Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

A WELCOME BRIEFING (01:30) .........................................................................3 B AIRBUS DOCUMENTATION ( 00:15) .............................................................3 C The MMEL and MEL...........................................................................................6 N.01 COCKPIT PREPARATION (00:20)..........................................................8 N.02 DEPARTURE BRIEFING (00:10) .............................................................9 N.03 ENGINE START (00:15) ..........................................................................10 N.04 PUSH BACK (00:05) ................................................................................11 N.05 TAXIING (00:10)........................................................................................12 N.06 TAKE-OFF AND INITIAL CLIMB (00:25) ..............................................14 N.07 CLIMB (00:05) ...........................................................................................17 N.08 CRUISE (00 :20) .......................................................................................19 N.09 DESCENT AND APPROACH (00:15) ...................................................21 N.10 ARRIVAL (00:15) ......................................................................................27 N.11 ILS APPROACH (00:15) .........................................................................30 N.12 RAW DATA ILS (00:10) ...........................................................................32 N.13 GLIDE SLOPE FROM ABOVE (00:15) .................................................34 N.14 NON PRECISION APPROACH (00:25) ...............................................35 N.15 CIRCUIT & VISUAL APPROACH, (00:10)............................................40 N.16 CIRCLING APPROACH (00:15) .............................................................42 N.17 LANDING (00:10) ......................................................................................44 N.18 GO-ROUND (00:15) .................................................................................47 N.18 DIVERTING (00:10).................................................................................49 T.01 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS .................................................51 T.02 FLYING REFERENCES (00:15).............................................................60 T.03 USE OF ATHR (00:10)............................................................................61 T.04 USE OF AP and FD (00:10) ...................................................................63 T.05 MODE REVERSIONS AP & FD (00:10)................................................65 T.06 FLIGHT CONTROLS (00:15) ..................................................................68 T.07 RECOVERY FROM APPROACH TO STALL (00:20).........................73 T.08 ECAM (00:30) ............................................................................................74 T.09 FMS NAVIGATION (00:20) .....................................................................79 T.10 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING (00:20) ..........................................83 T.011 VAPP DETERMINATION (00 :10)......................................................89 F.00 INTRODUCTION TO THE FAILURE PHASE ......................................91 F.01 ENGINE ABNORMAL STARTS (00:15) ................................................91 F.02 ENGINE FAILURES REJECTED TAKE-OFF (00:15 + video) ..........93 ENGINE FAILURE OR FIRE AFTER V1 (00:20).................................................94 ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE (00:10) .............................................................. 100 ALL ENGINE FLAME OUT (00:20)..................................................................... 102 ENGINE RELIGHT IN FLIGHT (00:10) .............................................................. 103 F.03 DUAL FMGS FAILURE (00:15) ........................................................... 104 F.04 TOTAL FCU FAILURE (00:15) ............................................................ 106 F.05 DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE (00:25)................................................ 107 F.06 EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION (00:20) .............. 110 F.07 NO FLAPS OR NO SLATS (00:20) ..................................................... 113 F.08 NO FLAPS PLUS NO SLATS (00:15) ............................................... 115 F.09 DUAL RADIO ALTIMETER FAILURE (00:10)................................... 116 F.10 UNRELIABLE SPEED / ALTITUDE (00:10) ..................................... 117 F.11 COCKPIT SMOKE (00:15) ................................................................... 119 G.01 WINDSHEAR (00:20) ............................................................................ 120 This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

2/136 G.02 G.03 G.04 G.05 G.06 G.07 S.01

Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes TCAS (00:10) ......................................................................................... 127 USE OF RADAR (00:10) ..................................................................... 128 WET RUNWAYS (00:05) ..................................................................... 130 FLIGHT IN SEVERE TURBULENCE (00:05)................................... 131 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (00:15)....................................... 131 RVSM AIRSPACE (00:05)................................................................... 134 SIMULATOR INFORMATION ............................................................. 134

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes



Trainees newly arrived in our Training Centre need to complete our documentation for recording purposes, to be introduced to the facilities and to be introduced to Airbus documentation. The Welcome Briefing should be scheduled in a classroom, but if it is conducted for a single crew can be performed in a Briefing Room. For each crew you will need their Course schedule, Trainees’ files, Golden Rules Card, and the Welcome “PowerPoint” presentation either on the Airbus Network or on CD for your laptop. Prepare the classroom and initialise the Briefing from the Network or from CD. Meet the Trainees in the Welcome room where the Hostess gives an Introduction to Toulouse and the Training Centre. She usually finishes by taking photos and the Trainees are ready for you around 09:00 (but this depends on how many there are on a particular day). Escort your trainees to the classroom (or Briefing Room) and commence by getting the trainees to complete their files with licence number, passport information and flying experience. On completion check each file for correct compilation. Explain the role of the course coordinator. You now present the “Welcome Briefing presentation” which introduces the Training Centre, the Courses and their phases, the schedule and training equipment. The Golden rules video introduces some Airbus concepts. Hand out the paper explaining the FCOM contents and ask for any questions After the “Welcome Briefing” you carry out the Training Centre walkaround. During your tour of the Ground and First Floors emphasise the position of toilets, prayer room (if applicable), Trainees lounge, Gift Shop, Restaurant, briefing rooms, Training Devices and Simulators. Take the Trainees to the FAST office where they collect their laptops and then to the VACBI room where you hand them over to the GSI. Take the completed files to the Trainees Office.



To explain the generic Airbus documentation used during the course you will need the Trainees Booklet, FCOM Volumes l to 4 and the QRH, and the Loft and Skill Test Supplement Booklet The Trainees Booklet is the trainees personal file while undergoing training and contains the syllabus for his course. It must accompany him for all sessions.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

Each chapter covers a specific system. In volume 1 the chapter numbers correspond to the ATA (Air Transport Association) 100 BREAKDOWN chapter numbers. The list below details the ATA chapter numbers used in FCOM Vol. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The full six digits are used in the MEL and the MMEL. FCOM VOLUME I This manual contains a technical description of the aircraft systems.4/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The generic FCOM contains a full and in depth description of the generic aircraft technical systems and associated procedures from a pilots point of view. A. Once the CBT phase is successfully completed Volume 1 will become the prime source of information on aircraft systems. The ATA breakdown consists of six digits. 1. Pressurization & Ventilation Auto Flight Communications Electrical Equipment Fire Protection Flight Controls Fuel Hydraulic Ice and Rain Protection Indicating & Recording Systems Landing Gear Lights Navigation Systems Oxygen Pneumatic Water &Waste System Auxiliary Power Unit Doors Power Plant The classification of the systems is in alphabetical order apart from the last three systems. . This represents the official reference for the classification of airplane systems and/or functions. However the CBT should be considered the prime source of technical information. At the beginning of each chapter there is a contents list. This volume will be of use in the Ground phase of the course to reinforce and compliment the lessons learnt on the CBT. controls and indications are described. The main components. Chapter 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 38 49 52 70 System Air Conditioning. the first two of which refer to a particular aircraft system. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The cautions and warnings associated with each system are included in each chapter as is the electric bus distribution. A list of abbreviations and symbols used in all documentation is included at the beginning of the manual.

Each bulletin may deal with one or more subject. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). FCOM VOLUME 2 This manual contains information on loading. These do not appear on ECAM and it is not necessary to consult this volume during ECAM procedures. f. In the chapter introduction there is information on ECAM use and task sharing. Further information is given to assist in planning and preparing for a single engine landing. The rest of the chapter contains information concerning systems and operational situations. Most of the sections conform to the ATA 100 breakdown. e. In Flight Performance: Contains information on performance for use in flight. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The section on operating techniques contains information on such topics as rejected takeoff. in-flight performance and single engine operation. OEB’s are not approved by the airworthiness authorities and will be superseded by a modification or service bulletin. FCOM Bulletins: Are used to provide supplementary operational information normally falling outside the content of the FCOM.). It is used in all Training sessions and in flight. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. a. Abnormal and Emergency Procedures: This section is a complete list of all the ECAM failure messages and other failures requiring the use of the QRH. h. performance and pre-flight planning. This volume is of use during the performance course. Single Engine Operations: This chapter details the possible strategies following an engine failure in flight. It will continue to be of use in line operations. Some OEB’s may have an impact on the safe conduct of flight operations and these are reproduced in the QRH. Supplementary Techniques. Normal Procedures: This chapter contains all information on Airbus Standard Operating Procedures and techniques required for the conduct of a normal flight. Each section in the main body of this chapter corresponds to the relevant ATA chapter number. OEB’s: These are used as the fastest way to advise operators of revised or significant new technical information.5/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes B. flight crew procedures or changes to limitations. engine failure after V1 etc. Operating Limitations: This chapter inc ludes limitations required by the regulating Authority and contained in the Flight Manual. Also included is performance information for special operations (contaminated runway. b. C. . c. Within each ECAM procedure there are notes which amplify the procedure. ETOPS etc. g. d. FCOM VOLUME 3 This volume contains chapters on Operating Limitations. Abnormal and Emergency procedures. and during Line Orientated Flight Training (LOFT) exercises. Supplementary Techniques: This chapter begins with a definition of operating speeds etc. Only bulletins applicable to the generic aircraft are included. The generic FCOM used in all our training does not (normally) contain any OEB’s.

Section 2 – Associated operational procedures. however the aim is to have all the information regarding the FMGS in one book. Section 4 – List of ECAM warnings associated to the dispatch conditions. as fo r FCOM. The MEL is the Minimum Equipment List published by the operator and approved by the local authorities. The normal checklist is printed on the back of the QRH along with the ON GROUND EMERGENCY EVACUATION checklist. the full six figures of This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. FCOM REVISIONS QUICK REFERENCE HANDBOOK (QRH) As the documentation is generic it is not subject to revisions. allows an aircraft to be dispatched with some items of equipment or some functions inoperative. operational data and OEB’s. In certain stated cases specific limitations or procedures apply. It may sometimes duplicate the information already contained in Volumes 1 and 3. Normal procedures and task sharing are detailed. or maintenance actions are required before dispatch. and the rectification interval applicable. Each item or piece of equipment listed in the MEL is identified using the ATA 100 format (Air Transport Association 100). The document consists of 4 sections: Section 1 – List of pieces of equipment which may be inoperative for dispatch. The MMEL (before delivery to an Airline). FCOM VOLUME 4 This volume provides in depth information about the FMGS principles. E. All training sessions require the QRH. procedures and interface. F. Also included are in flight performance.6/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes D. it is necessarily at least as restrictive as the MMEL. Section 3 – Associated maintenance procedure. or the MEL (once accepted by an Airline). . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. At the front of the QRH there is an important note concerning task sharing and ECAM procedures. C The MMEL and MEL The MMEL is the Master Minimum Equipment List published by the A/C manufacturer (Airbus). G. The QRH contains checklists which cannot be presented on ECAM and additional emergency and abnormal procedures which may be required by ECAM. LOFT AND SKILL TEST SUPPLEMENTAL BOOKLET This booklet contains RTOLW charts for all airports involved in the Loft and Skill Test scenarios and extracts from the Master Minimum Equipment List to cover potential need during these sessions. Most Abnormal and Emergency procedures are presented to the crew on ECAM.

If a particular item is not mentioned in the MMEL/MEL then dispatch is not allowed. A placard is required (*) and/or. MAN ENG START …) and . loss of spoilers. C or D) is not yet expired. 21 refers to the Air Conditioning – 52 to the Air cooling system – 01 for the Air Conditioning Pack. General Operational Rules for the MEL: 1.the potential Flight Domain Limitations (e.g. Enter chapter 2 with the ATA number.If the failed item is mentioned. Not to be confused with the MMEL/MEL is the "Configuration Deviation List" (CDL) in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) where allowable missing items are detailed. and/or. brake failure.005(d) ie commences to taxi). MTOW. If a particular item is not mentioned in the CDI then dispatch is not allowed. A specific OPERATIONAL procedure or limitation applies (O).g. A specific MAINTENANCE action applies (M). . or use the list of ECAM caution titles in Chapter 4 to identify more precisely the full six figure ATA number related to this failure.If the DISPATCH is POSSIBLE. refer to MEL chapter 2.the potential Applicable Performance Penalties (e.g.If the failed item is NOT mentioned in the MEL. . or is not possible. 3. The Rectification interval (CAT A. .the potential Applicable Special procedures (e. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. FLX …). loss of EPR mode with N1 rated mode…). In case an OPERATIONAL procedure or limitation applies. The commander may refer to the MEL before any decision to continue the flight is taken This is particularly true for those failures which might affect the take-off performance (e. The MMEL/MEL refers to items that are inoperative. . the crew must refer to MEL. any decision to continue the flight shall be subject to pilot judgement and good airmanship. . If a failure occurs or a component or a function is inoperative up to the commencement of the flight (being the “point at which an aircraft begins to move under its own power for the purpose of preparing for Take-off” JARMMEL/MEL. SPD. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the dispatch is NOT possible with the failed item. Check at the end of MEL chapter 0 (General) the ATA summary.7/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes this breakdown are used: for example 21-52-01. CONF …). and check: .g. If a failure occurs during the taxi phase before the start of the take-off roll. and/or . . check whether . in order to identify the ATA number associated to the failed system. . B. read carefully the description provided as well as the conditions under which the DISPATCH is. as opposed to missing. Go to MEL chapter 1 and carefully identify the item associated with the failure: . 2.some systems which must be turned off.

N. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. In order to heighten the reality aspect think of the order in which you initialise the simulation. even when the simulator has not been left in the correct Transit configuration. the maintenance action has to be performed before applying the operational procedure.01 COCKPIT PREPARATION (00:20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Detailed information on preparing the cockpit for departure is to be found in the FCTM and in Volume 3. finish refuelling the aircraft. Initially you can help you trainees when the configuration is incorrect but after a few sessions they should be able to do it themselves. some extracts will be provided when necessary for specific simulator exercises. the MMEL will be used for LOFT exercises only.8/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes 4. Then set up the environment according to the session guide (you don’t have to follow the guidelines exactly to the letter … the Trainees should listen to the ATIS as broadcast and not on the session guide to know if it is summer or winter!). You are now ready to put on your Pursers Cap and ask if it is ok to close the door as the pax are all on board. some items are mandatory for ETOPS dispatch. Buzz the cockpit from the ground to ask if you can disconnect the ground power and finally close the cargo doors before push back. NOTE: When the MEL asks for both a maintenance and operational procedure. INSTRUCTION On entering the simulator the trainees commence the preparation and you commence the setting up of the simulation. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Don’t let yourself become fixated on the IOS to the point you don’t follow the trainees in their procedure. This is specifically mentioned in the MEL. During the training. Finally. If a PLACARD or MAINTENANCE actions is required. As the Trainees get settled into their seats set up the obvious things they can see first like disarmed slides and open doors. In order to save time we use the Transit Cockpit Preparation for our usual procedures. . Be aware that in case of an ETOPS sector. call for the maintenance specialist and refer to MEL chapter 3 to determine the necessary actions.

initial cleared altitude and trajectory. SID etc). The following KEY ITEMS shall be mentioned: . The trainees should work towards completing the Transit preparation in 20 minutes (Full preparation 30 minutes) to the point where they are ready to start the engines. so you can devote time to monitoring the Trainees while they carry out their preparation. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Ensure good crew communication and mutual cross-checking. It should be done before Engine Starting when the workload is low so that both pilots have a clear understanding of what they are about to do. .Pushback and Engine Start considerations.Use of the Radar … This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. . in normal and abnormal situations. .02 DEPARTURE BRIEFING (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The objective of the Take off briefing is for the PF to inform the PNF of his intended course of actions during Taxi.Essential points of the ATC clearance .Specific runway / weather condition.Normal departure When specific data is mentioned it shall be cross-checked on the associated peripheral (V speeds. . Should the take-off conditions change after engine start.MSA – any Constraining SID ALT CSTR. N. Take-off and initial climb. Beware of a Briefing that is too generic because each take off is an individual event and should be covered by the specifics of that procedure. The briefing must be LOGICAL and CONCISE. . then a short briefing concentrating on the main changes should be carried out. . INSTRUCTION Listen to the Briefing to make sure you understand what is said.Transition altitude . Use of Anti Ice and APU.9/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes From the above you can see that your Preparation from the IOS does not involve your continual attention during the approximately 20 minutes it should take a crew to prepare for engine start. Task sharing and areas of responsibility need to be clearly explained. FLX. Use the different MCDU pages to brief while the other pilot cross checks with the relevant documentation. The Take-off Briefing is to be completed prior to engine start.Expected taxi path .

. MEL or CDL item.03 ENGINE START (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The engines are normally started using the AUTO START procedure. plus If the T/O is continued the EO ACCEL ALT. As the training scenarios frequently involve much repetition. or a STALL. attempting a new start etc. Some Common Errors to highlight are: APU Bleed not on. Abnormal situations. The MANUAL START procedure is used in some specific cases. ENG START selector left at IGN/START after start completion. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and who actually STOPS the A/C. with potential warnings. Bleed pressure not checked. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Hand not on the ENG MASTER switch for a manual start. During a MAN START the FADEC ensures a PASSIVE monitoring of Engine parameters. Stopwatch not used or not started at ENG MASTER SW ON ENG MASTER switch ON below max. a HUNG start. and it is up to the pilot to initiate a shut down if parameters are about to be exceeded. motoring speed during a manual start.10/136 - Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes - Reminder of major NOTAM. During an AUTO START procedure the FADEC protects the engines against a HOT start. Minimum initial climb altitude (MSA. It detects these phenomena and takes the appropriate action (reducing the fuel flow. not in sequence. or cutting it off. too long. or Visual Circuit altitude and expected procedure etc) Take–off Alternate procedure (as applicable) Potential overweight landing with associated configuration (QRH). If T/O is rejected then who calls STOP. N. Look out for Briefings that are incomplete. …). As the PNF is a vital crew member in Normal and Abnormal situations he should be in a position to devote his attention completely to the Briefing so he will be in the loop at all times. cranking the engine. or generic in nature. Therefore ensure he is not distracted during your briefing. once your crews have achieved a good level it may not be necessary to give a complete briefing if the main points have been well understood during the previous exercise.

11/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION When the Engines are stabilised after the starting sequence the crew perform their “After Start Scans”. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The usual procedure is with a tug. If this function is present simply disconnect the NWS at some convenient stage during the cockpit preparation and connect the NWS after the Parking Brake has been applied after pushback. The Wheel Chocks prevent movement but now we have an ECAM message NWS Disconnect. We normally do not have the ability to simulate a “Power Push” where the nose wheel steering is pressurised and the CM1 is told by the ground crew what steering inputs to make while the aircraft is moved by pushing with a rotating wheel against the left main wheels. The Push Back tractor will automatically disconnect when the Push back is complete. Normally the message appears as a result of initiating a push back so what is required is to insert the Wheel Chocks and (with doors and hatches still open if desired) and initiate the Push Back. Monitor that their feet are on the floor as they should not apply any braking effort during push back. This can take a few sessions for trainees to get correct so be aware of this problem. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. N.04 PUSH BACK (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Aircraft like the A320 are usually parked at an Air Bridge and thus require a Push Back prior to taxi. As Airbus philosophy is for the Flying Pilot to carry out the engine start as the PF there is a rôle reversal for the scans depending on who has started the engines. . When cleared for pushback by ATC and the ground crew asks the pilots to release the brakes you only have to remove the Wheel Chocks by deselecting them and the Push Back will start. INSTRUCTION Depending on the type of simulator you have will dictate whether you have a dedicated NWS Disconnect / Connect function. Monitor the Ground Speed for the termination of the Push Back and when the value is zero ask the pilots to apply the Park Brake straight away as failure to do this at once will result in the aircraft moving forward under idle thrust. If this dedicated function is not present we have to cheat the system into displaying a NWS Disconnect ECAM message before pushback.

12/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes N. If this occurs release some pressure on the tiller and thus reduce the turn demand. . The relationship between the tiller and the nose wheel angle is not linear. When taxiing in a straight line the rudder pedals can be used in order to relax the “steering hand” however all turns should be initiated with the tiller (max speed 10 kts). This graph shows the relationship between input on the tiller and the resulting nosewheel deflection. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. when taxiing in a straight line it is easy to make small corrections. With Carbon Brakes at each brake release there is (almost instantly) a small amount of oxidation of the surface which is removed at the next brake application. but as the deflection increases the effect is multiplied. Effectively. but the force o n the tiller is light and independent of the deflection. which then immediately oxidizes). You can see that a large tiller deflection near the Zero position results in a small nose wheel deflection.05 TAXIING (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The Nose Wheel Steering is “taxi by wire” and all turn demands are computer controlled. one continual application from 130 kts down to taxi speed will cause the same amount of wear as one short application to slow from 15 to 10 kts. This is where the wear occurs (from removing the oxidized material and exposing a clean surface. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. However when the nosewheel is at a large angle to the fuselage a small tiller deflection results in a large turn demand from the steering computers which will result in jerkiness. The brakes are carbon brakes. Consequently. Considerable wear and rise in temperature can occur during taxi due to successive brake applications.

this gives both the required engine performance and at the same time passenger comfort. When exiting a sharp turn. Crossing the Holding Point is the cue for the PF to call for the checklist below the line. anticipate the steer out. Monitor speed during turns to less than 10 kts. They should not let the G/S drop below 8 kts during the manoeuvre in order to avoid stopping. If this check is carried out during the taxi it must be done in an uncongested area as one pilot will be “head down” during the check. confirm NWS is available by checking NW STREERG DISC amber MEMO is not displayed on ECAM. A 180° turn on the runway requires a specific procedure provided in FCOM Volume 3.) If they are going to use APU bleed for take off only select APU bleed on just before take off as there is a possibility of fumes entering the cabin during taxi. When a packs off take-off is planned.05EPR) Differential braking is not to be used due to the possibility of undue stress of the undercarriage components. If braking problems are encountered during taxi release the foot brake and select the A/SKID . until the thrust is manually reduced. Thus consider using brake fans during taxi if the wheel temperature gets closeto that value. Differential thrust is allowed and can assist during the turn (to a maximum of 55%N1 or 1. Don't use brake fans during T/O. Then use pedal braking with care by modulating the pressure. INSTRUCTION Before taxiing. and Air Conditioning is desired during the take-off the APU BLEED may be used with the PACKS ON.NWS switch to OFF. When the parking brake is engaged. pressing the pedals has no effect. FCU (possibly RMP) and a short briefing conducted to confirm those modifications. Before crossing the Holding point the Before T/O checklist should be completed down to the line. If the ATC modifies the take-off or departure clearance. this must be reflected on the MCDU.13/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes During taxi the brake temperature should not generally rise above 150°C before T/O for proper RTO. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. NWS is then lost as well. If the T/O has to be performed with the PACKS OFF for performance reasons. the packs should be switched off just prior to completing the before take-off checklist. . Monitor that when cleared to taxi they switch on the Taxi light. (In case of an APU auto shutdown during T/O. so use differential braking to steer the aircraft. If during any stage of taxiing they have to stop and remain stopped (at the Holding Point for example) ensure they apply the parking Brake. The Flight Control check can be performed before taxiing commences. the engine thrust is frozen.

FLEX or TOGA thrust must be achieved before reaching 80 kts. Set the power in two stages by allowing the engines to stabilise at approximately 50% N1 / I. . but a pitch order to fly the T/O speed profile once airborne. but wait until they have a straight unobstructed taxiway in front of them. and when airborne continue rotation towards 15º to follow the SRS. The FD does not provide a rotation rate order.06 TAKE-OFF AND INITIAL CLIMB (00:25) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION EXTRA INFORMATION HEAVY WEIGHT CROSSWIND BACKGROUND While turning onto the runway. N. During this time the control laws will blend into flight mode. In the event of a tail strike an immediate return to land should be considered. This means you should not fail the brakes when they are facing the terminal.14/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If you wish to insert a Loss of Braking do it where you will not get involved in negative training. simply turn the HDG selector and select the desired HDG target. The achievement of this specific value (N1 or EPR) as shown on the Upper ECAM screen is what the PNF checks to ensure that the Power is “Set”. NAV mode will disarm and RWY TRK mode will engage on the FD after lift off and will guide the A/C on the runway centre line. Early rotation. The PNF is to check power is set correctly according to the called out FLEX ºC and to call “Power Set” before 80 kts. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. rotate the aircraft smoothly at 3º / second towards 10º nose up.05 EPR. At VR. The FADEC converts the Flex temperature entered on the Takeoff Performance page into an N1 or EPR value. Use the rudder pedals to steer the A/C once you aligned with the runway centre li ne. Ensure FMA annunciation’s are called (including the Flex ºC) and a check of the FM position update is performed. The engine page will be automatically displayed on the SD. over-rotation and excessive pitch rate (or any combination) may all cause a tail strike (refer to FCOM bulletin). it is important not to waste any runway length lining -up so a rolling take-off is recommended. The Nose wheel steering effect of rudder displacement reduces with increased speed and at 130 kts rudder control is purely aerodynamic. before setting FLEX or TOGA power. If ATC requests you to maintain runway centre li ne.

Runway wasted during line -up and initial power setting. PACK I should be selected on at thrust reduction and PACK 2 when the slats have been retracted INSTRUCTION A rolling takeoff is recommended where possible. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Ensure a positive speed trend before flap retraction). or missed. If you clear them to takeoff from the holding position apply sufficient thrust to move forward and turn into the takeoff direction (about 8 kts ground speed) and without any action on the brakes set the thrust for takeoff. and when confirmed from these three sources should announce “Positive Climb” at which call the PF commands “Gear Up” The default values for THR RED and ACCEL ALT are both 1500 ft AGL in the FMS but in cases of noise abatement are modifiable by the pilot as required. so if the take-off is commenced from a standstill monitor that they place their heels on the floor with toes on the rudder pedals. Once established i n departure complete the after take-off items and then the after take-off checklist. Aircraft held on the brakes duri ng power application. FMA callouts incomplete. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and with a positive speed trend. Reduce aircraft pitch attitude. Retract Flaps when the IAS>F with a positive speed trend. Reaching the ACCEL ALT. the PFD yaw bar reproduces the LOC and provides assistance in case of fog patches. The FMA annunciation RWY is confirmation of LOC reception for this function. Not starting the CHRONO. late. If there is a n active Localiser for the departure runway. . reduce thrust to the climb detent. At thrust reduction altitude. (by default 250 kts below FL100) so there is a significant pitch down order on the FD bar. Use of nosewheel steering tiller during take-off roll.15/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In case of low visibility take off visual cues are the primary means to track the runway centre line. Beware of the following common errors. (The F and S speeds are the minimum speeds for flap retraction and not speeds at which retraction is essential. the message LVR CLB flashes in the FMA Thrust Column until the thrust levers are placed in the CLB detent. The PNF should monitor the altimeter. If a packs off take-off was carried out. Retract Slats when the IAS>S with a positive speed trend. VSI and RA for confirmation of positive climb. the target speed is set automatically to initial climb speed.

