excessive V/S has been selected. The table below explains the consequences of selecting excessive V/S and the reversions. A descent at VMO uses a lot of altitude so ensure you have sufficient height before starting (15000ft is usually enough). INSTRUCTION Plan your demonstration of the Mode Reversions so you don’t waste a lot of time.

These three control laws are called NORMAL. Thus if the PNF acts on the stick as well. he must press the priority P/B and announce "I have control". peripherals and hydraulic systems. or in case of a mechanical side stick failure leading to a jammed stick the "failed" stick order is added to the "non failed" side stick order. it can be reactivated by pressing its own priority P/B. he sends an order (an electrical signal) to the FBW computer. in other words the affected side stick is deactivated. in order to deactivate the "failed" side stick. SIDE STICK AND PRIORITY P/B NORMAL LAW ALTERNATE LAW DIRECT LAW MECHANICAL BACK-UP ABNORMAL ATTITUDE LAW ALPHA FLOOR LOW ENERGY WARNING ALPHA LOCK ALPHA LOCK AUTOMATIC RETRACTION SYSTEM REACTION TO ENGINE FAILURE SIDE STICK AND PRIORITY P/B When a pilot moves the side stick.68/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes T. When a side stick is deactivated by the opposite side stick priority P/B. In case of a SIDE STICK FAULT ECAM warning due to an electrical failure. NORMAL LAW This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.n such a case.06 FLIGHT CONTROLS (00:15) BACKGROUND BACKGROUND The relation between the pilot input on the stick and the aircraft response is called the CONTROL LAW and as such determines the handling characteristics of the A/C. the affected side stick order sent to the computer is forced to zero. the pilot will press the priority P/B during at least 30 sec. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The Fly By Wire system comprises 3 sets of control laws depending upon the integrity and redundancy status of the computers. both signals or orders are added. ALTERNATE and DIRECT LAW. If the PNF needs to take over. In case of a pilot who collapses on the stick. This following information provides an overview of the flight control laws on the FBW aircraft and the protections provided to the pilot. . Thus the PF and PNF shall not act on the stick simultaneously.

So once the correct flight path has been established. d. with the same consistent response. . Hence there is no need to trim. Zero displacement is a positive command for 1g flight.69/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Normal Law is the normal case and allows for all “single” failures. regardless of IAS. in the short term it will be maintained. Zero displacement is a positive command for zero roll rate flight. a. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. release the sidestick to neutral and it will be maintained. the integrity and redundancy of the computers and peripherals are not sufficient to maintain Normal law with its protections. the ECAM will indicate whether Alternate Law with or without protections is active. Side-stick movement in the roll axis commands a given rate of roll. ailerons and rudder. spoilers. despite any changes to thrust or speed. Flare Mode A change in pitch control below 50 ft. Gross Weight and C of G). ALTERNATE LAW In some cases of double failure. b. c.if you feel you are over controlling. where under stress conditions only an instinctive and rapid reaction will save the situation. flight and flare mode. Once the required bank angle has been established. Make a small input then gently release to neutral and leave the stick alone unless a further adjustment is required. 1g flight means no change in flight path. There are three modes of normal law. Don’t fight with the stick . All turns may require some side-stick and power adjustments. This is progressively blended out when airborne so that flight mode becomes effective. Protections: Full flight envelope protection is provided in normal law using the following individual protections. release it. Depending on the particular failure that causes the degrading of the flight control laws. are such that the aircraft is stable. The efforts on the side stick are balanced in pitch and roll. requiring a gentle pull on the sidestick during the flare in order to maintain a progressive flare. The handling characteristics of Normal Law (within the normal flight envelope and. Flight Mode Side-stick movement in the pitch axis commands a change in ‘g’. The protections make this reaction possible. Altitude. The degradation is progressive depending upon the availability of remaining peripherals or computers. Ground Mode Direct control of elevator. These protections have been designed to assist pilots in emergency situations. The indications will be ALTN LAW or This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. ground.

natural aircraft static stability is restored with an OVER SPEED WARNING (as the a utotrim stops on reaching the red line the aircraft is now flying faster than it is trimmed for so will naturally pitch up). Autotrim is still available. DIRECT LAW On the A320 in every case where the Landing Gear is extended when in Alternate Law (and in certain other cases) the control law becomes Direct. No protections are available. the pilot must take proper preventive actions to avoid loss of control. Note that. with STALL WARNING at 1. INDICATIONS The degradation of control laws is indicated on the ECAM as well as on PFD. the auto pitch trim stops at Va prot (below VLS) and natural longitudinal static stability is restored. in ALTN law VMO is reduced to 320 kt and that A. (as the autotrim stops and the aircraft is flying slower than it is trimmed for there is a natural pitch down movement.FLOOR is inhibited. The ECAM will indicate to the crew when direct law is the active flight control law and USE MAN PITCH TRIM will be displayed on the PFD as a reminder. rather than roll rate. or high speed excursions as he would do it on any non protected A/C. . Protection in Alternate Law at the limits of the Flight Envelope: At high speed. Load factor limitation Pitch attitude protection High angle of attack protection same as normal law not provided changed to low speed stability (PFD display also changes. Roll control is the same as direct law with the sidestick demanding aileron deflection. In alternate law pitch control is similar to normal law with some changes in the protections available. the handling characteristics are the same in pitch as with the normal law and outside the Normal Flight Envelope. Summary of ALTN law: Within the Normal Flight Envelope. VSW is shown and stall warning is provided) changed to alternate high speed stability High speed protection In some failure cases alternate law without protection is available. but overspeed or stall warnings are still operational. All protections except load factor limitation are lost. In Direct Law the elevator deflection is proportional to stick deflection (the maximum deflection is a function of CONF and CG) and aileron and spoiler deflections are proportional to stick deflection but vary with the A/C CONF and pitch trim is no longer automatic but is controlled manually by pilot input on the trim wheel. The main differences between these two laws and normal law are detailed below. If this is resisted the aircraft slows further and eventually stalls). This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.70/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes ALTN LAW: PROT LOST.03 VS1g. At the other end of the envelope at low speed. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

is shown by specific symbols (= i n green). Although roll control is still available from the right hand aileron the aim of the exercise is to control the flight path using solely the pitch trim and the rudder. In order of probability it is more likely (statistically 1 in 1000 billion) for a different series of failures to occur which leads to a similar situation (loss of Blue hydraulic plus SEC2 plus ELAC2). . When the protections are lost. the pilot is immediately aware of his control law status and operational consequences MECHANICAL BACK-UP When the A320 was certified it was necessary to demonstrate control of the aircraft with a total loss of the FBW system. The autothrust. (The message USE MAN PITCH TRIM indicates that Direct Law is active even if it is not possible to move the stabiliser). Bank 125°. AOA +30°. but to keep the aircraft in a safe stabilised attitude. This second scenario is what we demonstrate to the trainees. if engaged. >0. Mach <0. will give to large pitch changes and control is considerably easier with manual thrust. allowing the lost systems to be restored by computer reset. MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY will be displayed in red on the PFD. -10° and Speed <440. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. amber crosses are displayed instead of the green protection symbols.96. When automatic pitch trim is no longer available (in Direct Law) this is indicated by the message USE MAN PITCH TRIM in amber on the PFD. in normal law.71/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes On the PFD the availability of protections. Just by watching his main instrument the PFD. The aim of the demonstration is not to fly the aircraft accurately. 30° down. The most unlikely way for this to happen is for a loss of five flight control computers.1. and by the specific display of the low speed information on the speed scale. (due to atmospheric disturbance for example) the Abnormal Attitude Law is invoked where pitch is ALTN with load factor protection (without autotrim) and lateral Direct Law with yaw alternate. ABNORMAL ATTITUDE LAW If any of the following limits are exceeded Pitch 50° up. >60. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. There is no turn coordination and no protections are operative.

AUTOMATIC RETRACTION SYSTEM When accelerating through 210 kts with CONF I + F selected. ALPHA LOCK This protection prevents the retraction of flap from CONF I to zero. if speed is too low or AOA is too high. The Flaps will not automatically re-extend if speed drops below 210 kt. the flaps will automatically retract. ALPHA FLOOR Alpha floor is an autothrust mode. Alpha floor is available from lift off until 100 ft RA on approach. This technique dictates the amount of rudder required. 3 or FULL. and occurs before alpha floor operates. It provides protection against stall and windshear and has priority over all other protections. REACTION TO ENGINE FAILURE The most efficient flying technique with regard to performance with an engine failure at take off is to fly a constant heading with roll surfaces retracted. and centre the Beta target with the rudder pedals. LOW ENERGY WARNING In Normal Law. Consequently. before VFE of 215 kt. This is evident during an approach when the single engine thrust increases above 80% N1 and the yellow slip This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Alpha floor is only available in normal law. At high angles of attack TOGA thrust is commanded by the autothrust system. This warning is only available below 2000 ft radio altitude and in CONF 2. however it is also a part of the flight envelope protection. . It is not a protection. What your trainees need to understand is that if a conventional balance indicator were installed in our FBW aircraft it would not be centred if the Beta target is centred. and the residual side slip which will result. a warning is included to alert the pilot to a low energy situation. in case of engine failure at take off smoothly control the pitch (lower) to keep the desired speed (as per SRS).72/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The FBW architecture and control laws explain why upset recovery manoeuvres need not be trained on Airbus protected A/C. It is inhibited is some cases.

An aural warning is produced on entering the stall area. The recovery technique depends on whether there is a possibility of ground contact. This aural warning is produced by the AOA sensors. This is because a centred Beta target ensures all flight control surfaces are retracted and thus there will be a residual side slip. Low speed indications change from alpha prot. It is possible to experience “false warnings” if pitch control is rough during the recovery from the stall. As there is now an increased margin above VSW this margin can be used to This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. or below FL200 (limitation for flap extension altitude). VSW indications are always correct as these are generated by the FACs. because of the protections provided in Normal law. T. . The conventional stall is only possible in Alternate and Direct control laws. and for this reason the procedure is defined according to whether the aircraft altitude is above.73/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes indicator changes into the blue Beta target but displaced from the slip index. If the side slip index (when visible) is centred there will remain residual deflection of some flight control surfaces. to VSW. STALL” TOGA REDUCE ROLL WINGS LEVEL CHECK RETRACTED Below FL200 we have to be aware of the possibility of ground contact so the procedure is to extend Flap1. which immediately increases the effective chord of the wing which will reduce the stalling speed and thus aid recovery. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. not the FACs. STALL. If above FL200 it can be assumed there is no risk of ground contact so altitude preservation is not considered.07 RECOVERY FROM APPROACH TO STALL (00:20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND We need to demonstrate Stalling in both the clean configuration as well as the landing configuration so the trainee will recognise the indications of an impending stall and to take immediate and appropriate actions to recover controlled flight. The recovery is as follows: INDICATION THRUST LEVERS At the same time: PITCH ATTITUDE BANK ANGLE SPD BRAKES STALL. VSW is load factor dependant and will increase with increase in pitch rate or bank angle.

INSTRUCTION Before you commence this exercise get your trainees to calculate (from the Limitations section of the FCOM) the stalling speed for the projected weight and configuration. Our syllabus only includes the approach to the stall so do not attempt to achieve a fully developed stall due to limitations with the simulator that could lead to negative training. The Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) system monitors and displays all information concerning aircraft systems and system failures and thus reports the status of the aircraft. T. monitors the aircraft systems. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. reduce pitch attitude no more than necessary to allow airspeed to increase. If no danger of ground contact exists. Care must be exercised not to re-enter the stall regime and set off another warning. On recovery ensure they decrease the pitch but not below the horizon. Don’t change configuration until above VSW and be prepared for rapid acceleration once TOGA power is achieved. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The remainder of the procedure is identical. In case of engine inoperative.08 ECAM (00:30) BACKGROUND BACKGROUND ECAM DISPLAY PHILOSOPHY. The Autotrim will be inoperative so continual forward pressure is required on the sidestick. .74/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes maintain altitude while increasing the potential energy of the aircraft and so resume normal flight. With prompt action. Remember that in this situation the auto trim is not working. It is a system which displays the aircraft system information. Recover to normal speed and retract flaps as required. Be prepared for a strong pitch up due to power application and the need for large manual pitch trim changes in DIRECT law. and provides the actions required by the crew in most normal / abnormal and emergency situations. use power and rudder with care. very little height is lost. With this information they will see that the aural stall warning comes with a relatively large margin above the stalling speed. so to reduce the pitch requires a continual pressure on the side stick and not solely a nose down input.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. but is continuously displayed from 1500 ft after take-off to landing gear extension unless a warning / caution is displayed.75/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Display of system failures and take off and landing memo is flight phase sensitive. There is no Master Caution associated with a Level 1 warning. On the System Display screen some pages are phase-selected i. The criticality of a failure is graded from 1 to 3 and this is reflected in the warning or caution given. The failure title is boxed on the EWD. A failure that does not affect other systems. The system title is underlined on the EWD. A failure that affects other systems and causes secondary failures. however failures critical to a particular phase of flight will always be displayed. If a failure of a system affects another system. . the Flight Warning Computer will display the PRIMARY FAILURE first followed by the SECONDARY (or consequential) failure. Secondary failures are in amber preceded by an asterisk on the bottom right hand side of the EWD. Level 2 is associated with a Master Caution and is displayed in amber on the EWD along with an Amber “Land as soon as Practicable” message. CRITICALITY COLOUR / AURAL DEGRADATION AMBER / NONE ABNORMAL SAFETY AMBER / SINGLE CHIME RED / CONTINUOUS REPETITIVE REACTION AWARENESS / MONITORING AWARENESS. A failure that is caused by a primary failure and not by an unserviceability of that particular system. SECONDARY FAILURE. PRIORITY OF WARNINGS. PRIMARY FAILURE. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In addition to the three levels of warning or caution. Take off and landing memo are only displayed at the appropriate phase of flight. the WHEEL page is automatically displayed after engine start. the ECAM also differentiates between three types of failures as follows: INDEPENDENT FAILURES. THEN ACTION IMMEDIATE LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 Level 1 is displayed in amber on the Engine Warning Display (EWD). or a system page has been manually selected. Level 3 is associated with a Master Warning and is displayed in red on the EWD along with a Red “Land as soon as Possible” message.e. Some warnings and cautions are suppressed during take off and landing. The cruise page is not selectable. FLIGHT PHASE INHIBITION.