“Power set” call missed or made before parameters stabilised and checked. that with one engine inoperative. take off close to V2 mini may have to be achieved. Forward side stick above 100 kts. . The recommended flap configuration to provide best tail clearance at take off is CONF 2. the SRS commands a pitch leading to an IAS = V2 +10 and. it commands a pitch giving the greater of the current speed or V2. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.5º in windshear) and flight path angle protection ensuring a minimum vertical speed of +120 ft/min. This in itself should not create a problem except where the “Gear Up” call is made too soon after the “Rotate” call (in other words before the “Positive Climb” call). VSI and RA. “Positive climb” call made without confirming on altimeter. rotate at VR (not before) and input a constant and smooth rotation without any aggressive or abrupt aft action on the side stick (particularly when a positive attitude has been achieved already). A further consideration is that when CONF 1 + F is chosen. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and consequent overcontrolling at rotation EXTRA INFORMATION 1. In order to avoid a tail strike. or 22.16/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FMA callouts not acknowledged. Half fo rward stick not applied. The guidance law also includes attitude protection during take-off (18º. If an engine were to fail after the “Rotate” call there will be a measurable delay before the aircraft is safely airborne and the undercarriage can be retracted (with the additional drag occasioned by the opening of the Gear Doors). This is why the IAS actually flown is neither V2 + 10 (All Engines Operating) nor V2 (One Engine Inoperative). HEAVY WEIGHT TAKE-OFF A significant problem with a Heavy Weight Take-Off compared to a Take-Off performed at a normal “Training Weight” is that after initiation of rotation the main undercarriage wheels remain in contact with the ground for a measurable amount of time. but during rotation it is not intended to provide pitch rate command. The take-off SRS mode provides a pitch command to fly a given speed schedule during the take-off segments. More information about the SRS function: A simplified description is that with all engines operative. 2. It is therefore to be used whenever performance allows.

or a tailwind component. In a Normal Take off the thrust is set to 50% N1 (1. as the thrust indication passes the 50% N1 (1. Commence setting the thrust in the same manner as a normal take off but with full forward side stick. N. We therefore adopt the following strategy. .05EPR) value move the thrust levers to approximately 70% N1 (1.05 EPR) mark place the thrust levers in the FLX or TOGA detent before 40 kts. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Keep the stick full forward until 80 kts and then progressively release your input to neutral by 100 kts. In a normal situation this is acceptable but in a tailwind. However with an Airbus FBW aircraft the placing of the side stick “into wind” will result in raising the spoilers on the into wind wing and so effect performance and controllability. As the thrust increases towards the 50% N1 (1. The managed speed profile takes into account GW. CI. On rotation the side stick is centralised so as not to give a roll demand.05 EPR) and the aircraft commences rolling and accelerating due to the applied thrust. or crosswind.07 CLIMB (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The transition to CLIMB phase occurs at the ACCEL ALT when SRS mode disengages and the speed target goes to the initial climb speed. This means that the aircraft will be moving along the runway with the thrust equivalent to about half thrust while we check that both engines are giving the same amount of thrust. (This procedure prevents the thrust from plateauing at 50% N1 or 1. CRZFL.15 EPR) and.17/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CROSSWIND TAKE OFF A specific technique is used to set the take off thrust when there is a crosswind greater than 20 kts. In the previous FMS phase (Take off) the Climb speed may be pre-selected on the FMS Performance This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Selected speed can be used in climb as required. As the aircraft speed increases this into wind aileron is reduced so that at rotation the ailerons are neutral. In a conventional aircraft the ailerons are applied “into wind” to counteract the extra lift developed by the into wind wing. we don’t want to consume runway without the correct thrust set. Simulator motion limitations may make the crosswind takeoff seem as if the aircraft is not tracking the runway centreline but once rotation is commenced this limitation is transparent.05 EPR) but relatively fast above this value we check to see if both engines have reached this value corresponding to the TLA before advancing both thrust levers to the take off setting. As engine response is slow below 50% N1 (1.05 EPR during the aircraft acceleration phase). Altitude and Speed constraints so Managed Speed is the best speed for economy climb. For this reason only a very limited amount of into wind side stick is used.

or use a higher V/S (but beware of the reducing IAS). then the predictions on the FPLN page assume that 200 kts is maintained from the ACCEL ALT up to 10. this is not allowed. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. it is a good practice to look at the ECAM MEMO so as to ensure that some items have not been omitted: e.select a lower speed on the FCU for best speed / altitude trade off.18/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes page. whenever ATC clears you to climb to a FL. In other areas such as in the US. If 200 kts is pre-selected for initial climb (retaining the normal SPD LIM of 250kt until passing FL100 in the flight plan). you can select STD. and green dot as best climb gradient speed. During climb. or select that speed a tight turn after T/O. the predictions on the FPLN page assume the selected speed is kept until the next planned speed modification in the FPLN. If ATC requires you to expedite your climb through a given FL: .During CLB adjust the RADAR TILT for the conditions. In most areas of the world.000 ft. You can also clear any manually inserted navaids on the NAVAID page. . If you are already in the Climb phase a speed is selected on the FCU. The given FL is either defaulted to the FCU target altitude. or it can be manually inserted.g. tilt the antenna down so as to get ground returns on the top of the ND. If used at T/O. or OP CLB if ATC gives radar vectors or clears you direct to a given FL. disregarding any ALT CSTR. Typically. LDG LT OFF / SEAT BELTS OFF (according to flight conditions). 275 kts is predicted to be maintained until the next phase (TOC in this example). so pre-select the speed you want. with all engines operative. 275 kt) and there is no SPD CSTR or SPD LIM till top of climb (TOC). Other drills: .When crossing 10.g. all constraints are considered in these predictions. The PERF CLB page provides predictions to a given FL in terms of time and distance assuming Managed Climb mode. even when below the Transition Level. so pre-select the speed you want. Prolonged turbulence. . Reasons for this may be as follows: ATC requests a specific speed. If ATC gives you a small level change (e. so select the turbulence speed according to the QRH When selected speed is used. . from 7000 to 8000) use the V/S mode for smoother guidance and less thrust variation. so as to allow full autotuning. so pre-select. select ARPT on EFIS Control panel and COPY the ACTIVE FPLN into the Secondary. If at a higher altitude the pilot selects a turbulence speed (e. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.g.000 ft (the SPD LIM) where managed speed is supposed to be resumed. Apply local regulations. turbulence speed may be considered as best rate of climb speed. the tilt was around + 4°. a high angle of climb is required after T/O for noise or obstacles. Climb mode management The recommended AP/FD modes in climb are CLB if ATC clears the aircraft along the FPLN.

conduct a check of the ECAM system pages. deviation from ISA. WIND …). N. and periodically throughout the cruise. CI. Cruise Altitude Profile For efficient performance try to fly close to the OPT FL during the cruise. CI. (or BELOW if within 2000 ft of FL 390). It is much more realistic to give a variety of vectors. Selecting a cruise altitude not more than 2000 ft above optimum will maintain fuel efficiency and a sensible manoeuvre margin. . If FMGS navigation performance is unsatisfactory. The FMGS PROG page gives a n optimum altitude and a recommended maximum altitude. It is limited to FL 390 and is not a function of the CI. See also G. Selection of cruise altitude and speed will depend on several factors including the overall sector length. Do not ever freeze the simulator position if the crew can realise the fact. Navigation accuracy should be checked regularly and monitored using raw data as required. This is the current OPT FL. Optimum altitude (OPT) is the altitude at which the aircraft covers the maximum distance per kilogram of fuel according to the aircraft current GW. cost index and aircraft weight.05. use selected guidance and navigate using raw data. Recommended maximum altitude is limited to FL 390. winds at different levels and a minimum of 5 minutes in the cruise. The OPT FL is provided on PROG page function of (GW.19/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION The session syllabus gives a runway direction for the session and it is up to you to manage the session so that there is no wasted time flying to a Convenient position to start the next exercise.15 In Flight Performance has a graph enabling selection of the best cruise altitude on short sectors). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. For short sectors the most economic cruise altitude is not necessarily the achievable maximum. A single Step Climb (SC) can be inserted in order to optimise This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. (FCOM 3. A few zig zag radar vectors will maintain the reality.3 g buffet margin and a minimum rate of climb (300 ft/min).08 CRUISE (00 :20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND At the top of climb set TCAS to ALL. Try to avoid a 180º radar vector after takeoff but instead use a combination of SID’s to give practice in various manoeuvring and constraints to contend with. The REC MAX ALT indicates the present climb capability of the aircraft.06 “Global Positioning System”. Recommended Maximum (REC MAX) altitude ensures a 0.

If it is not displayed. check ALT CRZ on the FMA.000 ft) or SPD CSTR. All predictions are updated accordingly down to the next S/C or T/D. descent).If flight time is the essential economical factor. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. . or if known while in Climb phase can be pre-selected in the cruise phase. CI = 0 represents Maximum Range. this is a tactical clearance. It can be assigned to each CORTE in the FMS data base. This minimizes the fuel consumption and is more comfortable for the passengers. when inserting the Co Rte on INIT A page. …. cruise. . insert the current level as CRZ FL on PROG page. Once the CI is inserted along with the FPLN. If ATC requires a FIXED MACH. the cruise altitude in the PROG page and the FCU altitude must be the same. It is important to have the FMA altitude annunciation ALT CRZ at the initiation of cruise for fuel efficiency. thus minimising thrust variations. Forecast winds and temperatures should also be entered in the F-PLN at appropriate points along the route so that accurate predictions will be calculated. the AP altitude control is SOFT which allows the aircraft to deviate +/. the ALT CRZ is usually updated except if within 200 NM from destination. In order for the FMGS to enter the cruise phase (ALT CRZ) and for the F-PLN page predictions of fuel on arrival (destination and alternate) to be correct. FL but also as a function of headwind component and ISA variations. Flying MANAGED SPD/MACH in cruise ensures the best economical flight. This FIXED MACH is to be SELECTED on the FCU. The cost index determines the speed/Mach profile for all flight phases (climb. CI = 999 represents minimum time. CRZ FL etc. They are therefore realistic. This ensures that the proper initial cruise Mach Number is targeted and with the A/THR in MACH mode. The Cost Index is computed by the Airline Flight Operations department. the CI comes up automatically.20/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes the profile for high gross weight conditions. In such a case. The MANAGED SPD PROFILE includes the ECON SPD/MACH as well as the ATC restrictions such as SPD LIM (250 kt/10.If fuel consumption is the essential economical factor on a given sector. To do this determine the waypoints where a wind or temperature entry is necessary.50 ft from the target. If you have to descend to a lower CRZ FL. CI is a high figure. The cost index takes into consideration the price of the fuel and the flight time. and is called ECON SPD/MACH. the CI is then a low figure. A Step Climb will not be accepted if it does not ensure at least one minute of flight time at the new altitude. the FMS computes the ECON SPD/MACH PROFILE for CLB/CRZ/DES.. . according to the following rule: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Many Airlines fly with a fixed CI as the variation in the price of fuel is difficult to keep current. It is recommended to fly MANAGED SPD/MACH during cruise. The Cost Index is a number through which the economic strategy of the flight is determined. The crew must be aware that the target Mach will vary not only as a function of GW. So when reaching a lower FL. GW.

and the temperature at the initial CRZ FL. Select CSTR (for MORA) on the PF EFIS Control panel and ARPT on the PNF side. and also on the stand-by altimeter). EFOB at Waypoint & Destination. XTRA fuel. unless an amber navigation message comes up. N. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In RVSM airspace. at the next waypoint where wind differs by 30° or 30 kts and temperature by 5°.Review the main ECAM pages: MEMO and ENG / BLEED / ELEC / HYD / FLT CTL / FUEL. Adapt ND range to circumstances and modify the RADAR TILT as a function of the ND range. Ensure the concept of ALT and ALT CRZ is well understood. Additionally any step climbs should be included in the F-PLN. INSTRUCTION There are not many occasions for flight in cruise during training. Periodically check the FUEL ESTIMATES. use the LATERAL OFFSET function to determine how many NM left or right of track are required for avoidance. check correct fuel distribution. Repeat these drills approximately every 45 minutes If there is weather. Once cleared by ATC. . Having done this review the FUEL predictions. and automatic sequencing of the FPLN will occur. the validity of the altitude reading has to be checked periodically (between ADR1. balance.Cross check the FMS NAV ACCY using available raw data. insert wind DIR/SPD. and temperature. and FOB + Fuel Used = Initial Fuel (in order to detect a leak).21/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes at the first waypoint in cruise. ADR2 and ADR3 on the PFDs. Periodic Drills to be achieved in cruise . Selection of a higher altitude on the FCU than that entered in PROG will automatically update the PROG page with a new cruise altitude. If GPS is primary. When checking fuel. this check is not really necessary.09 DESCENT AND APPROACH (00:15) BACKGROUND DESCENTS INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. insert the o ffset into the FPLN. All predictions will then be meaningful. . and note any significant parameter deviations.

It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. F. To avoid “two heads down” during the briefing the pilot who is not flying the aircraft carries out a briefing using his approach charts and FMS. It is important that planned procedures are briefed rather than making a generic brief. an ENTER DEST DATA message comes on the MCDU to remind the crew to prepare for the arrival. FCOM 3. Landing (or possible Go-Around). If no data is inserted for the approach 200 NM from the Destination. If required a navigational accuracy check should be carried out prior to commencing the descent or 50 NM from destination at the latest.03. The FMS computed TOD has taken into account all constraints. Ensure they include the date and page numbers of the charts you are using. From the METAR and TAF they should know what sort of weather conditions to expect and this will be confirmed from the ATIS. So we will either initiate descent when it suits us (at the FMS computed TOD position) or ATC will require an early or late descent initiation. MANAGED DESCENT This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. go around procedures and any special requirements that apply. In order to the programming he hands over control during the FMGS preparation. Having prepared for the Descent and Approach and carried out the Approach Briefing we are now ready to commence our descent. During the cruise the crew should make themselves aware of any NOTAMs that will affect their arrival. One pilot (normally the pilot who will carry out the landing) now programs the FMGS for the arrival procedure (the PF can however ask the PNF to do this for him).As for the T/O briefing. whereas specific data is checked on MCDU or other peripherals.16 details the items to be Briefed. .22/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND Before reaching the Top Of Descent (TOD) position as computed by the FMGS we have to prepare for the expected Arrival and carry out a Briefing so the PNF is aware of what to expect during the Approach. visibility requirements. DESCENTS A. rushed descent and approach preparation and briefing which can lead to important items being omitted. When he has completed his briefing he takes control of the aircraft and the other pilot now checks what is in the FMS with his approach charts. Roll Out and taxi to the parking stand.PLN data is cross-checked on ND PLAN and on the charts. Be watchful for late. Any errors are thus exposed.

the A/C speed is allowed to vary within a given range around the Nominal Target Descent Speed ?y 20 kts (limited to b VMAX) to give some flexibility to DES mode and keep the A/C on path when external conditions vary. to keep the A/C on path at that lower speed. THR IDLE / DES. the current speed decreases towards the lower limit of the speed target range to keep the A/C on path with IDLE thrust. the ATHR remains at THR This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. according to the pilot’s entries for descent speed and wind as well as any altitude constraints. . The corresponding FMA readings are THR DES / DES. Therefore DES mode is available if NAV is engaged. Case a): If the trend is to get below the desired path. the current speed increases towards the higher limit of the speed target range to keep the A/C on path with IDLE thrust. The AP/FD guides the aircraft on the pre-computed profile. If the speed reaches the higher limit. However the actual external conditions might not be as predicted and if Anti Ice is used the idle thrust is increased. then SPEED mode engages on the A/THR. Consequently when DES mode is engaged with Managed Speed. The managed DES mode guides the A/C along the FMS pre-computed descent profile and so will meet all constraints on descent to the FCU selected altitude in the Flight Plan. SPEED / DES. Case b): If the trend is to get above the desired path. If the speed reaches the lower limit.23/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Managed descent (DES) makes the best use of A/C speed within the target range and of thrust (Idle or Speed mode on A/THR) to meet the descent profile and is the normal method of initiating a descent. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

the descent profile is unchanged. DES mode will guide the A/C on a shallow descent converging towards the descent profile (1000 ft/min or less depending on the circumstances) with the ATHR in SPEED mode. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. So if speed brakes are not extended. Thus the VDEV will slowly increase. If the Descent is delayed a decrease in speed (subject to ATC) towards green dot will let us loose altitude more quickly once descent commences (as we resume normal speed). If DES mode is engaged and then the speed is selected. monitor VDEV and the symbol to recover the descent path. . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. if ATC requires an early descent. The intercept point is then at a fixed position along the flight plan on the ND and it indicates the location where the descent path will be intercepted. the INTCPT point will slowly move away from you until it gets close to an altitude constrained waypoint and then the EXTEND SPD BRAKE message appears on the PFD. It assumes the extension of ½ SPD BRAKE. Once you are cleared to descend you will have a prediction of where you will intercept the profile from the computed TOD point by the blue symbol. If descent is delayed and we pass the computed TOD point a DECELERATE message appears in white on the PFD (this message can be cleared by using the FMGS CLR key). Therefore when HIGH ABOVE PATH. Consequently DES mode will do its best to keep the A/C on the descent profile but the speed will not deviate from its target. However.24/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes IDLE but the AP will not allow the speed to increase more than the higher limit to track the descent path. This technique allows an altitude constraint to be matched with minimum use of speed brakes.

DES mode reverts to V/S. (or increase it subject to ATC). you need to reduce your energy level so maintain your speed. the simplest way of regaining the profile is to select and reduce the V/S. It is then time for the pilot to increase / decrease the V/S target or select OPDES depending on circumstances. In other words. an increased rate of descent is required. If HDG is pulled. adjust the rate of descent by selecting and varying the speed or V/S. for any reason. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Once the profile has been regained. a white MORE DRAG message is displayed. At lower altitudes the energy circle is useful. the level off point can be found and the PROG page gives the deviation from the planned profile C. Selecting only speedbrake in DES mode will not achieve an increase in rate of descent. If you are above the desired profile in OPEN DES. selecting a Heading does not induce any change in A/C pitch behaviour. or resume OPEN DES. OPEN DESCENT Selecting OPEN DES (by pulling the ALT knob) will command idle thrust and no constraints will be considered on descent to the FCU selected altitude. If.25/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If (when above the profile) it is computed that the required profile will not be regained. OPEN DES must be selected and speedbrake used as appropriate. Don’t try to reduce speed during descent as with This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The speedbrake has no effect on the thrust. Monitor progress of the descent on the PROG page and on the ND. RECOVERING IDEAL PROFILE If you are below the desired profile in OPEN DES. which remains at idle but has an effect on pitch attitude and V/S. By monitoring the ND. and consider speed brake usage. as power will be applied to maintain the aircraft on profile and at target speed. B. as the aircraft applies power to keep on profile. . If a speed increase is required (maybe due to ATC) then using a selected speed in excess of optimum will command the autothrust to speed mode.

When in ALT*. Various Drills during the descent Before TOD. thus giving a shallower descent profile. Alternately. The procedure for terrain checking is especially important with thrust at idle. the A/C will automatically decelerate to the holding speed at a point indicated by the speed change symbol when in NAV mode. The effects of engine and wing anti-ice on descent profile can be marked. Exact figures are given in QRH chapter 4. while in the holding pattern. Select Radar on the PF side and TERRAIN ON ND on the PNF side. and the altitude the A/C should fly at the exit fix of the holding pattern so as to be there on the descent path. DES mode guides the A/C down at -1000 ft/min.26/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes idle thrust this will only move your level off point away from you. The holding pattern is not included in the descent path computation since the FMS does not know how many patterns will be flown.30 E. and set TCAS to BELOW. adjust the TILT up along with descent progress. Once the A/C enters the holding pattern. and anti-ice is used. speedbrake can be used. Clean configuration is recommended for fuel considerations. If speed increases to the upper bracket. F.PLN. At 10. half speedbrake will counteract the effects of the added thrust due to the anti-ice. press CSTR button on EFIS CTL panel. LDG Lights / Seat belts / ILS button as required. OVERVIEW In all modes the ideal profile is tracked by the VDEV indicator on the PFD. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The Last Exit Time and Fuel details are accessed by making a Lateral Revision at the Hold and then selecting the HOLD prompt. as the idle NI / EPR is increased. all other predictions assume one pattern. it is usual to see an increase in speed in DES mode. .04. If already in the descent.000 ft. Conditions requiring the use of anti-ice are listed in FCOM 3. At all times bear in mind terrain and MSA considerations. D. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. in OPEN DES mode. or ALT the aircraft will slow up more efficiently. the yoyo indicates the instantaneous VDEV between the A/C current altitude. select destination VOR/DME needle. If in OPEN DES mode a higher selected speed is advisable. The FMS computes the holding at green dot speed taking into consideration the ICAO holding speed limits function of altitude (subject to holding table): 230 kts up to FL140 240 kts between FL140 & FL200 265 kts above FL 200 If managed speed is used. HOLDING PATTERNS If ATC requires the A/C to hold. A rule of thumb calculation for descent is that track miles to run should equal three times your height in thousands of feet. insert the holding pattern in the F. If RADAR is to be used.

2. 1.10 ARRIVAL (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND All approaches can be divided into 3 segments. . However. INITIAL APPROACH a) FM NAV ACCY check using raw data (only if GPS is not primary). from IAF to the activation of approach phase indicated by the (DECEL) pseudo waypoint. ATC does not know what is being said in the cockpit at a given point of time. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.27/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION Avoid giving radar vectors that cause the crew to rush their preparation or briefings. the Final Approach from FAF to landing or minimum. In each of these parts there are various actions required which have to be carried out irrespective of the approach from which the landing follows. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. when you are training you can ens ure that ATC only talks to them at suitable times. the Intermediate Approach from (DECEL) to FAF and 3. N. the Initial Approach. as in real life. On the other hand you must be aware of how long they need to prepare so that they are in a good geographical position for the next exercise when they have finished their preparation. Once the training part of the given sequence is complete you can then give ATC instructions at any time.

This is the normal procedure for all approaches other than an ILS. INTERMEDIATE APPROACH The Intermediate Approach is required to guide the aircraft onto the correct final trajectory having decelerated to the correct speed. AP/FD Lateral/Vertical managed modes may be used and EGPWS set ON. and as a consequence which display mode will be used on the ND’s and which guidance modes may be used with AP/FD. is computed assuming a decelerated approach technique. indicating where to start the deceleration towards approach speed VAPP.g. This is the normal procedure for an ILS Approach. As the position has to be placed on a flight plan leg a problem can arise when being radar vectored to a final intercept with no valid FROM point. E. in order to get a valid (DECEL) waypoint.. the stabilised approach where the A/C reaches FAF in Landing CONF and at VAPP. . There are two approach techniques and their use is dictated by the type of approach to be carried out. c) Activate the APPR Phase Activate the Approach to commence speed reduction to Green Dot. a) Deceleration The FMS computes a pseudo waypoint (called DECEL) (indicated by the symbol on the FPLN shown on the ND). b) Select the BEST FLYING REFERENCE for the approach. if you wish to fly an NPA (or a stabilized approach). Then. altitude and configuration to the FAF. the decelerated approach where the A/C reaches the FAF in CONF1 and S speed. An example of this could be when on radar headings the flight plan is sequenced to the FAF by deleting the intervening positions so that our flight plan looks like thisPPOS F-PLN DIS CONTINUITY This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. When HDG mode is selected (e. the pilot will continue the deceleration and configuration changes so as to be stabilized at VAPP in Landing Configuration by 1000 ft (IMC. Attitude associated to FD crossbars is used to fly ILS approaches. the Approach phase activates automatically when sequencing the position.28/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The result of the NAV ACCY check determines the strategy on how to conduct the approach.g. The FPV is strongly recommended for Non Precision or Visual Approaches. When NAV mode is engaged. for radar vectoring). below 2000 ft AGL. 500 ft VMC). if check is positive or GPS is Primary the PF and PNF ND on ARC or ROSE NAV. you have to manually activate the Approach phase to cause the deceleration. insert VAPP as a SPEED CSTR at the FAF. Speed control now passes to the Flap Lever handle. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Hence.

Once cleared for the Approach by ATC. c) Final axis intercept Refer to applicable raw data (LOC. c) Managed speed is recommended to benefit from the GS MINI SPEED function. when needed. 500 ft VMC) If there is a significant change in tower wind before reaching 1000 ft AGL ask the PNF to modify it on PERF APPR. If ATC requests you to maintain a given speed you can select any speed down to VLS. push the levers forward above the CLB detent (but below MCT) until the speed trend arrow indicates acceleration. b) Monitor the Final Approach using raw data by monitoring the LOC . and auto retracts when A319 and A320 Flaps are full. b) Configure Once the Approach has been activated speed control passes to the flap lever handle. If the capture or engagement is abnormal. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. FINAL APPROACH a) Monitor the Final Approach mode engagement of G/S * or FINAL. Don’t use SPD BRK on final. A321 flaps are 3 or full Keep your hands on the thrust levers when the A/THR is engaged on final. VDEV . take over by selecting the correct FPA. preferably below 220 kts. use NAV mode if FM ACCY CHECK is OK. Therefore if we want to achieve VAPP at the FAF we need to be conscious of the distance required to slow up to that speed and configure accordingly. ARM the APPR (for ILS or a Managed NPA).29/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CI14R FI14R LFBO14R As the DECEL point can only appear superimposed on the flight plan it will in this case be coincident with the commencement of the flight plan. If desired you can select flap to give yourself a larger margin above VLS (which will reduce as you configure). needles or XTK).G/S deviation symbols for ILS. If the A/C has a tendency to be fast and/or high on final. or select Final descent path FPA reaching FAF.XTK and FPLN for managed APPR (GPS primary). which have little efficiency at low speed. This means that we will decelerate to Green Dot speed but after this speed reduction has taken place we will maintain Green Dot until we take the first stage of flap which reduces our speed to S speed. VDEV . . which in this case is CI14R and as such may not be correct. When the speed has recovered bring the thrust levers back into the CLB detent. EXTEND LANDING GEAR earlier. so as to be ready to react. If ATC clears the interception of the Final approach trajectory along the FPLN route. If for any reason the speed drops below VAPP significantly.XTK + needles / DME / ALT for NPA (non GPS primary) and Needles / DME / ALT / Time for NPA when FM NAV ACCY check is negative. The Aircraft must be stabilised in Landing CONF at VAPP by 1000 ft (IMC. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

The final approach phase is one in which pilot incapacitation is both more likely and more critical. Two useful gates in descent are 250 kt at 9000 ft AAL. and continue to land if the A/C is properly established. In our training in the simulator the aircraft is frequently in a state where a stabilised approach is the wisest choice (in This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. INSTRUCTION Your radar vectors should give the trainees some little time to settle down before making their Approach and Landing. If not visual Go-round. From 250 kt in level flight deceleration to S speed with extension of CONF I will take approximately 5 NM. they should check the audio ident. To standardise this procedure for all applications we set the go round altitude when the A/C current altitude is below the Go -round altitude. The normal approach is a decelerated approach (when there are no constraints) with glideslope interception occurring at S speed and flight continuing to 2000 ft AAL (minimum) at this speed at which time the aircraft should be configured for landing. As always the FMGS position should be checked against raw data. At very light weights the use of managed speed may produce speeds slower than desirable in a radar or procedural pattern in which case the use of selected speed is recommended. If visual on reaching the MDA or DH disconnect the AP (and FD’s for NPA). The energy circle is a useful indication of distance required to touchdown. therefore the PNF should closely monitor the performance of the PF and be ready to take control if necessary. or a wrong display. Because of the nature of our training this is one area that needs to be monitored well. 30 NM from touch down and 250 kt at 3000 ft AAL. Check ILS IDENT so that if there is no ident. In case a major navigation problem occurs such as loss of raw data. N. or loss of FM NAV ACCY the approach should be discontinued and a go around made. Go around altitude must be set on the FCU. 15 NM from touchdown. SRS / GA TRK will engage.11 ILS APPROACH (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Prior to commencing an ILS all the required navigation aids should be identified. Enforce the correct sequencing of the Flight Plan.30/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Be aware that if you move thrust levers to the TOGA position. and displayed as necessary. .

There is normally no technical reason why an Autoland should not be performed with a CAT I ILS however this requires proper visual references (at least CAT I). There are two types of ILS failures to be considered: 1. or an incorrect procedure displayed. This increases their situational awareness by having the Flight Plan in view on the ND. Red LAND warning is triggered. As the requirements of Low Visibility Procedures are not in force for CAT 1 operations there is a possibility of unstable signals below the CAT 1 minima. Ground transmitter failure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and check that a blue go-around procedure is displayed on the ND. airspeed deviation of +10 kts or -5 kts. When you disconnect the autopilot avoid the temptation to make inputs on the sidestick. In such a case. If R/A < 200 ft. If the failure lasts more than several seconds. A stabilised approach is recommended where the Glide Slope angle is greater than 3. . and below the missed approach altitude set the missed approach altitude on the FCU. proper monitoring and immediate take over if anything seems abnormal. If there is no go-around procedure displayed.31/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Alternate Law for example) so ensure your trainees use a suitable technique according to circumstances. The PNF should monitor the aircraft flight path during the final approach and call out any V/S greater than 1000 fpm. LOC and GS deviation indexes are lost. 2. If the Glide Slope is being captured at or below 2000ft AAL select Conf 2 when one dot below the Glide Slope. go round. or LOC / GS deviation of more than 1 dot. CAT l will be displayed until a valid Radio Altimeter signal is obtained. In order to train for the “worst” situation the pilots should refer to the ILS deviation scales ONLY on the PFD. A check of the TO waypoint will indicate that the FPLN is correctly sequenced. the FPLN may be incorrectly sequenced or the go-around will have to be flown using selected modes.5°. Loss of ILS 1 + 2 receiver. The aircraft should be stabilised in the approach configuration by 1000 ft AAL (500 ft in VMC) or a go around should be performed.FD goes to HDG.ILS scales removed – AP trips off . After glide slope capture. or in case of Red LAND warning. The aircraft will be stabilised and tracking towards the runway. At training weights the aircraft may not decelerate fast enough so in this case extend the gear before Flap 2. in which case immediately go round (RED LOC and GS flags . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. ILS scales and FD bars flash. in which case the AP/FD will remain ON with LOC and GS modes and this is because such a failure is most commonly transient.

Flight Director. INITIAL APPROACH Select FPV as flying reference This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.32/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Avoid the tendency to “duck under” the glideslope or to turn towards the runway as in a crosswind as you will be blown off the final path. .12 RAW DATA ILS (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A requirement of the Skill Test is for the Trainee to perform a CAT l ILS using raw data. N. Ensure your trainees are aware (by the end of their training) that our aircraft are very efficient! This can be emphasised by making a decelerated approach with a tail wind. Speed trend. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. smooth corrections in pitch and bank to maintain FPV in the desired position. beware of false captures. To enhance situational awareness the ND should display the flight plan and the ILS deviation scales are viewed on the PFD. INSTRUCTION Ensure the trainees arm the correct mode! If you only clear them for LOC capture they should only arm the LOC. Reinforce the basic premise that speed is controlled by the thrust levers and profile is controlled by the side stick. In this case they will probably have to lower the gear before taking Flap 2. selected track index. if you clear them for an ILS then the Approach push button should be pressed arming the G/S and LOC for capture. Consequently aim for small. To gain benefit from our glass cockpit the Flight Path Vector (Bird) should be used for this approach. Conversely. A. or large angle from the axis. Engagement of LOC* and LOC should always be monitored carefully by the crew to confirm the inbound course is correct. If the clearance is given at a large distance. Describe the specific indications on the PFD (FPV. Raw data is defined as without the Auto Pilot. As the Flight Directors are selected off you will see (on the horizon line) the blue track index corresponding to the selected TRK. V/S scale and finally the LOC and GS deviation scales). or Auto Thrust. Anticipation of LOC interception is through the cross track information on the ND.

push thrust levers to TOGA and proceed as usual. The PF calls for GOROUNDFLAP and the PNF retracts one stage of flap and monitors the This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. As the A/THR is not used for this approach. as once you are established on the LOC the TRK index should remain directly above the FPV and in line with the Track made good index.33/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes B. When the LOC begins to move fly the FPV to the blue TRK index. Once re-established. when flying the FPV onto the TRK the LOC is not centred then make an adjustment to your flown track to come back onto the correct path. fly the FPV in the direction of the LOC index relative to the blue TRK index on the horizon Once on the LOC. Thus it may be affected by IRS data drift amongst others (TRK). initiate the interception of the GS by smoothly easing the FPV down to the GS flight path angle of –3º. Only CAT I approaches can be flown with such a technique. the speed trend arrow is an excellent aid in maintaining the correct approach speed. and pointer movement. . C. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. D. Activate the Approach in order to get the Managed Speed information on the Speed scale of the PFD and so reduce the PF workload in that his speed target is automatically correct for the flap setting. fly the FPV back to the blue TRK index on the horizon If the GS index starts to deviate. The blue TRK index should remain on the LOC course for reference. If LOC index starts to deviate. fly the FPV 1º up or down to recover. FINAL APPROACH When 1/2 dot below the GS. INTERMEDIATE APPROACH Select TRK to ILS course in order to display the blue track index on the PFD horizon line. Decelerate so as to reach FAF in CONF FULL at VAPP For LOC intercept use the ND information such as cross track error. The BIRD is computed out of IRS data. GO AROUND If a go around is required. If the LOC does not remain centred after you have established on it make small changes to your track to regain it. The Flight Director will come up automatically. If. A typical TRK error at the end of a flight is 1° to 2°. fly the FPV back to the GS flight path target.

. If the Intercept point as shown by the blue bent arrow symbol on the ND is too close to the runway consider going around.13 GLIDE SLOPE FROM ABOVE (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Irrespective of the reason the aircraft finishes above the glide slope. The sequence of events can be dictated by specific events but generally is as follows – 1. Failure to follow instrument flying techniques common to all aircraft. Too high a descent rate can result in the This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It is a requirement to be stable by 1000 ft AAL. or slow response from the pilot or the aircraft. the rate of descent should be carefully monitored to avoid exceeding speed limits and high sink rate GPWS warnings. VSI. This can be due to an ATC requirement. On the FCU set the aircraft altitude above you (to prevent undesired ALT* due to the balloon effect of extending flap) 2. Usually such a situation can be foreseen and the pilots should configure so as to be in a high drag situation when cleared to descend (to reduce the acceleration effect of the subsequent steeper than normal descent). When we are authorised to descend prompt action is required to capture the GS and to be established in stable flight before 1000ft AAL. INSTRUCTION Watch out for the following Common Errors Poor scanning leading to over controlling in pitch and roll in order to chase the LOC and GS Use of FPV as “primary” reference for pitch corrections. N. Arm the GS (if not already done). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Monitor the descent. or late vectors. 4. but established on the LOC. The maximum descent path is obtained in CONF FULL. Pull the V/S knob and select minus 1500 fpm 3. Nevertheless. It is important that there is good crew communication in the cockpit so that the PF intentions are clearly understood by the PNF. The LOC must be captured (LOC* or LOC) for GS capture to take place.34/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes climb by reference to the Radio Altimeter. and Altitude and when a climb is confirmed by all three instruments calls “Positive Climb” at which the PF commands “Gear Up”.

or you will get GS* and LOC* at the same time. or AP) to follow the ground indications. for example). N. If the ground based signals were removed there would be no information in the cockpit with which to continue the approach. If we suspect an error we can always revert to a “Selected” approach where we manoeuvre the aircraft (by hand. An enhancement of this first group of approaches is where the lateral and vertical parts of the approach are encoded so that the FMS can fly the same approach using the GPS to ensure the aircraft is in the correct position at all times. and DME). ADF and LOC approaches where ground based information is used as the primary source of information for lateral navigation and vertical navigation is controlled by the pilots inputs. The first is the conventional VORDME. so that the aircraft is at a given height at a given distance from the ground based aid. or Relative bearing – ADF. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.14 NON PRECISION APPROACH (00:25) BACKGROUND MANAGED APPROACH SELECTED APPROACH LOCALISER APPROACH INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Non Precision Approaches can be broadly separated into two groups. For both these reasons it is more desirable to have them established on the LOC but not cleared to descend until almost full scale fly down indication. It is possible to combine these two procedures so that our lateral navigation is Managed and our vertical navigation is Selected. This is the “Managed Approach” that we demonstrate to our trainees and our progress must be confirmed by reference to the “Raw Data” which is the ground based information (inbound Radial – VOR. INSTRUCTION When you give radar vectors for this exercise there is always the possibility that they will either be too high when established on the LOC to be stabilised by 1000ft. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This is the case where the pilot adjusts the Heading of the aircraft to counter the effect of wind so that the aircraft flies along a path that is fixed in relation to the ground based aid. Tell them to maintain their altitude and do not descend for whatever reason (helicopter.35/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes speed either reaching VMAX and a resulting mode reversion or an excess of speed in the later stages of the approach. Point out the symbol where they will regain the profile and ensure it is at least 3+nm from the threshold. . or Flight Path Angle. Vertical na vigation is performed by controlling the vertical speed. or light aircraft crossing the approach path below them.

in this hypothetical case we would initiate an immediate go round as we would have no raw data with which to check our progress.36/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes An important technical point for a Managed Approach is that if the ground signals are removed there is no change in the aircrafts flight path down to the MDA as the aircraft is being guided by the information coded into the arrival as contained in the FMS. or where an incorrect vertical coding has been identified in the navigation database. As the Deceleration point is based on a decelerated approach you need to insert a speed constraint of VAPP at the FAF. Flight crews are extensively trained to use this system during their type rating course so no specific training is required to use the FMGS for RNAV approaches. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. However if altitude corrections are necessary due to large differences from the ISA temperature. This is why the crew must ensure that the FMS data is correct and accurate. However. with correct sequencing. For all Non Precision Approaches a stabilised approach is recommended (but is not mandatory). Otherwise an approach in selected mode is requied. Configure to reach the FAF in CONF FULL and at VAPP. The Airbus aircraft RNAV system is the FMGS. An exception to this is a Localiser approach. where the ground generated LOC beam is captured Managed approaches (la teral and vertical or only lateral) are only available if they are in the FMGS database and the GPS is Primary or the NAV ACCY check is positive and the procedure has been validated by the Company concerned. . If for any reason GPS PRIMARY is LOST then a GPS defined approach cannot be performed and a VOR or NDB approach can only be continued by changing to a Selected Approach. The second group of approaches do not use any ground based data but are solely based on GPS information and are called “RNAV GPS Approaches”. We aim to fly the NPA as much as possible like a stabilised ILS with similar procedures. The ILS push button must be set to OFF in order to get VDEV information on the PFD (exception for LOC only approaches) This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. In this case the aircraft is guided by GPS to a point in space where a descent is commenced on a specific path to a minimum altitude from where a visual landing can be achieved or a missed approach carried out. should be used. A positive NAV ACCY check can be confirmed even if LOW accuracy is indicated on the PROG page. The AP/FD guidance modes for a Managed approach are referred to the FMS FPLN and this is confirmed during the approach by reference to the raw data. RNAV approaches are normally flown using lateral and vertical managed guidance (FINAL APP mode). then vertical selected guidance (NAV / FPA).

INTERMEDIATE APPROACH: Check deceleration occurs at the decel point. or HDG V/S) and task sharing procedures and the importance of crosschecking. NAV/FPA.) Cleared for a Managed approach ?ress the APPR P/B (the VDEV p indication will now be visible. During the briefing confirm the correct navigational aids and course settings are tuned (manually as applicable) for the approach. Cleared for a Selected approach ?elect an interception TRK on FCU. or activate approach phase 10 NM prior to FAF Select FPD Ensure raw data is correctly displayed Verify accuracy is HIGH on PROG page or NAV ACCY positive Complete approach checks when cleared for APP Crosscheck FPD approach track with approach plates Ensure raw data is correctly displayed FINAL APPROACH: Ensure landing configuration achieved prior to FAF Start CHRONO at FAF Crosscheck altitudes and distances with those published on approach plate Set go around altitude Monitor raw data and FMA. s Cleared for a Laterally Managed. and the managed VERTICAL mode ensures VDEV = 0.37/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The Briefing for the Approach must specify the type of approach to be performed and the intended guidance modes (FINAL APPR. TRK / FPA. particularly if HDG is selected. . ALL NPA’s PRIOR TO APPROACH: Insertion of correct approach in MCDU Set VAPP as a constraint at the FAF Check all constraints in FPLN match approach plates Check Navigation accuracy Select and identify radio aids required for approach Conduct the Approach briefing and cross check the minima Keep A/THR engaged to use managed speed Monitor the proper sequencing of the FPLN. (The NAV and APPR NAV modes are always guiding the A/C along the ACTIVE LEG of the FPLN. calling mode changes AT MDA: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Vertically Selected approach remain in NAV The monitoring o f the interception must be achieved using the applicable raw data depending upon the result of the NAV ACCY CHECK or whether GPS is PRIMARY. if not yet already there). VDEV being computed along the remaining FPLN to destination.

The coding of the vertical part of the approach must be verified by the airline. Set Go Around Altitude when you have passed below that altitude. select TRK / FPA and fly according to your raw data. (the pre-selection will remain for 40 seconds when it automatically returns to dashes. select a Flight Path Angle to recapture the Final Descent Path and so fly towards DEV 0. however if the check is NEGATIVE. immediately refer to raw data. Once VDEV = 0. disconnect autopilot and both Flight Directors and continue visually or perform a go around if there is insufficient visual references. FINAL APPR does not engage at start of descent. and you must not insert DIR TO an intermediate waypoint of the final approach segment in Managed Mode. provided the NAV ACCY CHECK is OK.PLN data (clear waypoints or modify altitude constraints). You are not allowed to modify the Final Approach F.PLN. or an Airline has not validated the procedure the crew may elect to fly the approach with NAV / FPA modes. monitor VDEV / XTK / FPLN on ND and confirm by needles on ND and DME versus altitude. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. MANAGED APPROACH Monitor the engagement of FINAL APP mode. Non precision approaches must be properly coded in the Navigation Data Base so as to be satisfactorily flown with the APPR NAV / FINAL managed modes. Pre-select FPA –3. If for any reason. use start of descent blue symbol on the ND. VDEV and FMA on the PFD. With GPS PRIMARY. SELECTED APPROACH The Selected non precision approach procedure is necessary when the NAV ACCURACY check is negative (or the approach is not in the database) and Raw data must be used for cross check throughout the approach. you may try to re-engage APPR. NOTE : At the earlier of MDA -50 ft or MAP the autopilot will disconnect if in FINAL APP mode.0º (ensure you remain in ALT) and approaching the FAF pull the FPA knob to activate the descent. If during the final approach the message NAV ACCY DNGRADED appears. If during the final approach. the message GPS PRIMARY LOST appears while flying a GPS approach immediately INTERRUPT the approach by going round.38/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If visual. . Track to the FAF having intercepted the inbound track and select TRK / FPA. Should there be any doubt on the vertical F. If you are concerned about This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If the check is OK. you may continue. Use A/THR and Managed speed. Airbus does not recommend levelling off at MDA.

. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.39/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes the possibility of your setting disappearing just before activation cycle the setting up or down by 0. VAPP not stabilized at FAF. The Minimum Descent Altitude is not a decision altitude (as is the case with an ILS). coming to the FAF prepare the FPA selection and at the FAF activate the descent by activating the FPA mode by pulling the knob. However. LOCALISER APPROACH As for all Non Precision Approaches. TRACK / FPA selected late. Go around altitude set incorrectly. Monitor Raw data for accuracy both Laterally and Vertically. TO waypoint validity not checked on ND Navigation aids not manually tuned and course not inserted. the recommended flying reference is the Flight Path Vector and the recommended FG modes for the final approach are LOC / FPA with A/THR and managed speed. When cleared to intercept the LOC press the LOC P/B on the FCU to arm LOC mode and monitor LOC*. initiate your FPA descent momentarily before the FAF so as to establish your descent on the profile given by the chart. If you have a horizontal distance scale you will reach the MDA in position to continue on the same profile to touchdown. Going below MDA. Monitor the final approach using the LOC deviation scale and cross check the descent with the DME data. If you are not visual at MDA you must go around immediately as there will be no possibility of achieving a safe landing if you subsequently get visual at the MDA altitude. With your TRK corresponding to the Final Approach Course. but closer to the threshold. On final approach. Confusion between managed and selected. Be aware that some companies add an amount (say 50ft) to a published MDA in order to treat it like a Decision Altitude. if there is no distance scale on the profile you may level off at MDA until the MAP which in this case will usually be station passage of the relevant Navigation Aid. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Incomplete or rushed briefing. INSTRUCTION Watch out for the following potential errors Raw data information not monitored closely throughout approach. using A/THR and Managed speed. NAV accuracy not confirmed or checked.1º and a new 40 seconds commences). Aircraft descent preparation late.

15 CIRCUIT & VISUAL APPROACH. Typical Visual Circuit – Lateral Profile The ND should be set to ROSE NAV 10 nm scale to assist the pilot to visualise his position in the circuit from mid-downwind. A/THR ON with managed speed and the Autopilot and Flight Directors off. or on descent to 1500ft AAL. The FCU track target is selected to the downwind leg course. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. As large aircraft have largely different centre of gravity positions our visual perceptions of our approach path can vary from one approach to the next. Change the reference to the Flight Path Vector to facilitate manual flight. This will place the aircraft at a certain distance abeam the runway. As the aircraft is configured on downwind and base the speed will reduce and as a consequence a square base leg should be flown to compensate for the reduced turn radius due to the lower speed.40/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes You are not allowed (from a legal point of view) to teach initiating the descent 0. activate the APPR PHASE. N. A technique such as this is part of the Initial Operating Experience training given by a TRE and only in accordance with specific National Regulations. . we can join the final approach path (Final) from any direction. (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A visual approach is performed whenever we are visual in the circuit area but not lined up on final. The visual approach is flown using the Flight Path Vector. and as the FD’s are off the blue track index gives us a target for our track. Depending on ATC instructions. The downwind leg is normally flown at. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.3nm before the FAF during a vertically selected approach. If a normal “Circuit” is performed the aircraft will turn onto downwind in a continuous 180º turn at approximately 200 – 220 kts. or established practice. This means that although we are performing a visual approach we are dependant on confirming our flight path from internal as well as external cues. Approaching the downwind leg.

If below the GS don’t continue descent! Normally when at 90º to the runway take FLAP 3. With the flight plan sequenced correctly our final leg will be active so we can see our off track error and so judge our distance abeam the runway.Ask for RWY TRK (start base turn) and CONF2. With correct sequencing of the flight plan we will have our distance off the centre line visible on the ND and at normal circuit speeds and no tail or head wind we need about 0. or when rolled out.5 nm abeam is a good figure to aim for). Whe n stabilised the bird should be at º3 ND. Abeam landing threshold (and at 1500 ft AAL) commence timing for 45” ± 1” / 1 kt head or tailwind. The PNF should be ready to cancel any warnings associated with the landing on a runway not in the Flight Plan. the A/C is stabilised in the landing configuration. If there is an ILS on the landing runway press the ILS pushbuttons and watch the Glide Slope indication.9 nm to complete a 90º turn onto final. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. As this is a visual procedure it should not be programmed but flown according to external cues. Resist the tendency to turn before asking for the track index to be turned onto the inbound track. If you can monitor the glide slope indication on base be guided by its information. The actual wind velocity on base is shown on the ND and this information allows the PF to adjust his flight path for a head or tailwind in his turn onto final. which you should capture as you roll out on final. (2. End of downwind . If the turn onto final is not completed accurately and the aircraft is displaced from the runway centre line on rolling out of the turn onto final a This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Don’t rely on the TCAS to override basic airmanship. Where there are close spaced parallel runways it is possible to conduct a “side-step manoeuvre” to land o n the other runway. The pilot on the runway side should ensure he keeps the runway in sight in conditions of poor visibility. Both pilots should maintain a lookout for other aircraft both entering and when in the circuit. During base commence a shallow descent (top of the birds fuselage on the horizon. On base leg you should be gradually descending towards the GS. During our turn onto final.41/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Entering the downwind leg with the Approach activated means that Flap 1 can be selected so that the downwind leg is commenced at S speed. select Full Flap so that by 500 ft. We must be stabilised in the landing configuration by 500 ft AAL and if not we must carry out a go around. . with the fin above the horizon ie 1º ND) and extend the Landing Gear.

As a general principle. and not to fly from the displaced position to the threshold. A345. If the Instrument approach is a NPA then a stabilised approach is flown. if not before as a function of the Instrument approach. The operation of GS Mini is completely transparent to the pilot. A342. . A332. A320. Once the Approach has been activated the target speed with landing flap is VAPP as shown by the magenta v symbol. Overbanking. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. If an ILS is used then a decelerated approach can be flown. and with all engines operating. or “ducking under” during the approach. High sink rate. The A321. It is important that this corrective action is just that and not a new trajectory to the touchdown zone. Beware of the following common errors. A343 are all classed as Category C aircraft and thus the minimum circling visibility is defined under the JAA as 2400 metres visibility. As we roll out on final we normally fly i nto a headwind. The A318. Late disconnection of the Auto Pilot or FD’s Approach not stabilised by 500 ft AGL or a late go round decision. on a side-step. and the ceiling and visibility do not permit a normal circuit to be flown once visual. INSTRUCTION Insist on a go round if not stabilised by 500ft. A333. A319.42/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes correction needs to be made. or flying through final. shallow approach angle. and the circling pattern This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. A346 are all classed as Category D aircraft and the minimum circling visibility is 3600 metres to reflect the higher approach speeds of these aircraft.16 CIRCLING APPROACH (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A “Circling Approach” is flown when the landing runway is different from the instrument approach runway. Hands not on the Thrust levers below 1000 ft AGL Continued descent on base leg when below the GS Not reacting to the presented information on PFD and ND when VMC N. the approach is flown in the Landing configuration minus one stage of flap. The FPV will be selected ON at the commencement of the circling. The aircraft configuration for the Instrument approach is a function of the aircraft performance and the actual conditions. In other words the correction is intended to put the aircraft back on the extended runway centreline on the correct approach profile. and if this headwind component is considerable we will see the GS Mini function adjust out target speed to a higher value.

and to have to disregard it. unless ATC advises otherwise. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. until properly on trajectory. If a sharp turn is expected. NOTE: The recommended configuration for the instrument approach with all engines operating is Conf 3. keep FLAP3 (or FLAP2) and selected speed to minimise the turn radius. Don’t put the cloud base too close to the MDA so that there is no conflict in the trainees mind that they are visual and should expect to remain so. INSTRUCTION In order to perform this exercise realistically you must first of all insert a headwind on the final approach to land that is sufficiently strong enough to preclude a downwind landing from the Instrument Approach. Remember to only turn in a “safe” direction during such a procedure. The Final Instrument approach (all engines operating) is flown in CONF3 with the Landing Gear down and speed managed. since it is no lo nger part of the FPLN. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. (In an A320 you will stabilise 80 – 90 feet below the point at which you pressed VS zero and remember that MDA stands for Minimum Descent Altitude and not Minimum Decision Altitude). .43/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes is flown visually (so the FD’s are off). In the vicinity of 15 kts from an arc 30º either side of the runway should suffice. Make sure that the arrival procedure on the landing runway is a runway only arrival and not an ILS. Approaching MDA (and visual) push VS zero to level off. A runway arrival will give a CF position at 5nm and 1500ft which is good for seeing the extended runway centreline. The reason for landing gear being selected down early is not to trigger the landing gear not down red warning. Landing Gear down and managed speed. The missed approach must be flown with raw data. If at any stage during the procedure you loose visual contact with the landing runway Go-round using the procedure applicable to the Instrument approach just conducted.

the A/THR will add thrust during the Flare to keep the A/C on target speed. This should apply irrespective of Auto Pilot and Auto Thrust selection. if you are late in retarding the thrust levers in a MANUAL landing. look out well ahead of the A/C. The RETARD call out (at 20 ft / 10 ft for an Autoland) is a reminder for the pilot to retard the thrust levers. As the projected picture they are looking at out of the cockpit windows is in 2D (and not 3D as in reality) a lesser visibility makes definition of the runway particularly hard. The Flare technique is thus very conventional. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Landing mode is only a pitch mode and roll control is the same as normal law until the wheels are on the ground. Consequently as the speed reduces. The system memorises the attitude at 50 ft. As the aircraft descends through 30 ft. At approximately 20 ft the thrust levers should be moved to the idle detent. if he hasn’t already done so.17 LANDING (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Conducting an autoland from an ILS approach is the only occasion where we don’t take control of the aircraft with the autopilot disconnected and land it manually. and that attitude becomes the initial reference for pitch attitude control. If we disconnect the AP at the MDA or DH on an ILS the aircraft is moving on a stable trajectory and all that is required is to flare and reduce the thrust to land. Remember that if Auto Thrust is engaged it will remain engaged until the thrust levers reach the idle detent. During the final visual segment of the approach it is very important not to over control with the sidestick. the pilot will have to pull back on the side stick to maintain a constant path. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the pitch law blends into flare mode. When reaching 50 ft RA. As a basic rule for all approaches. The aircraft will maintain pitch and roll attitudes resisting any atmospheric disturbance until 50 ft when the landing mode becomes active.44/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In order for the crew to see the runway on downwind a minimum visibility of around 5000 metres should suffice. N. Therefore the correct technique is to move the thrust levers smartly to the idle position when you no longer need the engine thrust during the flare. Remember we are teaching a procedure and not checking their ability to see a runway in poor visibility. the PF should have one hand on the THRUST LEVERS and the other one on the side stick. . not later than 1000 ft AGL. In order to assess the Flare and the A/C position versus the ground. the system reduces (over 8 seconds) the pitch attitude to minus 2º. Consequently.

Initially the rudder will be aerodynamically effective and below around 100 kts the Nose Wheel Steering function commanded by the pedals will take over. Common faults are too high speed drop below VAPP (pitch up to avoid high sink rate).5º (landing gear compressed). A comfortable nose wheel touc hdown will be achieved if the stick is maintained just aft of neutral during de-rotation. In such conditions. It will not assist in aircraft control but has adverse side effects on braking. Automatic ground spoiler deployment will occur with both main landing gear compressed or with one MLG on the ground and reverse thrust selected.5º or 11. In case of crosswind various precautions need to be considered.45/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The typical pitch increment in Flare is approximately 4° which leads to a . so pitch attitude should be monitored in the flare. At touch down the ground spoilers will deploy automatically which may give a slight pitch up as mentioned above. Smoothly control the de-rotation. Do not try and control the roll out with the NWS tiller. There is a tendency to pitch-up due to the effect of the spoilers extending behind the Centre of Gravity. These include avoiding deflecting the stick into wind. The aircraft has a tendency to nose down naturally as the aft stick applied for the flare is relaxed towards neutral. Remember that the autobrake can operate without the DECEL light illuminating.The pilot must be aware that there are aircraft geometry limitations in pitch and in bank not only to prevent incurring a tailstrike but to prevent scrapping the engine pod.1° flight path angle associated to a 10 kts speed decay in the manoeuvre. Tail strike occurs (A320) at 13. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. prolonged hold off to do grease the landing. Ground spoiler deployment will enable autobrake operation (if selected). During the Roll Out use the rudder pedals to keep the aircraft on the runway centreline. The DECEL light means that the desired rate of deceleration is being achieved. the flaps or the wing tip. and flare too high and consequently no control of the de-rotation once the main wheels are on the ground. . a full decrab might lead to a significant into wind aileron input causing a significant bank angle. De-rotation should be commenced as soon as the main wheels have touched. The green DECEL light on the AUTO / BRK panel enable the crew to monitor whether the selected rate of deceleration is achieved. NOTE: In a strong crosswind. a partial decrab is preferable. which may not be the case when the Braking Action is poor. Side stick input creates a down force on the wheels on the into wind side due to the aileron deflection This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The recommended technique for a crosswind landing is (during the flare) to apply rudder to align the A/C on the runway centre line and counteract the rolling tendency with side stick (with possibly very slight wing down into a strong wind).

At lower speeds. The Actual Landing distances demonstrated in flight test and provided in the FCOM and QRH does not include the use of reversers (which constitute a safety margin). In other words the DECEL light is not an indicator of the Autobrake operation. skidding or locked wheels). These differential effects favour the weather-cocking tendency of the aircraft. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the Thrust Reversers and the Wheel Brakes are the three means of retardation on the ground. Autobrake may be used in LO or MED for landing. In cases of lateral control problem in high crosswind landings reduce the reverse thrust to idle. The Ground Spoilers.5g).3g). the wear is directly linked to the number of pedal applications. In an emergency situation it is permissible to keep Maximum Reverse thrust down to aircraft stop. the runway condition and also the brake temperature and wear. the effectiveness of the brakes and anti skid system. and it creates a differential drag effect due to spoiler retraction on the out of wind side. With Carbon brakes.15g and MED: 0. (MAX is only used for take-off). The DECEL light indicates that the selected deceleration rate is being achieved. the contact area of the tires with the runway. Pressing the pedals and modulating the pressure without releasing the pedals is therefore a recommended technique for minimizing the brake wear. the wheel speed (free rolling. The Maximum reverse thrust is obtained between N1 values of 70% to 85%. The Ground Spoilers contribute to the aircraft deceleration by aerodynamic drag and they increase considerably the wheel braking efficiency by increasing the load on the wheels. but that the selected decele ration rate is being achieved. . With maximum manual braking and with anti skid operative the typical deceleration rate is 10 kts/sec (or . If necessary use differential braking. on wet and contaminated runways the directional control of the A/C may be more difficult. the load on wheels. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Their efficiency is independent to the runway condition. but below about 70 kts their efficiency drops rapidly. The wheel brakes are the main factors in aircraft deceleration on ground. The antiskid system maintains the skidding factor close to the point providing maximum friction force. the friction coefficient between the tires and the runway. Auto brake controls a given deceleration rate (LO: 0. The thrust reversers have a significant braking effect at higher speeds. The brake force from wheels are a function of the load on the wheels. You may use either Manual braking or Autobrake. Thus the braking efficiency depends upon the A/C speed.46/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes and spoiler activation.

Reduce reverse thrust to idle at 70 kts. The Rejected Landing is discussed at the end of this briefing. operation of reverse thrust (E/WD) and the operation of Autobrake (green DECEL light on AUTO/BRK panel) and notify the PF of any abnormal indications INSTRUCTION It is an important concept that the aircraft should be aligned with the centreline of the runway during the landing. The auto brake may also be disconnected by action on the respective AUTO / BRK pushbutton (not recommended as both pilots should be heads up during the landing roll) or by pushing down the speedbrake control lever. If they have problems landing check they are looking at the far end of the runway during the flare. unless not needed.18 GO-ROUND (00:15) BACKGROUND REJECTED LANDING INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND A Go-round implies a discontinuation of an Approach at the MDA but can occur at any stage of the approach. If the CM2 is flying and you are looking through the main window of CM1 you may think that CM2 is not aligned very well. Idle reverse may remain selected until the airplane is at taxi speed. If the CM1 is positioned exactly over the centreline. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Max reverse (or idle reverse depending on airport regulations or airline policy) should be selected immediately after main gear touchdown. This is a feature of the projected visual where both pilots see exactly the same picture. then CM2 will also be positioned exactly over the centreline. . This is not to be confused with a Rejected Landing where the aircraft wheels can touch the runway during the exercise. even when visual below the MDA. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. However the normal method of disarming the Autobrake is by even pressure on both brake pedals. pressure needs to be applied to one brake pedal only.47/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Use of Autobrake minimises the number of brake applications and so the brake wear. Consequently it is recommended to use it when available. During a Go-round the aircraft remains airborne during the whole exercise. To disconnect the Autobrake. N. Autobrake should be disconnected before 20 kts is reached. The PNF should monitor spoiler deployment (ECAM WHEEL page).