NORMAL OPERATION Periodically review the main systems during flight to check if everything is ok and detect a potential problem. as shown by the status of the affected components in the diagram. MASTER WARNING / CAUTION These are Attention Getters in case of a failure. Consequently. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the associated System Display page is provided on the lower CRT. Speed Brakes.e. press STS only if the label is displayed. During cruise it should be blank. when the check list calls for status review. it pulses at the bottom of EW/D. In case of an aural Altitude Alert pressing the Master Warning stops the sound. The ECAM memo must be included in the instrument scan. The options allowing switching of screens in the event of failure are detailed in FCOM 1. Whenever a failure or an advisory occurs. . The RCL pushbutton is used to either recover cancelled cautions suppressed by the EMER CANCEL pushbutton or to review cautions or warnings which have been cleared using the CLR pushbutton. This allows the crew to analyse the situation. Furthermore there is a hierarchy within each of the three levels to ensure that the most critical failures are displayed first.76/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In the event of multiple failures there is a hierarchy determining the order in which failures are displayed on the EWD i.31. It helps the pilot to notice that a system has been forgotten. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. OPERATIONAL USE 1. At engine shutdown if there is a STS. Level 3 takes priority over Level 2. T/O CONFIG PUSHBUTTON Pressing the T/O CONFIG push button simulates T/O power application and allows the pilot to check that Slats and Flaps. Brake Temp. Review the status page to correctly fill in the technical log. Parking Brake.05. If a procedure is proposed to the crew for action then the instruction disappears after it has been carried out. ABNORMAL ECAM CONFIGURATION The ECAM screens are identical. providing the option of redundancy. STS label displayed at the bottom of EW/D means that the status page is not empty. IF there is feedback from that item. Pressing the related pushbutton extinguishes the light (except for STALL / OVERSPD…) and stops the aural. Rudder Trim. IRS time to alignment is displayed if the alignment is not completed. and Doors are in a Take Off configuration. Pitch Trim. RCL and EMER CANCEL The EMER CANCEL pushbutton may be used by the crew to cancel any cautions or warnings that are intermittent or spurious (and are effectively nuisance warnings).

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2. ECAM ADVISORY The first pilot who notices an Advisory should announce "ADVISORY on XYZ system". 3. TASK SHARING RULES in case of ABNORMAL OPERATIONS The first pilot to recognise a problem announces the Title of the failure and cancels the Master Warning, or Caution. The PF controls the Aircraft and once stabilised, and above 400 ft AGL, the PF orders the ECAM actions. Since there are two essential tasks, (fly and deal with the failure) both pilots must be aware of what is occurring during the completion of the associated drills. The PF is usually the PF throughout the exercise unless the CM1 decides to take control. The PF will then control the Flight path, Speed, Configuration and Engines. He will deal with navigation and communication and will order the PNF to commence the ECAM actions and check that the actions are properly completed. PF <<ECAM ACTIONS>> PNF Reviews SD and reads ECAM. Carries out the actions detailed. Once all actions complete asks to <<CLEAR XYZ>> After checking that the actions are complete confirms <<CLEAR XYZ>> Continues the ECAM actions or reads STS Once all actions are done and STS is read asks <<CLR STATUS>> After crosscheck confirms <<CLR STATUS>> Clears STS page and announces <<ECAM ACTIONS COMPLETE>> FCOM 3.02.01 details procedures for the use of ECAM in the event of a failure. The key points are: PF - fly, na vigate and communicate— in that order (golden rule). PNF - deal with the failure on the PF’s command. Both pilots to identify failure and confirm by reference to SD, E/WD. When a failure occurs it is important to review the SD prior to acting, in order to get a proper assessment of the situation. Some actions or messages have no feedback and the blue line does not disappear. Examples are, ATC NOTIFY, or VHF 1 (2) (3) USE, or MIN RAT SPEED 140 and so on. Some procedures require reference to QRH and this is indicated by the phrase LDG PROC APPLY on the ECAM. In some failure cases, the STATUS page lists a non standard configuration for Approach. The Status page is automatically displayed when CONF 1 is selected, as a reminder of the current status of the aircraft. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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The Status page appears when all required actions are complete. It is not required to read it immediately it appears! As a reflection of the status of the aircraft it should be referred to when planning an Approach, or to ascertain the current status of the aircraft. Remember the following points. In the case of multiple failures complete all required actions (in blue) associated with the first red or amber title. Request clearance to press CLR and then deal with the next failure. Reinforce that this “chapter” must be cleared before continuing with the next “chapter”. The drills affecting the second “chapter” are then carried out until its red / amber title can be cleared, before starting on the third etc. Don’t leave the red or amber title on the E/WD when all actions associated with that failure have been completed. Clear each one as it is dealt with. When all necessary actions are complete there will be no amber or red displayed on the lower part of the E / WD. Read the ECAM carefully, as it is possible to misread drills. Although the overhead panel is uncluttered, misidentification of switches or pushbuttons is possible. When action on the overhead panel pushbuttons or switches is required by ECAM, identification of the correct panel is aided by reference to the writing etched on the side of each system panel. When carrying out system pushbutton selection, verify on the SD that the required action has occurred e.g. switching off an hydraulic pump changes the indications on the SD. Any non-reversible action must be confirmed by both pilots. This means the THR levers, engine master switch, fire switch, IRs, or any guarded pushbutton. This is to prevent the crew from carrying out an inadvertent irreversible actions. OEB Certain procedures may be modified by OEB. The generic documentation we use does not normally contain any OEBs. However get your trainees to think about referring to any OEBs as part of their training. The OEB’s have to be checked before reading and analysing the status page. OEBs (FCOM Vol 3) are issued by Airbus and contain information which may have implications for crew actions in the event of system failures. If time permits consider consulting FCOM Vol 3 after ECAM actions have been completed. It may contain additional notes or information not displayed on ECAM. However do not prolong the flight for the sole purpose of consulting this volume. STATUS PAGE The status page is reviewed by both pilots. A green overflow arrow indicates further pages of status messages. The Status page can be recalled at any time and is very useful as an aid for descent and approach planning. Following certain failures, or after multiple failures, the STATUS page may contain an excess of information. In order to extract the information essential for landing the aircraft safely use the following guide: CONFIG flap/slat setting, approach speed increment, landing distance factor and control law for landing. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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GEAR - when to lower gear and whether normally or by gravity BRAKES - normal, alternate or alternate without anti-skid REVERSE - availability. SINGLE SCREEN USAGE When dealing with failures with only one ECAM display the same principles are valid but disciplined use of the ECAM control panel is even more important. There is no automatic display of the SD associated with the failure confirmation of the failure will require the relevant system page pushbutton to be pressed and held. This is also true when reviewing secondary failures. The STATUS page is only displayed when STS pushbutton is pressed and held. In order to view page two or three pages of status messages the STS pushbutton must be released for less than 2 seconds and then pressed and held again. Remember to teach the transfer of the SD to the PNF’s ND (except in EMER ELEC CONF when it is not available). ADVISORY ECAM advisory mode requires the crew to monitor a parameter and does not necessarily require action. FCOM 3.02.80 contains recommended actions in the event of certain advisory conditions. COMMON ERRORS Beware of the following errors No de-selection of manually selected system page when no longer required. Clear action without cross-check. STATUS page reviewed at the wrong time. Single ECAM screen, SD pages and STS page not reviewed. Green overflow arrow ignored.

T.09 FMS NAVIGATION (00:20)
BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION

BACKGROUND
For the major part of our Flight Instruction we consider that GPS Navigation is Primary, and as such our navigation is accurate. As we are simulating reality we have a problem because the GPIRS position in the simulator is always accurate. We can simulate GPS Navigation inoperative (by NOTAM for example), or we can insert a Map Shift from the IOS. In the first case the IR position will also be 100% accurate so there will be no constraints on the use of Managed Navigation mode. A thorough briefing is therefore required as we cannot (at present) simulate the slow drifting of IR position that happens in real life.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

the approach must be discontinued. 1. Selected. 2. This can be achieved in two ways.80/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Therefore for our training we either consider an accurate system of navigation (GPS Primary. In addition. If during a phase of flight we get a message stating that NAV ACCY DNGRADED it means that the Estimated Accuracy has increased to a value larger than the Required Accuracy as it appears on the PROG page. The NPA defined with a VOR. This is then compared with the raw data as shown by the relative bearing of the needle and the displayed DME distance on the lower left or right of the ND. In cruise. In case of GPS PRIMARY. The NPA is a GPS defined approach where the raw data is the FMS position and in case GPS PRIMARY LOST message appears. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. we require +/-5nm. in Europe. we insert a Map Shift and cause the trainees to revert to a Selected Approach. If the point is not the TO waypoint the navaid may not be autotuned. ADF (also called an overlay approach) and with the associated needles on the ND. or High Accuracy of IR navigation) and allow use of either Managed. . two types of approaches are flown: 1. VORDME. If we are using a Managed navigation function we must change to a Selected mode and monitor the raw data navigational information. In this case insert the ident into a VOR field on the RAD NAV page to tune the VORDME and on the PROG page insert the same ident in the BRG / DISTance TO field to obtain the FMS computation of the bearing and distance to compare with the raw data as displayed on the ND. in Approach we require +/-1nm and on final we require +/-0. or Laterally Managed and Vertically Selected modes OR. REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE The accuracy we require from the navigation system varies according to the phase of the flight.3nm. display modes only if GPS is PRIMARY or the FMS NAV ACCY crosscheck is POSITIVE. if GPS PRIMARY LOST message appears we must use raw data in a Selected mode. NAVIGATION ACCURACY CROSSCHECK TECHNIQUE Checking the Navigation Accuracy is achieved by comparing the FMS derived bearing and distance of a point with the raw data bearing and distance from a received beacon located at that point. If the point is the TO waypoint the beacon will be autotuned and the FMS derived bearing and distance is displayed on the top right of the ND. If we consider the situation where we require non GPS navigation we have to ensure that the FMS Navigation Accuracy check is performed correctly. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. 2. STRATEGY IN NON PRECISION APPROACH A NPA is flown using AP / FD managed modes and ND ARC or ROSE NAV.

Hence the F MS continuously computes: . for example. HIGH/LOW and thus NAV ACCY UPGRADED / DNGRADED messages are merely indicators to the crew of the estimated accuracy of the FMS position versus required criteria.81/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes When there is no GPS available. but they ignore possible excessive drifts of the IRSs. continue as before. The ACCURACY of the Lat/Long position. WITHOUT GPS PRIMARY When a Radio position is available. WITH GPS PRIMARY The GPS directly interfaces with the IRSs which output a GPIRS position. The PROG Page has the following information: .the BIAS between MIX IRS and FMS position. or if their respective position is unfavourable.the ESTIMATED POSITION ERROR (EPE) of its own position. It is provided as a "Figure of Merit". . or erroneous locations of navaids within the Nav Data Base. at least on the PF side. Those tolerances assume that the navigation means work properly. the resulting accuracy will be poor. applies specified tolerances to each one of them and calculates the EPE. so as to benefit from the latest update when the RADIO position becomes unavailable and . 2. the reference navaid raw data of the NPA must be displayed. The GPS provides 2 essential data. The INTEGRITY. Consequently the HIGH / LOW accuracy information provided on Progress page are Indicators to the crew of the potential accuracy of the FMS position versus a specified accuracy criteria. Therefore if the GPS position (or GPIRS position) fulfils the Integrity and Accuracy criteria. it supersedes the RADIO position (if available). in addition to position (Lat/Long/Alt): 1. but if Negative.the FMS position out of MIX IRS and Radio positions. If 5 or more satellites are in view. . When a GPIRS position is available. proceed immediately with a NAV ACCY CROSS CHECK: if Positive. If the satellites are low on the horizon.Indicates GPS PRIMARY. It is a direct function of the satellite constellation in view of the aircraft. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and select ROSE VOR at least on the PF side. this means that this position is the Best Raw Data position available. revert to selected mode. which is a direct function of the number of satellites in view of the aircraft. This accuracy can be computed with a high probability of confidence. so that the FMS position tends to the GPIRS position. In case the NAV ACCY DNGRADED message appears. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. several combinations of those satellite signals may be used to process “several positions” and to carry out reasonableness tests on the satellite signals themselves. and allows a defective or erroneous satellite to be rejected. The ESTIMATED POSITION ERROR (EPE) is an Estimate meaning that the FMS considers the instantaneously available navigation means used in the calculation of the FMS position. the FMS position tends towards the Radio position.

These indications will allow the RNP concept (required nav performance) linked to FANS to be addressed. RNP is equivalent to required navigation accuracy. If GPS Primary is lost. If GPS is Primary. (This information is only if the A/C is fitted with Honeywell IRS). This occurs due to different reference co-ordinates being used in New Data Base. Periodically cross check nav accuracy. . and are used to trigger a crosscheck. TMA or approach area. and whenever a navigation doubt occurs. SELECTED Navaid page DESELECT GPS prompt allows the crew to prevent the FMS from using the GPS data for position computation.5 NM in LAT or LONG.Indicates the value of the Estimated Navigation Accuracy in green. in T/O or LOC update cases. Once in climb. Provided for crews to know if GPS PRIMARY will be available at Destination. Clearable on MCDU but not on ND. PREDICTIVE GPS GPS PRIMARY criteria (INTEGRITY + ACCURACY) depends upon the Satellite Constellation status at a given time. Use the NAV ACCY DNGRADED message as an indication to crosscheck the navigation accuracy. crosscheck is not necessary. in a given location and this is predictable.Link to Predictive GPS page. To day it is either the Navigation accuracy criteria as required in cruise. GPS PRIMARY LOST message is then displayed on MCDU and ND. Operational Consequences Use HIGH / LOW as INDICATORS.when GPS PRIMARY is lost. . It is not the role of NAV ACCY UP / DN GRADED messages or HIGH / LOW indications (which are only indicators). every 45 minutes in cruise and before TOD.Indicates the Required Navigation Accuracy in blue. . It is either the one as computed by the GPS when GPS PRIMARY is available.When GPS PRIMARY is again available. GPS PRIMARY. or it can be manually inserted. The GPS can be reselected later on the same page. or the EPE when GPS PRIMARY is LOST. ND / MCDU messages GPS PRIMARY LOST . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.GPS] = 0. NOTE FMS/GPS POSITION DISAGREE message comes up from time to time when [FM . . an accuracy crosscheck is necessary. The operational consequences of the navigation accuracy crosscheck are: If the crosscheck is Positive or GPS is Primary: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.If the Estimated Nav Accy is less than the Required Nav Accy. This message is clearable. or at Alternate. HIGH accuracy is displayed (or LOW if vice versa).82/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes . reaching TMA and IAF.

A check of NOTAM’s may allow the crew to identify whether a VOR should be deselected. or PBD.83/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes AP / FD Lateral / Vertical Managed modes may be used. On the other hand you must be aware that. revert to selected modes and raw data only. ND ARC and ROSE NAV may be used with care and with raw data by the PF and the PNF except in approach where the PF has to refer to raw data systematically. in cruise for example. FMS Position Update This procedure is a very rough way of correcting gross errors in the FMGS computed position and should only be used when a major position error is apparent or when a CHK IRS / FM POSITION message occurs with an obvious position error. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. while its position is affected by the latest determined bias. and Navigation Accuracy is Low. NOTE Whenever a doubt arises. T. or corruption of a VOR signal as might happen in a war zone. . The position error may have occurred due to either FMGS incorrectly identifying a VOR (for any reason). when required and the EGPWS remains ON. the EPE continuously rises without any damageable consequence. to avoid any confusion. and ND ARC and ROSE NAV modes are used by both PF & PNF with needles. EGPWS must be set OFF. Pilots must also be aware of equipment failure. The FMS position slowly drifts along with the drift of the IRSs. It should not apply to GPS equipped aircraft. if no navaid is available and no GPS primary. confirm the update with the 3R key. If the crosscheck is Negative: AP / FD Lateral / Vertical Managed modes may be used with care except in Approach where selected modes have to be used. The recommended technique is to insert an ident of a beacon or a PBD into the “UPDATE AT” field of the PROG page and on overflying the beacon. When a position update is achieved. the EPE is automatically set to a higher value . When a position error occurs navigate with raw data until the position can be updated. This update will allow the FMS to resume its normal navigation function. Be prepared to switch to selected modes and to ROSE VOR if you have a doubt.10 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING (00:20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.

The two EGPWS functions provide displays on the ND. The system predicts potential hazard from these trends but has no forward-looking capability.84/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND GPWS The Airbus family is equipped with GPWS. the associated threats will be announced to the crew. These two terrain envelopes are projected on the terrain data base and are coupled with the This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The basic GPWS functions remains unchanged. The three EGPWS functions 1. The EGPWS has priority over the PWS. As the ND can only display one type of information at one time there are two specific pushbuttons which control the intentional display of terrain information or radar information. which is used to advise the crew of any potential conflict with terrain. The earth is divided into grid sets with the record of the highest terrain altitude in each element of the grid. not on radar return. When the terrain violates specific computed boundaries on the projected flight path of the A/C. Terrain Look Ahead Alerting and Terrain Awareness Display (TAD). EGPWS The Enhanced GPWS incorporates the functions of the basic GPWS with the following added features: Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF). The EGPWS functions are based on a terrain database and the FMGC current position. It has also an airport data base. and to give earlier Cautions and Warnings to the pilot to initiate a safe recovery manoeuvre. The purpose of the Enhanced GPWS functions is to provide a better situational awareness to the crew through the TAD. FORWARD-LOOKING FUNCTION The forward-looking function computes two terrain envelopes from the aircraft position. The Enhanced GPWS is commanded ON from on the overhead panel by the TERR pushbutton located next to the other GPWS pushbuttons. . track and ground speed. GPWS alerts and warnings are described at the end of this section. The computer incorporates a world wide Terrain Data Base with varying degrees of resolution. Most GPWS alerts and warnings are generated as a result of changes in radio altimeter height or rate of those changes. The EGPWS determines present position. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The resolution of the data base is a function of the geographic location. There are 5 levels of resolution from High Resolution around an airport. and Small Resolution away from an airport. speed and track and adds a safety margin.

The warning is a function of the FMGC aircraft position a nd radio altitude and complements the GPWS warnings. the areas which violate the caution envelope appear in a solid yellow with associated warnings. If the aircraft enters this envelope.TERRAIN data displayed on ND with SOLID RED areas This warning gives typically 30 sec reaction time. If the WARNING envelope is penetrated. Consequently it is below a level that an aircraft would normally be during an approach. the areas which violate the warning envelope appears in a solid red with associated warnings.GPWS RED LIGHT 3) .TERRAIN AHEAD. 4) . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. TERRAIN CLEARANCE FLOOR FUNCTION The terrain clearance floor envelope is stored in the data base. If the CAUTION envelope is penetrated. When a conflict is detected between these terrain envelopes and the terrain memorised in the data base.85/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FMGC position.GPWS RED LIGHT 3) . repeated every 7 sec 2) . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The Caution Alert is: 1) . . an alert is triggered. The Warning Alert: 1) . The TCF is available in ALL FLIGHT PHASES and is a complement to the basic GPWS mode 4.TERRAIN data displayed on ND with SOLID YELLOW areas This caution gives typically 60 sec reaction time prior to potential terrain conflict.TERRAIN AHEAD. 2. an alert is triggered. 4) . It envelopes the earth at 700 ft AGL and commences reducing to ground level 15 nm around the runways stored in the data base.TERRAIN AHEAD in red appears on the ND.TERRAIN AHEAD in amber appears on the ND. PULL UP repeated continuously 2) .

It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. TERRAIN AWARENESS DISPLAY FUNCTION The TAD function displays an image of the surrounding terrain on ND (except in PLAN mode). A different image texture. an image display which sweeps from centre outward to both ND side and a TERR indication instead of TILT indication help the crew to make the difference between the EGPWS terrain computed data and the ground picture sensed by the radar. The EGPWS functions are automatically deselected when navigation accuracy is low. but not for navigation.TOO LOW TERRAIN. and the Navigation accuracy This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. .GPWS RED LIGHT 3. TAD function is to be used for Terrain Awareness.86/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The TCF Alert: 1) . A colour code is used otherwise from black to red. TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) . The display is generated by comparing the aircraft altitude to the terrain data base coupled with FMGC position. In that case TERR STBY then appears on the ECAM memo. OPERATIONAL RECOMENDATIONS The EGPWS can be used only if GPS PRIMARY or navigation accuracy check is positive. If GPS is not primary. The terrain is not shown if terrain altitude is more than 2000 ft below aircraft altitude or if its elevation is within 400 ft of the runway elevation nearest the aircraft.

and the TERR ON ND light comes on. The brightness of terrain indication on the ND is controlled via the weather radar control knob. TAD function computes the aircrafts relative altitude by using the Captains barometric setting information. In case of any terrain. the ND weather / terrain display brightness may need to be adjusted.then PULL UP (continuously) 3) . If TERR ON ND pushbutton is pressed off and an EGPWS terrain caution or warning is triggered. positive control action and the control input retained until clear of danger. if the barometric setting is incorrect the TAD function will also provide erroneous information and / or warnings. GPWS BASIC FUNCTIONS The fi ve functions of the basic GPWS are: MODE 1: Excessive Descent Rate Warns that the aircraft descent rate with respect to altitude above ground level is excessive.87/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes check is negative then switch off the EGPWS with the TERR pushbutton on the overhead panel. The Mode 1 Alert: 1) . Therefore. with clear announcement of intent. The drill must be carried out positively. an FMS1 position error may induce erroneous information and warnings. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.GPWS RED LIGHT This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.SINK RATE (twice) 2) . the terrain data is automatically displayed on the ND. Therefore. descent or configuration alerts Adjust flight path or go-around or Climb and turn as necessary or Adjust configuration or go-around Re-establish on G/S or press G/S mode pushbutton if undue alert Care must be taken when operating on one engine. Airbus recommends that for an approach where terrain is suspected the PNF has TERR ON ND . TAD and TCF function use FMS1 position to perform their calculations. Thus. with flaps extended and at light weight as in this configuration directional control may be difficult.ON and the PF has TERR ON ND – OFF. when a terrain alert occurs. . immediately and with no arguments: Set TOGA Pull full aft stick Check speed brake retracted Maintain initially wings levelled. In case of any warning including “PULL UP”. Available in all flight phases.

With LDG GEAR down and flaps landing conf.GPWS AMBER LIGHT This mode is divided into three sub -modes: Mode 4A Cruise approach with Gear Up. speed and / or aircraft configuration. Mode 4B Cruise approach with Gear Down and Flaps not in landing Conf: 1) .TOO LOW GEAR (500 ft R/A) TOO LOW FLAPS (245 ft R/A) 3) . The Mode 4 Alert: 1) .TOO LOW FLAPS (if R/A < 245. Mode 5: Excessive G/S deviation Warns whenever the aircraft descends below the glide slope.TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) . It is automatically engaged when the Flaps are in Landing Conf. cruise.DON'T SINK 2) . IAS < 190). initial approach when Flaps are not in landing conf and the aircraft is not on the Glide Slope centre line.GLIDE SLOPE. The Mode 3 Alert: 1) . . or within 2 dots of the G/S. IAS < 160) Mode 4C After takeoff or low altitude Go Around when Gear or Flaps are not in landing conf. The Mode 5 Alert: 1) .TERRAIN 2) . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) . the PULL UP call is suppressed. The Mode 2 Alert: 1) .GPWS RED LIGHT Mode 2A active during climb out.TOO LOW GEAR (if R/A < 500.GPWS AMBER LIGHT MODE 4: Unsafe Terrain Clearance Warns of insufficient terrain clearance as a function of the phase of flight.88/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes MODE 2: Excessive closure to Terrain Warns of rapidly rising terrain with respect to the aircraft. GLIDE SLOPE This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.TOO LOW TERRAIN.then PULL UP (continuously) 3) .TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) . It warns the crew that the terrain is rising more steeply than the aircraft is climbing. A Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) is defined and increases with R/A up to 500 ft if IAS =190 kts and up to 1000 ft if IAS increases to 250 kts: 1) . MODE 3: Altitude Loss After T/O Warns of a significant altitude loss after take off or low altitude go around (> 245 ft) with gear or flaps not in landing conf. Mode 2B is de-sensitised to permit landing manoeuvres close to terrain without undue alerts. This provides alerting for cruise for flight into terrain where the terrain is not rising significantly or the aircraft is not descending rapidly: 1) .TERRAIN .

011 VAPP DETERMINATION (00 :10) VAPP NORMAL CONFIGURATION VAPP ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION GS MINI PROTECTION VAPP NORMAL CONFIGURATION VAPP is computed as a factor of VLS (1. INSTRUCTION In order to demonstrate the EGPWS functions you must explain to the trainees that for the purposes of demonstration they have to ignore the GPWS warnings and the EGPWS Caution in order to see the EGPWS Warning. T. Below 150 ft RA it is desensitised to reduce nuisance alerts. The Flap mode is then inhibited when CONFIG 3 is selected. In case of a further violation the alert returns. In this case ECAM LDG MEMO displays FLAPS ……… 3 rather than FLAP ……… FULL. As the aircraft flies towards the terrain the first warning is the GPWS Mode 4 saying TOO LOW TERRAIN and normally this is enough for a pilot to commence recovery. as well as the tower wind. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Note that on MCDU PERF APP page. In 95% of the cases the FMGC provides the correct VAPP on the PERF APPR page. Still for purposes of demonstration they maintain their current path and then they will get the EGPWS Warning Alert at which time they should carry out the Emergency recovery procedure. However you must explain that for purposes of demonstration they will maintain their current path and the next event will be the EGPWS Caution with the TAD pop up.89/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes 2) . METAR or TAF is always true. once FLAP 3 or FLAP FULL landing configuration has been inserted. Be aware that the wind direction provided by the Tower or ATIS is given in the same reference as the runway direction (magnetic or true) whereas the wind provided by VOLMET.GPWS AMBER LIGHT It starts below 1000 ft RA. . LDG CONF selection computes VLS and associated deceleration prediction but is not connected to GPWS. Pressing the glideslope pushbutton stops the alert and turns off the amber G/S. If landing is to be performed in FLAPS 3 the LDG FLAP 3 pushbutton should be selected ON on the OVHD panel. After take off get them to maintain level flight at approximately the height of some terrain feature. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The landing configuration is by DEFAULT FLAPS FULL.23 VS1G) of the landing configuration. and the loudness and rate of the message increases.

VAPP ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION (slats / flaps. therefore if the airport is magnetic referenced. VAPP is computed using the current Gross Weight. insert the magnetic wind direction. So the aircraft IAS will vary while flying the approach to cope with the gusts or wind changes. regardless of the wind variations or gusts. The purpose of the GS mini protection is to always keep the A/C energy level above a minimum value. It is possible to insert a lower VAPP (minimum of VLS) if there is no wind. but the VLS is not necessarily available at that time on the PFD because the A/C flies at a higher speed or because the abnormal CONF is not yet reached. It is possible to increase the VAPP in case of a strong suspected downburst. and to add VREF from the QRH table. This minimum level is the energy the aircraft will have at landing with the expected tower wind. In this case VAPP will be determined using the QRH. provided the landing is performed manually with ATHR OFF and there is no ice or expected downburst. The ECAM then gives the value to be added to the VLS value displayed on the PFD. the PFD displays a correct VLS related to the actual slats / flaps configuration. In order to prepare the approach a nd landing. When a slats / flaps abnormal configuration occurs. it is advisable to fly at a minimum speed higher than VLS to improve the handling characteristics of the A/C. the aircraft GS should never drop below GS mini in the approach while the winds are changing. GS mini = VAPP – Tower head wind component In order to achieve that goal. the FMS considers the wind direction to be in the same reference as the runway direction. . Once in APPR phase. In some of these abnormal configurations. The principle is to refer to VREF (VLS CONF full). the pilot needs to know VAPP in advance. The ground speed of the aircraft at that time which is called GS mini. which can be read on PERF APPR or QRH. GS MINI PROTECTION In order to benefit from Ground Speed mini protection you have to fly with managed airspeed. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. VAPP = VLS + max 15 kts can be inserted. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.90/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes On PERF APPR. flight controls etc). In that case. unless both SFCCs have failed. VAPP is computed at the predicted Landing Weight while the A/C is in CRZ and DES phases.

. This is why we cannot realistically give instruction in recovery from unusual attitudes with the expectation of simulating the “seat of the pants” feeling that an aircraft will give. is subject to aerodynamic forces as a result of control inputs. In short. below 400ft. other than in a minor sense. in flight. F. IAS Target Speed = GS mini + Current headwind component This target speed is limited by VFE-5 in case of very strong gusts and. which ensures that the aircraft GS is at least equal to GS mini. In the development phase of the Simulator construction knowledge is required of what events will be simulated. should not try to design our own combination of failures because the results may not represent reality and so lead to negative training. The real aircraft. by VAPP in case of tailwind. F. you must keep to the designed syllabus and not invent you own scenarios. If instantaneous wind is lower than the tower wind.00 INTRODUCTION TO THE FAILURE PHASE When a Training Syllabus is being created an important part of the creation process is knowledge of how a Simulator is reverse engineered to simulate an aircraft. in what combination and whether subsequent actions from Ground staff can be simulated by a reset. The FMGS uses the instantaneous wind component experienced by the aircraft. To demonstrate the GS mini function insert a strong headwind so that as the trainees turn onto final they can see the managed VAPP increase due to the headwind. as Instruc tors. the effect of the current wind variations is smoothly decreased so as to avoid too high speeds in the flare (1/3 of current wind variations taken into account). When we fly the simulator the motion system is designed to give the same effect in pitch and roll but due to logistics we cannot simulate yaw.01 ENGINE ABNORMAL STARTS (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. In addition. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.91/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The FMGS continuously computes an IAS target speed. as the simulator is only certified (and designed) for certain combinations of simultaneous failures we.