Irrespective of whatever FD mode you had. The previously flown approach will be automatically inserted into the FPLN after completion of the missed approach procedure. To initiate a Go-round push the thrust levers forward to the TOGA detent and command GOROUNDFLAP. The go-round can be flown with two autopilots engaged. An early go-round is safer than a last minute one. On hearing the command GOROUNDFLAP the PNF retracts the flap lever one step. SRS mode remains active until reaching the GA Acceleration Altitude (as inserted in the FMGS). The approach must be Activated to get out of Go-round mode and back to Approach mode if another approach is planned. on selecting TOGA and with at least Flap 1 selected the FD’s appear automatically in HDG/VS mode. Once positive climb is observed by the PNF (confirmed as on take-off) the POSITIVE CLIMB call is made and the PF orders GEAR UP The SRS mode guides the A/C to the Maximum of VLS. or will not be well positioned at the MDA don’t delay your decision to carry out a go-round.48/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes A Go-round is frequently unexpected. or engagement of any other pitch mode (ALT* for example). monitor the speed carefully because there is no low speed protection in ALT * mode. In the event of an engine failure in combination with a low altitude capture (ALT*). GA TRK mode guides the A/C on the memorized track at the time of TOGA selection. If during the approach you feel the A/C is not properly stabilised. The speed target will become green dot when GA ACCEL ALT is reached. VAPP or IAS (at time of Go-round). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. but always initiate the go-round by selecting TOGA first so that the system sequences the correct events. or a different procedure is to be used select HDG mode as suitable. In order to fly the MISSED APPR. one autopilot will drop out. As a consequence of entering the Go-round phase the Missed approach procedure for the Approach just flown becomes the ACTIVE FPLN (so a correctly sequenced flight plan is required). but when another lateral or vertical mode is selected. Not only does this action command TOGA thrust from all engines but with at least Flap 1 selected then SRS and GA TRK modes engage. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. ask the PNF to engage NAV mode and if the aircraft is on a trajectory that will cross the Missed Approach path it will be captured. In every case you must either select NAV (by pushing) or HDG (by pulling) to exit the GA TRK mode. If the situation permits you may reduce thrust to MCT or CLB when established in pitch. If this is not the case. .

18 DIVERTING (00:10) BACKGROUND TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE DIVERTING IN CRUISE DIVERTING AFTER A MISSED APPROACH INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. With Airbus Fly By Wire aircraft the aircraft will be in pitch Direct. If a situation arises which may lead to a potentially unstable approach. N. If adequate visual cues are not obtained at MDA or DH. It is possible that the main wheels touch the ground. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. flight path (vertical or lateral) or configuration. altitude. or obeying speed. bank angle. . Law and the loads on the side stick are increased and auto trim may not be available resulting in a different feel to the manoeuvre. If the approach is unstable in speed. Some procedures have speed limits and bank angle constraints built into them so give them guidance on how to cope with these. Wrong selection of lateral mode. Rotation too slow and / or delayed. INSTRUCTION Ensure the trainees are aware of the specific Go-round procedure before they have to carry it out. If any GPWS/TCAS or Windshear alert occurs. or Flare. 500 ft VMC).49/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Once the aircraft has started the final approach. in such a way that most probably it won' t be stable by 1000 ft AAL (IMC. REJECTED LANDING A Rejected landing differs from a Go Around in that the aircraft configuration is not changed during the procedure. Remember that once a Missed Approach has been initiated it is too late to refer to the charts to ascertain if there are any constraints to be met. If there is a malfunction which jeopardises the safe completion of the approach. a Go -round or missed approach must be considered: If there is a loss or a doubt concerning situation awareness. Beware of the following Common Errors. Flap retraction completed before acceleration altitude. Does not maintain the speed target ±10 kts Not knowing. An exa mple of this procedure is when below the Alert height for a CAT lll approach a landing is not possible. and altitude constraints.

In such a case. and with no aircraft problems it is probably reasonable to expect a long delay before the flight can be resumed. or after a Missed Approach the attention of the crew will be focused on this unusual event and they need to be reminded that only one head at a time must be down. DIVERTING IN CRUISE If during cruise an event occurs that requires a landing at an airport other than the destination then the crew will divert to this new airport. and the ceiling must be taken into account when the only approaches available are non-precision and/or circling approaches. However if the weather conditions at your Departure are such that the visibility is below landing minima a Take-off Alternate is required. This Take-off Alternate must be closer than – a) Two engine aircraft . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Having advised ATC and received approval (if required) a New Destination is inserted at a convenient waypoint and the flight plan is completed as required. The flight plan for the Take-off Alternate is inserted in the Secondary Flight Plan and if it is required the only action needed is to Activate the Secondary Flight Plan. in cruise due to a Medical Emergency. .two hours flight time at one engine out cruising speed based on the actual take-off weight Any airport selected as Take off Alternate must comply with the following a) During a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival at the aerodrome the visibility will be at or above the applicable landing minima. DIVERTING AFTER A MISSED APPROACH After performing a Go-round you must decide whether to make another approach or divert to your alternate. b) Any limitation related to one engine inoperative operations must be taken into account.one hour flight time at one engine-out cruising speed based on the actual take-off weight or an approved diversion time at one engine-out cruising speed for ETOPS. TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE In good weather conditions it is obvious that after a serious problem during or after take-off the aircraft will return to the Departure airfield and land. Don’t forget to keep your company advised by whatever means is possible (even by asking ATC to advise them). Once the aircraft is cleaned up you will This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Whether it is done from take-off to a Take-off Alternate. b) Three or four engine aircraft .50/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND Diverting is an event not often practiced. and then using the DIR TO function create a new routing for the flight.

or how. Now perform a DIR TO a suitable point. you have prepared for this phase of flight. The FMGS needs to know you intentions in order to provide meaningful predictions. In both the above cases the target speed will become 250 kts and predictions will be correct. . Perform a DIR TO a suitable point along your desired track and laterally Line select this point and insert a new Destination and then build up the flight plan as required. If in cruise you want to change the Alternate in the Flight Plan remember that the Alternate is paired with the Destination so line select the destination to access the Alternate. If you insert a CORTE you will get the information for ALTN that is part of the CORTE. INSTRUCTION In our Training Scenarios it is possible to practice all these events if you structure the FMGS preparation to suit. You must be in HDG.01 PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS GENERAL TAKE OFF CLIMB CONSIDERATIONS CRUISE CONSIDERATIONS DESCENT CONSIDERATIONS APPROACH CONSIDERATIONS This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and these three possibilities depend on whether. If. There are 3 possibilities to indicate to the FMGS your planned course of action. Scrolling through the flight plan you will see that the Alternate Flight Plan is in blue and as such it is not possible to navigate with this flight plan as it stands.51/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes be at green dot speed and in Go-round phase. instead of an Alternate Flight Plan you have a Secondary Flight Plan then simply Activate the Secondary Flight Plan by pressing the SEC FPLN key and line selecting the Activate key. In this case Activate Approach in order to change the FMGS from Go-round mode to Approach mode and then on the Progress page insert a Cruising Flight Level. By carrying out a Lateral Revision at the TO WPT we can now ENABLE ALTN. This causes the Climb mode to become active with normal Climb performance (250 kts). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. T. and this action makes the blue Alternate Flight Plan a green Active Flight plan. The third case is where you have not prepared for you diversion. This can be changed during the FMGS preparation as it can in real life. or TRK mode to do this (not NAV). and we can perform a DIR TO any convenient point in the new Active Plan.

The cost of a given sector depends not only on the fuel consumption but also on other factors such as Over flight charges. as it varies also with GW and cruise altitude. the MANAGED SPEED PROFILE will be computed by the FMS. Wind gradient. maintenance etc). . For each sector.78. the COST INDEX will be HIGH (999 is MIN TIME). if the fuel consumption is the essential economical factor on a given sector the COST INDEX will be LOW (0 is MAX RANGE). and if time is the essential economical factor on a given sector. With Cruise Wind variations and temperature changes the Cruise Mach number will vary. If you wish to fly at a given fixed cruise mach number. After 15 seconds select FLAP1. select it on the FCU so that all your predictions will be updated. duty time constraints leading to a night stop will modify the costs index of a given sector. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the airline determines a cost factor: The COST INDEX (CI) accounts for variable items. Once a COST INDEX is determined for a given sector. The greatest variables are FUEL and MAINTENANCE. this allows the FMS to generate a CLIMB / CRUISE / DESCENT SPEED profile which will minimize the cost by balancing the cost of fuel against the cost of time. For example. Price of fuel at origin and at the destination leading to possible fuel tankering. Before ACCEL ALT set TOGA thrust and PITCH 15° After the ACCEL ALT set CLB thrust and PITCH 10°. as well as the OPTIMUM FLIGHT LEVEL and OPTIMUM STEP. TAKE OFF Unreliable Speed Indication If during the take off phase you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH.52/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes GENERAL The A320 has been designed to cruise at a Mach Number of 0. Price of flight time (crew. However despite the fact that the crew costs are fixed. and after another 15 seconds FLAP 0. It is essential to understand that once the CI is defined for a given sector. flight plan constraints (such as constant Mach) and Aircraft GW itself. Performance Data T/O Segment Reminder – Twin Engined aircraft This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.

53/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The engine out acceleration altitude must be at least higher than the minimum altitude required for obstacle clearance. VMBE: maximum braking energy speed. but is limited to the altitude reached at the end of clean up with 10 minutes TOGA thrust. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. VEF: engine failure speed allowing the crew to recognize the failure and act when reaching V1. the better is the a/c climb out gradient in the take off segments. using primary controls only (no NWS). . the greater the tail clearance. VMU is a function of GW.13 Vs1g and 1. Definition of speeds associated to Take-off VMCG: mini control speed on the ground. Maximum rudder force 68 kg / Max lateral deviation on ground 30 ft. VMU: minimum unstick speed is the speed at which the aircraft can safely lift off the ground and continue take off. An RTO achieved in such circumstances may lead to very hot brakes. V1: Committal speed for Take off. at which the brakes can absorb all the energy required. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.28 Vs1g. VMCA: minimum control speed with one engine out using maximum rudder deflection and 5° bank angle towards engine inoperative. Aircraft configuration and altitude. The higher the flap setting. A rotation initiated before VR leads to a potential tail strike. VR: rotation speed. tires automatically deflated and potential fire. V2: minimum speed reached at 35 ft with one engine failed. VMBE becomes a limiting factor at high OAT on long runways. V1 call out must be made so that “ONE” is called when V1 is reached. It must be between 1. There is typically 1 sec between VEF and V1 (which leads to approx 4 kts). The higher is V2. Allows the aircraft to reach V2 at 35 ft with engine failed.

.OAT [° C] 8º 14º 20º 25º 29º EFFECTIVE THRUST 5 10 15 20 23 REDUCTION [%] This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.AIR COND ON: the basic T/O data is often provided on the RTOW charts supposing AIR COND OFF. In that case if PACKS are supplied by engine bleed a weight decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied for MTOW. or a ?TFLEX decrement must be applied. Those factors allow the basic T/O DATA to be determined. or FLX TEMP and associated speeds are determined on a DRY runway. Vmax tire = 195 kt FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKE OFF PERFORMANCE: There are obviously many factors influencing the take off performance such as aircraft GW. . the runway available and the obstacles. FLX TEMP . The higher the FLX. this allows the thrust to be reduced. since the ?TFLEX decrement compensates for the thrust drop caused by the AIR COND. wind. By determining an assumed value of outside air temperature which would allow the engines to provide the thrust required to take off the aircraft in the current conditions. All A320 engines are high by-pass Turbo Fan engines FLAT RATED until a given temperature called TREF. Thus once MTOW and associated T/O speeds. or a ?TFLEX decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied. . The decrements are often not provided on the RTOW charts but as defaulted values in a FCOM specific table.1 VMCA On Single Aisle family. which have still to be corrected by other influencing factors which must be taken into account: . The percentage of the effective Thrust reduction is a function of (FLX TEMP – OAT). This temperature value is called FLEX TEMP.QNH different from standard: in case of low pressure. Thus in case QNH is below STD a weight decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied for MTOW. or a ?TFLEX decrement must be applied to compensate this thrust drop. outside conditions (OAT. its lateral controllability in case of crosswind). pressure). the engine thrust is lower than in STD conditions. NO speed decrease is to be applied. . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.05 VMCA VLOF = V MAX TIRE V2 = 1.54/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Relations between all those speeds: VMCG = VEF = V1 = VMBE VR = 1.RTOW chart use. aircraft configuration. Whenever maximum T/O thrust is not necessary due to aircraft GW or/and runway conditions. it is efficient to reduce the T/O thrust in order to save engine life.Runway WET: this affects the acceleration/stop capability of the aircraft (as well as possibly. FLEXIBLE TEMP for T/O reduced thrust . this means that beyond TREF the maximum thrust of the engine reduces.ANTI ICE: the same factors apply. the more the thrust is reduced. a weight decrement and associated speed decrease must be applied.

5 m 35. there is a potential risk of fire caused by this temperature being spread to the hydraulic system. Line Up allowance Line up allowances after a 90° turn or 180° turn are included in the take off data determination so the following values are for information only. The HOT BRAKES caution comes up at 300 °C indicating that if the L/G is retracted. With normal tire pressure (around 180 PSI) the aquaplaning speed on standing water is around 120 kt. . A tire failure causes longer T/O distances.4 m 27. . The Braking coefficient is a measured value that gives you an indication of how well your aircraft brakes will succeed in stopping your aircraft when compared to optimum braking in ideal conditions. Do not use brake fans during take off or if you experience a wheel fire. If your brakes are hot before take off.1 m 25. do not take off. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.0 m ASDA line up allowance (180° turn) 26.FLX T/O N1 / EPR = MAX CLB N1 / EPR. When under inflated there is a braking action when the tire is rolling so they tend to heat up. VARIOUS OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKE-OFF Brakes Carbon brakes are quite efficient when hot (100 °C) or partly worn.Max authorised FLX THRUST reduction 25%. but cool with the gear down before retraction. Tire wear favours Aquaplaning.5 m 28. and on slush around 130 kt. Tires Under inflation is one of the major causes of tire failure.8 m This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. However if the line up is not performed correctly the length of runway still available is reduced. ASDA A 319 A 320 A 321 ASDA line up allowance (90° turn) 23.FLX TEMP by definition >TREF and OAT. If the pressure is low they heat up faster and may cause a breakdown of the rubber material. However the Carbon brake temp increases rapidly with brake application. .55/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FLX is limited as follows: . Do not retract hot brakes.

DOT speed is close to the best L/D ratio speed CRUISE CONSIDERATIONS Unreliable Speed Indication If during cruise you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH. and Maximum altitude at maximum climb thrust with 300ft/min VS The FMGS definition is different in that a 0. cost index and temperature.34 NM either side of track.34 NM either side of track. Ensure normal CLB THRUST PITCH 7° until passing FL 100 will result in (approximately) ?50 kts IAS 2 PITCH 5° from FL100 to FL200 will result in (approximately) ?80 kts IAS 2 PITCH 3° above FL?00 will result in (approximately) M 0.DOT G.20). A step climb should be considered if there is not a significant additional headwind at higher altitude and the additional fuel consumed in climb (0.05.76 above FL250 NOTE: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.15) is defined as the altitude at which the aircraft covers the maximum distance per unit of fuel (best specific range).Net flight path must be positive and 1000 ft above all obstacles. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.1% of GW) is compensated by enough Cruise time at the higher level.03.15) is defined as the lower of: Maximum altitude at maximum cruise thrust in level flight. 4.Drift down net slope after an Engine failure 2000 ft above all obstacles. Optimum altitude (FCOM 3. 4.Gross climb gradient with one EO shall be at least 1. The Maximum Climb gradient speed is the speed which allows the aircraft to reach a given altitude within the shortest distance.76 2 PERFORMANCE DATA En Route climb gradient (from 1500 ft AAL at departure): .56/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CLIMB CONSIDERATIONS Unreliable Speed Indication during Climb If during the climb phase you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH. Pitch of 2° NU with an N1 of 82 % for an approximate M 0. . The FMGS definition is based on gross weight. Maximum altitude (FCOM 3.05. .8% decrement for Net climb gradient Obstacle clearance criteria (two engined aircraft): . Max climb gradient speed = G.3g buffet margin is considered and this then becomes the Recommended Maximum Altitude (FCOM 4.1 % with a 0.

Thrust Idle and adopt a Pitch of 2°ND for approximately 0. The FMS gives assistance to properly carry out the descent provided the lateral FPLN and vertical FPLN are properly filled in. When selecting a SPD on the FCU (for turbulence). and PERF APPR page completed. It provides. also called the YOYO). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. He will be advised that he is flying beyond the 0. where the FMS assumes that Managed speed will be resumed. All predictions are updated accordingly in cruise till next STEP or T/D. The wind in descent has a significant influence on the descent FPA and thus on the descent distance so that ? ith a tailwind the FPA w decreases and GND DIST increases. The MAX [MAX ALT] above which managed modes are no longer available is defined by the 0. It is not necessary to insert them at all waypoints but when wind velocity or temperature vary by more than approx 30°/30 kt and 5°. DESCENT CONSIDERATIONS Unreliable Speed Indication If during descent you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH. and k then select a lower speed (or Activate Approach) and retract the speed brake when getting close to intended target speed.57/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Even on IAE engines where the thrust is controlled using EPR. In case the ETA at destination is beyond schedule and ETA is an important cruise management factor on the sector. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The FMS will adapt the ECON SPD profile so as to best match the ETA time constraint.The FMS MAX REC ALT is 0. descent winds (if significant) are inserted. The level off symbol on the ND along the F PLN or TRK LINE shows the position where the A/C will reach the FCU altitude in the current AP/FD mode. The crew may elect to fly higher if necessary. FMS updating Insert WINDS and TEMP at successive waypoints of the cruise.3 g buffet limit altitude. The FMS computes a descent profile. . the A/C is still guided on the original descent path. The VDEV is an excellent cue to monitor the descent when in NAV mode or when in HDG (TRK) modes as long as XTK is within 5 NM. it computes the ENERGY CIRCLE displayed on the ND which represents the distance required to descend from present altitude down to landing elevation. .76 / 280 kt. it is preferable to use N1 as reference in such circumstances. . select it on the FCU.3 g boundary by a message. insert SCHEDULE TIME of ARRIVAL as time constraint at destination. and to decelerate from descent speed to VAPP (including SPD LIM) and land. When in HDG (TRK) modes.In case ATC requires the aircraft to fly at a fixed cruise mach number.2 g limit. on the EFIS PFD and MCDU PROG page the VERTICAL DEVIATION of the A/C compared with the computed descent profile (VDEV. When the a/c is above the desired path s ?elect a higher speed (as allowed by ATC) and extend the speed brake in Open Descent and ?eep high speed until ALT*.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

EMERGENCY DESCENT One of the goals of the High Speed Emergency Descent is to reach a lower level (FL < 140) without triggering the PAX O² mask deployment. Thus the emergency descent is achieved with IDLE THRUST, HIGH SPEED (up to VMO-MMO if failure permits), and with the SPD BRAKES extended. On A320, the rate of descent is approximately 6000 ft/mn; which means that it takes approximately 5 mn to descend from FL 390 to FL 100, and approximately 40 NM. HOLDING SPEED AND CONFIGURATION The MAXIMUM ENDURANCE HOLDING is achieved with CLEAN CONF at G. DOT speed (actually the speed is slightly lower than max L/D ratio speed). NOTE: The descent profile is computed as the succession of several descent segments. From TOD to the first constrained waypoint the descent segment is called “Idle segment” and it assumes a given speed profile with thrust equal to IDLE + ?. This ? allows a more flexible guidance of the aircraft on the precomputed descent path, when out side conditions vary or Anti Ice is selected. The Idle Factor on the A/C STATUS page is used to adjust the ?; a negative value increases the descent path angle.

Unreliable Speed Indication If during descent you suspect the Speed Indications to be unreliable the following rule of thumb guidelines will assist before you can ascertain correct values from the QRH At Green Dot speed, clean aircraft configuration, set N1 to the aircraft weight value in tons. On final approach, landing configuration, set N1 to the aircraft weight value minus 2%. Performance Data There are runway distance limitations based on the Landing Distance Available and the Actual Landing Distance required from the FCOM & QRH. Before Departure the Landing Distance Available at Destination must at least equal Actual Landing Distance factored as shown below. Dry Rwy Wet Rwy Contaminated Rwy LDA =ALD/0.6 LDA wet =1.15 ALD/0.6 LDA contaminated =1.15 ALD/0.6 AND =1.15 ALD for actual conditions

In case of a problem in flight which has an effect on the Landing Performance the Required Landing Distance is the ALD for the existing conditions factored by a figure given in the FCOM and QRH for the particular failure or combination of failures.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

Go-round requirements are predicated on one or two engines operating (for a two engined aircraft) APPROACH CLIMB: minimum gross gradient 2.1 % - One Engine Operating / TOGA / LDG GEAR UP / FLAPS one detent up, as compared to approach configuration. LANDING CLIMB: minimum gross gradient 3.2 % - All Engines Operating / Thrust after 8 sec from flight idle /L/G DN, FLAPS in APPR CONF. The A320 is never landing climb limited. PCN/ACN The Aircraft Classification Number must be lower than the Pavement Classification number. PCN varies with the life of the pavement since it is a function of the traffic, traffic distribution etc. On a FLEXIBLE pavement (asphalt - concrete) occasional movements with ACN = PCN + 10 % are allowed. On a rigid pavement (concrete surface) occasional movements with ACN=PCN + 5% are allowed. Actual Landing distance / Landing distance with autoland Actual landing distance CONF FULL is the basic distance to which a factor is applied when in an Abnormal Configuration. This factor is given in the QRH in order to determine the required landing distance in such a configuration. The distances given with the use of Autobrake are not to be used for this calculation. APPROACH SPEED VAPP In most cases in normal configuration the FMS computes VAPP considering the wind inserted by the pilot in PERF APPR and the landing configuration selected. In case of suspected wind shear or downburst, or in case of strong gusty cross wind, the FMS VAPP may be ove rwritten by the pilot (up to VLS + 15 max). In such a case, use MANAGED SPEED in approach. In case of ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION determine VAPP from the QRH procedure and use SELECTED SPEED in approach. MISSED APPROACH CLIMB GRADIENT The crew must be aware that the 2.1% approach climb gradient requirement has nothing to do with the actual climb gradients which may be necessary in a missed approach. The crew must consider the obstacles, which are in the missed approach flight path. The SAFE ALTITUDE to use as a reference for acceleration is either the published missed approach altitude, the relevant sector altitude, or the MSA. In case of very low temperatures below ISA the target altitudes must be corrected by a large amount.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes


On the PFD two flying references may be selected: These are the ATTITUDE symbol, and the FLIGHT PATH VECTOR (also called the BIRD). The Attitude symbol is the primary reference for Dynamic Manoeuvres such as T/O and GO-ROUND. An action on the side stick has an immediate effect on the A/C attitude and thus the pilot can immediately and accurately control this parameter. The Flight Path Vector (FPV) represents the A/C trajectory. It is directly affected by the Aircraft inertia so as there is a delay it is unsuitable for dynamic manoeuvres. However the FPV is well suited when the pilot wishes to fly a stabilised trajectory. Except for the T/O and GO AROUND cases the FPV can be used in all flight phases. It is particularly recommended for Non Precision Approaches and Visual Flight. If the Flight Directors are ON, the internal Flight Guidance parameters are a function of the flying reference you select: If the FPV is off, the guidance will be HDG-V/S, with the Flight Director. If the FPV is on, the guidance will be TRK-FPA, with the Flight Path Director. During Approach the FPV is a very efficient flying reference because it displays the aircraft trajectory, As a consequence the pilot is made aware of Wind Direction changes and of a Downburst phenomena. Combined with the GS MINI function the FPV enhances a pilots situational awareness. Knowing the drift experienced by the aircraft on reaching the MDA assists the pilot to know where to look for the runway. The FPD is commanding a trajectory. Following it will give a trajectory that is stabilised by reference to the ground. The Flight Path Director should be switched off for visual flight. The FPV shows the present lateral track and present flight path angle relative to the aircraft. It is dynamic and indicates where we will be if all else remains the same. If any changes are introduced, the FPV will show the result of these changes.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

either bring all thrust levers back into CLB detent or disconnect the ATHR. Any thrust lever position between the CLB detent and IDLE will give a message on the FMA to restore the normal position in the CLB detent. If one thrust lever is set below the CLB detent. and to achieve a specific thrust setting (CLB. and sends to the FADEC the thrust targets to acquire and maintain a target speed when in SPEED mode. ATHR is displayed blue in the FMA. The FMA displays MAN THR white. The ATHR remains active with the thrust levers in any position between CLB and just above IDLE. . and the thrust is controlled manually by the FADEC to the thrust lever position. The ATHR works in two modes. because there is no operational reason to be in that situation. A short demonstration will save a long explanation. the PF moves the thrust levers back into the CLB detent. LVR CLB flashes on FMA as a reminder. When reaching the THR RED ALT. This technique is used This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. For the rest of the flight (CLB. IDLE …) when in THRUST mode. or the FLX detent. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. If you set all thrust levers beyond the CLB detent while the ATHR is on.03 USE OF ATHR BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION (00:10) BACKGROUND The ATHR computer (part of the FG within the FMGS) interfaces directly with the FADEC (Fully Automatic Digital Engine Control). With the ATHR active the normal position for the thrust levers is the CLB detent. At T/O the thrust levers are set either full forward to TOGA. or THRUST. which engages the ATHR. SPEED. then a repetitive ECAM caution is triggered. a message on the FMA reads LVR ASYM to remind the crew. ATHR armed means that the ATHR is armed for reengagement when the thrust levers are placed back into the CLB detent (or below). If all thrust levers are set below the CLB detent with the ATHR on.61/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION The easiest way to brief the FPV is by using the 2D Faros trainer in the Briefing rooms or on your laptop. T. DES and APPR) the maximum thrust commanded by the ATHR will be MAX CLB (unless the thrust levers are placed forward of the climb detent). In such a case. The ATHR is armed as indicated blue on the FMA. you control the thrust manually to the thrust lever position. CRZ.

ALPHA FLOOR When the aircraft Angle of Attack passes a threshold called ALPHA FLOOR. the ATHR is commanded ON automatically and sends the FADEC a signal for TOGA thrust. bring the thrust levers back into CLB detent. Once you are satisfied with the A/C speed or acceleration. Pressing the Instinctive Disconnect button gives Manual Thrust so if the thrust levers are in the Climb detent then by disconnecting the ATHR you are asking for Climb thrust. set the thrust levers to FLX or TOGA. The ATHR system is This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. throughout the rest of the flight. (but this gives an ECAM warning as this is not by design the normal disconnection method as the thrust will be frozen until the thrust levers are moved). DISCONNECTING The two normal methods for Auto Thrust disconnection are – pressing the Instinctive Disconnect button on the thrust levers or by placing all thrust levers back to Idle. You may also disconnect the ATHR by placing the thrust levers in IDLE. As this TOGA signal is an ATHR function the thrust remains at TOGA while the ATHR remains on. (meaning that the A/C has decelerated below ALPHA PROT). If you are slow to move the thrust levers you will get an ECAM “Autothrust limited” message. If you use this technique duri ng approach and you go beyond MCT you will activate the Go-round mode.62/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes when the A/C speed drops significantly below the desired target. To recover normal operations it is necessary to disconnect the Auto Thrust to cancel the TOGA signal and then to resume Manual or Auto Thrust as required. To reengage the ATHR press the ATHR push button on the FCU and place the thrust levers as applicable. It is also possible to press the ATHR P/B on the FCU. and so get a smooth transition to Manual thrust flight. (regardless of thrust lever position). Therefore the correct method is move the thrust levers so that the TLA corresponds to the current thrust as indicated on the N1 or EPR indication before ATHR disconnection. the levers will be in MCT detent. Alpha Floor is available in Normal Law from lift off to 100 ft R/A at landing. With TOGA thrust the aircraft will increase speed and when the conditions for Alpha Floor no longer exist the thrust remains at TOGA but now the FMA indicates TOGA LOCK. which may be normally commanded in this case. At take off. . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. It is inhibited if one engine is unserviceable. ATHR is reengaged. In case of EO. USAGE ATHR is recommended throughout the flight and It can be used in most failure cases. because MCT is the maximum thrust.

with an associated aural warning. INSTRUCTION Get each trainee to disconnect and reconnect the autothrust a number of times (with the Autopilot engaged) so they will instinctively learn the correct method. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Show them the ECAM message and the THR LKD message by disconnecting on the glareshield switch. GO AROUND Push all thrust levers to TOGA. or from the autopilot in response to a signal from the Flight This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and to reduce thrust on landing. or at a higher height. from the autopilot in response to a pilot input on the FCU. ATHR is then OFF. ATHR is engaged and operates in a mode. The FMA will flash LVR MCT. FLARE When thrust retardation is required. once TOGA is set and the A/C is established in pitch. place the thrust levers in the CLB detent. depending on the AP/FD vertical mode.04 USE OF AP and FD (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Fly By Wire aircraft normally operate with deflection of primary flight control surfaces controlled by computers. The thrust is controlled to TOGA by the FADEC with MAN TOGA on FMA. In case of a Go Around at low weight. bring the thrust levers smoothly to IDLE. either THR or SPEED. until this is done. There is NO automatic RETARD except in AUTOLAND and this must be confirmed by the PF by placing the thrust levers in IDLE. you may consider placing the thrust levers back to MCT or CLB detent if very high climb performance is achieved. The “RETARD” call out at 20 ft RA (10 ft RA for autoland) comes as a reminder if the thrust levers are above idle. During APPROACH below 1000ft AAL place your hand on the thrust levers in case additional thrust is needed in gusty conditions. (Additionally SRS / GA TRK modes engage. Do not delay the thrust reduction as the thrust is maintained at a level to maintain the speed and this will induce floating and late touchdown. At THR RED ALT. The signals to the computers can come from direct pilot input on the sidestick. . T. ATHR is armed. ENGINE FAILURE When the FADEC senses an engine failure the ATHR system requires the PF to place the thrust lever of the “good” engine in the MCT detent so that the thrust can be increased to this level. If this is not done the thrust will remain at idle while ever the Autopilot is engaged.63/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes then armed. Go Around phase activates and Missed Approach + previously flown approach become the active FPLN).