Our syllabus contains the following Engine start Problems: 1. . consider the use of external fire extinguishers (Note that they can cause severe corrosive damage and should only be considered after the procedure has been completed.) As the fire is “within” the engine there is no point in trying to extinguish it with the Engine Fire Extinguishers which only act on the exterior surface of the engine. 2. It is important to establish which e ngine is on fire and react accordingly. The most likely sources of information concerning an engine tailpipe fire are the ground crew or cabin staff when starting engines. Starting without APU Bleed. What we are demonstrating is how the FADEC senses the problem and stops the fuel flow while cranking the engine and then attempting another start. The engine must be cranked which enables the engine to be ventilated to remove fuel vapours after the unsuccessful start attempt.92/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND From an Instructional point of view we need to train our crews how to start the engines in both Normal and Non-Normal situations. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The following events need to briefed by the pilots before carrying out the QRH or Volume 3 actions. the Ground Engineer and the Cabin Crew. Wherever possible the correct actions by the Trainees should result in a correct e ngine start. Tailpipe fire. This start fault is initiated from the IOS and should be inserted before the start is commenced. 4. Cross Bleed start 6. Manual Engine Start 7. Hot start. Engine Relight in Flight INSTRUCTION 1. Starting without APU Bleed 5. The PF should have his hand in the vicinity of the Engine Master switch but does not need to intervene while ever the FADEC is in control. Tailpipe Fire 3. 3. The only action to be carried out by the Instructor is to ensure the APU Bleed is inoperative. Start Valve Stuck. For this seque nce of events to occur correctly you need to remove the inserted fault as soon as the fuel flow is cut off. If the burning has not stopped. The procedure says to switch off both Packs before connecting the ground air but does not specifically say when to pressurise with ground air. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and consider opening the cockpit window to confirm. Hot start 2. This event needs a complete understanding of the interaction between the Crew. This start fault is initiated from the IOS and should be inserted before the start is commenced. Establishing good communications between the cockpit and ground crew or cabin staff to establish which engine is on fire. The fault should be reinserted once the start is in progress and only removed on command of the PF. Start valve stuck 4. This briefing can be conveniently done by the PNF reading aloud the procedure in its entirety before commencement. The procedure for dealing with a tailpipe fire is contained in QRH chapter 2.

To assist with this. Deceleration actions and control. The action of rejecting a take-off can be hazardous. To assist decision making. Starter limitations not known. it is possible to reject for any reason. Ensure correct radio calls are made for this procedure. Cross Bleed start. No action is required from the IOS to carry out this exercise. 7. or incorrect. whichever occurs first).02 ENGINE FAILURES REJECTED TAKE-OFF (00:15 + video) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Failure identification (crew communication).93/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Connect the ground air when the Packs are off and the Crew asks you to do so. COMMON ERRORS No. Manual Engine Start. Complementary actions and check-lists. timing during manual start. 6. Task sharing. the take-off is divided into low and high speed regimes and a speed of 100 knots is chosen as the dividing line. . merely that it divides the take-off into low and high speed. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Engine Relight in Flight. The point that needs briefing to the Trainees is that they must recognise the problem because there is no ECAM action that tells them to carry out a Manual Engine start after a shutdown. If you have time an EGT over limit will demonstrate the need for vigilance during this procedure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. below 100 knots. Therefore. Decision and call out (STOP. Cross bleed start not coordinated with ATC or the ground. including obtaining permission from ATC as well as the ground staff. and the time available to make the correct decision is limited. Review of non inhibited warnings. ECAM actions (if appropriate). any warning received in this period is rather important and needs to be carefully considered. the ECAM inhibits warnings which are not of paramount importance between 80 kts and 1500 ft (or 2 minutes after lift off. After start scans not carried after an abnormal start. Inserting on the IOS an event that will lead to a Manual Engine start will require an engine shutdown to be performed. Consequently. This event only requires the Instructor to remove the Engine Failure from the IOS. F. Notify ATC. There is no significance to 100 knots. 5. GO and V1). During the relight the PNF must keep his hand close to the Engine Master switch as the FADEC cannot interrupt the start process.

and approaching VI. . clear the runway if safe to do so. be “go-minded” unless major failures or ECAM warnings occur. Ensure you leave the simulator in the correct state so before leaving retract the flaps and remove any failures. For variety you can change where you do these exercises. Reverse. fire service and cabin staff to gain as much information as possible to assist in making a decision on whether to evacuate or not. is to open the cockpit window and look out (Don’t do this in the simulator!). INSTRUCTION RTO exercises are invariably carried out at the end of the sessions. The CM2 should confirm the Autobrake response.94/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Above 100 knots. but be aware that your brakes will be hot. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Remember that the simplest way to confirm an engine fire. Reversers remain engaged after aircraft stop. COMMON ERRORS Disarming of auto brake due to instinctive manual braking. Inability to use mechanical seat controls. Omitting to select parking brake on. on the ground. the take-off must be continued as it may be impossible to stop the aircraft on the runway remaining. Irrespective of who is PF once the CM1 initiates the RTO the CM1 is PF. ENGINE FAILURE OR FIRE AFTER V1 (00:20) ENGINE FAILURE ENGINE FIRE APPROACH ECAM PROCEDURES FMGS PROCEDURES ONE ENGINE OUT APPROACH AND LANDING ONE ENGINE OUT GO-AROUND COMMON ERRORS This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If the event happens to be an Engine Fire and the ECAM calls for shutting the second engine down do so. If no evacuation is necessary. ATC and / or Cabin crew not informed. silence any audio warning and advise the tower by use of the phrase “Stopping on runway”. Bring the airplane to a complete stop on the runway centreline with the Parking Brake on and advise the Cabin Crew by PA “Cabin Crew To Your Stations”. As the ECAM is inoperative on Battery Power we now ignore the ECAM procedure as it will be lost and follow the On Ground Emergency Evacuation checklist at the rear of the QRH. Use ATC. This checklist can be stopped if the Evacuation is not required. Commence ECAM actions. Once above V1.

visually or with assistance of the PFD yaw bar (if available). No drag devices on the wing and the rudder positioned to balance the offset thrust. Adjust pitch attitude and monitor speed trend arrow (minimum speed V2) until SRS has stabilised. This is why ME IFR Flight Instructors have to spend considerable time teaching their trainees the importance of using rudder to centre the slip index in a conventional aircraft before inputting a roll command. If it were possible to see the slip index at the same time as the ß target they would not be superimposed as they are showing different things. By pushing the rudder like this we are now counteracting the yaw caused by the offset thrust and this means that the spoilers will retract when no longer required to stop the wing from rising.5º nose up and push the rudder to centralise the ß target. The rudder trim index moves at 1º This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. When an aircraft experiences an engine failure the offset thrust from the remaining engine(s) causes the aircraft nose to yaw towards the inoperative engine. The PF should maintain runway centreline with rudder. We should not engage the auto pilot with the aircraft in an untrimmed state so once the rudder has been pushed to centre the ß target the rudder trim can be used to reduce the load on the pilots feet. With an Airbus FBW aircraft the situation is engineered rather differently. 2 or 3 is set. The Beta (ß) target (outlined in blue) replaces the side slip indicator on the PFD when there is engine power asymmetry and CONF 1. The result of this is that there will be some residual side slip. or sit referenced to a vertical plane we tend to notice the rolling caused by uneven lift before we are aware of the yaw. When an Airbus FBW aircraft senses an engine failure the Yaw Damper will react to the detected sideslip and the spoilers on the wing with the operative engine(s) will raise so that the aircraft will maintain a bank angle of less than 10º with no pilot input on the controls. . This yaw moment causes increased lift from the wing with the operative engine. So centralising the ß target means we have caused the sum of forces to be balanced in the most efficient way possible. When the ß target is centred total drag is minimised even though there is a small amount of side slip. It is your job to ensure they understand the new principles involved with an Airbus FBW aircraft. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. As human beings are used to stand. The change over from yellow side slip index to blue ß target may not occur instantaneously.95/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes ENGINE FAILURE When they commence their Transition Course your Trainees should have a good understanding of the correct actions to follow when they experience an engine failure after V1 with a conventional aircraft. Centring the ß target means pushing the rudder pedal so that the ß target is centred under the central index. as the thrust is now reduced it is required for the pilot to lower the nose of the aircraft to account for the reduced level of thrust. Of course. rotate smoothly to 12. At VR.

configuration changes etc. After detecting an engine failure. and cancels the MASTER WARNING. Once we clean the aircraft up we are no lo nger so critically concerned with efficient flight so we see the ß target is replaced with the conventional slip index. ECAM actions can be interrupted as necessary to allow both pilots to monitor level-off. The priority is to ensure that the aircraft is climbing. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The takeoff performance is calculated by maintaining Flexible Take Off Thrust until setting MCT at 1500 ft AAL but selecting TOGA is allowed for 10 minutes (5 minutes FAA) maximum. Absence of rotation of N1 or N2 or sounds of damage indicate the current condition. stabilised and is flying in a safe direction. If a flameout has occurred. It is not necessary to rush into doing the ECAM drills and 400 ft is the MINIMUM altitude at which commencement of ECAM drills should be considered. The PNF should closely monitor the aircraft’s flight path. then a relight may be considered at a later stage when aircraft has been cleaned up and a safe flight path established. Your briefing should make the exercise obvious. Note when a positive climb has been established by the RA and the VS and announce accordingly. Retract gear on command. Consequently it is read after the “After Take off” checklist. As far as performance is concerned Airbus extends the 2nd Segment to 1500ft AAL and so can ignore the 3rd and 4th Segments as the level of performance exceeds (in all cases) these limits. the PNF is to call “ENGINE FAILURE”. without identifying which engine has failed. Remember that during training we don’t want our trainees confused as to what to do. The Status page is a reflection of what is available for landing. It is important to determine whether the engine has suffered a flameout or has structural damage.96/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes per second so can take almost 20 seconds to move into the required position in high thrust situations. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. ECAM actions may be started above 400 ft RA. The action of putting the start switch to ignition confirms the relight attempt being made by the FADEC. . Once your trainees have reached competency with the procedure using the Autopilot you can fail the Autopilot before take off so they can practise the exercise without the benefit of the automation. cancel warnings and identify the failure when appropriate.

once safely airborne encourage Autopilot engagement to assist in flying accurately. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.97/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes There must be no movement of thrust lever. ENGINE FIRE Inserting an Engine Fire can be done so that it will extinguish after the discharge of the first bottle. master switch or a fire pushbutton without positive confirmation from both pilots as follows. Generally for airborne training select the situation where the fire is extinguished after the second bottle as it tends to a realistic situation. You therefore need to explain what went wrong and when it went wrong and how to do it correctly. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. You should not hesitate to freeze the simulator if an unsafe situation develops during training. . Put the aircraft back in the lined up position and quietly restore all controls while explaining what went wrong. Thrust Lever Example PF PNF Reads ECAM line “THRUST LEVER 1 IDLE” Selects Thrust Lever 1 and says “THRUST LEVER 1 CONFIRM” “THRUST LEVER 1 CONFIRMED” Moves Thrust Lever 1 to Idle Position Engine Master Switch PF PNF Reads ECAM line “ENGINE MASTER 1 OFF Selects Engine Master 1 and says “ENGINE MASTER 1 CONFIRM” Switches off Engine Master 1 “ENGINE MASTER 1 CONFIRMED” The procedure just above is to be followed for all guarded switches and any non reversible actions. When we insert a Fire Warning the thrust of the engine is not affected. Don’t insert an unextinguishable fire in flight but use this scenario for a RTO or on short final to lead to an evacuation exercise. or not at all. Vary the point where you insert the failure to add some more realism. Consequently. the second bottle. From a piloting point of view it is far easier to have an engine failure close to VR than it is to have a failure when in initial climb at say 150 ft. Don’t forget that the Trainee probably made his errors because he didn’t fully understand what was happening.

Once the specific action has been carried out the PF should instruct the PNF to “Continue ECAM”. Complete ECAM until STATUS page appears then carry out the after take-off Check List (if applicable) before reading STATUS. at high gross weights the selection of landing flap has to carried out after final approach path interception. ECAM actions may be temporarily stopped at any stage on command of the PF for the PNF to carry out an action as for example flap retraction. Selecting the INSERT prompt makes this SID the Active Flight Plan and NAV mode allows it to be tracked. The use of EOSID routing is dependent on there being an EOSID defined in the database for that particular runway. ECAM actions must not interfere with flight path monitoring. to make manual braking easier. The use of Autothrust when on final is a matter of individual preference. APPROACH The Airbus Single Aisle family are designed to land with full flap when operating with only one engine operative. They will not be superimposed as they represent different values but they should remain centred by rudder pressure.98/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In all single engine situations we have to place the thrust levers in the MCT detent once we have accelerated to green dot speed. If the engine failure occurs beyond the point at which the two SIDs differ there will be no TMPY F-PLAN created although the EOSID will be shown in yellow This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If engaged and the thrust fluctuates around the 80% value the ß target is replaced with the slip index and vice versa.04. In some situations the slats may still be retracting so Airbus recommends putting the thrust lever in the Climb detent and then back to the FLX / MCT detent. to centre the nosewheel steering and to recover full rudder travel. . FMGS PROCEDURES The two FMGS procedures of interest when operating with one engine are the use of the EO SID and the EO CLR prompt. At some hot. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Rudder trim should be reset to zero on very short final. An explanation of both these functions is contained in FCOM 4. ECAM PROCEDURES ECAM procedures should not be started below 400 ft AAL. or high airfields. If an engine failure occurs before the point at which the EOSID differs from the planned SID (Common Point) then the EOSID will appear as a TMPY F-PLAN. This is so as not to trigger the GO ROUND mode inadvertently by selecting TOGA with the Slats / Flaps not retracted.

99/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes on the ND. Consider starting the APU and the use of APU BLEED if performance limited. and then is instructed to carry out a Missed Approach. As this is a go-around. so think about aircraft navigation with respect to terrain. and then has an engine fail while hand flying. When an engine failure is detected the bank angle commanded by the FD is limited to 15º when speed is below or at manoeuvring speed of the current configuration (F. COMMON ERRORS This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. as it is easier to anticipate rudder and trim inputs when the thrust varies. more simply follow the EOSID. There will not be an Engine Out routing appear on the ND. We know the autopilot flies very well! If the syllabus indicates a missed approach with an engine failure the intention of the exercise is to make the weather conditions such that the PF disconnects the autopilot for a manual landing. target speed is the memorised approach speed or the speed at engagement of go-around. S. using HDG mode and with ATC approval.5º. Autoland (CAT 3 SINGLE) is available on one engine (as shown on ECAM). the overweight landing checklist may be required. The EO CLR prompt should only be pressed in the event of a successful relight of a failed engine. the pitch target is now 12. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The EO CLR prompt on the active PERF page would remove this bank angle limit if depressed. Good trimming is beneficial. ONE ENGINE OUT APPROACH AND LANDING If an engine failure / fire has occurred on take off. Rudder trim should be reset to zero on very short final. To follow the EOSID in this case the crew can perform a DIR TO one of the EOSID waypoints and then modify the F-PLAN or. . The FMA will indicate GA TRK. to make manual braking easier. ONE ENGINE OUT GO-AROUND From a Training viewpoint there is no benefit to be gained in giving an engine failure while the autopilot is flying the aircraft. Flap retraction and acceleration will take place in level flight at EO acceleration altitude. Apply rudder to compensate for the increase in thrust and keep the ß target centred. Your trainees may prefer to use manual thrust when hand flying. Once the Approach has been activated it serves no purpose and can be cleared. to centre the nosewheel steering and to recover full rudder travel. or in the event of wrong detection or FADEC fault. which is displayed as a yellow line on the ND. The go-around is essentially the same as on 2 engines. so keep the slip indication centred. O). and this becomes Green Dot at acceleration altitude. In manual flight an engine out landing is essentially conventional.

ß Target not fully centred. the relevant obstacle clearance margin of 2 . These cover the situation where terrain clearance is not a concern (standard strategy). STANDARD STRATEGY During your briefing show the trainees where to find the drift down ceiling for the current weight. Not aware of MSA ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND If an engine should fail in cruise there are three logical strategies available. and particularly covering specific portions of the route. It is quite acceptable to position at FL390 to demonstrate the speed loss before descent.30 + FMS PROG page). Poor maintenance and monitoring of required track. EOSID or ATC instructions not accurately followed. When you release the simulator and activate the engine failure you This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Not trimming the rudder. If the obstacle strategy or the fixed speed strategy apply on a particular route this is communicated to the crew during flight dispatch. Having demonstrated the standard strategy freeze the simulator and reposition at the same level at which you demonstrated the standard strategy. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The descent should stabilise around –1200 ft / min around FL300 if conducted according to the syllabus. OBSTACLE STRATEGY In certain parts of the world the drift down ceiling can be lower than the terrain. during descent. (FCOM 4. SID. the situation where terrain clearance is a concern (obstacle strategy). it must always be possible to escape while ensuring. and the case during ETOPS operations where time from a suitable airfield is of prime importance (fixed speed strategy). As before brief the trainees before releasing the simulator and ensure they are aware of the changes between the standard strategy and the drift down strategy. With the Simulator in level flight go through the actions with them before inserting the engine failure. ECAM non-reversible actions carried out without proper crew confirmation. . There is no point continuing after they are established in a stabilised descent.04. Not rotating to correct pitch attitude on go-around. At any point of a critical area on the route. Lack of task sharing discipline during manual flight (FCU actions).100/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Over rotation on take off leading to speed below V2. Consequently the initial descent will be steep to capture the original cruise speed.000 feet on the net flight path. Point out that they are cruising at the same speed as the drift down speed so any delay before descent will result in a bleed off in airspeed before descent initiation.

78 / 320 knots or M0. One engine out operations will typically use 15% more fuel than with both engines. if an engine fails speed will decay very quickly requiring prompt crew response. Tables are available for long range cruise performance. Once established in the descent. The decision on which technique is appropriate should be taken during the aircraft deceleration. distance taken and fuel used. FMGS and QRH The FMGS PROG page will show the EO MAX REC altitude. as it is important to complete the drill correctly. cruise at 340 knots (or other established figure) or the thrust limited speed. time to descend. which may become a factor if a long diversion is contemplated. COMMON ERRORS A/THR not disconnected. Rushed actions. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Distraction from primary tasks. FIXED SPEED STRATEGY The constraint in ETOPS operation is time to the nearest diversion. and the information assimilated. OVERVIEW The ECAM actions and placing the thrust lever to MCT should not be hurried. Incorrect strategy. the relevant table can be entered. the speed target is now M0. the altitude selected should be 15 000 ft or other established before dispatch. Once levelling off. Thus. There is also a graph to calculate gross ceiling. not in the shortest possible time. OPEN DES not selected. or initial descent. an in-flight check of fuel consumed and time to destination. In the QRH there are tables containing details of engine out ceiling. . At high flight levels close to limiting weights. However if there are no more any terrain considerations they revert to normal LRC speed. In the scenarios under which we operate further terrain problems are not envisaged but you should point out the theoretical situation where at the drift down ceiling there is higher terrain in front of the aircraft. ETOPS operations are taught as a separate course so the above is for reference only.80 / 340 knots (established before dispatch). Having established in descent the normal action would be to start the APU. following the failure. whereas This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Once established in descent you will have a descent rate appreciably less than with the standard strategy. INSTRUCTION You may prefer to demonstrate the Obstacle Strategy first as the time taken in slowing up to green dot will allow you to talk through the procedure. Further.101/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes will have plenty of time to explain the actions as you slow up to green dot.

102/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes the Normal Strategy is rather rushed owing to the decay in airspeed. Aircraft status : systems. Choice of optimum speed. In this case electrical power is not lost and both pilots retain their instrumentation. and a safe flight path established. PROCEDURE Following a dual engine failure the flight deck indications change drastically as generators drop off line. Relight monitoring and system recovery. Establish communications with ATC. ditching.. the RAT is deployed and ECAM prioritises checklists. VHF2 (VHF3) and This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Minimum RAT speed. Control of the aircraft must be taken immediately by CM1. As the second scenario is rather more difficult it is the one we will consider here. The first scenario follows on from a Drift Down procedure and we assume the APU has been started using an engine driven generator.. ALL ENGINE FLAME OUT (00:20) BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS PROCEDURE COMMON ERRORS INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND There are two scenarios for an All Engine Flameout. Consider use of transponder emergency code. relight parameters.). . It is vital to establish good crew communication and to apply efficient task-sharing. F/CTL law.. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Related consequences (Pressurisation. transponder. CONSIDERATIONS Monitoring of flight path and parameters. It is important at this stage to correctly identify the failure as it can be easily confused with all engine generators fault. stating nature of emergency and intentions. forced landing. cabin).. ECAM will prioritise checklists so to avoid confusion so the trainees must read the ECAM carefully to correctly identify the failure. ECAM actions (APU use.). Communications (ATC. The second scenario is similar to flying into a cloud of volcanic ash with a virtually simultaneous failure of the engines and this leads to the Emergency Electric configuration. Once established in descent it is normal to start the APU. Situational awareness..

This can be easily seen by looking at the ATC and VHF 2 windows. Insert a DIR TO someplace more or less in front of the aircraft so there is a track line on the ND so they turn away from their previous track. APU started too late. Once the APU has been started and the Bleed Air is available remove the flameout so that the engine relight will be successful. INSTRUCTION Whichever scenario you have leading to this failure it will most likely be initiated by a repositioning to FL350 which puts the aircraft directly above the threshold of the runway in use. Once the APU is available and you are below the APU Bleed Limit altitude the optimum speed is green dot. Relight envelope and limitations (loss of protections). Maximum gliding range is achieved at green dot speed although this will not be displayed on the PFD if the APU generator is not available. Lack of communication. Lack of situational awareness. Engine relight not monitored (stopwatch/parameters). Confusion with ELEC EMER CONFIG. ENGINE RELIGHT IN FLIGHT (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION ALTERNATIVE EXERCISE COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND Factors influencing decision to attempt relight. The ECAM actions can be commenced. with attention to optimum relight speed. If there is no relight within 30 sec ECAM will order the engine master switches to be placed off for 30 sec and then on again. Task sharing and actions requiring crew confirmation. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. which will be blank. Start the APU once you are below the APU Battery Start Limit altitude. Engine relight in flight procedure (wind -milling and starter assisted). This is to permit ventilation of the combustion chamber. Monitor the aircraft position so they are conveniently placed for the next exercise. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. COMMON ERRORS Incorrect MAYDAY call Incorrect speed choice and lack of monitoring.103/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes ATC2 are not supplied so VHF 1 is the only means of communicating the emergency to air traffic control. .

Eng Master ON or OFF). This will reinforce the requirement to monitor the relight and manually terminate the start with the Engine Master switch. Further. The FMGC also computes performance parameters and guides the aircraft along This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. No timing for light-up or engine draining. COMMON ERRORS Relight attempt made without checking engine parameters. Consider engine damage. Flight Management and Flight Guidance. icing or volcanic ash encounter and their effects on a successful relight. No light up as failure not removed from IOS. Ensure cross checking of vital controls before movement.g. Check for satisfactory indications of N1. and when the engine has been shut down remove the flameout and insert a hot start during the relight. F. N2 and oil quantity. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Auto start is recommended as the FADEC will determine whether an assisted start or a wind-milling start is appropriate. Before attempting a relight in flight.104/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Systems to restore or engine shut down procedure. The stopwatch should be used to monitor light up after fuel flow increase.03 DUAL FMGS FAILURE (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND Each FMGC has two parts. ALTERNATIVE EXERCISE If you have an excess of time and the syllabus requires a single engine approach it is possible to insert a flameout. is there a more appropriate time to relight. when workload will be lower? Refer to QRH chapter 2 for ENG RELIGHT (in flight) procedure. gather all relevant information to decide whether a relight should be attempted. The crew must be ready to take appropriate action in case of an abnormal start as no start protections are provided in flight. Actions requiring crew confirmation not cross-checked during relight (e. INSTRUCTION Ensure you have removed the engine failure before the trainees attempt a relight. Procedure initiated at inappropriate time in relation to workload and without checklist. .

The red FD on each PFD indicates FD failure so they should be switched off which will then give the blue track index. trips its CB so it cannot be reset but the failed FM2 can be reset because the CB does not trip. The MEL extract should be consulted and explained before the session commences. The relevant functions of the parts of the FMGG are as follow: A. when failed. FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROLS FD AP A/THR C.105/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes a pre-planned route. The PNF will have to get out of seat the find the circuit breaker that needs to be tripped as the panel is not normally in its This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Remove the failure during the time that the reset procedure calls for the CB to be tripped so that it will be transparent to the crew what you have done. FLIGHT MANAGEMENT Navigation and radio management Flight Planning and management Performance optimisation and predictions B. The FM1. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Get them to track to a suitable Navaid by giving them the frequency. FD and the A/THR. Prior to inserting the failure of the remaining FMS remind the trainees that they will loose the AP. FLIGHT ENVELOPE VAPP computation GW and CG monitoring and display When there is a complete failure of both FMGG’s the following will be the main items lost and are detailed on the ECAM: AP I + 2 FD 1 + 2 A/THR VAPP and GS mini (not shown o n ECAM) Auto Landing elevation INSTRUCTION The syllabus for this session is flown with only one FMS so fail the required one at the start of the session. Entering the simulator select the relevant radio aids on the RMP and change the frequency and bearing from the retained values so the trainees will have to practice tuning the aids. . The FPV is available so select it. If in RVSM airspace a PAN call is required as the aircraft is no longer RVSM compliant as there is no autopilot. Once they have accomplished all required actions they should attempt an FMGC reset.

but now they have lost this lifelong device.106/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes flight position. Some Simulators refer to loss of one system as “Loss of Redundancy”. The PF does not need to wait until the ECAM message to set the thrust manually. so insert this first. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. For all their careers the trainees have had a bug to remember what their heading is. They set it and then just turn until it is centred. It is a good idea to advise the PNF to write down all ATC instructions to help monitoring. The Mach indication is lost because the symbol generator puts the ILS information in the same place. It will be difficult for you (as Instructor) to read the ND in order to give radar vectors so you may be able to use previous track information on a MAP page of the IOS to assist. If you want to put the panel in its correct position the simulator has to be settled but the IOS seat will now be some distance rearward.04 TOTAL FCU FAILURE BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION COMMON ERRORS (00:15) BACKGROUND Insert this dual failure by failing one FCU and reading the ECAM message. . and then use the Total Failure option. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. INSTRUCTION The trainees will be aware of the problem before reading the ECAM because of the loss of FCU information plus the Auto pilot disconnect cavalry charge plus the Auto thrust disconnect tone each 5 seconds. COMMON ERRORS Incorrect FMGS reset procedures Not using FPV and not deselecting FDs. then fail the other thus leading to the dual failure. F. You can insert a thunderstorm cell so they can see the radar presentation. The default PFD and ND contain all the information needed to land the aircraft.

Currently our syllabus does not contain an effective reset so they will accomplish the approach and landing with no FCU information. Unable to restore in flight. . CONF FULL selected on MCDU PERF page for VAPP calculation with MCDU. A PAN call is required in RVSM airspace due to loss of autopilot. Therefore if you want them to practise landing in Direct (SA) or Alternate Law (LR) make them loose all the Hydraulic fluid in This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Correct task prioritisation. One of the principles of training is that the trainees should not have to decide whether a particular procedure is correct but be presented with a clear choice leading to a certain conclusion. The reset procedure should be referred to in the briefing so that it can be carried out correctly in the simulator. Use of selected speed. Flight control system architecture (QRH 5.107/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The conversion of millibars into feet is usually not easily carried out under pressure. The PNF can assist by calculating this on paper. If the reset is to be effective and transparent you must remove the fault in the period when the CB is tripped. Importance of good crew communication and co-ordination as autopilot is inoperative. These are Low Air Pressure Overheat Loss of Fluid May be possible to restore at a lower level The overheat should disappear after the pump has been switched off for some time allowing reuse of pump.05 DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE (00:25) CONSIDERATIONS INSTRUCTION EXTRA INFORMATION PROCEDURE VAPP AND LANDING DISTANCE CONSIDERATIONS Control of flight path and navigation.03). Accurate following of FD and smooth control inputs. Coordination with ATC. QRH landing distance. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. F. INSTRUCTION You have three ways of ending up with no Hydraulic Pressure.

As the aircraft reduces speed while configuring for landing the new stable attitude is reflected by the neutral position of the side stick. We do not consider a single hydraulic failure during the Transition course as it has minimal impact on the landing capability of the aircraft. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.108/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes two systems as opposed to any other option. As there are usually many tasks to fulfil. Consequently it will be much easier to control the pitch if the Autothrust is disconnected. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. As the gear cannot be retracted a landing clearance should be obtained before lowering the gear. If sufficient fuel remains take the time to plan and brief properly. Additionally. Task sharing is important. as there is no trim function there will be a continual load on the side stick in the pitch plane. This will give them an unambiguous choice. The centre of the elevators range of movement is the neutral elevator position prior to lowering the gear. Any situation where we only have one elevator means that the result of a side stick pitch input is reduced to minimise the twisting effect the single elevator has on the fuselage. . In both cases select a value of Zero. A dual hydraulic failure is different however. The trainees should ask for a tractor to move them off the runway after landing. In all situations of dual failure in the syllabus the Green system is one of the failed systems so the gear will be lowered by gravity (paper checklist) and NWS will be lost. In this particular case we select the landing flap and reduce to VAPP before lowering the gear. Some simulators have a “Slider” and others require a value to be inserted. as procedures are lengthy. Once the gear is down we are in Direct Law as indicated by the message MANUAL PITCH TRIM USE but as there is no hydraulic pressure we cannot use the Trim Wheel. If the horizontal stabiliser is lost we can still control the pitch through the elevators which can move through their entire range as long as the gear is up. the approach briefing is necessarily comprehensive and good crew co-ordination is vital. When the gear is lowered the connection between side stick and elevator is then direct so only a vary small movement of the elevator is possible. This is why the aircraft trim should be as close as possible to neutral before the gear is lowered. When we have a single elevator we should also go into Direct Law by lowering the gear at 200 knots so that the elevator input is not dampened and thus control is more direct. establish clear priorities. The first time you give a dual failure let the trainees deal with the first failure in its entirety before giving them the second failure to contend with.