If the autoflight system becomes degraded due to one or more failures the flight control surfaces are still moved as required but predominantly by direct pilot input on the side stick. The actual deflection of the flight control surface is the same in all these cases. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Some Companies have restrictions on the use of Managed mode and some Companies use a combination of modes by using Managed lateral guidance and Selected vertical guidance. and down to MDA in other approaches. If the Autopilot is engaged it follows the Flight Director orders to fly the flight profile laterally and vertically. or speed for example) you select it on the FCU. If GPS accuracy is Low use Selected mode and monitor using Raw Data. The pilot chooses Managed modes when he expects the aircraft to fly the FPLN he has inserted in the FMS. The FCU is the Short Term Interface. If the Autopilot is engaged and the Flight Directors are turned off the pilot selects on the FCU the targets he wants the Autopilot to follow. speed) five seconds after lift off. the PF asks the PNF for selection. ENGAGMENT The AP can be engaged when the aircraft is within the Flight Envelope (attitude. This means that in most cases (except DIR TO) you will prepare the long term lateral. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.64/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Management System. The FCU: When the AP is ON. This means that when you have to achieve a short term action (HDG. It may be used down to the A/C landing roll out in case of AUTOLAND. He chooses Selected modes for specific interventions. vertical and speed revisions on the MCDU. When the AP is OFF. The FCU and MCDU should be used according to the following rules to follow Airbus SOP’s and so ensure safe operation. the PF selects targets and modes. When the pilot is flying the aircraft by hand the Flight Director gives the targets required for lateral and vertical navigation according to the flight profile in the FMS or as selected on the FCU. The MCDU is the Long Term Interface. within the limitations provided in FCOM. It may also be used in case of engine failure without any restrictions. MODES The AP/FD operates in Managed or Selected modes. As a general design rule managed mode may be used when GPS is primary and the active FPLN is both correct and correctly sequenced. and the PNF confirms. It is not permitted to use the Auto Pilot in any Abnormal Configuration (includes slats / flaps abnormal). bank. INTERFACES The 2 main interfaces to the AP and FD are the FCU and the MCDU. It automatically disconnects when the normal flight envelope is significantly exceeded. .

Any major entry on the MCDU must be crosschecked. The choice of mode is a strategic decision of the pilot. the logical sequence of modes and the mode reversions. Low altitude time consuming entries into MCDU are to be avoided. When the AP/FD pitch mode controls a vertical trajectory (e. the PF may make a selection himself but must announce it to the PNF. and a systematic crosscheck must be carried out. The FD is designed to be followed exactly and not in an approximate fashion. DIR TO. ENABLE ALTN. An action on the FCU must be confirmed by a check of the related Target and Mode on the PFD and FMA. Until your trainees get used to the correct technique you should keep reminding them. then the ATHR controls SPEED. The MDCU: The same philosophy applies. Thus. G/S etc. there is an associated ATHR mode change. ALT.e. Examples include the tower wind. V/S. RADNAV entry. the integration of FMS wi thin AP/FD/ATHR.65/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In case of urgency and the PNF is using R/T with ATC. are short and which bring obvious operational advantages. Activate SEC FPLN. or restricted to those which are essential.). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The operation of the Auto Pilot.g. when there is an AP/FD pitch mode change. then the ATHR controls Speed. but they may change automatically according to logics dictated by the integration of AP/FD/ATHR. T. . FPA. If you do not want the Flight Director It is strongly recommended to set both Flight Directors off as this ensures ATHR SPEED mode. AP and FD OFF. INSTRUCTION Some pilots coming from older aircraft do not initially follow the FD commands accurately. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If there are no AP/FD pitch modes – i. Flight Director and Auto thrust follow the logic the pilots apply to control the aircraft. The PF must call the FMA mode changes to the PNF When you hand fly the aircraft with the Flight Directors on keep the attitude symbol centred on the cross bars. The modes are therefore manually engaged by the pilot.05 MODE REVERSIONS AP & FD (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The AP/FD and ATHR operate in given modes.

OP CLB. CONDITIONS CLB engaged DES engaged EVENT Loss of the lateral managed mode: NAV Loss of the lateral managed mode: NAV CONSEQUENCE OP CLB engages V/S engages This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. does not modify the pitch of the A/C. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. the AP/FD provides the order to climb. Again. .Thus when you engage a mode you will automatically ARM the next sequential mode. OP DES etc.). the FMS considers this FPLN both Laterally and Vertically. which DISENGAGES the ASSOCIATED mode on the OTHER AXIS. The mode reversions automatically ensure the aircraft stays within the flight envelope following pilot actions (which may have been inadvertent). and FINAL APP. The pilot may also Arm himself a mode. It applies equally whether the aircraft is being hand flown or if the autopilot is engaged. This reversion is caused when there is pilot action on the ALT selector knob while the aircraft is climbing or descending. MODE SEQUENCE The design logic is such that if a pilot selects a climb mode towards a target altitude. This reversion is caused by loss of NAV mode. then the ATHR controls Thrust (THR CLB. because he wishes the AP/FD to intercept a given trajectory. OP DES. Therefore the Flight Guidance component of the FMS will guide the A/C along the LAT FPLN (NAV – APP NAV modes) as well as the VERT FPLN (CLB – DES – FINAL modes). LOSS OF NAV MODE The pilot engages a mode on one axis. for example selecting a HDG.66/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes When the AP/FD pitch mode controls a speed (e. EXP DES ALT* active FCU ALTITUDE SELECTION CHANGE Below current altitude Above current altitude Any change VERTICAL MODE SWITCHES TO V/S on current V/S V/S on current V/S V/S on current V/S This reversion to V/S (or FPA) mode at the current V/S (or FPA) value. EXP CLB DES. VERTICAL MODE ENGAGED CLB. THR IDLE). FCU ALTITUDE CHANGE The pilot changes the FCU ALT target making the active vertical mode impossible to achieve. Managed Vertical modes can only be used if Managed Lateral mode is used. Typically this is LOC. S uch Mode Changes occur when they are ARMED and therefore are indicated in BLUE on the PFD. this applies irrespective of whether the autopilot is engaged or the aircraft is being hand flown. or when entering a discontinuity. G/S. OP CLB. The integration of the FMS in the AP/FD/ATHR When a pilot has defined a FPLN. capture and then track this altitude.g.

A descent at VMO uses a lot of altitude so ensure you have sufficient height before starting (15000ft is usually enough). or VMAX. whichever is the greater. CONDITIONS FD engaged AP Off A/THR active (IDLE thrust) DES. When this is not possible. whichever is lower. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. CONDITIONS REVERSION OCCURS CONSEQUENCE WHEN V/S or FPA too high to IAS = VLS (or VLS-5 if The IAS remains at VLS be followed in climb target is VLS) (or VLS-5) V/S or FPA too high to IAS = VMAX (or VFE+2) The IAS remains at be followed in descent VMAX The Mode Reversions. are an additional reason to properly monitor the FMA. the aircraft cannot achieve the V/S demanded. . After this point. and consequently of V/S (FPA) mode on FD to regain the target speed. The table below explains the consequences of selecting excessive V/S and the reversions.17 kt CONSEQUENCE Automatic engagement of SPD mode on ATHR. The airplane is trying to maintain a V/S and a speed. which can be unexpected. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. but the priority is to maintain the V/S. OP CLB lAS = VMAX +4 kt where VMAX= VFE or VLE or VMO/MMO EXCESSIVE V/S When an excessive V/S has been selected. and consequently of V/S (FPA) mode on FD to regain the target speed. speed will decrease (climbing) or increase (descending) up to a maximum. OP DES EVENT lAS = VLS -2 kt lAS= VLS . FD engaged AP Off A/THR active (CL thrust) CLB. a mode reversion will occur to protect the aircraft from entering a potentially hazardous situation. INSTRUCTION Plan your demonstration of the Mode Reversions so you don’t waste a lot of time.67/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FD ORDERS NOT FOLLOWED These reversions occur when the aircraft is in manual flight and the pilot fails to follow the FD bars. Automatic engagement of SPD mode on A/THR. or VLS.

NORMAL LAW This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. in other words the affected side stick is deactivated. The Fly By Wire system comprises 3 sets of control laws depending upon the integrity and redundancy status of the computers. This following information provides an overview of the flight control laws on the FBW aircraft and the protections provided to the pilot. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. These three control laws are called NORMAL. or in case of a mechanical side stick failure leading to a jammed stick the "failed" stick order is added to the "non failed" side stick order. it can be reactivated by pressing its own priority P/B. Thus the PF and PNF shall not act on the stick simultaneously. In case of a pilot who collapses on the stick. peripherals and hydraulic systems. If the PNF needs to take over. he must press the priority P/B and announce "I have control". he sends an order (an electrical signal) to the FBW computer. the affected side stick order sent to the computer is forced to zero.n such a case. the pilot will press the priority P/B during at least 30 sec. . In case of a SIDE STICK FAULT ECAM warning due to an electrical failure. in order to deactivate the "failed" side stick.68/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes T. When a side stick is deactivated by the opposite side stick priority P/B.06 FLIGHT CONTROLS (00:15) BACKGROUND BACKGROUND The relation between the pilot input on the stick and the aircraft response is called the CONTROL LAW and as such determines the handling characteristics of the A/C. ALTERNATE and DIRECT LAW. both signals or orders are added. SIDE STICK AND PRIORITY P/B NORMAL LAW ALTERNATE LAW DIRECT LAW MECHANICAL BACK-UP ABNORMAL ATTITUDE LAW ALPHA FLOOR LOW ENERGY WARNING ALPHA LOCK ALPHA LOCK AUTOMATIC RETRACTION SYSTEM REACTION TO ENGINE FAILURE SIDE STICK AND PRIORITY P/B When a pilot moves the side stick. Thus if the PNF acts on the stick as well.

are such that the aircraft is stable. Flare Mode A change in pitch control below 50 ft. c. the ECAM will indicate whether Alternate Law with or without protections is active. Gross Weight and C of G). a. Zero displacement is a positive command for zero roll rate flight. The indications will be ALTN LAW or This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. in the short term it will be maintained. Ground Mode Direct control of elevator. 1g flight means no change in flight path. ALTERNATE LAW In some cases of double failure. This is progressively blended out when airborne so that flight mode becomes effective. Flight Mode Side-stick movement in the pitch axis commands a change in ‘g’. release it. The protections make this reaction possible. with the same consistent response. spoilers. These protections have been designed to assist pilots in emergency situations. Hence there is no need to trim. Depending on the particular failure that causes the degrading of the flight control laws. the integrity and redundancy of the computers and peripherals are not sufficient to maintain Normal law with its protections. Once the required bank angle has been established. Protections: Full flight envelope protection is provided in normal law using the following individual protections. Altitude. regardless of IAS. d. Side-stick movement in the roll axis commands a given rate of roll. The handling characteristics of Normal Law (within the normal flight envelope and. Zero displacement is a positive command for 1g flight. The degradation is progressive depending upon the availability of remaining peripherals or computers.69/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Normal Law is the normal case and allows for all “single” failures. So once the correct flight path has been established. ailerons and rudder. ground. All turns may require some side-stick and power adjustments. b. requiring a gentle pull on the sidestick during the flare in order to maintain a progressive flare. flight and flare mode.if you feel you are over controlling. where under stress conditions only an instinctive and rapid reaction will save the situation. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The efforts on the side stick are balanced in pitch and roll. There are three modes of normal law. despite any changes to thrust or speed. Make a small input then gently release to neutral and leave the stick alone unless a further adjustment is required. Don’t fight with the stick . release the sidestick to neutral and it will be maintained. .

If this is resisted the aircraft slows further and eventually stalls). but overspeed or stall warnings are still operational. The main differences between these two laws and normal law are detailed below. the handling characteristics are the same in pitch as with the normal law and outside the Normal Flight Envelope. the auto pitch trim stops at Va prot (below VLS) and natural longitudinal static stability is restored. rather than roll rate. Note that. . INDICATIONS The degradation of control laws is indicated on the ECAM as well as on PFD. All protections except load factor limitation are lost. The ECAM will indicate to the crew when direct law is the active flight control law and USE MAN PITCH TRIM will be displayed on the PFD as a reminder.70/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes ALTN LAW: PROT LOST. (as the autotrim stops and the aircraft is flying slower than it is trimmed for there is a natural pitch down movement. natural aircraft static stability is restored with an OVER SPEED WARNING (as the a utotrim stops on reaching the red line the aircraft is now flying faster than it is trimmed for so will naturally pitch up). or high speed excursions as he would do it on any non protected A/C. In alternate law pitch control is similar to normal law with some changes in the protections available. No protections are available.03 VS1g. At the other end of the envelope at low speed. with STALL WARNING at 1. VSW is shown and stall warning is provided) changed to alternate high speed stability High speed protection In some failure cases alternate law without protection is available. Load factor limitation Pitch attitude protection High angle of attack protection same as normal law not provided changed to low speed stability (PFD display also changes. in ALTN law VMO is reduced to 320 kt and that A. In Direct Law the elevator deflection is proportional to stick deflection (the maximum deflection is a function of CONF and CG) and aileron and spoiler deflections are proportional to stick deflection but vary with the A/C CONF and pitch trim is no longer automatic but is controlled manually by pilot input on the trim wheel. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. DIRECT LAW On the A320 in every case where the Landing Gear is extended when in Alternate Law (and in certain other cases) the control law becomes Direct. Roll control is the same as direct law with the sidestick demanding aileron deflection.FLOOR is inhibited. Summary of ALTN law: Within the Normal Flight Envelope. the pilot must take proper preventive actions to avoid loss of control. Autotrim is still available. Protection in Alternate Law at the limits of the Flight Envelope: At high speed. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

The aim of the demonstration is not to fly the aircraft accurately. The autothrust. the pilot is immediately aware of his control law status and operational consequences MECHANICAL BACK-UP When the A320 was certified it was necessary to demonstrate control of the aircraft with a total loss of the FBW system. will give to large pitch changes and control is considerably easier with manual thrust. amber crosses are displayed instead of the green protection symbols.1. MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY will be displayed in red on the PFD. (The message USE MAN PITCH TRIM indicates that Direct Law is active even if it is not possible to move the stabiliser). Mach <0. (due to atmospheric disturbance for example) the Abnormal Attitude Law is invoked where pitch is ALTN with load factor protection (without autotrim) and lateral Direct Law with yaw alternate. AOA +30°. Although roll control is still available from the right hand aileron the aim of the exercise is to control the flight path using solely the pitch trim and the rudder. if engaged. Just by watching his main instrument the PFD. In order of probability it is more likely (statistically 1 in 1000 billion) for a different series of failures to occur which leads to a similar situation (loss of Blue hydraulic plus SEC2 plus ELAC2). >60. . When the protections are lost.71/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes On the PFD the availability of protections. Bank 125°. The most unlikely way for this to happen is for a loss of five flight control computers. >0. allowing the lost systems to be restored by computer reset. but to keep the aircraft in a safe stabilised attitude.96. When automatic pitch trim is no longer available (in Direct Law) this is indicated by the message USE MAN PITCH TRIM in amber on the PFD. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. -10° and Speed <440. is shown by specific symbols (= i n green). This second scenario is what we demonstrate to the trainees. 30° down. in normal law. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. There is no turn coordination and no protections are operative. and by the specific display of the low speed information on the speed scale. ABNORMAL ATTITUDE LAW If any of the following limits are exceeded Pitch 50° up.

What your trainees need to understand is that if a conventional balance indicator were installed in our FBW aircraft it would not be centred if the Beta target is centred. REACTION TO ENGINE FAILURE The most efficient flying technique with regard to performance with an engine failure at take off is to fly a constant heading with roll surfaces retracted.72/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The FBW architecture and control laws explain why upset recovery manoeuvres need not be trained on Airbus protected A/C. It is inhibited is some cases. Alpha floor is available from lift off until 100 ft RA on approach. ALPHA LOCK This protection prevents the retraction of flap from CONF I to zero. It provides protection against stall and windshear and has priority over all other protections. a warning is included to alert the pilot to a low energy situation. if speed is too low or AOA is too high. Alpha floor is only available in normal law. the flaps will automatically retract. and occurs before alpha floor operates. LOW ENERGY WARNING In Normal Law. . AUTOMATIC RETRACTION SYSTEM When accelerating through 210 kts with CONF I + F selected. 3 or FULL. This technique dictates the amount of rudder required. Consequently. before VFE of 215 kt. and centre the Beta target with the rudder pedals. in case of engine failure at take off smoothly control the pitch (lower) to keep the desired speed (as per SRS). ALPHA FLOOR Alpha floor is an autothrust mode. however it is also a part of the flight envelope protection. The Flaps will not automatically re-extend if speed drops below 210 kt. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. At high angles of attack TOGA thrust is commanded by the autothrust system. This is evident during an approach when the single engine thrust increases above 80% N1 and the yellow slip This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and the residual side slip which will result. This warning is only available below 2000 ft radio altitude and in CONF 2. It is not a protection.

to VSW. and for this reason the procedure is defined according to whether the aircraft altitude is above. Low speed indications change from alpha prot. The conventional stall is only possible in Alternate and Direct control laws. If the side slip index (when visible) is centred there will remain residual deflection of some flight control surfaces. . It is possible to experience “false warnings” if pitch control is rough during the recovery from the stall. The recovery is as follows: INDICATION THRUST LEVERS At the same time: PITCH ATTITUDE BANK ANGLE SPD BRAKES STALL. VSW indications are always correct as these are generated by the FACs.07 RECOVERY FROM APPROACH TO STALL (00:20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND We need to demonstrate Stalling in both the clean configuration as well as the landing configuration so the trainee will recognise the indications of an impending stall and to take immediate and appropriate actions to recover controlled flight. This is because a centred Beta target ensures all flight control surfaces are retracted and thus there will be a residual side slip. because of the protections provided in Normal law. T. not the FACs.73/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes indicator changes into the blue Beta target but displaced from the slip index. This aural warning is produced by the AOA sensors. which immediately increases the effective chord of the wing which will reduce the stalling speed and thus aid recovery. If above FL200 it can be assumed there is no risk of ground contact so altitude preservation is not considered. VSW is load factor dependant and will increase with increase in pitch rate or bank angle. An aural warning is produced on entering the stall area. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. STALL” TOGA REDUCE ROLL WINGS LEVEL CHECK RETRACTED Below FL200 we have to be aware of the possibility of ground contact so the procedure is to extend Flap1. The recovery technique depends on whether there is a possibility of ground contact. STALL. or below FL200 (limitation for flap extension altitude). As there is now an increased margin above VSW this margin can be used to This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.

With prompt action.74/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes maintain altitude while increasing the potential energy of the aircraft and so resume normal flight.08 ECAM (00:30) BACKGROUND BACKGROUND ECAM DISPLAY PHILOSOPHY. so to reduce the pitch requires a continual pressure on the side stick and not solely a nose down input. Don’t change configuration until above VSW and be prepared for rapid acceleration once TOGA power is achieved. Our syllabus only includes the approach to the stall so do not attempt to achieve a fully developed stall due to limitations with the simulator that could lead to negative training. Care must be exercised not to re-enter the stall regime and set off another warning. The remainder of the procedure is identical. very little height is lost. Be prepared for a strong pitch up due to power application and the need for large manual pitch trim changes in DIRECT law. and provides the actions required by the crew in most normal / abnormal and emergency situations. If no danger of ground contact exists. use power and rudder with care. With this information they will see that the aural stall warning comes with a relatively large margin above the stalling speed. Remember that in this situation the auto trim is not working. It is a system which displays the aircraft system information. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. . T. reduce pitch attitude no more than necessary to allow airspeed to increase. Recover to normal speed and retract flaps as required. The Autotrim will be inoperative so continual forward pressure is required on the sidestick. On recovery ensure they decrease the pitch but not below the horizon. INSTRUCTION Before you commence this exercise get your trainees to calculate (from the Limitations section of the FCOM) the stalling speed for the projected weight and configuration. The Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) system monitors and displays all information concerning aircraft systems and system failures and thus reports the status of the aircraft. monitors the aircraft systems. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. In case of engine inoperative.

. If a failure of a system affects another system. In addition to the three levels of warning or caution. FLIGHT PHASE INHIBITION. the WHEEL page is automatically displayed after engine start. The system title is underlined on the EWD. THEN ACTION IMMEDIATE LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 3 Level 1 is displayed in amber on the Engine Warning Display (EWD).75/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Display of system failures and take off and landing memo is flight phase sensitive.e. PRIMARY FAILURE. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The criticality of a failure is graded from 1 to 3 and this is reflected in the warning or caution given. Some warnings and cautions are suppressed during take off and landing. PRIORITY OF WARNINGS. There is no Master Caution associated with a Level 1 warning. A failure that affects other systems and causes secondary failures. A failure that does not affect other systems. Level 3 is associated with a Master Warning and is displayed in red on the EWD along with a Red “Land as soon as Possible” message. Secondary failures are in amber preceded by an asterisk on the bottom right hand side of the EWD. The cruise page is not selectable. the ECAM also differentiates between three types of failures as follows: INDEPENDENT FAILURES. Take off and landing memo are only displayed at the appropriate phase of flight. however failures critical to a particular phase of flight will always be displayed. On the System Display screen some pages are phase-selected i. CRITICALITY COLOUR / AURAL DEGRADATION AMBER / NONE ABNORMAL SAFETY AMBER / SINGLE CHIME RED / CONTINUOUS REPETITIVE REACTION AWARENESS / MONITORING AWARENESS. Level 2 is associated with a Master Caution and is displayed in amber on the EWD along with an Amber “Land as soon as Practicable” message. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. but is continuously displayed from 1500 ft after take-off to landing gear extension unless a warning / caution is displayed. The failure title is boxed on the EWD. A failure that is caused by a primary failure and not by an unserviceability of that particular system. SECONDARY FAILURE. or a system page has been manually selected. the Flight Warning Computer will display the PRIMARY FAILURE first followed by the SECONDARY (or consequential) failure.

Level 3 takes priority over Level 2. Parking Brake. ABNORMAL ECAM CONFIGURATION The ECAM screens are identical. The ECAM memo must be included in the instrument scan. The options allowing switching of screens in the event of failure are detailed in FCOM 1. It helps the pilot to notice that a system has been forgotten. Rudder Trim. In case of an aural Altitude Alert pressing the Master Warning stops the sound. Consequently. providing the option of redundancy. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. MASTER WARNING / CAUTION These are Attention Getters in case of a failure. it pulses at the bottom of EW/D.e. RCL and EMER CANCEL The EMER CANCEL pushbutton may be used by the crew to cancel any cautions or warnings that are intermittent or spurious (and are effectively nuisance warnings). as shown by the status of the affected components in the diagram. Furthermore there is a hierarchy within each of the three levels to ensure that the most critical failures are displayed first. . press STS only if the label is displayed. Brake Temp. Whenever a failure or an advisory occurs. OPERATIONAL USE 1.05. IRS time to alignment is displayed if the alignment is not completed. when the check list calls for status review. Review the status page to correctly fill in the technical log. If a procedure is proposed to the crew for action then the instruction disappears after it has been carried out. and Doors are in a Take Off configuration. The RCL pushbutton is used to either recover cancelled cautions suppressed by the EMER CANCEL pushbutton or to review cautions or warnings which have been cleared using the CLR pushbutton.76/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In the event of multiple failures there is a hierarchy determining the order in which failures are displayed on the EWD i. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. T/O CONFIG PUSHBUTTON Pressing the T/O CONFIG push button simulates T/O power application and allows the pilot to check that Slats and Flaps.31. IF there is feedback from that item. NORMAL OPERATION Periodically review the main systems during flight to check if everything is ok and detect a potential problem. This allows the crew to analyse the situation. the associated System Display page is provided on the lower CRT. Pitch Trim. During cruise it should be blank. At engine shutdown if there is a STS. Pressing the related pushbutton extinguishes the light (except for STALL / OVERSPD…) and stops the aural. Speed Brakes. STS label displayed at the bottom of EW/D means that the status page is not empty.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

2. ECAM ADVISORY The first pilot who notices an Advisory should announce "ADVISORY on XYZ system". 3. TASK SHARING RULES in case of ABNORMAL OPERATIONS The first pilot to recognise a problem announces the Title of the failure and cancels the Master Warning, or Caution. The PF controls the Aircraft and once stabilised, and above 400 ft AGL, the PF orders the ECAM actions. Since there are two essential tasks, (fly and deal with the failure) both pilots must be aware of what is occurring during the completion of the associated drills. The PF is usually the PF throughout the exercise unless the CM1 decides to take control. The PF will then control the Flight path, Speed, Configuration and Engines. He will deal with navigation and communication and will order the PNF to commence the ECAM actions and check that the actions are properly completed. PF <<ECAM ACTIONS>> PNF Reviews SD and reads ECAM. Carries out the actions detailed. Once all actions complete asks to <<CLEAR XYZ>> After checking that the actions are complete confirms <<CLEAR XYZ>> Continues the ECAM actions or reads STS Once all actions are done and STS is read asks <<CLR STATUS>> After crosscheck confirms <<CLR STATUS>> Clears STS page and announces <<ECAM ACTIONS COMPLETE>> FCOM 3.02.01 details procedures for the use of ECAM in the event of a failure. The key points are: PF - fly, na vigate and communicate— in that order (golden rule). PNF - deal with the failure on the PF’s command. Both pilots to identify failure and confirm by reference to SD, E/WD. When a failure occurs it is important to review the SD prior to acting, in order to get a proper assessment of the situation. Some actions or messages have no feedback and the blue line does not disappear. Examples are, ATC NOTIFY, or VHF 1 (2) (3) USE, or MIN RAT SPEED 140 and so on. Some procedures require reference to QRH and this is indicated by the phrase LDG PROC APPLY on the ECAM. In some failure cases, the STATUS page lists a non standard configuration for Approach. The Status page is automatically displayed when CONF 1 is selected, as a reminder of the current status of the aircraft. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

The Status page appears when all required actions are complete. It is not required to read it immediately it appears! As a reflection of the status of the aircraft it should be referred to when planning an Approach, or to ascertain the current status of the aircraft. Remember the following points. In the case of multiple failures complete all required actions (in blue) associated with the first red or amber title. Request clearance to press CLR and then deal with the next failure. Reinforce that this “chapter” must be cleared before continuing with the next “chapter”. The drills affecting the second “chapter” are then carried out until its red / amber title can be cleared, before starting on the third etc. Don’t leave the red or amber title on the E/WD when all actions associated with that failure have been completed. Clear each one as it is dealt with. When all necessary actions are complete there will be no amber or red displayed on the lower part of the E / WD. Read the ECAM carefully, as it is possible to misread drills. Although the overhead panel is uncluttered, misidentification of switches or pushbuttons is possible. When action on the overhead panel pushbuttons or switches is required by ECAM, identification of the correct panel is aided by reference to the writing etched on the side of each system panel. When carrying out system pushbutton selection, verify on the SD that the required action has occurred e.g. switching off an hydraulic pump changes the indications on the SD. Any non-reversible action must be confirmed by both pilots. This means the THR levers, engine master switch, fire switch, IRs, or any guarded pushbutton. This is to prevent the crew from carrying out an inadvertent irreversible actions. OEB Certain procedures may be modified by OEB. The generic documentation we use does not normally contain any OEBs. However get your trainees to think about referring to any OEBs as part of their training. The OEB’s have to be checked before reading and analysing the status page. OEBs (FCOM Vol 3) are issued by Airbus and contain information which may have implications for crew actions in the event of system failures. If time permits consider consulting FCOM Vol 3 after ECAM actions have been completed. It may contain additional notes or information not displayed on ECAM. However do not prolong the flight for the sole purpose of consulting this volume. STATUS PAGE The status page is reviewed by both pilots. A green overflow arrow indicates further pages of status messages. The Status page can be recalled at any time and is very useful as an aid for descent and approach planning. Following certain failures, or after multiple failures, the STATUS page may contain an excess of information. In order to extract the information essential for landing the aircraft safely use the following guide: CONFIG flap/slat setting, approach speed increment, landing distance factor and control law for landing. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

GEAR - when to lower gear and whether normally or by gravity BRAKES - normal, alternate or alternate without anti-skid REVERSE - availability. SINGLE SCREEN USAGE When dealing with failures with only one ECAM display the same principles are valid but disciplined use of the ECAM control panel is even more important. There is no automatic display of the SD associated with the failure confirmation of the failure will require the relevant system page pushbutton to be pressed and held. This is also true when reviewing secondary failures. The STATUS page is only displayed when STS pushbutton is pressed and held. In order to view page two or three pages of status messages the STS pushbutton must be released for less than 2 seconds and then pressed and held again. Remember to teach the transfer of the SD to the PNF’s ND (except in EMER ELEC CONF when it is not available). ADVISORY ECAM advisory mode requires the crew to monitor a parameter and does not necessarily require action. FCOM 3.02.80 contains recommended actions in the event of certain advisory conditions. COMMON ERRORS Beware of the following errors No de-selection of manually selected system page when no longer required. Clear action without cross-check. STATUS page reviewed at the wrong time. Single ECAM screen, SD pages and STS page not reviewed. Green overflow arrow ignored.


For the major part of our Flight Instruction we consider that GPS Navigation is Primary, and as such our navigation is accurate. As we are simulating reality we have a problem because the GPIRS position in the simulator is always accurate. We can simulate GPS Navigation inoperative (by NOTAM for example), or we can insert a Map Shift from the IOS. In the first case the IR position will also be 100% accurate so there will be no constraints on the use of Managed Navigation mode. A thorough briefing is therefore required as we cannot (at present) simulate the slow drifting of IR position that happens in real life.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

In case of GPS PRIMARY. ADF (also called an overlay approach) and with the associated needles on the ND. In addition. display modes only if GPS is PRIMARY or the FMS NAV ACCY crosscheck is POSITIVE.3nm. If the point is the TO waypoint the beacon will be autotuned and the FMS derived bearing and distance is displayed on the top right of the ND. in Approach we require +/-1nm and on final we require +/-0. This is then compared with the raw data as shown by the relative bearing of the needle and the displayed DME distance on the lower left or right of the ND.80/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Therefore for our training we either consider an accurate system of navigation (GPS Primary. 1. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The NPA is a GPS defined approach where the raw data is the FMS position and in case GPS PRIMARY LOST message appears. If during a phase of flight we get a message stating that NAV ACCY DNGRADED it means that the Estimated Accuracy has increased to a value larger than the Required Accuracy as it appears on the PROG page. If we consider the situation where we require non GPS navigation we have to ensure that the FMS Navigation Accuracy check is performed correctly. In this case insert the ident into a VOR field on the RAD NAV page to tune the VORDME and on the PROG page insert the same ident in the BRG / DISTance TO field to obtain the FMS computation of the bearing and distance to compare with the raw data as displayed on the ND. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. 2. . This can be achieved in two ways. Selected. If the point is not the TO waypoint the navaid may not be autotuned. we require +/-5nm. if GPS PRIMARY LOST message appears we must use raw data in a Selected mode. If we are using a Managed navigation function we must change to a Selected mode and monitor the raw data navigational information. In cruise. 2. or High Accuracy of IR navigation) and allow use of either Managed. NAVIGATION ACCURACY CROSSCHECK TECHNIQUE Checking the Navigation Accuracy is achieved by comparing the FMS derived bearing and distance of a point with the raw data bearing and distance from a received beacon located at that point. REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE The accuracy we require from the navigation system varies according to the phase of the flight. VORDME. we insert a Map Shift and cause the trainees to revert to a Selected Approach. or Laterally Managed and Vertically Selected modes OR. the approach must be discontinued. The NPA defined with a VOR. STRATEGY IN NON PRECISION APPROACH A NPA is flown using AP / FD managed modes and ND ARC or ROSE NAV. two types of approaches are flown: 1. in Europe.

2. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The INTEGRITY. Hence the F MS continuously computes: . in addition to position (Lat/Long/Alt): 1. The GPS provides 2 essential data.the BIAS between MIX IRS and FMS position. or if their respective position is unfavourable. The ESTIMATED POSITION ERROR (EPE) is an Estimate meaning that the FMS considers the instantaneously available navigation means used in the calculation of the FMS position. The PROG Page has the following information: . HIGH/LOW and thus NAV ACCY UPGRADED / DNGRADED messages are merely indicators to the crew of the estimated accuracy of the FMS position versus required criteria. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. so that the FMS position tends to the GPIRS position. This accuracy can be computed with a high probability of confidence. but they ignore possible excessive drifts of the IRSs. proceed immediately with a NAV ACCY CROSS CHECK: if Positive. this means that this position is the Best Raw Data position available.Indicates GPS PRIMARY. It is provided as a "Figure of Merit". applies specified tolerances to each one of them and calculates the EPE. so as to benefit from the latest update when the RADIO position becomes unavailable and . WITHOUT GPS PRIMARY When a Radio position is available. WITH GPS PRIMARY The GPS directly interfaces with the IRSs which output a GPIRS position. Those tolerances assume that the navigation means work properly. the reference navaid raw data of the NPA must be displayed.the FMS position out of MIX IRS and Radio positions. If 5 or more satellites are in view. . several combinations of those satellite signals may be used to process “several positions” and to carry out reasonableness tests on the satellite signals themselves. The ACCURACY of the Lat/Long position. and select ROSE VOR at least on the PF side. at least on the PF side. for example. but if Negative. Therefore if the GPS position (or GPIRS position) fulfils the Integrity and Accuracy criteria. Consequently the HIGH / LOW accuracy information provided on Progress page are Indicators to the crew of the potential accuracy of the FMS position versus a specified accuracy criteria. or erroneous locations of navaids within the Nav Data Base. . If the satellites are low on the horizon. When a GPIRS position is available.81/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes When there is no GPS available. revert to selected mode. the resulting accuracy will be poor. which is a direct function of the number of satellites in view of the aircraft. and allows a defective or erroneous satellite to be rejected. It is a direct function of the satellite constellation in view of the aircraft. it supersedes the RADIO position (if available). continue as before. the FMS position tends towards the Radio position. In case the NAV ACCY DNGRADED message appears.the ESTIMATED POSITION ERROR (EPE) of its own position.

and are used to trigger a crosscheck. HIGH accuracy is displayed (or LOW if vice versa).5 NM in LAT or LONG. The GPS can be reselected later on the same page. If GPS Primary is lost.Indicates the Required Navigation Accuracy in blue. ND / MCDU messages GPS PRIMARY LOST .If the Estimated Nav Accy is less than the Required Nav Accy. (This information is only if the A/C is fitted with Honeywell IRS). or the EPE when GPS PRIMARY is LOST.GPS] = 0. or at Alternate.Indicates the value of the Estimated Navigation Accuracy in green. reaching TMA and IAF. . Periodically cross check nav accuracy. or it can be manually inserted. Use the NAV ACCY DNGRADED message as an indication to crosscheck the navigation accuracy. an accuracy crosscheck is necessary. PREDICTIVE GPS GPS PRIMARY criteria (INTEGRITY + ACCURACY) depends upon the Satellite Constellation status at a given time. It is not the role of NAV ACCY UP / DN GRADED messages or HIGH / LOW indications (which are only indicators). GPS PRIMARY.Link to Predictive GPS page. Clearable on MCDU but not on ND. crosscheck is not necessary.when GPS PRIMARY is lost. GPS PRIMARY LOST message is then displayed on MCDU and ND.82/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes . in T/O or LOC update cases. . and whenever a navigation doubt occurs. TMA or approach area. The operational consequences of the navigation accuracy crosscheck are: If the crosscheck is Positive or GPS is Primary: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.When GPS PRIMARY is again available. SELECTED Navaid page DESELECT GPS prompt allows the crew to prevent the FMS from using the GPS data for position computation. It is either the one as computed by the GPS when GPS PRIMARY is available. Provided for crews to know if GPS PRIMARY will be available at Destination. . If GPS is Primary. NOTE FMS/GPS POSITION DISAGREE message comes up from time to time when [FM . Once in climb. . Operational Consequences Use HIGH / LOW as INDICATORS. in a given location and this is predictable. every 45 minutes in cruise and before TOD. These indications will allow the RNP concept (required nav performance) linked to FANS to be addressed. To day it is either the Navigation accuracy criteria as required in cruise. This message is clearable. RNP is equivalent to required navigation accuracy. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This occurs due to different reference co-ordinates being used in New Data Base.

EGPWS must be set OFF.83/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes AP / FD Lateral / Vertical Managed modes may be used. . and Navigation Accuracy is Low. confirm the update with the 3R key. If the crosscheck is Negative: AP / FD Lateral / Vertical Managed modes may be used with care except in Approach where selected modes have to be used. Pilots must also be aware of equipment failure. T. It should not apply to GPS equipped aircraft. the EPE is automatically set to a higher value . The FMS position slowly drifts along with the drift of the IRSs. When a position error occurs navigate with raw data until the position can be updated. and ND ARC and ROSE NAV modes are used by both PF & PNF with needles. NOTE Whenever a doubt arises. On the other hand you must be aware that. revert to selected modes and raw data only. or PBD. ND ARC and ROSE NAV may be used with care and with raw data by the PF and the PNF except in approach where the PF has to refer to raw data systematically. When a position update is achieved. FMS Position Update This procedure is a very rough way of correcting gross errors in the FMGS computed position and should only be used when a major position error is apparent or when a CHK IRS / FM POSITION message occurs with an obvious position error. A check of NOTAM’s may allow the crew to identify whether a VOR should be deselected.10 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING (00:20) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. the EPE continuously rises without any damageable consequence. or corruption of a VOR signal as might happen in a war zone. This update will allow the FMS to resume its normal navigation function. The position error may have occurred due to either FMGS incorrectly identifying a VOR (for any reason). when required and the EGPWS remains ON. Be prepared to switch to selected modes and to ROSE VOR if you have a doubt. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. to avoid any confusion. The recommended technique is to insert an ident of a beacon or a PBD into the “UPDATE AT” field of the PROG page and on overflying the beacon. in cruise for example. if no navaid is available and no GPS primary. while its position is affected by the latest determined bias.

FORWARD-LOOKING FUNCTION The forward-looking function computes two terrain envelopes from the aircraft position. It has also an airport data base. track and ground speed. The Enhanced GPWS is commanded ON from on the overhead panel by the TERR pushbutton located next to the other GPWS pushbuttons. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. EGPWS The Enhanced GPWS incorporates the functions of the basic GPWS with the following added features: Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF). When the terrain violates specific computed boundaries on the projected flight path of the A/C. the associated threats will be announced to the crew. The earth is divided into grid sets with the record of the highest terrain altitude in each element of the grid. The resolution of the data base is a function of the geographic location. These two terrain envelopes are projected on the terrain data base and are coupled with the This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. As the ND can only display one type of information at one time there are two specific pushbuttons which control the intentional display of terrain information or radar information. speed and track and adds a safety margin. There are 5 levels of resolution from High Resolution around an airport. The computer incorporates a world wide Terrain Data Base with varying degrees of resolution. not on radar return.84/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND GPWS The Airbus family is equipped with GPWS. . Terrain Look Ahead Alerting and Terrain Awareness Display (TAD). and Small Resolution away from an airport. The EGPWS determines present position. The purpose of the Enhanced GPWS functions is to provide a better situational awareness to the crew through the TAD. The two EGPWS functions provide displays on the ND. Most GPWS alerts and warnings are generated as a result of changes in radio altimeter height or rate of those changes. The EGPWS has priority over the PWS. The EGPWS functions are based on a terrain database and the FMGC current position. and to give earlier Cautions and Warnings to the pilot to initiate a safe recovery manoeuvre. The basic GPWS functions remains unchanged. which is used to advise the crew of any potential conflict with terrain. GPWS alerts and warnings are described at the end of this section. The system predicts potential hazard from these trends but has no forward-looking capability. The three EGPWS functions 1.

TERRAIN data displayed on ND with SOLID YELLOW areas This caution gives typically 60 sec reaction time prior to potential terrain conflict. It envelopes the earth at 700 ft AGL and commences reducing to ground level 15 nm around the runways stored in the data base. an alert is triggered. The warning is a function of the FMGC aircraft position a nd radio altitude and complements the GPWS warnings. an alert is triggered.TERRAIN AHEAD in amber appears on the ND. When a conflict is detected between these terrain envelopes and the terrain memorised in the data base.GPWS RED LIGHT 3) . TERRAIN CLEARANCE FLOOR FUNCTION The terrain clearance floor envelope is stored in the data base. The Warning Alert: 1) . Consequently it is below a level that an aircraft would normally be during an approach. If the aircraft enters this envelope. The Caution Alert is: 1) . If the CAUTION envelope is penetrated.TERRAIN AHEAD. 4) . . 2. the areas which violate the warning envelope appears in a solid red with associated warnings. the areas which violate the caution envelope appear in a solid yellow with associated warnings.GPWS RED LIGHT 3) .TERRAIN data displayed on ND with SOLID RED areas This warning gives typically 30 sec reaction time. 4) . PULL UP repeated continuously 2) . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.TERRAIN AHEAD in red appears on the ND. repeated every 7 sec 2) .TERRAIN AHEAD. If the WARNING envelope is penetrated.85/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes FMGC position. The TCF is available in ALL FLIGHT PHASES and is a complement to the basic GPWS mode 4. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. OPERATIONAL RECOMENDATIONS The EGPWS can be used only if GPS PRIMARY or navigation accuracy check is positive. TAD function is to be used for Terrain Awareness. A colour code is used otherwise from black to red.TOO LOW TERRAIN. TERRAIN AWARENESS DISPLAY FUNCTION The TAD function displays an image of the surrounding terrain on ND (except in PLAN mode). The display is generated by comparing the aircraft altitude to the terrain data base coupled with FMGC position.GPWS RED LIGHT 3. but not for navigation. an image display which sweeps from centre outward to both ND side and a TERR indication instead of TILT indication help the crew to make the difference between the EGPWS terrain computed data and the ground picture sensed by the radar. In that case TERR STBY then appears on the ECAM memo. If GPS is not primary.86/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The TCF Alert: 1) . TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) . and the Navigation accuracy This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The EGPWS functions are automatically deselected when navigation accuracy is low. A different image texture. The terrain is not shown if terrain altitude is more than 2000 ft below aircraft altitude or if its elevation is within 400 ft of the runway elevation nearest the aircraft.

then PULL UP (continuously) 3) . the terrain data is automatically displayed on the ND. if the barometric setting is incorrect the TAD function will also provide erroneous information and / or warnings. . descent or configuration alerts Adjust flight path or go-around or Climb and turn as necessary or Adjust configuration or go-around Re-establish on G/S or press G/S mode pushbutton if undue alert Care must be taken when operating on one engine. If TERR ON ND pushbutton is pressed off and an EGPWS terrain caution or warning is triggered. Thus. with flaps extended and at light weight as in this configuration directional control may be difficult. TAD and TCF function use FMS1 position to perform their calculations. Therefore. The Mode 1 Alert: 1) .87/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes check is negative then switch off the EGPWS with the TERR pushbutton on the overhead panel. Airbus recommends that for an approach where terrain is suspected the PNF has TERR ON ND . an FMS1 position error may induce erroneous information and warnings. In case of any warning including “PULL UP”. The brightness of terrain indication on the ND is controlled via the weather radar control knob. In case of any terrain. and the TERR ON ND light comes on. TAD function computes the aircrafts relative altitude by using the Captains barometric setting information. when a terrain alert occurs. immediately and with no arguments: Set TOGA Pull full aft stick Check speed brake retracted Maintain initially wings levelled. The drill must be carried out positively. with clear announcement of intent.ON and the PF has TERR ON ND – OFF. the ND weather / terrain display brightness may need to be adjusted. Therefore. positive control action and the control input retained until clear of danger.GPWS RED LIGHT This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. GPWS BASIC FUNCTIONS The fi ve functions of the basic GPWS are: MODE 1: Excessive Descent Rate Warns that the aircraft descent rate with respect to altitude above ground level is excessive.SINK RATE (twice) 2) . Available in all flight phases.

GLIDE SLOPE.TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) .TOO LOW GEAR (500 ft R/A) TOO LOW FLAPS (245 ft R/A) 3) . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. It is automatically engaged when the Flaps are in Landing Conf. IAS < 190). A Minimum Terrain Clearance (MTC) is defined and increases with R/A up to 500 ft if IAS =190 kts and up to 1000 ft if IAS increases to 250 kts: 1) . The Mode 2 Alert: 1) . . With LDG GEAR down and flaps landing conf.then PULL UP (continuously) 3) . The Mode 5 Alert: 1) . GLIDE SLOPE This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It warns the crew that the terrain is rising more steeply than the aircraft is climbing.GPWS AMBER LIGHT MODE 4: Unsafe Terrain Clearance Warns of insufficient terrain clearance as a function of the phase of flight.DON'T SINK 2) . Mode 5: Excessive G/S deviation Warns whenever the aircraft descends below the glide slope.GPWS AMBER LIGHT This mode is divided into three sub -modes: Mode 4A Cruise approach with Gear Up. the PULL UP call is suppressed. Mode 2B is de-sensitised to permit landing manoeuvres close to terrain without undue alerts. MODE 3: Altitude Loss After T/O Warns of a significant altitude loss after take off or low altitude go around (> 245 ft) with gear or flaps not in landing conf.TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) .TOO LOW GEAR (if R/A < 500. speed and / or aircraft configuration. The Mode 3 Alert: 1) .GPWS RED LIGHT Mode 2A active during climb out. This provides alerting for cruise for flight into terrain where the terrain is not rising significantly or the aircraft is not descending rapidly: 1) . or within 2 dots of the G/S.TERRAIN 2) . initial approach when Flaps are not in landing conf and the aircraft is not on the Glide Slope centre line. cruise. Mode 4B Cruise approach with Gear Down and Flaps not in landing Conf: 1) .TOO LOW TERRAIN. The Mode 4 Alert: 1) .TERRAIN .TOO LOW FLAPS (if R/A < 245.88/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes MODE 2: Excessive closure to Terrain Warns of rapidly rising terrain with respect to the aircraft.TOO LOW TERRAIN 2) . IAS < 160) Mode 4C After takeoff or low altitude Go Around when Gear or Flaps are not in landing conf.

and the loudness and rate of the message increases. as well as the tower wind. As the aircraft flies towards the terrain the first warning is the GPWS Mode 4 saying TOO LOW TERRAIN and normally this is enough for a pilot to commence recovery. METAR or TAF is always true. Below 150 ft RA it is desensitised to reduce nuisance alerts. If landing is to be performed in FLAPS 3 the LDG FLAP 3 pushbutton should be selected ON on the OVHD panel. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. T. The Flap mode is then inhibited when CONFIG 3 is selected. Still for purposes of demonstration they maintain their current path and then they will get the EGPWS Warning Alert at which time they should carry out the Emergency recovery procedure. After take off get them to maintain level flight at approximately the height of some terrain feature. In this case ECAM LDG MEMO displays FLAPS ……… 3 rather than FLAP ……… FULL. In 95% of the cases the FMGC provides the correct VAPP on the PERF APPR page. Be aware that the wind direction provided by the Tower or ATIS is given in the same reference as the runway direction (magnetic or true) whereas the wind provided by VOLMET. . LDG CONF selection computes VLS and associated deceleration prediction but is not connected to GPWS. However you must explain that for purposes of demonstration they will maintain their current path and the next event will be the EGPWS Caution with the TAD pop up.89/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes 2) .GPWS AMBER LIGHT It starts below 1000 ft RA. once FLAP 3 or FLAP FULL landing configuration has been inserted. Note that on MCDU PERF APP page.011 VAPP DETERMINATION (00 :10) VAPP NORMAL CONFIGURATION VAPP ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION GS MINI PROTECTION VAPP NORMAL CONFIGURATION VAPP is computed as a factor of VLS (1. Pressing the glideslope pushbutton stops the alert and turns off the amber G/S. The landing configuration is by DEFAULT FLAPS FULL. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. INSTRUCTION In order to demonstrate the EGPWS functions you must explain to the trainees that for the purposes of demonstration they have to ignore the GPWS warnings and the EGPWS Caution in order to see the EGPWS Warning.23 VS1G) of the landing configuration. In case of a further violation the alert returns.

In order to prepare the approach a nd landing. provided the landing is performed manually with ATHR OFF and there is no ice or expected downburst. but the VLS is not necessarily available at that time on the PFD because the A/C flies at a higher speed or because the abnormal CONF is not yet reached. GS MINI PROTECTION In order to benefit from Ground Speed mini protection you have to fly with managed airspeed. So the aircraft IAS will vary while flying the approach to cope with the gusts or wind changes. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The ECAM then gives the value to be added to the VLS value displayed on the PFD. VAPP = VLS + max 15 kts can be inserted. the FMS considers the wind direction to be in the same reference as the runway direction. insert the magnetic wind direction. . therefore if the airport is magnetic referenced. This minimum level is the energy the aircraft will have at landing with the expected tower wind. the PFD displays a correct VLS related to the actual slats / flaps configuration. The purpose of the GS mini protection is to always keep the A/C energy level above a minimum value. Once in APPR phase. VAPP is computed using the current Gross Weight. the aircraft GS should never drop below GS mini in the approach while the winds are changing. unless both SFCCs have failed. The principle is to refer to VREF (VLS CONF full). and to add VREF from the QRH table. GS mini = VAPP – Tower head wind component In order to achieve that goal. VAPP ABNORMAL CONFIGURATION (slats / flaps. The ground speed of the aircraft at that time which is called GS mini. the pilot needs to know VAPP in advance. In that case. VAPP is computed at the predicted Landing Weight while the A/C is in CRZ and DES phases. it is advisable to fly at a minimum speed higher than VLS to improve the handling characteristics of the A/C. It is possible to increase the VAPP in case of a strong suspected downburst. In some of these abnormal configurations. flight controls etc). In this case VAPP will be determined using the QRH. regardless of the wind variations or gusts. which can be read on PERF APPR or QRH.90/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes On PERF APPR. It is possible to insert a lower VAPP (minimum of VLS) if there is no wind. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. When a slats / flaps abnormal configuration occurs.

which ensures that the aircraft GS is at least equal to GS mini. The FMGS uses the instantaneous wind component experienced by the aircraft. you must keep to the designed syllabus and not invent you own scenarios. The real aircraft. IAS Target Speed = GS mini + Current headwind component This target speed is limited by VFE-5 in case of very strong gusts and. is subject to aerodynamic forces as a result of control inputs. . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. In the development phase of the Simulator construction knowledge is required of what events will be simulated. in flight. as the simulator is only certified (and designed) for certain combinations of simultaneous failures we. F. F. In short. as Instruc tors.01 ENGINE ABNORMAL STARTS (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. In addition. the effect of the current wind variations is smoothly decreased so as to avoid too high speeds in the flare (1/3 of current wind variations taken into account).91/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The FMGS continuously computes an IAS target speed. To demonstrate the GS mini function insert a strong headwind so that as the trainees turn onto final they can see the managed VAPP increase due to the headwind.00 INTRODUCTION TO THE FAILURE PHASE When a Training Syllabus is being created an important part of the creation process is knowledge of how a Simulator is reverse engineered to simulate an aircraft. If instantaneous wind is lower than the tower wind. should not try to design our own combination of failures because the results may not represent reality and so lead to negative training. by VAPP in case of tailwind. other than in a minor sense. This is why we cannot realistically give instruction in recovery from unusual attitudes with the expectation of simulating the “seat of the pants” feeling that an aircraft will give. below 400ft. When we fly the simulator the motion system is designed to give the same effect in pitch and roll but due to logistics we cannot simulate yaw. in what combination and whether subsequent actions from Ground staff can be simulated by a reset.

Establishing good communications between the cockpit and ground crew or cabin staff to establish which engine is on fire. the Ground Engineer and the Cabin Crew. For this seque nce of events to occur correctly you need to remove the inserted fault as soon as the fuel flow is cut off. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. 3. The engine must be cranked which enables the engine to be ventilated to remove fuel vapours after the unsuccessful start attempt. 2. Cross Bleed start 6. Manual Engine Start 7. Starting without APU Bleed.) As the fire is “within” the engine there is no point in trying to extinguish it with the Engine Fire Extinguishers which only act on the exterior surface of the engine. The procedure says to switch off both Packs before connecting the ground air but does not specifically say when to pressurise with ground air. The only action to be carried out by the Instructor is to ensure the APU Bleed is inoperative. Our syllabus contains the following Engine start Problems: 1. What we are demonstrating is how the FADEC senses the problem and stops the fuel flow while cranking the engine and then attempting another start. This start fault is initiated from the IOS and should be inserted before the start is commenced. This briefing can be conveniently done by the PNF reading aloud the procedure in its entirety before commencement. Hot start. Start Valve Stuck. The fault should be reinserted once the start is in progress and only removed on command of the PF. If the burning has not stopped. Start valve stuck 4. The following events need to briefed by the pilots before carrying out the QRH or Volume 3 actions. Starting without APU Bleed 5. It is important to establish which e ngine is on fire and react accordingly. . This event needs a complete understanding of the interaction between the Crew. Wherever possible the correct actions by the Trainees should result in a correct e ngine start. Tailpipe Fire 3. and consider opening the cockpit window to confirm. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The PF should have his hand in the vicinity of the Engine Master switch but does not need to intervene while ever the FADEC is in control. 4. consider the use of external fire extinguishers (Note that they can cause severe corrosive damage and should only be considered after the procedure has been completed. This start fault is initiated from the IOS and should be inserted before the start is commenced. Tailpipe fire.92/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND From an Instructional point of view we need to train our crews how to start the engines in both Normal and Non-Normal situations. The procedure for dealing with a tailpipe fire is contained in QRH chapter 2. Engine Relight in Flight INSTRUCTION 1. Hot start 2. The most likely sources of information concerning an engine tailpipe fire are the ground crew or cabin staff when starting engines.

the take-off is divided into low and high speed regimes and a speed of 100 knots is chosen as the dividing line. The point that needs briefing to the Trainees is that they must recognise the problem because there is no ECAM action that tells them to carry out a Manual Engine start after a shutdown. it is possible to reject for any reason. This event only requires the Instructor to remove the Engine Failure from the IOS. Task sharing. Starter limitations not known. or incorrect. Notify ATC. Inserting on the IOS an event that will lead to a Manual Engine start will require an engine shutdown to be performed. whichever occurs first). and the time available to make the correct decision is limited. If you have time an EGT over limit will demonstrate the need for vigilance during this procedure. Decision and call out (STOP. F. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.93/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Connect the ground air when the Packs are off and the Crew asks you to do so. merely that it divides the take-off into low and high speed. Ensure correct radio calls are made for this procedure. After start scans not carried after an abnormal start. 5. COMMON ERRORS No. . GO and V1). the ECAM inhibits warnings which are not of paramount importance between 80 kts and 1500 ft (or 2 minutes after lift off. Deceleration actions and control. Consequently. No action is required from the IOS to carry out this exercise. Manual Engine Start. Cross bleed start not coordinated with ATC or the ground. The action of rejecting a take-off can be hazardous.02 ENGINE FAILURES REJECTED TAKE-OFF (00:15 + video) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Failure identification (crew communication). below 100 knots. any warning received in this period is rather important and needs to be carefully considered. To assist decision making. including obtaining permission from ATC as well as the ground staff. Review of non inhibited warnings. 6. 7. ECAM actions (if appropriate). Therefore. timing during manual start. Engine Relight in Flight. To assist with this. During the relight the PNF must keep his hand close to the Engine Master switch as the FADEC cannot interrupt the start process. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Cross Bleed start. There is no significance to 100 knots. Complementary actions and check-lists.