For landing gear gravity extension.109/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If the Blue and Yellow systems should fail the gear is still lowered by gravity to preserve the Green system integrity. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the L/G GRAVITY EXTENSION QRH check list should be used. He should specify Left and Right pressure similar to the following example … 800 left. The aircraft configuration should be established early prior to approach (on down wind or on a suitable place on long final) by asking for and performing SLATS or FLAPS JAMMED Checklist until the landing configuration has been achieved. not a stall. . The approach briefing should concentrate on safety issues and should be given early. The PNF must keep up a continual call out of the applied pressure. If the G + Y is lost the pitch is higher due to slats only and this can lead to a potential duck under situation during the approach because of the PFs view of the runway with a possible risk of a tail strike upon touch down. The PF normally prepares the FMGS. The PNF should brief the PF on the go-around procedure from the same checklist. There needs to be efficient communication between the pilots as regards braking from the accumulator. even if it is not changing. PROCEDURE A dual hydraulic malfunction is considered as an Emergency situation (LAND ASAP in red) and shall be declared as such to the ATC units. The procedure should be performed entirely with selected speed. The PNF should be briefed to watch the pitch during approach and touch down. EXTRA INFORMATION Roll rate will always be reduced by loss of spoilers. This situation is not uncommon with only one elevator and the application of TOGA will not make the aircraft easy to fly. after the FMGS has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It is due to the alpha probes fluctuating and does not necessarily require the application of TOGA power to prevent a stall. 900 right etc. A stall warning during approach is just a warning. It is recommended to have the gear down and be stabilised prior to starting the final descent. Hard pitch inputs on the side stick during approach may trigger spurious stall warnings. However in a case such as this the PF can ask the PNF to prepare the FMGS and to brief him of what has been inserted.

Remember the golden rules and fly the aircraft. the workload is immediately greatly increased. Task sharing and communications. VAPP AND LANDING DISTANCE Any factoring of speeds or runway length are always applied to the base line of an aircraft with full flap in Normal law landing on the runway in the actual conditions as they exist.06 EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION (00:20) CONSIDERATIONS INSTRUCTION OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES GRAVITY FUEL FEEDING CONSIDERATIONS EFIS. Fuel gravity feeding considerations. It is important that task-sharing procedures are understood and adhered to. A briefing should cover the Approach to be carried out with mention of the specific missed approach procedure plus the specifics regarding to the state of the malfunctions. QRH use for approach and landing data. Cockpit lighting. the Slats Flaps Jammed Checklist and the Landing Gear Gravity Extension Checklist contain additional information which should be read before the procedures are carried out (if time permits). Communications (ATC. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. AUTO FLIGHT and FMGS availability following failure. Refer to the QRH with your trainees for complete information concerning VAPP and landing distance increment calculation. The relevant QRH page has information regarding multiple failures. Direct law approach and landing. A speed is added to the flap full VREF to get the applicable VAPP and a factor is applied to the distance to account for the loss or reduction in retardation devices.110/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If you have two F/O’s this is how it should be done. When all engine driven generators have been lost. ECAM. Raw data approach. cabin). F. . Specific procedure for go around (EMER GEN recovery). Navigation aid tuning by RMP. For the PF's awareness. ECAM procedure and status page APPR PROC considerations with RAT. The Autopilot is not available and CM1 must take control as only the following is available: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.

111/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CMI PFD (FPV but no FD) CM1 ND (after RAT extension) Upper ECAM CMI MCDU and FMGC 1 FCU INSTRUCTION Before the trainees get settled select the NAV button on the CM1 RMP and change the frequencies of the previously used radio aids so they will have to tune them for the approach. the CSM-G comes on line which takes about 5 sec during which the electrical network is powered by batteries only. The red FD on the CM1 indicates that the FD information is unavailable so it should be switched off which will give the heading or track index in blue on the horizon. or the loss of both engines. Although the ECAM advises a landing as soon as possible. The ECAM procedure is a lengthy and complicated procedure. or the loss of one engine and the failure of the opposite and APU generators. This malfunction can be caused by: either the loss of all AC GEN.it is possible for pilots to confuse emergency electrical configuration with an all engine failure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This is a serious emergency and ATC should be notified using appropriate phraseology (MAYDAY) so that greater separation between you and other traffic can be arranged. the RAT extends and then. but prolonged flight in this configuration is not recommended. Depending on the simulator you will have a selection of GEN 1 fail plus GEN 2 fail OR GEN 1+2 fail OR a selection for Emergency Electrical configuration. It is important to identify the failure that has occurred . To view an overflow page release the STS button and repress. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The Emergency Electrical Configuration is due to the loss of all AC BUSSES (AC BUS 1+2). . it would be unwise to attempt an approach at a poorly equipped airfield in marginal weather. To view the system pages you must press and hold the system button. With such a combination of malfunctions. Before inserting the failure point out that at the moment of failure only the CM1 PFD and Upper ECAM will remain and that as the RAT extends and starts to produce power the ND will come back into view. On release of the button the Upper screen reappears. The FPV is available if selected.

Brief that on battery power the ND will be lost and the ILS will only be visible on the CM1 PFD (which is where it should normally be looked at!) OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES Characteristic speeds are lost in final approach if on BATT power. If the minimum RAT speed is 140 knots then you have an “old” RAT. (depending on the RAT) the RAT stalls and electrical power supply is battery only. except CM1 Pitot and AOA.112/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Brief that on an A320 the loss of both engine d riven generators is probably due to a Bus problem. . EVENT AC BUS 1 + 2 LOSS LDG gear DOWN IAS < 125 knots IAS < 50 KNOTS OLD RAT NEW RAT 5 seconds Batt only then RAT extends + CSM-G on line BATT ONLY CSM-G BATT ONLY BATT ONLY RAT stalls BATT ONLY AC ESS lost BATT ONLY AC ESS lost If the flying time has to be extended refer to FLT ON BAT ONLY proc in QRH. The both generators should not be both switched off at the same time. limited to approximately 25 minutes. The new RAT remains operational at all normal approach speeds. You can see which RAT is fitted to your simulator by reading the ECAM. The electrical architecture of the other SA aircraft (A318. All types of approaches are flown manually with raw data (no AP. so if a discrepancy occurs between airspeed indications on CMI PFD and on STBY.OFF then ON means that GEN 1 is selected off and 3 seconds later selected on and then GEN 2 is selected off and 3 seconds later is selected on. They are two types of RAT. Do not freeze the simulator during this period so the CM1 has to face the dual challenge of understanding the situation and of the preparation for landing. The “old” RAT and the “new” (or Sundstrand) RAT. The preparation time including the understanding of the status necessarily takes some time and should not be rushed. A319. FD or A/THR). An exception is with two FO’s where freezing the simulator allows them both time to study the problem with out having to fly from the CM1 position. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. so if the APU is available start it and use the APU GEN. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. disregard STBY indication. Do not lower the gear earlier than necessary in order to conserve battery life. At gear extension. A21) is different. All probe heating is lost. The line on the ECAM which says GEN 1+2…. Navaids must be tuned on RMP1 with the “old” RAT as FMGS is lost on BATT. If the APU is started (depleting the battery to do so) it most likely wont be able to be connected to the Bus.

Consequently. Speed control for no flaps or no slats approach. Go around procedure and briefing. The reversers are lost. Approach briefing and abnormal configuration procedure use. Approach speed and landing distance calculations. When the fuel is delivered to the airport from the refinery it is put into (usually) underground storage. Therefore there is no NWS. no ANTI SKID but alternate braking available up to 1000 psi. GRAVITY FUEL FEEDING Gravity Fuel Feeding procedure may be unclear in the Trainees minds. This time is for the de-aeration of the fuel. If the fuel pumps are lost and the fuel arrives at the engine by gravity a parcel of aerated fuel may arrive at the engine causing a problem. or not at all. . FCOM 3. Selected speed. if the aircraft has been high enough for long enough the fuel will be de-aerated and flight can continue with no fuel pumps. and before it can be put on board an aircraft must sit undisturbed for five hours.02. CONF FULL selected on MCDU PERF page for VAPP entry then change as necessary. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Pitch angle (tail-strike) at landing if no flaps. However if the flight has not been flown at a high level for long enough. The BSCUs are lost.07 NO FLAPS OR NO SLATS (00:20) BACKGROUND CONFIGURING COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND Task sharing and crew coordination. In the aircraft the fuel is forced by pumps into the engine and any remaining aeration is forced along by more fuel. F. there is a restriction on the level for the rest of the flight.24 outlines the available systems left after this failure. RA 1 + 2 are lost with their associated auto callouts so the FO should make the call outs.113/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The flight control law is initially ALTN and then DIRECT once landing gear is down. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. a delay in starting the approach should be considered. The aeration is caused by the movement during transportation and is similar to the small air bubbles that appear in a glass when a beer or a fizzy soft drink is poured. Should this problem arise when in the intermediate approach phase.

The landing configuration will depend on the cause of the problem. However you now will find that that selecting a flap position will result in an incorrect speed for the actual flight control surfaces (but still safe). 2. No electrical signal to give the order to move. Therefore you should select the speed as soon as you are aware of a slat or flap problem and remain in selected speed until touch down. Consequently your briefing will normally be part of that given for a Dual Hydraulic failure. The flap handle inoperative situation is not covered in our current syllabus. The PNF should read this procedure out aloud as a Briefing before it is performed. 4. Starting approach before completing all procedures. If a computer reset will not restore the Slat Flap Control Computers the relevant surface will not move and (in the slat case) you will be in Alternate Law. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. No hydraulic pressure to move. and the factor to multiply the Flap Full Landing Distance (without Autobrake and according to the conditions) to give the physical length required from 50ft to a full stop (using maximum foot braking). 3. Increment to add to Flap Full VREF to obtain VAPP. Asymmetric movement on each side of the wing so locked by the Wing Tip Brake (as seen in the No Flaps plus No Slats exercise). Selected speed not used immediately at failure recognition. The technique for slowing up and configuring is given in the QRH. CONFIGURING It is an important concept that once the Approach has been activated speed control passes to the flap lever handle (assuming the normal use of managed speed). A demonstration on the FAROS Free Play FMGS Trainer will make it very easy for the Trainees to understand. The QRH table Configuration Speed Distance Corrections for Failures gives the position of the Flap Lever handle. . The relevant Go Around case needs to be briefed before the Approach is commenced so that each pilot knows what configuration and speed to aim for in the case of going around. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. 1.114/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes There are four ways the slats or flaps do not move when commanded. COMMON ERRORS Rushing procedure. Remember that the aircraft is safe to fly down to VLS so do not allow your trainees to rush into configuring without reference to the correct procedure for doing so! The configuring procedure is referred to as the VFE next procedure. When you are pre-briefing your trainees (the day before) advise them that this SFCC failure is not what you will be giving them in the session but that you will be creating the flight control surface problem (slats or flaps) by a dual hydraulic failure. Flap handle inoperative (so no signal given to move the surfaces).

and only for purposes of training. However this correct procedure will take some five minutes to perform and all actions will have to be duplicated with the dual failure. Use of managed speed on final approach Go around procedure not briefed as applying to the situation. As there is a Flight Control problem the speed should be immediately selected.115/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Wrong VAPP selection on MCDU. There will be no indication to the crew of the problem until they move the flap lever to the Conf 1 or Conf 2 positions. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In your pre-briefing (the day before) advise your trainees that you are going to lock the flaps and slats in the fully retracted position by activating the Wing Tip brake.08 NO FLAPS PLUS NO SLATS (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND This exercise needs to be understood well by the Trainees as otherwise it will take too long to perform. Therefore. In this case the aircraft remains in Normal Law for the exercise. . INSTRUCTION As ATC you instruct the trainees to slow up (say 180 knots) so at Green Dot they will select Flap 1 which immediately gives an ECAM warning and the Slat indicator turns amber. After take-off and with the Slats and Flaps fully retracted insert a Slats locked by WTB a nd also a Flaps locked by WTB. F. They need extra distance to prepare for the approach so give them an extended downwind so they are prepared approaching the FAF to put the gear down. as soon as they have selected the speed and before actioning the ECAM for the Slats Jammed ask them to select Conf 2 in order to get the Dual failure. (If you have Trainees with a poor comprehension of English it may be better to let them perform both ECAM procedures in their entirety in This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It is important that your briefing gets across the message that this is being done just to save some time in the session as the actions required by the Slats Jammed procedure have to be repeated for the Flaps Jammed procedure. in this particular case. Rough handling. In real life the crew would deal with this problem before continuing the approach only to find some time later that on selecting Flap 2 they receive another ECAM warning with the Flap indicator also amber.

Not co-ordinating with ATC. Not thinking about hot brake possibility before landing. Do not say something like … “let us see if the flaps are jammed as well” … because this implies that you can ignore an ECAM procedure and carry out your own investigation. Therefore if some speed reduction is made before touchdown the ground run will be much shorter. It is interesting to calculate the theoretical stalling speed in this configuration and find it is about 30 to 40 knots below your VAPP. The nose attitude is not much higher than normal but a prolonged flare incurs a real danger of a tail strike so instead of flaring for landing the better technique is to flare in reverse by easing the nose forward for landing. . Approaching the desired value restore the THR LVRS to their original manual thrust position. On a normal ILS Approach we press the APPR pushbutton to arm the LOC and the G/S. F.116/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes order to not confuse them. The flare part of the autoland is accomplished with a combination of Radio Altimeter This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The AP may be used to 500 ft AGL. This action also programs the AP for an autoland. Therefore the gear MUST be lo wered before the FAF otherwise the descent will be unstable. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Follow the ECAM procedure and your speed will (depending on actual weight) be around 190 knots on final. Do this by ensuring the correct means of disconnecting the A/THR and then retard the THR LVRS about 2 cms and the speed will gradually bleed back to the desired value. therefore apply extra caution with regard to terrain clearance.09 DUAL RADIO ALTIMETER FAILURE (00:10) CONSIDERATIONS BACKGROUND PROCEDURE BACKGROUND GPWS will be inoperative. After landing the brakes will get hot. Leaving the gear until on descent and consequently getting fast. It is very important to point out that with the gear retracted and idle thrust on a 3º descent path in this configuration the aircraft will accelerate. But allow an extra ten minutes to complete the exercise). COMMON ERRORS Not selecting speed as soon as first problem arises. Therefore we can reduce to the Flap Full VREF+50 speed (which is in fact VLS speed in the 320 family aircraft).