It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.94/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Above 100 knots. Use ATC. the take-off must be continued as it may be impossible to stop the aircraft on the runway remaining. on the ground. Irrespective of who is PF once the CM1 initiates the RTO the CM1 is PF. Inability to use mechanical seat controls. clear the runway if safe to do so. As the ECAM is inoperative on Battery Power we now ignore the ECAM procedure as it will be lost and follow the On Ground Emergency Evacuation checklist at the rear of the QRH. fire service and cabin staff to gain as much information as possible to assist in making a decision on whether to evacuate or not. Omitting to select parking brake on. be “go-minded” unless major failures or ECAM warnings occur. If the event happens to be an Engine Fire and the ECAM calls for shutting the second engine down do so. ENGINE FAILURE OR FIRE AFTER V1 (00:20) ENGINE FAILURE ENGINE FIRE APPROACH ECAM PROCEDURES FMGS PROCEDURES ONE ENGINE OUT APPROACH AND LANDING ONE ENGINE OUT GO-AROUND COMMON ERRORS This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If no evacuation is necessary. Once above V1. and approaching VI. The CM2 should confirm the Autobrake response. is to open the cockpit window and look out (Don’t do this in the simulator!). Ensure you leave the simulator in the correct state so before leaving retract the flaps and remove any failures. This checklist can be stopped if the Evacuation is not required. . For variety you can change where you do these exercises. Commence ECAM actions. INSTRUCTION RTO exercises are invariably carried out at the end of the sessions. ATC and / or Cabin crew not informed. Reverse. Reversers remain engaged after aircraft stop. silence any audio warning and advise the tower by use of the phrase “Stopping on runway”. COMMON ERRORS Disarming of auto brake due to instinctive manual braking. Remember that the simplest way to confirm an engine fire. Bring the airplane to a complete stop on the runway centreline with the Parking Brake on and advise the Cabin Crew by PA “Cabin Crew To Your Stations”. but be aware that your brakes will be hot.

If it were possible to see the slip index at the same time as the ß target they would not be superimposed as they are showing different things. as the thrust is now reduced it is required for the pilot to lower the nose of the aircraft to account for the reduced level of thrust. or sit referenced to a vertical plane we tend to notice the rolling caused by uneven lift before we are aware of the yaw. 2 or 3 is set. So centralising the ß target means we have caused the sum of forces to be balanced in the most efficient way possible. When an aircraft experiences an engine failure the offset thrust from the remaining engine(s) causes the aircraft nose to yaw towards the inoperative engine.5º nose up and push the rudder to centralise the ß target. Adjust pitch attitude and monitor speed trend arrow (minimum speed V2) until SRS has stabilised. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. As human beings are used to stand. The rudder trim index moves at 1º This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The result of this is that there will be some residual side slip. This is why ME IFR Flight Instructors have to spend considerable time teaching their trainees the importance of using rudder to centre the slip index in a conventional aircraft before inputting a roll command. This yaw moment causes increased lift from the wing with the operative engine. The Beta (ß) target (outlined in blue) replaces the side slip indicator on the PFD when there is engine power asymmetry and CONF 1. The PF should maintain runway centreline with rudder. No drag devices on the wing and the rudder positioned to balance the offset thrust. By pushing the rudder like this we are now counteracting the yaw caused by the offset thrust and this means that the spoilers will retract when no longer required to stop the wing from rising.95/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes ENGINE FAILURE When they commence their Transition Course your Trainees should have a good understanding of the correct actions to follow when they experience an engine failure after V1 with a conventional aircraft. When the ß target is centred total drag is minimised even though there is a small amount of side slip. When an Airbus FBW aircraft senses an engine failure the Yaw Damper will react to the detected sideslip and the spoilers on the wing with the operative engine(s) will raise so that the aircraft will maintain a bank angle of less than 10º with no pilot input on the controls. It is your job to ensure they understand the new principles involved with an Airbus FBW aircraft. The change over from yellow side slip index to blue ß target may not occur instantaneously. Centring the ß target means pushing the rudder pedal so that the ß target is centred under the central index. At VR. visually or with assistance of the PFD yaw bar (if available). We should not engage the auto pilot with the aircraft in an untrimmed state so once the rudder has been pushed to centre the ß target the rudder trim can be used to reduce the load on the pilots feet. With an Airbus FBW aircraft the situation is engineered rather differently. Of course. rotate smoothly to 12. .

Once your trainees have reached competency with the procedure using the Autopilot you can fail the Autopilot before take off so they can practise the exercise without the benefit of the automation. If a flameout has occurred. ECAM actions may be started above 400 ft RA. cancel warnings and identify the failure when appropriate. Remember that during training we don’t want our trainees confused as to what to do. As far as performance is concerned Airbus extends the 2nd Segment to 1500ft AAL and so can ignore the 3rd and 4th Segments as the level of performance exceeds (in all cases) these limits. Consequently it is read after the “After Take off” checklist. stabilised and is flying in a safe direction. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. and cancels the MASTER WARNING. the PNF is to call “ENGINE FAILURE”. Retract gear on command. The action of putting the start switch to ignition confirms the relight attempt being made by the FADEC. The priority is to ensure that the aircraft is climbing. .96/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes per second so can take almost 20 seconds to move into the required position in high thrust situations. It is not necessary to rush into doing the ECAM drills and 400 ft is the MINIMUM altitude at which commencement of ECAM drills should be considered. After detecting an engine failure. Your briefing should make the exercise obvious. configuration changes etc. Once we clean the aircraft up we are no lo nger so critically concerned with efficient flight so we see the ß target is replaced with the conventional slip index. The takeoff performance is calculated by maintaining Flexible Take Off Thrust until setting MCT at 1500 ft AAL but selecting TOGA is allowed for 10 minutes (5 minutes FAA) maximum. then a relight may be considered at a later stage when aircraft has been cleaned up and a safe flight path established. Note when a positive climb has been established by the RA and the VS and announce accordingly. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. It is important to determine whether the engine has suffered a flameout or has structural damage. without identifying which engine has failed. The PNF should closely monitor the aircraft’s flight path. The Status page is a reflection of what is available for landing. ECAM actions can be interrupted as necessary to allow both pilots to monitor level-off. Absence of rotation of N1 or N2 or sounds of damage indicate the current condition.

Thrust Lever Example PF PNF Reads ECAM line “THRUST LEVER 1 IDLE” Selects Thrust Lever 1 and says “THRUST LEVER 1 CONFIRM” “THRUST LEVER 1 CONFIRMED” Moves Thrust Lever 1 to Idle Position Engine Master Switch PF PNF Reads ECAM line “ENGINE MASTER 1 OFF Selects Engine Master 1 and says “ENGINE MASTER 1 CONFIRM” Switches off Engine Master 1 “ENGINE MASTER 1 CONFIRMED” The procedure just above is to be followed for all guarded switches and any non reversible actions. You should not hesitate to freeze the simulator if an unsafe situation develops during training. Don’t forget that the Trainee probably made his errors because he didn’t fully understand what was happening. . master switch or a fire pushbutton without positive confirmation from both pilots as follows. From a piloting point of view it is far easier to have an engine failure close to VR than it is to have a failure when in initial climb at say 150 ft. Don’t insert an unextinguishable fire in flight but use this scenario for a RTO or on short final to lead to an evacuation exercise. When we insert a Fire Warning the thrust of the engine is not affected. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Consequently. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.97/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes There must be no movement of thrust lever. the second bottle. Generally for airborne training select the situation where the fire is extinguished after the second bottle as it tends to a realistic situation. You therefore need to explain what went wrong and when it went wrong and how to do it correctly. ENGINE FIRE Inserting an Engine Fire can be done so that it will extinguish after the discharge of the first bottle. or not at all. Vary the point where you insert the failure to add some more realism. Put the aircraft back in the lined up position and quietly restore all controls while explaining what went wrong. once safely airborne encourage Autopilot engagement to assist in flying accurately.

ECAM actions must not interfere with flight path monitoring. At some hot. If the engine failure occurs beyond the point at which the two SIDs differ there will be no TMPY F-PLAN created although the EOSID will be shown in yellow This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. APPROACH The Airbus Single Aisle family are designed to land with full flap when operating with only one engine operative. In some situations the slats may still be retracting so Airbus recommends putting the thrust lever in the Climb detent and then back to the FLX / MCT detent.98/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes In all single engine situations we have to place the thrust levers in the MCT detent once we have accelerated to green dot speed. If an engine failure occurs before the point at which the EOSID differs from the planned SID (Common Point) then the EOSID will appear as a TMPY F-PLAN. This is so as not to trigger the GO ROUND mode inadvertently by selecting TOGA with the Slats / Flaps not retracted. The use of Autothrust when on final is a matter of individual preference. at high gross weights the selection of landing flap has to carried out after final approach path interception. They will not be superimposed as they represent different values but they should remain centred by rudder pressure. FMGS PROCEDURES The two FMGS procedures of interest when operating with one engine are the use of the EO SID and the EO CLR prompt. to make manual braking easier. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. to centre the nosewheel steering and to recover full rudder travel. An explanation of both these functions is contained in FCOM 4.04. If engaged and the thrust fluctuates around the 80% value the ß target is replaced with the slip index and vice versa. Once the specific action has been carried out the PF should instruct the PNF to “Continue ECAM”. Complete ECAM until STATUS page appears then carry out the after take-off Check List (if applicable) before reading STATUS. The use of EOSID routing is dependent on there being an EOSID defined in the database for that particular runway. ECAM actions may be temporarily stopped at any stage on command of the PF for the PNF to carry out an action as for example flap retraction. Selecting the INSERT prompt makes this SID the Active Flight Plan and NAV mode allows it to be tracked. ECAM PROCEDURES ECAM procedures should not be started below 400 ft AAL. Rudder trim should be reset to zero on very short final. . or high airfields.

using HDG mode and with ATC approval. Consider starting the APU and the use of APU BLEED if performance limited. Good trimming is beneficial. S. In manual flight an engine out landing is essentially conventional. the pitch target is now 12. Your trainees may prefer to use manual thrust when hand flying. ONE ENGINE OUT GO-AROUND From a Training viewpoint there is no benefit to be gained in giving an engine failure while the autopilot is flying the aircraft. so think about aircraft navigation with respect to terrain.99/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes on the ND. The FMA will indicate GA TRK. to make manual braking easier. ONE ENGINE OUT APPROACH AND LANDING If an engine failure / fire has occurred on take off. more simply follow the EOSID. There will not be an Engine Out routing appear on the ND. to centre the nosewheel steering and to recover full rudder travel. To follow the EOSID in this case the crew can perform a DIR TO one of the EOSID waypoints and then modify the F-PLAN or. The EO CLR prompt on the active PERF page would remove this bank angle limit if depressed. and this becomes Green Dot at acceleration altitude. and then is instructed to carry out a Missed Approach. target speed is the memorised approach speed or the speed at engagement of go-around. . When an engine failure is detected the bank angle commanded by the FD is limited to 15º when speed is below or at manoeuvring speed of the current configuration (F. as it is easier to anticipate rudder and trim inputs when the thrust varies. Flap retraction and acceleration will take place in level flight at EO acceleration altitude. Apply rudder to compensate for the increase in thrust and keep the ß target centred. The go-around is essentially the same as on 2 engines. As this is a go-around. The EO CLR prompt should only be pressed in the event of a successful relight of a failed engine. Once the Approach has been activated it serves no purpose and can be cleared. and then has an engine fail while hand flying. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.5º. which is displayed as a yellow line on the ND. Autoland (CAT 3 SINGLE) is available on one engine (as shown on ECAM). so keep the slip indication centred. the overweight landing checklist may be required. COMMON ERRORS This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. O). We know the autopilot flies very well! If the syllabus indicates a missed approach with an engine failure the intention of the exercise is to make the weather conditions such that the PF disconnects the autopilot for a manual landing. or in the event of wrong detection or FADEC fault. Rudder trim should be reset to zero on very short final.

Poor maintenance and monitoring of required track. ß Target not fully centred. OBSTACLE STRATEGY In certain parts of the world the drift down ceiling can be lower than the terrain. (FCOM 4. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Consequently the initial descent will be steep to capture the original cruise speed. and the case during ETOPS operations where time from a suitable airfield is of prime importance (fixed speed strategy).000 feet on the net flight path. the situation where terrain clearance is a concern (obstacle strategy). The descent should stabilise around –1200 ft / min around FL300 if conducted according to the syllabus. As before brief the trainees before releasing the simulator and ensure they are aware of the changes between the standard strategy and the drift down strategy. the relevant obstacle clearance margin of 2 . When you release the simulator and activate the engine failure you This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Having demonstrated the standard strategy freeze the simulator and reposition at the same level at which you demonstrated the standard strategy. STANDARD STRATEGY During your briefing show the trainees where to find the drift down ceiling for the current weight. These cover the situation where terrain clearance is not a concern (standard strategy). SID. With the Simulator in level flight go through the actions with them before inserting the engine failure.30 + FMS PROG page).100/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Over rotation on take off leading to speed below V2. Not aware of MSA ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND If an engine should fail in cruise there are three logical strategies available. and particularly covering specific portions of the route. At any point of a critical area on the route. EOSID or ATC instructions not accurately followed. If the obstacle strategy or the fixed speed strategy apply on a particular route this is communicated to the crew during flight dispatch. Lack of task sharing discipline during manual flight (FCU actions). during descent. It is quite acceptable to position at FL390 to demonstrate the speed loss before descent. it must always be possible to escape while ensuring. Not rotating to correct pitch attitude on go-around. . ECAM non-reversible actions carried out without proper crew confirmation. Not trimming the rudder.04. There is no point continuing after they are established in a stabilised descent. Point out that they are cruising at the same speed as the drift down speed so any delay before descent will result in a bleed off in airspeed before descent initiation.

Rushed actions. Further. Tables are available for long range cruise performance. time to descend. However if there are no more any terrain considerations they revert to normal LRC speed. or initial descent. ETOPS operations are taught as a separate course so the above is for reference only. Once established in descent you will have a descent rate appreciably less than with the standard strategy. OPEN DES not selected. FMGS and QRH The FMGS PROG page will show the EO MAX REC altitude. if an engine fails speed will decay very quickly requiring prompt crew response. One engine out operations will typically use 15% more fuel than with both engines. Having established in descent the normal action would be to start the APU. FIXED SPEED STRATEGY The constraint in ETOPS operation is time to the nearest diversion. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. There is also a graph to calculate gross ceiling. COMMON ERRORS A/THR not disconnected. as it is important to complete the drill correctly. Distraction from primary tasks. Thus. whereas This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.80 / 340 knots (established before dispatch). . cruise at 340 knots (or other established figure) or the thrust limited speed. the speed target is now M0. The decision on which technique is appropriate should be taken during the aircraft deceleration.78 / 320 knots or M0. the altitude selected should be 15 000 ft or other established before dispatch. OVERVIEW The ECAM actions and placing the thrust lever to MCT should not be hurried. Once established in the descent. the relevant table can be entered. At high flight levels close to limiting weights. not in the shortest possible time. INSTRUCTION You may prefer to demonstrate the Obstacle Strategy first as the time taken in slowing up to green dot will allow you to talk through the procedure.101/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes will have plenty of time to explain the actions as you slow up to green dot. following the failure. Incorrect strategy. which may become a factor if a long diversion is contemplated. Once levelling off. In the QRH there are tables containing details of engine out ceiling. an in-flight check of fuel consumed and time to destination. and the information assimilated. distance taken and fuel used. In the scenarios under which we operate further terrain problems are not envisaged but you should point out the theoretical situation where at the drift down ceiling there is higher terrain in front of the aircraft.

The second scenario is similar to flying into a cloud of volcanic ash with a virtually simultaneous failure of the engines and this leads to the Emergency Electric configuration. As the second scenario is rather more difficult it is the one we will consider here. and a safe flight path established. stating nature of emergency and intentions.102/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes the Normal Strategy is rather rushed owing to the decay in airspeed. ditching. VHF2 (VHF3) and This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Aircraft status : systems.). relight parameters. ALL ENGINE FLAME OUT (00:20) BACKGROUND CONSIDERATIONS PROCEDURE COMMON ERRORS INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND There are two scenarios for an All Engine Flameout. It is important at this stage to correctly identify the failure as it can be easily confused with all engine generators fault. Minimum RAT speed. CONSIDERATIONS Monitoring of flight path and parameters. Control of the aircraft must be taken immediately by CM1.. Situational awareness. .). Consider use of transponder emergency code. F/CTL law. In this case electrical power is not lost and both pilots retain their instrumentation.. Choice of optimum speed. ECAM will prioritise checklists so to avoid confusion so the trainees must read the ECAM carefully to correctly identify the failure. Related consequences (Pressurisation. Establish communications with ATC.. Communications (ATC. the RAT is deployed and ECAM prioritises checklists. ECAM actions (APU use.. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The first scenario follows on from a Drift Down procedure and we assume the APU has been started using an engine driven generator. forced landing. Once established in descent it is normal to start the APU. cabin). transponder. It is vital to establish good crew communication and to apply efficient task-sharing.. Relight monitoring and system recovery. PROCEDURE Following a dual engine failure the flight deck indications change drastically as generators drop off line.

which will be blank. ENGINE RELIGHT IN FLIGHT (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION ALTERNATIVE EXERCISE COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND Factors influencing decision to attempt relight. If there is no relight within 30 sec ECAM will order the engine master switches to be placed off for 30 sec and then on again. Lack of situational awareness. . Start the APU once you are below the APU Battery Start Limit altitude. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Engine relight not monitored (stopwatch/parameters). Lack of communication. COMMON ERRORS Incorrect MAYDAY call Incorrect speed choice and lack of monitoring.103/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes ATC2 are not supplied so VHF 1 is the only means of communicating the emergency to air traffic control. The ECAM actions can be commenced. Insert a DIR TO someplace more or less in front of the aircraft so there is a track line on the ND so they turn away from their previous track. INSTRUCTION Whichever scenario you have leading to this failure it will most likely be initiated by a repositioning to FL350 which puts the aircraft directly above the threshold of the runway in use. Engine relight in flight procedure (wind -milling and starter assisted). This can be easily seen by looking at the ATC and VHF 2 windows. APU started too late. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Confusion with ELEC EMER CONFIG. Maximum gliding range is achieved at green dot speed although this will not be displayed on the PFD if the APU generator is not available. Monitor the aircraft position so they are conveniently placed for the next exercise. with attention to optimum relight speed. Task sharing and actions requiring crew confirmation. Relight envelope and limitations (loss of protections). Once the APU has been started and the Bleed Air is available remove the flameout so that the engine relight will be successful. This is to permit ventilation of the combustion chamber. Once the APU is available and you are below the APU Bleed Limit altitude the optimum speed is green dot.

Procedure initiated at inappropriate time in relation to workload and without checklist. gather all relevant information to decide whether a relight should be attempted. Actions requiring crew confirmation not cross-checked during relight (e.104/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Systems to restore or engine shut down procedure. Check for satisfactory indications of N1. Ensure cross checking of vital controls before movement. Flight Management and Flight Guidance. The crew must be ready to take appropriate action in case of an abnormal start as no start protections are provided in flight. N2 and oil quantity. Eng Master ON or OFF). INSTRUCTION Ensure you have removed the engine failure before the trainees attempt a relight.g. Before attempting a relight in flight. and when the engine has been shut down remove the flameout and insert a hot start during the relight. This will reinforce the requirement to monitor the relight and manually terminate the start with the Engine Master switch. The stopwatch should be used to monitor light up after fuel flow increase. icing or volcanic ash encounter and their effects on a successful relight. when workload will be lower? Refer to QRH chapter 2 for ENG RELIGHT (in flight) procedure. ALTERNATIVE EXERCISE If you have an excess of time and the syllabus requires a single engine approach it is possible to insert a flameout. Consider engine damage. The FMGC also computes performance parameters and guides the aircraft along This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Further. F. Auto start is recommended as the FADEC will determine whether an assisted start or a wind-milling start is appropriate. is there a more appropriate time to relight. No light up as failure not removed from IOS. . It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.03 DUAL FMGS FAILURE (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND Each FMGC has two parts. COMMON ERRORS Relight attempt made without checking engine parameters. No timing for light-up or engine draining.

Once they have accomplished all required actions they should attempt an FMGC reset. The MEL extract should be consulted and explained before the session commences. FLIGHT MANAGEMENT Navigation and radio management Flight Planning and management Performance optimisation and predictions B.105/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes a pre-planned route. FLIGHT ENVELOPE VAPP computation GW and CG monitoring and display When there is a complete failure of both FMGG’s the following will be the main items lost and are detailed on the ECAM: AP I + 2 FD 1 + 2 A/THR VAPP and GS mini (not shown o n ECAM) Auto Landing elevation INSTRUCTION The syllabus for this session is flown with only one FMS so fail the required one at the start of the session. The relevant functions of the parts of the FMGG are as follow: A. . trips its CB so it cannot be reset but the failed FM2 can be reset because the CB does not trip. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. when failed. If in RVSM airspace a PAN call is required as the aircraft is no longer RVSM compliant as there is no autopilot. Prior to inserting the failure of the remaining FMS remind the trainees that they will loose the AP. FD and the A/THR. The FM1. Remove the failure during the time that the reset procedure calls for the CB to be tripped so that it will be transparent to the crew what you have done. The FPV is available so select it. Entering the simulator select the relevant radio aids on the RMP and change the frequency and bearing from the retained values so the trainees will have to practice tuning the aids. Get them to track to a suitable Navaid by giving them the frequency. The red FD on each PFD indicates FD failure so they should be switched off which will then give the blue track index. The PNF will have to get out of seat the find the circuit breaker that needs to be tripped as the panel is not normally in its This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. FLIGHT GUIDANCE CONTROLS FD AP A/THR C.

The default PFD and ND contain all the information needed to land the aircraft. . INSTRUCTION The trainees will be aware of the problem before reading the ECAM because of the loss of FCU information plus the Auto pilot disconnect cavalry charge plus the Auto thrust disconnect tone each 5 seconds. It is a good idea to advise the PNF to write down all ATC instructions to help monitoring. If you want to put the panel in its correct position the simulator has to be settled but the IOS seat will now be some distance rearward.04 TOTAL FCU FAILURE BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION COMMON ERRORS (00:15) BACKGROUND Insert this dual failure by failing one FCU and reading the ECAM message. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. COMMON ERRORS Incorrect FMGS reset procedures Not using FPV and not deselecting FDs. F. The PF does not need to wait until the ECAM message to set the thrust manually. They set it and then just turn until it is centred. and then use the Total Failure option. The Mach indication is lost because the symbol generator puts the ILS information in the same place. For all their careers the trainees have had a bug to remember what their heading is. You can insert a thunderstorm cell so they can see the radar presentation. Some Simulators refer to loss of one system as “Loss of Redundancy”. then fail the other thus leading to the dual failure. It will be difficult for you (as Instructor) to read the ND in order to give radar vectors so you may be able to use previous track information on a MAP page of the IOS to assist. but now they have lost this lifelong device. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. so insert this first.106/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes flight position.

These are Low Air Pressure Overheat Loss of Fluid May be possible to restore at a lower level The overheat should disappear after the pump has been switched off for some time allowing reuse of pump. INSTRUCTION You have three ways of ending up with no Hydraulic Pressure. The reset procedure should be referred to in the briefing so that it can be carried out correctly in the simulator. CONF FULL selected on MCDU PERF page for VAPP calculation with MCDU. Importance of good crew communication and co-ordination as autopilot is inoperative. .107/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The conversion of millibars into feet is usually not easily carried out under pressure. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. A PAN call is required in RVSM airspace due to loss of autopilot. Therefore if you want them to practise landing in Direct (SA) or Alternate Law (LR) make them loose all the Hydraulic fluid in This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.05 DUAL HYDRAULIC FAILURE (00:25) CONSIDERATIONS INSTRUCTION EXTRA INFORMATION PROCEDURE VAPP AND LANDING DISTANCE CONSIDERATIONS Control of flight path and navigation. F. Currently our syllabus does not contain an effective reset so they will accomplish the approach and landing with no FCU information. One of the principles of training is that the trainees should not have to decide whether a particular procedure is correct but be presented with a clear choice leading to a certain conclusion. Coordination with ATC. If the reset is to be effective and transparent you must remove the fault in the period when the CB is tripped. Use of selected speed. Accurate following of FD and smooth control inputs. Unable to restore in flight. The PNF can assist by calculating this on paper. Correct task prioritisation. QRH landing distance. Flight control system architecture (QRH 5.03).

Additionally. We do not consider a single hydraulic failure during the Transition course as it has minimal impact on the landing capability of the aircraft. In both cases select a value of Zero. as procedures are lengthy.108/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes two systems as opposed to any other option. establish clear priorities. This will give them an unambiguous choice. . Once the gear is down we are in Direct Law as indicated by the message MANUAL PITCH TRIM USE but as there is no hydraulic pressure we cannot use the Trim Wheel. When the gear is lowered the connection between side stick and elevator is then direct so only a vary small movement of the elevator is possible. As the aircraft reduces speed while configuring for landing the new stable attitude is reflected by the neutral position of the side stick. As there are usually many tasks to fulfil. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Some simulators have a “Slider” and others require a value to be inserted. as there is no trim function there will be a continual load on the side stick in the pitch plane. Consequently it will be much easier to control the pitch if the Autothrust is disconnected. As the gear cannot be retracted a landing clearance should be obtained before lowering the gear. A dual hydraulic failure is different however. the approach briefing is necessarily comprehensive and good crew co-ordination is vital. When we have a single elevator we should also go into Direct Law by lowering the gear at 200 knots so that the elevator input is not dampened and thus control is more direct. If sufficient fuel remains take the time to plan and brief properly. The first time you give a dual failure let the trainees deal with the first failure in its entirety before giving them the second failure to contend with. If the horizontal stabiliser is lost we can still control the pitch through the elevators which can move through their entire range as long as the gear is up. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Any situation where we only have one elevator means that the result of a side stick pitch input is reduced to minimise the twisting effect the single elevator has on the fuselage. The centre of the elevators range of movement is the neutral elevator position prior to lowering the gear. Task sharing is important. The trainees should ask for a tractor to move them off the runway after landing. In all situations of dual failure in the syllabus the Green system is one of the failed systems so the gear will be lowered by gravity (paper checklist) and NWS will be lost. This is why the aircraft trim should be as close as possible to neutral before the gear is lowered. In this particular case we select the landing flap and reduce to VAPP before lowering the gear.

the L/G GRAVITY EXTENSION QRH check list should be used. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. 900 right etc. A stall warning during approach is just a warning. The procedure should be performed entirely with selected speed. after the FMGS has been prepared. The PNF should be briefed to watch the pitch during approach and touch down. However in a case such as this the PF can ask the PNF to prepare the FMGS and to brief him of what has been inserted. He should specify Left and Right pressure similar to the following example … 800 left. There needs to be efficient communication between the pilots as regards braking from the accumulator. . EXTRA INFORMATION Roll rate will always be reduced by loss of spoilers. Hard pitch inputs on the side stick during approach may trigger spurious stall warnings. The PNF should brief the PF on the go-around procedure from the same checklist. The PNF must keep up a continual call out of the applied pressure. It is recommended to have the gear down and be stabilised prior to starting the final descent.109/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If the Blue and Yellow systems should fail the gear is still lowered by gravity to preserve the Green system integrity. even if it is not changing. The approach briefing should concentrate on safety issues and should be given early. For landing gear gravity extension. The aircraft configuration should be established early prior to approach (on down wind or on a suitable place on long final) by asking for and performing SLATS or FLAPS JAMMED Checklist until the landing configuration has been achieved. If the G + Y is lost the pitch is higher due to slats only and this can lead to a potential duck under situation during the approach because of the PFs view of the runway with a possible risk of a tail strike upon touch down. PROCEDURE A dual hydraulic malfunction is considered as an Emergency situation (LAND ASAP in red) and shall be declared as such to the ATC units. It is due to the alpha probes fluctuating and does not necessarily require the application of TOGA power to prevent a stall. This situation is not uncommon with only one elevator and the application of TOGA will not make the aircraft easy to fly. not a stall. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The PF normally prepares the FMGS.