As the loss of RA1 causes the loss of the GPWS it is usually a no-go MEL item so you can fail RA2 before take-off and take the opportunity to explain the use of the MEL. We cannot have the AP in Direct Law so once again the AP will disconnect. As with most cases of DIRECT law it is possible to set CONF 3 before lowering the gear so that the aircraft is in trim when DIRECT law comes into effect. When the gear is lowered the control law becomes Direct. PROCEDURE With two RA’s the CM1 reads RA1 information and the CM2 reads RA2 information. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Arm the Approach and then reinsert the RA1 fault you will loose the AP and the LOC and GS arming for the reasons given above. It is probably a good idea to disconnect the AP before lowering the gear so the pilots are ready for the transition to Direct Law directly from Normal Law. . Be aware that the Flight Director can demand excessive roll rates close to the ground (below 400 ft AGL) as there is no automatic damping of roll demand as when there is GS capture.117/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes information plus Glide Slope information. It is possible in this case to re-engage the AP and only engage the LOC mode. The vertical profile of the approach can follow the G/S raw data by selecting either V/S or FPA mode.10 UNRELIABLE SPEED / ALTITUDE (00:10) BACKGROUND PROCEDURE COMMON ERRORS INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Once in the air and before arming the Approach fail RA1. Although only the LOC can be armed after the failure active the MDA value inserted in the FMGS is that for a CAT1 ILS as in fact the trainees will end up with a hand flown ILS (in Direct Law) and the relevant minima is CAT1. Therefore you cannot have the AP engaged when the G/S is armed and the RA’s have failed. If only one RA is working it supplies the information to both PFD’s. Inserting a dual failure from the IOS when the Approach is armed will cause the AP to disconnect. The ECAM message will tell you that you will enter Direct Law on lowering the gear (and you will not be able to Arm the Approach). If you remove the RA1 fault. F.

the IAS and Mach number are wrong and the FPV as well. jerky and delayed ALT indications. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. but are not limited to. When static probes are affected.118/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND Unreliable speed or altitude indications can be caused by combinations of causes. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The consequences are similar to the case when the pitot probe is blocked by a foreign object. FD. Thus the measured pressure decreases. ATHR. undue stall or overspeed warnings respectively and reductions of aerodynamic noise when IAS decreases. The Mach number varies like the IAS. thrust. V/S etc. PROCEDURE The recovery procedure is predicated on whether the aircraft is in close ground proximity (below THR RED ALT) or not. the V/S and FPA. pitch. Pitch up in climb and pitch down in descent. IAS remains constant in level flight. pitot or static probe sensor problems. no ECAM warning will be provided since all measured data will vary similarly. abnormal correlation of basic flight parameters (IAS. abnormal correlation between ALT and V/S indications. the altitude. abnormal behaviour of AP. increases in climb and decreases in descent. The full procedure is given in the QRH so refer to it during your briefing. .). The pitot sensors can be blocked d ue to several causes. The following table may assist the crew in determining the nature of the problem and the information still usable: UNRELIABLE ALTITUDE DISREGARD ALT IAS / TAS WIND V/S FPA IAS / TAS WIND USE GPS ALT * and GPS GS GS on ND R/A CAB ALT GPS GS BIRD WIND from other aircraft SPEED * GPS altitude is different from barometric but gives reasonable information. such as heavy rain which may cause temporary fluctuating speed indication and severe pitot icing or pitot heat failure leading to a decreasing speed indication. If all sensors a re simultaneously affected. Primarily these include. If some sensors are independently affected. Thus causing abnormal behaviour of AP and FD. this will cause an ECAM warning since it can be detected. This situation may only be detected by the crew who will observe IAS fluctuations.

Another way of inserting a similar fault is (after the gear is retracted) failing three Pitot tubes. COMMON ERRORS Initial actions incorrect. The ECAM may recognise the problem. If there is no ECAM warning then a paper checklist must be referred to. The result of all these failures is to fly using pitch and thrust.119/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The unreliable speed and / or altitude indication may cause the following associated (distracting) phenomena: SPD LIM flag on PFD. The PNF has trouble finding the correct part of the QRH. This will force the CM1 to fly using the Pitch and Thrust targets from the QRH.11 COCKPIT SMOKE (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Any occasion where there is smoke in an aircraft is a potentially very serious situation. flap auto retraction. F. ALPHA FLOOR activation. in which case the procedure should be followed. Poor scanning from the PF. INSTRUCTION In the simulator you achieve this failure situation for the CM1 by simultaneously blocking the CM1 Pitot tube. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. overspeed warning on ECAM. stall . There are potentially many means for smoke to be present but the simulators have generally only the facility to reproduce smoke from the Avionics System or from the Air Conditioning System. ALPHA LOCK system activation. ADR3 and Airspeed Channel of ADR1. altitude discrepancy warning on ECAM and rudder TLU fault on ECAM.windshear warnings (due to Mach effect). failing ADR3 and failing the Airspeed Channel of ADR2. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. For CM2 fail CM2 Pitot tube. .

between 500 and 3000 metres wide that is moving downward. G.120/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The FCOM Vol3 contains the relevant information for all scenarios and should be referred to during your briefing. it flows outward. Depending on the type of simulator this is done either from the IOS or by dedicated switches or buttons. If there is dense smoke a descent is carried out to facilitate the removal of the smoke and this descent is performed during the five minutes before setting the Emergency Electrical Configuration in the case of Avionics smoke. This type of meteorological phenomena is mostly due to a cool shaft of air. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Highlight the fact that any faulty equipment be switched off and this should stop the smoke creation. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. COMMON ERRORS Confusion between ECAM and QRH procedures. When the air encounters the ground. . The Smoke Generator will produce large amounts of smoke for about five minutes. Locate the Instructors Oxygen mask before inserting the failure giving the smoke to avoid breathing the simulated smoke. Once the Smoke Generator is Armed the activation is controlled by inserting a failure from the IOS. INSTRUCTION During the Simulator set up you must arm the Smoke Generator by “warming it up” for about five minutes before it will be operational. (like a cylinder).01 WINDSHEAR (00:20) BACKGROUND PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR INDICATIONS PROCEDURE PRINCIPLES INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Windshear and microburst have been the cause of numerous aircraft accidents during the take off and landing phases. Our syllabus contains a Smoke exercise which commences by repositioning to FL350. Before release make a DIR TO a fix some distance in front of the aircraft so that there is a sensible flight plan track in front of the crew. Once the Smoke production is finished the simulator smoke removal fans will remove the smoke from the simulator.

SPEED). Aircraft safety is affected for two reasons 1. PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR The Predictive Windshear System (PWS) is the Primary means of advance information regarding windshear. When the wind varies suddenly from front to back. Provide efficient tools to escape from the situation. For this we use the FBW high angle of attack protection. From the Flight Instruments we get FPV rapid movement. and Approach Target Speed variations (from GS mini protection). When the air mass moves downward so does the aircraft. Therefore a windshear or a microburst is an extremely hazardous phenomenon for an aircraft during take off and landing. and raindrops moving away from it at a greater range. It works by measuring the velocity of the water droplets carried by the horizontally moving air mass and thus is able to assess wind variations. . SPEED. The aircraft flight path is thus severely affected.121/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The velocity of the downward flowing air mass ranges from 20 to 40 knots. the pilot needs to be advised that such phenomena exist in proximity to the aircraft. Inform the crew of unexpected air mass variations. Warn the crew of significant loss of energy by the Low Energy warning (SPEED. The aircraft flies in the air mass. ALPHA FLOOR an Auto thrust function. In order to do so. 2. 3. Increase crew awareness of potential microburst or windshear so as to delay take off or landing by use of the PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR SYSTEM. The Radar scans across the windshear. so delay T/O or APPR. or to reach very high AOA. the lift significantly reduces which causes the aircraft to descend. 4. When it reaches the ground the outflow winds which result vary from 20 to 80 knots. The aircraft lift is related to the relative velocity of the air travelling over the wing. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and the SRS AP / FD pitch law. The best strategy is to AVOID such weather phenomena. The strategies we promote to prevent potential catastrophic consequences are 1. 2. and it will detect raindrops moving toward it at one range. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.

It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.122/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The measurement principle is the detection of the Doppler frequency shift of the reflected microwave pulses caused by the shear. windshear alerts are triggered. . The PWS must be switched on with its dedicated switch and operates independently of the weather radar. The Radar can thus determine the width of the shaft and the severity of the shear by the droplet velocity variations. The diagram below shows the areas in which an advice will be obtained. When switched on the system operates automatically when the A/C is below 2300 ft AGL. When the severity exceeds a given threshold. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The warnings are inhibited on take off from 100 knots to 50ft RA and on landing below 50ft.

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The aural Warning given on Take off is “WINDSHEAR AHEAD” announced twice and on Landing is “GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD”. On the PFD is written in red WINDSHEAR AHEAD. On the ND is the windshear icon. The aural Caution given on both Take off and Landing is “MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY”. On the PFD is written in amber WINDSHEAR AHEAD. On the ND is the windshear icon. If the windshear is in the area between 25º and 40º of the aircraft nose, or in the area between 3 and 5 NM from the aircraft the windshear icon only appears on the ND.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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If the ND range is >10 NM, a message W/S SET RNGE 10 NM appears on the ND. Procedure linked to PWS Predictive windshear alert = highly probable windshear At take o ff. Delay Take Off or Reject during T/O Run If during Take Off roll or initial climb – TOGA, Monitor closely SPEED/SPEED TREND - Ensure that Flight Path clears any shear suspected area, If within the shear do NOT modify A/C configuratio. At landing In case of a Warning or Advisory delay landing (or divert). Envisage using CONF3, Use Managed speed and consider increasing your VAPP. Use autopilot with ILS to help for an earlier detection of vertical path deviation. In case of GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD message apply TOGA and keep your current configuration until out of the shear. Follow SRS orders until full back stick, if necessary INDICATIONS In addition to the PWS and to inform the crew of unexpected airmass variations there are several cues provided on the EFIS, which assist the pilot in determining significant airmass variations symptomatic of potential presence of microburst. These are available essentially in approach. The cues are: IAS speed trend arrow IAS target during approach (GS mini) FPV Wind information on ND The target speed during approach (VAPP) is a function of GS mini, which causes an increase in VAPP when the head wind increases. The IAS speed trend arrow advises the pilot immediately of head or tail wind gusts. The FPV position relative to the centre of the PFD advises the pilots of the wind direction. If the PF flies a constant track and notices that the relative position of the FPV versus the centre of the PFD varies rapidly, he will realise that the aircraft has experienced a change in the wind direction. A sudden downward movement of the FPV is the first sign that the aircraft is under the influence of a downdraft. PROCEDURE Monitor the energy cues, speed trend, speed trend target movement and the FPV in suspected wind shear conditions. Two features are provided to the crew to assist their monitoring This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

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Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

1. the LOW ENERGY warning provided below 2000 ft R/A in CONF = 2 2. the REACTIVE WINDSHEAR warning provided at take off and landing up to 1300 ft R/A in CONF =1. In all cases of significant energy loss immediately apply TOGA and do not change the configuration until out of the windshear. The PF can easily fixate on his PFD so the PNF should respond to the “WindshearGo” call by confirming the trajectory by reference to the RA. Once the windshear has been passed the IAS can increase very rapidly so the PNF can call out the actual wind strength as well. As they have TOGA power the ATHR cannot reduce the speed approaching the red line. Brief that they are not expected (or allowed) to overspeed. PRINCIPLES The LOW ENERGY WARNING advises the pilot of a lack of energy (speed or thrust) which limits the manoeuvrability capability of the A/C. The energy level of the aircraft is translated into a value of Angle of Attack as a function of the A/C speed, acceleration, and flight path angle. This Angle of Attack value is compared to a threshold and when it overshoots this threshold a "SPEED, SPEED, SPEED" repetitive message is triggered. In shear conditions this is the first warning prior to Alpha Floor. The REACTIVE WINDSHEAR WARNING is provided by the Flight Envelope computer, which computes actual and predicted energy level of the aircraft as an Equivalent Angle of Attack. This Equivalent Angle of Attack is a function of detected head / tailwind change conditions, mean wind component, detected down draft wind, fi ltered by RA value. This Equivalent Angle of Attack is compared to a threshold as a function of the A/C configuration. When the threshold is reached a "WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR" aural warning is triggered, with an associated WINDSHEAR red message on PFD. ALPHA FLOOR condition is processed by the FCPC and triggered by FMGC which engages ATHR and commands TOGA on all engines. ALPHA FLOOR provides an additional level of energy when the A/C AOA gets very high. ALPHA FLOOR is fully automatic and available from lift off to 100 ft RA at Landing. It is inhibited in case of engine failure. The SRS AP/FD pitch mode is used in Take off and Go round so as to ensure the best aircraft climb performance, both with all engines operating and also with an engine failed. However it also ensures a minimum climb out flight path angle, in order to cope with downdraft or windshear situations. This is why the procedure asks the PF to follow the FD pitch bar up to full back stick so as to obey the SRS orders and thus minimise height loss. The High Angle of Attack protection allows the PF to pull full back stick if needed, either to follow the SRS FD BARS or to rapidly counteract a down

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

or a GPWS warning. The two arrival cases vary in that one occurs quite late on final.126/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes movement of the FPV / a height loss / a deviation below the final path or G/S. These are Predictive windshear. should those be extended. Reactive windshear and Microburst 1. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This would be a normal Go-round as the windshear is still in front of the aircraft. . or landing threshold. Inserting a PWS when the aircraft is airborne will give good reason to go round when on final (on single engine for example).maximum lift and minimum drag by automatic retraction of the speed brakes. In the fully lined up position the Caution or the Warning (both with audio) will appear if the windshear is closer than 3 or 1. reject a take off below 100 kts. or Severe. Do not use the Severe selection as the likelihood of survival is low and this will lead to negative training. or very strongly encourage a go round on final. Generally (according to the simulator) there are three events for the take off case and two for the landing case. To practice the recovery from unexpected windshear therefore we need the Reactive Windshear function. The PWS is used to abandon a take off on line up. Medium. Inserting a PWS after 100 kts will give the same messages after passing 50 ft. When you insert a PWS you are in fact inserting a Microburst and the position of the centre of the Microburst can be adjusted in relation to the take off. As the windshear position comes within 40º and 25º of the aircraft axis the Visual advisory symbol will appear (no aural warning). Because the PWS predicts the presence of windshear we would not normally continue our normal path once aware of the predicted danger. 2. Before giving the “Clear to Line Up” call insert a PWS.5 nm in front. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. deviate from the normal path on take off after rotation. There is also a level of severity selection which allows for Low. Pulling full aft stick provides . The scenario “Before VR” is designed for a large split between V1 and VR and requires the application of TOGA as well as rotation before the end of the runway. Selecting Windshear on the IOS gives us the Reactive windshear selection. INSTRUCTION In the simulator you have three controls with which to train for windshear.

The microburst function allows precise placement of an event such as PWS referenced to the threshold in use. or “TX north of the field”. No evasive action should be solely based on the TA. In case of a RESOLUTION ADVISORY. . Reinsert a turbulence value of 5 to 8 % 3. however when the exercise is completed and you remove the event the general turbulence level drops to zero which is not realistic. G. The crew should never manoeuvre in the opposite direction of the RA since manoeuvres are coordinated. The purpose of the TA is to advise the crew to attempt to get visual contact with the intruder. If the TCAS II predicts that the separation is below a safe boundaries a TRAFFIC ADVISORY (TA) is triggered and informs the crew that an INTRUDER is in the vicinity. Inserting a TX near the airport can heighten the reality when you become comfortable with such features.02 TCAS (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The Traffic Collision Advisory Service monitors the airspace surrounding the aircraft by interrogating the transponder of other aircraft.the closure rate and .the bearing / range to the intruder . If the TCAS II predicts there is a collision threat a RESOLUTION ADVISORY (RA) is triggered to maintain a safe separation between the aircraft.127/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes You can use some ATC terminology such as “Previous aircraft reported turbulence”. From that data. the TCAS II predicts the TIME TO and the SEPARATION AT the intruder's closest point of approach (CPA). Always attempt to visually clear the airspace before manoeuvring the aircraft in response to a TCAS Advisory. There will be some turbulence associated with all scenarios which is quite realistic. The RA's are thus complementary. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. the crew must follow it promptly and smoothly. both using an ATC mode S. The reply of the transponders allow the following to be calculated: . The Resolution Advisory is coordinated between your aircraft and the intruder. It is generally true (but each simulator can be different) that you will not get windshear or microburst from inserting a TX although you may get turbulence. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.the relative altitude difference and the V/S of the intruder (if mode C-S available).

Snow. There are a number of scenarios in our syllabus and you should start with TA’s and progress to RA’s. These are WEATHER DETECTION & AVOIDANCE and MAPPING. and Turbulence associated with any rain or wet hail or snow. The Weather Radar detects Precipitation Droplets in the form of Rain droplets. The strength of the echo is a function of the drop size.128/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The TCAS may work only if the intruder's A/C is equipped with a transponder. and snow that has commenced to melt (wet snow). and hail that has commenced to melt (wet hail). G. INSTRUCTION As a general rule you should arm the Airport Traffic with one of the levels of traffic. Depending on the simulator you may get a countdown to the time of collision. Select a Low or Medium level of traffic but ensure the ND does not get too cluttered and so distract the pilots. . then only TAs may be issued based on closure rate. Water particles reflect 5 times as much as ice particles of the same size. composition and amount. If the simulator has the facility to insert TA’s for an overtaking aircraft it is useful to use this function when the crew have ARC selected on the ND so they need to select NAV in order to see behind. After your initial briefing on the TCAS system you can use the function at any stage of the training. Hail. NAR traffic is not displayed above 14500 ft. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. if the intruder has a Non Altitude Reporting transponder (NAR). Giving ATC instructions that conflict with an RA will heighten the trainees awareness level.03 USE OF RADAR (00:10) BACKGROUND USE OF RADAR INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The latest radars have 2 functions. In that case. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

If the water vapour contains large droplets the vertical movement in the cloud is strong to allow the build up in droplet size and as there is strong vertical currents there will also be turbulence. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The gain control allows the detection of the strongest part of a cell displayed in red on ND. WX + Turbulence. Some radars provide a Ground Clutter Suppression function which is operative in WX mode and suppresses 85% of stationary targets or ground targets (called GCS). This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. while yellow areas turn into green ones (level 1 return). The WET TURBULENCE is characterized by a wide velocity variance between the rain drops. turbulence is detected. . The angle between the weather radar antenna and the local horizon is the TILT. As water vapour is far more readily seen by the radar than ice crystals we need to tilt the radar down to see the return from the water vapour and not from the ice crystals. The red area which is the last to turn into yellow is the strongest part of the build up. ±?5° bank). or the adjustment of map returns requires the correct use of the Gain control. The antenna is stabilised. MAP). most effective key to get a more informative weather radar display. This strongest area has to be avoided by the greatest distance.129/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The primary use of radar is to know where the weather is and after interpreting the radar return to avoid (as far as possible) the area of the weather. the red areas (level 3 return) slowly turn into yellow areas (level 2 returns). The pilot selectable TILT ANGLE on the radar control panel. The velocity variance of the droplets creates a return signal frequency shift due to the relative motion between the A/C and the droplets. is the angle between the radar antenna and horizon regardless of the aircraft pitch and bank (if within the stabilisation limits which are typically ?15° pitch. The stabilisation of the ± 3 antenna is achieved using IRS data. (displayed on ND). When the Gain control is used manually it should be put back to AUTO when no longer required. Slowly reducing the gain.the TILT of the antenna. USE OF RADAR Some values for phases of flight. At normal jet aircraft cruising levels the white fluffy cumulus cloud in front is composed of ice crystals and it is not until the temperature is around 0ºC that the cloud becomes water vapour. The pilot has several tools to operate the radar. When the shift is beyond a given threshold. Turbulence can be detected up to 50 nm.the MODE of operation (WX. . Effective tilt management is the single. and only if wet.the GAIN of the receiver (automatic or manual) and . . The analysis of weather. The return velocity variance of the droplets is measured by the Doppler principle.

TILT DOWN then UP. TILT DOWNWARD as the A/C climbs and maintain GND RETURNS ON TOP OF ND Use WX TILT slightly NEGATIVE: maintain GND RETURNS ON TOP OF ND.130/136 PHASE OF FLIGHT TAXI Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes DETECTION AND MONITORING PROCEDURES Clear on parking area.000 ft APPROACH TILT + 4° To avoid ground returns INSTRUCTION The Weather Radar is functional in all our Simulators and the trainees should use it as they would in normal operations. G. then + 1°/5000 ft below 15. When you insert a thunderstorm. To heighten their situational awareness when they forget to use it temporarily raise the level of turbulence to a high level. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.04 WET RUNWAYS (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The session guide for each part of the syllabus details the ambient weather conditions. or to allow it to move as a result of the ambient wind. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. check appearance/disappearance of GND RETURNS Weather suspected SLOWLY SCAN up to + 10° then TILT + 4° To avoid OVER SCANNING. set ND to lowest RNG. . We do not address any issues in connection with runway contamination as it is not specific to a particular type of aircraft. or move its centre.000 ft in higher altitudes. As far as this part of the training is concerned we only consider whether the runway is Dry or Wet. It is also possible to either fix the storm in its position. you can rotate it. and before you activate it. TILT UPWARD about + 1° / 10. It aids the realism to put TX weather (off track) into any training situation. Use TURB to ISOLATE Turbulence – GAIN to AUTO REMARKS RADAR CHECK AWAY FROM PEOPLE Scanning along departure path TILT angle is a function of ALT/ND RANGE No ground returns beyond line of sight Poor ground return over calm sea / even ground TAKE OFF CLIMB CRUISE DESCENT During DES.

if the shoulder harness is locked before being removed from the central buckle in order to make it easier to refasten then it should be fastened as the metal buckle will hurt if it hits you due to the turbulence.10 G.131/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION The runway condition is to be found (depending on the simulator) on an Environment page. as there will be a much smaller margin between VMAX and VLS leading to the increased risk of over speed warnings or activation of low speed protections. G. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The best advice is to avoid areas of severe turbulence either by use of the weather radar (for thunderstorms etc). The appropriate speeds are to be found in the FCOM and QRH. at the pre-flight planning stage (clear air turbulence forecast in met briefing) or by a change of flight level if turbulence is reported by preceding aircraft. Both pilots (at all times) should have the lap and crotch part of their seat belts fastened. Cruise levels at close to maximum level should not be used when turbulence is anticipated. There are however some considerations that need to be discussed with your trainees. Keep in mind that the simulator is designed with certain limits and these affect its ability to faithfully represent movement in the rolling and yawing planes. However. If the shoulder harnesses are unfastened and retracted there is no need to fasten them in turbulence. Ensure the Cabin Crew are advised in time to finish and secure the cabin. Inserting Rain does not make a Wet runway.04. .05 FLIGHT IN SEVERE TURBULENCE (00:05) CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS Flight in Severe Turbulence is not Type Specific so is not addressed in our Transition course.06 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Performance information for various contaminations are given in FCOM Volume 2.

GPS PRIMARY will be indicated on the MCDU PROG page and the ND. and gives indications of when this position information cannot be relied upon. It means that adequate GPS accuracy and integrity are provided and that GPS is available as the basis for the FM position. This is a positive confirmation to the crew that GPS is accurate. a message will be displayed on the MCDU and ND.22. This is then fed to the FMGC’s and a FM position is produced. Reasonableness tests on the GPIRS and IRS positions are carried out and any unreasonable position is disregarded for the purpose of FM position calculation. The amber GPS PRIMARY LOST cannot be cleared from the ND and is to remind the pilots that GPS is not available. The FMGC’s will use the GPIRS position as the FM position so long as GPS PRIMARY is indicated on the MCDU PROG page. Navigation accuracy up-or downgrade will be shown in the same way as already used for non GPS navigation.20 provides a full description of FMGS position computation. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.20 FCOM 4. The GPS fitted to the Airbus family of aircraft monitors the integrity of the position information provided.132/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND The GPS is a satellite based radio navigation aid. The position calculated by the twin GPS receivers is added to the IRS calculated position producing a GPIRS position. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The table below summarizes how FM position is derived with and without GPS PRIMARY FM POSITION WITHOUT GPS WITH GPS On ground before take-off Mix IRS position GPIRS At take-off Runway threshold (+ T/O shift) GPIRS Flight MIX IRS & Radio Position GPIRS -(tending towards Radio Position) Flight without GPS or Radio MIX IRS position + Last Not Position update memorised FM position. At take off. During flight preparation. . If the GPS status changes. This message should be cleared using the CLR pushbutton.02. even with GPS. GPS PRIMARY is an Airbus term defining an operational concept. the FM position is updated to runway threshold (+ T/O SHIFT if applicable). FMGS position calculation. applicable gradually tending towards IRS position FCOM section 1. The GPS workings are transparent to the crew and will only require attention in the case of a fault or a downgrading of the position information.

The “time window” is pilot modifiable. Before the FAF check GPS PRIMARY and HIGH accuracy with a RNP of 0. FCOM 4. Navigation accuracy is shown. PREDICTIVE GPS* Displays information about the predicted availability of GPS at destination ETA or at a particular waypoint ARRIVAL Allows selection of GPS approach Full descriptions of the above pages can be found in FCOM 4.133/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The following is a list of MCDU pages associated with the use of GPS and a brief description of their use: MCDU PAGE FUNCTION SELECTED NAVAIDS Allows de-selection or selection of GPS GPS MONITOR Display of GPS positions and other GPS derived information IRS 1 (2) (3) GPIRS Position for each IRS PROG When GPS PRIMARY is shown. The calculation involved relies on the number of. reliability and such. indicates that GPIRS is used for FM PROG position calculation. If raw data indicates that the aircraft is not on the required flight path the pilot must revert to raw data to correct the flight path. Before beginning the approach a check of GPS PRIMARY and HIGH accuracy must be made which replaces the navigation accuracy check. The current status of GPS permits approaches to Cat 1 limits at best.3 NM or less. . a GPS PRIMARY LOST message in amber will be displayed accompanied by a triple click.70 details the procedures to be used. There are two types of GPS approach: A. GPS OVERLAY APPROACH The aircraft performs an approach along the trajectory of a published non precision approach using GPS position information in GPS PRIMARY navigation mode. Individual certification authorities are discussing GPS accuracy. GPS STAND ALONE APPROACH The aircraft is guided along the trajectory of an approach the waypoints of which are not referenced to any ground base navigation aid. If this occurs or there is a navigation accuracy downgrade a Missed This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. the satellites at ETA.05. and the position of. B. Raw data must be displayed and monitored at all times. If GPS PRIMARY is lost during a GPS Stand Alone Approach.03.20 The full GPS standard will permit predictions to be made regarding the feasibility of a GPS approach at destination. Thus. the minima and acceptance of GPS in each country must be checked before using GPS as a prime means of navigation in the approach phase. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

Although not part of our syllabus it is useful to know that an Emergency Descent in RVSM airspace requires Heading selection as the first action. There can be a situation where there is a NOTAM stating that during a certain period satellite navigation is unavailable. INSTRUCTION Any event that causes the loss of the autopilot or air data requires a PAN call to the effect that the aircraft is no longer RVSM capable. The levels available are continued from lower levels so that “East” is ODD and “West” is EVEN. Instead of 2000ft vertical separation above FL290 in RVSM airspace this is reduced to 1000ft. S.134/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Approach is normally carried out. G. INSTRUCTION Our syllabus is mostly based on GPS being Primary. If GPS Navigation has been de-selected and the crew is flying a Managed Approach after checking the Navigation Accuracy you can force them into a Selected Approach by inserting a Slow Map Shift. unless raw data allows for a satisfactory continuation.01 SIMULATOR INFORMATION LIMITATIONS REALITY RULES PLANNING DEBRIEFING PREPARATION UNSERVICEABILITIES TRAINEE PERFORMANCE This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. To achieve the required level of altitude accuracy the use of the auto pilot is mandatory. .07 RVSM AIRSPACE (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Increased congestion in available flight levels in various parts of the world have led to the introduction of Reduced Vertical Separation Minima between FL290 and FL410. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In this case GPS Navigation shall be deselected from the Radio Navigation FMGS page.

admit the fact. These areas involve movement around the Rolling axis where the roll is limited to about 20º either side of the vertical. Radio calls should be made on the correct frequencies. or a simulator. Modern Full Flight Simulators do have areas where they do not faithfully represent the aircraft. function unless you are in IMC. The amount of pitch up or down is also dampened from actual values. DEBRIEFING Always make written notes during the session with which to debrief. Without giving correct information straight out criticism achieves little. PLANNING Poor planning by an Instructor can result in wasted time if the radar vectors are unsuitable for the next exercise. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. We are trying very hard to achieve reality in the FFS. This means the trainees should listen to the ATIS on the correct frequency and not refer to the session guide for the meteorological conditions. or speed up. REALITY RULES Insist from the first day of referring to reality in all possible areas. Do not freeze the simulator position or use the slew. Think ahead of the current exercise and plan where you want the aircraft to be when you have completed the present event or demonstration. and the Yawing axis where movement is limited by the physical restraints of the motion system. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If you don’t know the answer to a question. In your Debriefing try and make any criticism constructive. ATC can ask for “Sqawk Ident” and TCAS traffic can be programmed at any suitable stage. The Ground Engineer should Buzz the cockpit to confirm the request for ground power disconnection.135/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes LIMITATIONS Full Flight Simulators have evolved so that today it can be hard for a Trainee to say at a given moment whether he is in an aircraft. Both of these functions (if the trainees realise they are being used) destroy the reality that we are trying hard to create. This is therefore the reason some manoeuvres should be practised without motion (recovery from unusual attitude for example) because the motion system cannot faithfully reproduce the “seat of the pants” feeling from the real aircraft. and find out the correct answer. What has been proven many times is that if the trainee thinks he is in an aircraft and not a simulator he will achieve much more from the session. .

In order to do this you need a list of references that you can give your trainees so that if they are not the investigative type they will still have a basic understanding of how the systems work before we try and show them. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. You have to communicate your concerns to a superior. or the Emergency Electrical configuration is the morning of the session they will be unable to take in all you need to say in the time available. You need to be very careful how you go about remedying this situation. and arrangements can be made for the trainees to have more sessions. Don’t ever forget to ask yourself whether you would put your family on the trainees aircraft. If you have trouble answering that question then perhaps they are not in the right place! Your job is to help turn out safe. TRAINEE PERFORMANCE You may come across a situation where the trainees just haven’t got it right by the end of the session. . a Dual Hydraulic failure. UNSERVICEABILITIES You will no doubt come across a situation where you lose time in the simulator due to a Simulator malfunction.136/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes PREPARATION Always take the time to go through the next days session and tell your trainees what preparation you want them to do. If the first time they hear you talk about a Dual Engine failure. For every session the trainees should be as fully prepared as possible. Remember you cannot prolong the session by more than about 5 minutes without having a roll on effect to every other session. In cases such as this you need to follow the procedure for the particular Training Centre for an additional session. and where to find the information. competent Airbus pilots and not to put your trainees up for a Skill test in the hope that they pass. and this means you have to ensure that they know where to look for all the information that is required to be refreshed before you commence your briefing.