Task sharing and communications. Navigation aid tuning by RMP. Refer to the QRH with your trainees for complete information concerning VAPP and landing distance increment calculation. the Slats Flaps Jammed Checklist and the Landing Gear Gravity Extension Checklist contain additional information which should be read before the procedures are carried out (if time permits). F. AUTO FLIGHT and FMGS availability following failure. . The relevant QRH page has information regarding multiple failures. Raw data approach. It is important that task-sharing procedures are understood and adhered to. ECAM. cabin). Fuel gravity feeding considerations. A speed is added to the flap full VREF to get the applicable VAPP and a factor is applied to the distance to account for the loss or reduction in retardation devices. VAPP AND LANDING DISTANCE Any factoring of speeds or runway length are always applied to the base line of an aircraft with full flap in Normal law landing on the runway in the actual conditions as they exist. Direct law approach and landing. Remember the golden rules and fly the aircraft. ECAM procedure and status page APPR PROC considerations with RAT. Specific procedure for go around (EMER GEN recovery). Cockpit lighting. A briefing should cover the Approach to be carried out with mention of the specific missed approach procedure plus the specifics regarding to the state of the malfunctions.110/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes If you have two F/O’s this is how it should be done. the workload is immediately greatly increased. QRH use for approach and landing data. For the PF's awareness.06 EMERGENCY ELECTRICAL CONFIGURATION (00:20) CONSIDERATIONS INSTRUCTION OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES GRAVITY FUEL FEEDING CONSIDERATIONS EFIS. When all engine driven generators have been lost. Communications (ATC. The Autopilot is not available and CM1 must take control as only the following is available: This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. With such a combination of malfunctions. This is a serious emergency and ATC should be notified using appropriate phraseology (MAYDAY) so that greater separation between you and other traffic can be arranged. Before inserting the failure point out that at the moment of failure only the CM1 PFD and Upper ECAM will remain and that as the RAT extends and starts to produce power the ND will come back into view. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.111/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes CMI PFD (FPV but no FD) CM1 ND (after RAT extension) Upper ECAM CMI MCDU and FMGC 1 FCU INSTRUCTION Before the trainees get settled select the NAV button on the CM1 RMP and change the frequencies of the previously used radio aids so they will have to tune them for the approach. the RAT extends and then. Although the ECAM advises a landing as soon as possible. or the loss of one engine and the failure of the opposite and APU generators. To view the system pages you must press and hold the system button.it is possible for pilots to confuse emergency electrical configuration with an all engine failure. it would be unwise to attempt an approach at a poorly equipped airfield in marginal weather. but prolonged flight in this configuration is not recommended. It is important to identify the failure that has occurred . On release of the button the Upper screen reappears. The Emergency Electrical Configuration is due to the loss of all AC BUSSES (AC BUS 1+2). the CSM-G comes on line which takes about 5 sec during which the electrical network is powered by batteries only. The FPV is available if selected. This malfunction can be caused by: either the loss of all AC GEN. The ECAM procedure is a lengthy and complicated procedure. or the loss of both engines. To view an overflow page release the STS button and repress. . The red FD on the CM1 indicates that the FD information is unavailable so it should be switched off which will give the heading or track index in blue on the horizon. Depending on the simulator you will have a selection of GEN 1 fail plus GEN 2 fail OR GEN 1+2 fail OR a selection for Emergency Electrical configuration.

All types of approaches are flown manually with raw data (no AP. The line on the ECAM which says GEN 1+2…. The “old” RAT and the “new” (or Sundstrand) RAT.OFF then ON means that GEN 1 is selected off and 3 seconds later selected on and then GEN 2 is selected off and 3 seconds later is selected on. At gear extension. They are two types of RAT. EVENT AC BUS 1 + 2 LOSS LDG gear DOWN IAS < 125 knots IAS < 50 KNOTS OLD RAT NEW RAT 5 seconds Batt only then RAT extends + CSM-G on line BATT ONLY CSM-G BATT ONLY BATT ONLY RAT stalls BATT ONLY AC ESS lost BATT ONLY AC ESS lost If the flying time has to be extended refer to FLT ON BAT ONLY proc in QRH. The new RAT remains operational at all normal approach speeds. (depending on the RAT) the RAT stalls and electrical power supply is battery only. You can see which RAT is fitted to your simulator by reading the ECAM. All probe heating is lost. so if the APU is available start it and use the APU GEN. . A319. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If the APU is started (depleting the battery to do so) it most likely wont be able to be connected to the Bus. The preparation time including the understanding of the status necessarily takes some time and should not be rushed. limited to approximately 25 minutes. FD or A/THR). Brief that on battery power the ND will be lost and the ILS will only be visible on the CM1 PFD (which is where it should normally be looked at!) OPERATIONAL CONSEQUENCES Characteristic speeds are lost in final approach if on BATT power. Do not freeze the simulator during this period so the CM1 has to face the dual challenge of understanding the situation and of the preparation for landing. except CM1 Pitot and AOA. An exception is with two FO’s where freezing the simulator allows them both time to study the problem with out having to fly from the CM1 position. The electrical architecture of the other SA aircraft (A318. The both generators should not be both switched off at the same time. Do not lower the gear earlier than necessary in order to conserve battery life. If the minimum RAT speed is 140 knots then you have an “old” RAT. so if a discrepancy occurs between airspeed indications on CMI PFD and on STBY. A21) is different.112/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Brief that on an A320 the loss of both engine d riven generators is probably due to a Bus problem. Navaids must be tuned on RMP1 with the “old” RAT as FMGS is lost on BATT. disregard STBY indication.

The aeration is caused by the movement during transportation and is similar to the small air bubbles that appear in a glass when a beer or a fizzy soft drink is poured.07 NO FLAPS OR NO SLATS (00:20) BACKGROUND CONFIGURING COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND Task sharing and crew coordination. CONF FULL selected on MCDU PERF page for VAPP entry then change as necessary. F.24 outlines the available systems left after this failure. Go around procedure and briefing. . If the fuel pumps are lost and the fuel arrives at the engine by gravity a parcel of aerated fuel may arrive at the engine causing a problem. Therefore there is no NWS. a delay in starting the approach should be considered. Selected speed. Speed control for no flaps or no slats approach. However if the flight has not been flown at a high level for long enough. In the aircraft the fuel is forced by pumps into the engine and any remaining aeration is forced along by more fuel. RA 1 + 2 are lost with their associated auto callouts so the FO should make the call outs. Pitch angle (tail-strike) at landing if no flaps. The reversers are lost. Approach briefing and abnormal configuration procedure use. if the aircraft has been high enough for long enough the fuel will be de-aerated and flight can continue with no fuel pumps. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Approach speed and landing distance calculations. there is a restriction on the level for the rest of the flight.02. GRAVITY FUEL FEEDING Gravity Fuel Feeding procedure may be unclear in the Trainees minds. and before it can be put on board an aircraft must sit undisturbed for five hours. or not at all. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. no ANTI SKID but alternate braking available up to 1000 psi. The BSCUs are lost. When the fuel is delivered to the airport from the refinery it is put into (usually) underground storage. Should this problem arise when in the intermediate approach phase. Consequently.113/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The flight control law is initially ALTN and then DIRECT once landing gear is down. This time is for the de-aeration of the fuel. FCOM 3.

Remember that the aircraft is safe to fly down to VLS so do not allow your trainees to rush into configuring without reference to the correct procedure for doing so! The configuring procedure is referred to as the VFE next procedure. A demonstration on the FAROS Free Play FMGS Trainer will make it very easy for the Trainees to understand. 4. 1. No hydraulic pressure to move.114/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes There are four ways the slats or flaps do not move when commanded. and the factor to multiply the Flap Full Landing Distance (without Autobrake and according to the conditions) to give the physical length required from 50ft to a full stop (using maximum foot braking). This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Flap handle inoperative (so no signal given to move the surfaces). CONFIGURING It is an important concept that once the Approach has been activated speed control passes to the flap lever handle (assuming the normal use of managed speed). Increment to add to Flap Full VREF to obtain VAPP. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. If a computer reset will not restore the Slat Flap Control Computers the relevant surface will not move and (in the slat case) you will be in Alternate Law. The landing configuration will depend on the cause of the problem. 3. Asymmetric movement on each side of the wing so locked by the Wing Tip Brake (as seen in the No Flaps plus No Slats exercise). The technique for slowing up and configuring is given in the QRH. Therefore you should select the speed as soon as you are aware of a slat or flap problem and remain in selected speed until touch down. However you now will find that that selecting a flap position will result in an incorrect speed for the actual flight control surfaces (but still safe). COMMON ERRORS Rushing procedure. The relevant Go Around case needs to be briefed before the Approach is commenced so that each pilot knows what configuration and speed to aim for in the case of going around. 2. Starting approach before completing all procedures. The flap handle inoperative situation is not covered in our current syllabus. No electrical signal to give the order to move. Consequently your briefing will normally be part of that given for a Dual Hydraulic failure. When you are pre-briefing your trainees (the day before) advise them that this SFCC failure is not what you will be giving them in the session but that you will be creating the flight control surface problem (slats or flaps) by a dual hydraulic failure. Selected speed not used immediately at failure recognition. The PNF should read this procedure out aloud as a Briefing before it is performed. The QRH table Configuration Speed Distance Corrections for Failures gives the position of the Flap Lever handle. .

08 NO FLAPS PLUS NO SLATS (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION COMMON ERRORS BACKGROUND This exercise needs to be understood well by the Trainees as otherwise it will take too long to perform. In your pre-briefing (the day before) advise your trainees that you are going to lock the flaps and slats in the fully retracted position by activating the Wing Tip brake. . It is important that your briefing gets across the message that this is being done just to save some time in the session as the actions required by the Slats Jammed procedure have to be repeated for the Flaps Jammed procedure. As there is a Flight Control problem the speed should be immediately selected. In this case the aircraft remains in Normal Law for the exercise. (If you have Trainees with a poor comprehension of English it may be better to let them perform both ECAM procedures in their entirety in This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. INSTRUCTION As ATC you instruct the trainees to slow up (say 180 knots) so at Green Dot they will select Flap 1 which immediately gives an ECAM warning and the Slat indicator turns amber. Use of managed speed on final approach Go around procedure not briefed as applying to the situation. and only for purposes of training. in this particular case. as soon as they have selected the speed and before actioning the ECAM for the Slats Jammed ask them to select Conf 2 in order to get the Dual failure. Therefore. After take-off and with the Slats and Flaps fully retracted insert a Slats locked by WTB a nd also a Flaps locked by WTB. Rough handling. They need extra distance to prepare for the approach so give them an extended downwind so they are prepared approaching the FAF to put the gear down. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. There will be no indication to the crew of the problem until they move the flap lever to the Conf 1 or Conf 2 positions.115/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Wrong VAPP selection on MCDU. However this correct procedure will take some five minutes to perform and all actions will have to be duplicated with the dual failure. F. In real life the crew would deal with this problem before continuing the approach only to find some time later that on selecting Flap 2 they receive another ECAM warning with the Flap indicator also amber.

On a normal ILS Approach we press the APPR pushbutton to arm the LOC and the G/S. The flare part of the autoland is accomplished with a combination of Radio Altimeter This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The nose attitude is not much higher than normal but a prolonged flare incurs a real danger of a tail strike so instead of flaring for landing the better technique is to flare in reverse by easing the nose forward for landing. The AP may be used to 500 ft AGL. COMMON ERRORS Not selecting speed as soon as first problem arises. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. It is very important to point out that with the gear retracted and idle thrust on a 3º descent path in this configuration the aircraft will accelerate. Do not say something like … “let us see if the flaps are jammed as well” … because this implies that you can ignore an ECAM procedure and carry out your own investigation. After landing the brakes will get hot. Approaching the desired value restore the THR LVRS to their original manual thrust position.116/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes order to not confuse them. Follow the ECAM procedure and your speed will (depending on actual weight) be around 190 knots on final. Therefore if some speed reduction is made before touchdown the ground run will be much shorter. Not co-ordinating with ATC. Leaving the gear until on descent and consequently getting fast. . This action also programs the AP for an autoland. But allow an extra ten minutes to complete the exercise).09 DUAL RADIO ALTIMETER FAILURE (00:10) CONSIDERATIONS BACKGROUND PROCEDURE BACKGROUND GPWS will be inoperative. It is interesting to calculate the theoretical stalling speed in this configuration and find it is about 30 to 40 knots below your VAPP. Do this by ensuring the correct means of disconnecting the A/THR and then retard the THR LVRS about 2 cms and the speed will gradually bleed back to the desired value. Therefore the gear MUST be lo wered before the FAF otherwise the descent will be unstable. Therefore we can reduce to the Flap Full VREF+50 speed (which is in fact VLS speed in the 320 family aircraft). F. therefore apply extra caution with regard to terrain clearance. Not thinking about hot brake possibility before landing.

Therefore you cannot have the AP engaged when the G/S is armed and the RA’s have failed. Although only the LOC can be armed after the failure active the MDA value inserted in the FMGS is that for a CAT1 ILS as in fact the trainees will end up with a hand flown ILS (in Direct Law) and the relevant minima is CAT1. When the gear is lowered the control law becomes Direct. PROCEDURE With two RA’s the CM1 reads RA1 information and the CM2 reads RA2 information. If you remove the RA1 fault. . The vertical profile of the approach can follow the G/S raw data by selecting either V/S or FPA mode. Arm the Approach and then reinsert the RA1 fault you will loose the AP and the LOC and GS arming for the reasons given above. It is possible in this case to re-engage the AP and only engage the LOC mode. As with most cases of DIRECT law it is possible to set CONF 3 before lowering the gear so that the aircraft is in trim when DIRECT law comes into effect. We cannot have the AP in Direct Law so once again the AP will disconnect. It is probably a good idea to disconnect the AP before lowering the gear so the pilots are ready for the transition to Direct Law directly from Normal Law. Inserting a dual failure from the IOS when the Approach is armed will cause the AP to disconnect. If only one RA is working it supplies the information to both PFD’s. As the loss of RA1 causes the loss of the GPWS it is usually a no-go MEL item so you can fail RA2 before take-off and take the opportunity to explain the use of the MEL. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.10 UNRELIABLE SPEED / ALTITUDE (00:10) BACKGROUND PROCEDURE COMMON ERRORS INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. F. Be aware that the Flight Director can demand excessive roll rates close to the ground (below 400 ft AGL) as there is no automatic damping of roll demand as when there is GS capture. Once in the air and before arming the Approach fail RA1. The ECAM message will tell you that you will enter Direct Law on lowering the gear (and you will not be able to Arm the Approach).117/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes information plus Glide Slope information.

the V/S and FPA. Primarily these include. abnormal behaviour of AP.). If some sensors are independently affected. pitot or static probe sensor problems. The pitot sensors can be blocked d ue to several causes. ATHR. When static probes are affected. If all sensors a re simultaneously affected. The consequences are similar to the case when the pitot probe is blocked by a foreign object. pitch. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. . increases in climb and decreases in descent. but are not limited to. The full procedure is given in the QRH so refer to it during your briefing. jerky and delayed ALT indications.118/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND Unreliable speed or altitude indications can be caused by combinations of causes. Thus the measured pressure decreases. no ECAM warning will be provided since all measured data will vary similarly. Thus causing abnormal behaviour of AP and FD. The Mach number varies like the IAS. abnormal correlation between ALT and V/S indications. IAS remains constant in level flight. The following table may assist the crew in determining the nature of the problem and the information still usable: UNRELIABLE ALTITUDE DISREGARD ALT IAS / TAS WIND V/S FPA IAS / TAS WIND USE GPS ALT * and GPS GS GS on ND R/A CAB ALT GPS GS BIRD WIND from other aircraft SPEED * GPS altitude is different from barometric but gives reasonable information. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. V/S etc. PROCEDURE The recovery procedure is predicated on whether the aircraft is in close ground proximity (below THR RED ALT) or not. the altitude. the IAS and Mach number are wrong and the FPV as well. thrust. This situation may only be detected by the crew who will observe IAS fluctuations. FD. Pitch up in climb and pitch down in descent. abnormal correlation of basic flight parameters (IAS. such as heavy rain which may cause temporary fluctuating speed indication and severe pitot icing or pitot heat failure leading to a decreasing speed indication. undue stall or overspeed warnings respectively and reductions of aerodynamic noise when IAS decreases. this will cause an ECAM warning since it can be detected.

Poor scanning from the PF. There are potentially many means for smoke to be present but the simulators have generally only the facility to reproduce smoke from the Avionics System or from the Air Conditioning System. COMMON ERRORS Initial actions incorrect. This will force the CM1 to fly using the Pitch and Thrust targets from the QRH. ALPHA FLOOR activation. flap auto retraction.11 COCKPIT SMOKE (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Any occasion where there is smoke in an aircraft is a potentially very serious situation. overspeed warning on ECAM. The result of all these failures is to fly using pitch and thrust. Another way of inserting a similar fault is (after the gear is retracted) failing three Pitot tubes. altitude discrepancy warning on ECAM and rudder TLU fault on ECAM.119/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The unreliable speed and / or altitude indication may cause the following associated (distracting) phenomena: SPD LIM flag on PFD. stall . If there is no ECAM warning then a paper checklist must be referred to. ADR3 and Airspeed Channel of ADR1. For CM2 fail CM2 Pitot tube.windshear warnings (due to Mach effect). . The PNF has trouble finding the correct part of the QRH. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. F. in which case the procedure should be followed. ALPHA LOCK system activation. failing ADR3 and failing the Airspeed Channel of ADR2. The ECAM may recognise the problem. INSTRUCTION In the simulator you achieve this failure situation for the CM1 by simultaneously blocking the CM1 Pitot tube. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

(like a cylinder). Once the Smoke production is finished the simulator smoke removal fans will remove the smoke from the simulator. The Smoke Generator will produce large amounts of smoke for about five minutes. If there is dense smoke a descent is carried out to facilitate the removal of the smoke and this descent is performed during the five minutes before setting the Emergency Electrical Configuration in the case of Avionics smoke. . Our syllabus contains a Smoke exercise which commences by repositioning to FL350. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. COMMON ERRORS Confusion between ECAM and QRH procedures. Highlight the fact that any faulty equipment be switched off and this should stop the smoke creation. Locate the Instructors Oxygen mask before inserting the failure giving the smoke to avoid breathing the simulated smoke. INSTRUCTION During the Simulator set up you must arm the Smoke Generator by “warming it up” for about five minutes before it will be operational.01 WINDSHEAR (00:20) BACKGROUND PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR INDICATIONS PROCEDURE PRINCIPLES INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Windshear and microburst have been the cause of numerous aircraft accidents during the take off and landing phases. it flows outward.120/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The FCOM Vol3 contains the relevant information for all scenarios and should be referred to during your briefing. Before release make a DIR TO a fix some distance in front of the aircraft so that there is a sensible flight plan track in front of the crew. Once the Smoke Generator is Armed the activation is controlled by inserting a failure from the IOS. When the air encounters the ground. This type of meteorological phenomena is mostly due to a cool shaft of air. between 500 and 3000 metres wide that is moving downward. Depending on the type of simulator this is done either from the IOS or by dedicated switches or buttons. G.

SPEED. The best strategy is to AVOID such weather phenomena. The Radar scans across the windshear. the lift significantly reduces which causes the aircraft to descend. 3. Provide efficient tools to escape from the situation. In order to do so. The aircraft flight path is thus severely affected. 2. The strategies we promote to prevent potential catastrophic consequences are 1. and Approach Target Speed variations (from GS mini protection).121/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The velocity of the downward flowing air mass ranges from 20 to 40 knots. and raindrops moving away from it at a greater range. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. When the wind varies suddenly from front to back. and the SRS AP / FD pitch law. Therefore a windshear or a microburst is an extremely hazardous phenomenon for an aircraft during take off and landing. Warn the crew of significant loss of energy by the Low Energy warning (SPEED. and it will detect raindrops moving toward it at one range. Aircraft safety is affected for two reasons 1. From the Flight Instruments we get FPV rapid movement. ALPHA FLOOR an Auto thrust function. so delay T/O or APPR. . The aircraft lift is related to the relative velocity of the air travelling over the wing. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The aircraft flies in the air mass. 2. PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR The Predictive Windshear System (PWS) is the Primary means of advance information regarding windshear. Increase crew awareness of potential microburst or windshear so as to delay take off or landing by use of the PREDICTIVE WINDSHEAR SYSTEM. 4. For this we use the FBW high angle of attack protection. or to reach very high AOA. When it reaches the ground the outflow winds which result vary from 20 to 80 knots. It works by measuring the velocity of the water droplets carried by the horizontally moving air mass and thus is able to assess wind variations. SPEED). the pilot needs to be advised that such phenomena exist in proximity to the aircraft. When the air mass moves downward so does the aircraft. Inform the crew of unexpected air mass variations.

The Radar can thus determine the width of the shaft and the severity of the shear by the droplet velocity variations. windshear alerts are triggered. When switched on the system operates automatically when the A/C is below 2300 ft AGL. The diagram below shows the areas in which an advice will be obtained. The warnings are inhibited on take off from 100 knots to 50ft RA and on landing below 50ft. The PWS must be switched on with its dedicated switch and operates independently of the weather radar. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.122/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The measurement principle is the detection of the Doppler frequency shift of the reflected microwave pulses caused by the shear. . When the severity exceeds a given threshold.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

The aural Warning given on Take off is “WINDSHEAR AHEAD” announced twice and on Landing is “GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD”. On the PFD is written in red WINDSHEAR AHEAD. On the ND is the windshear icon. The aural Caution given on both Take off and Landing is “MONITOR RADAR DISPLAY”. On the PFD is written in amber WINDSHEAR AHEAD. On the ND is the windshear icon. If the windshear is in the area between 25º and 40º of the aircraft nose, or in the area between 3 and 5 NM from the aircraft the windshear icon only appears on the ND.

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

If the ND range is >10 NM, a message W/S SET RNGE 10 NM appears on the ND. Procedure linked to PWS Predictive windshear alert = highly probable windshear At take o ff. Delay Take Off or Reject during T/O Run If during Take Off roll or initial climb – TOGA, Monitor closely SPEED/SPEED TREND - Ensure that Flight Path clears any shear suspected area, If within the shear do NOT modify A/C configuratio. At landing In case of a Warning or Advisory delay landing (or divert). Envisage using CONF3, Use Managed speed and consider increasing your VAPP. Use autopilot with ILS to help for an earlier detection of vertical path deviation. In case of GO AROUND WINDSHEAR AHEAD message apply TOGA and keep your current configuration until out of the shear. Follow SRS orders until full back stick, if necessary INDICATIONS In addition to the PWS and to inform the crew of unexpected airmass variations there are several cues provided on the EFIS, which assist the pilot in determining significant airmass variations symptomatic of potential presence of microburst. These are available essentially in approach. The cues are: IAS speed trend arrow IAS target during approach (GS mini) FPV Wind information on ND The target speed during approach (VAPP) is a function of GS mini, which causes an increase in VAPP when the head wind increases. The IAS speed trend arrow advises the pilot immediately of head or tail wind gusts. The FPV position relative to the centre of the PFD advises the pilots of the wind direction. If the PF flies a constant track and notices that the relative position of the FPV versus the centre of the PFD varies rapidly, he will realise that the aircraft has experienced a change in the wind direction. A sudden downward movement of the FPV is the first sign that the aircraft is under the influence of a downdraft. PROCEDURE Monitor the energy cues, speed trend, speed trend target movement and the FPV in suspected wind shear conditions. Two features are provided to the crew to assist their monitoring This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.


Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes

1. the LOW ENERGY warning provided below 2000 ft R/A in CONF = 2 2. the REACTIVE WINDSHEAR warning provided at take off and landing up to 1300 ft R/A in CONF =1. In all cases of significant energy loss immediately apply TOGA and do not change the configuration until out of the windshear. The PF can easily fixate on his PFD so the PNF should respond to the “WindshearGo” call by confirming the trajectory by reference to the RA. Once the windshear has been passed the IAS can increase very rapidly so the PNF can call out the actual wind strength as well. As they have TOGA power the ATHR cannot reduce the speed approaching the red line. Brief that they are not expected (or allowed) to overspeed. PRINCIPLES The LOW ENERGY WARNING advises the pilot of a lack of energy (speed or thrust) which limits the manoeuvrability capability of the A/C. The energy level of the aircraft is translated into a value of Angle of Attack as a function of the A/C speed, acceleration, and flight path angle. This Angle of Attack value is compared to a threshold and when it overshoots this threshold a "SPEED, SPEED, SPEED" repetitive message is triggered. In shear conditions this is the first warning prior to Alpha Floor. The REACTIVE WINDSHEAR WARNING is provided by the Flight Envelope computer, which computes actual and predicted energy level of the aircraft as an Equivalent Angle of Attack. This Equivalent Angle of Attack is a function of detected head / tailwind change conditions, mean wind component, detected down draft wind, fi ltered by RA value. This Equivalent Angle of Attack is compared to a threshold as a function of the A/C configuration. When the threshold is reached a "WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR WINDSHEAR" aural warning is triggered, with an associated WINDSHEAR red message on PFD. ALPHA FLOOR condition is processed by the FCPC and triggered by FMGC which engages ATHR and commands TOGA on all engines. ALPHA FLOOR provides an additional level of energy when the A/C AOA gets very high. ALPHA FLOOR is fully automatic and available from lift off to 100 ft RA at Landing. It is inhibited in case of engine failure. The SRS AP/FD pitch mode is used in Take off and Go round so as to ensure the best aircraft climb performance, both with all engines operating and also with an engine failed. However it also ensures a minimum climb out flight path angle, in order to cope with downdraft or windshear situations. This is why the procedure asks the PF to follow the FD pitch bar up to full back stick so as to obey the SRS orders and thus minimise height loss. The High Angle of Attack protection allows the PF to pull full back stick if needed, either to follow the SRS FD BARS or to rapidly counteract a down

This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.

The scenario “Before VR” is designed for a large split between V1 and VR and requires the application of TOGA as well as rotation before the end of the runway. Do not use the Severe selection as the likelihood of survival is low and this will lead to negative training. In the fully lined up position the Caution or the Warning (both with audio) will appear if the windshear is closer than 3 or 1. Reactive windshear and Microburst 1.126/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes movement of the FPV / a height loss / a deviation below the final path or G/S. deviate from the normal path on take off after rotation. The PWS is used to abandon a take off on line up. As the windshear position comes within 40º and 25º of the aircraft axis the Visual advisory symbol will appear (no aural warning). To practice the recovery from unexpected windshear therefore we need the Reactive Windshear function. . These are Predictive windshear. There is also a level of severity selection which allows for Low. reject a take off below 100 kts. or Severe. The two arrival cases vary in that one occurs quite late on final.5 nm in front. Inserting a PWS after 100 kts will give the same messages after passing 50 ft. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. This would be a normal Go-round as the windshear is still in front of the aircraft. Before giving the “Clear to Line Up” call insert a PWS. or very strongly encourage a go round on final. 2. Selecting Windshear on the IOS gives us the Reactive windshear selection. INSTRUCTION In the simulator you have three controls with which to train for windshear. When you insert a PWS you are in fact inserting a Microburst and the position of the centre of the Microburst can be adjusted in relation to the take off. Pulling full aft stick provides . or a GPWS warning. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. should those be extended.maximum lift and minimum drag by automatic retraction of the speed brakes. or landing threshold. Because the PWS predicts the presence of windshear we would not normally continue our normal path once aware of the predicted danger. Generally (according to the simulator) there are three events for the take off case and two for the landing case. Inserting a PWS when the aircraft is airborne will give good reason to go round when on final (on single engine for example). Medium.

the TCAS II predicts the TIME TO and the SEPARATION AT the intruder's closest point of approach (CPA). If the TCAS II predicts that the separation is below a safe boundaries a TRAFFIC ADVISORY (TA) is triggered and informs the crew that an INTRUDER is in the vicinity. The Resolution Advisory is coordinated between your aircraft and the intruder. . The reply of the transponders allow the following to be calculated: . however when the exercise is completed and you remove the event the general turbulence level drops to zero which is not realistic.02 TCAS (00:10) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The Traffic Collision Advisory Service monitors the airspace surrounding the aircraft by interrogating the transponder of other aircraft. If the TCAS II predicts there is a collision threat a RESOLUTION ADVISORY (RA) is triggered to maintain a safe separation between the aircraft. Always attempt to visually clear the airspace before manoeuvring the aircraft in response to a TCAS Advisory. The RA's are thus complementary.127/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes You can use some ATC terminology such as “Previous aircraft reported turbulence”. The microburst function allows precise placement of an event such as PWS referenced to the threshold in use. or “TX north of the field”. The crew should never manoeuvre in the opposite direction of the RA since manoeuvres are coordinated. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. both using an ATC mode S. In case of a RESOLUTION ADVISORY. the crew must follow it promptly and smoothly. It is generally true (but each simulator can be different) that you will not get windshear or microburst from inserting a TX although you may get turbulence.the bearing / range to the intruder . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. Inserting a TX near the airport can heighten the reality when you become comfortable with such features.the closure rate and . No evasive action should be solely based on the TA. Reinsert a turbulence value of 5 to 8 % 3.the relative altitude difference and the V/S of the intruder (if mode C-S available). The purpose of the TA is to advise the crew to attempt to get visual contact with the intruder. From that data. There will be some turbulence associated with all scenarios which is quite realistic. G.

and snow that has commenced to melt (wet snow). The strength of the echo is a function of the drop size. Depending on the simulator you may get a countdown to the time of collision. There are a number of scenarios in our syllabus and you should start with TA’s and progress to RA’s. and Turbulence associated with any rain or wet hail or snow.128/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The TCAS may work only if the intruder's A/C is equipped with a transponder. If the simulator has the facility to insert TA’s for an overtaking aircraft it is useful to use this function when the crew have ARC selected on the ND so they need to select NAV in order to see behind. INSTRUCTION As a general rule you should arm the Airport Traffic with one of the levels of traffic. Select a Low or Medium level of traffic but ensure the ND does not get too cluttered and so distract the pilots. After your initial briefing on the TCAS system you can use the function at any stage of the training. NAR traffic is not displayed above 14500 ft. G. In that case. . Hail. composition and amount. if the intruder has a Non Altitude Reporting transponder (NAR). Water particles reflect 5 times as much as ice particles of the same size. Giving ATC instructions that conflict with an RA will heighten the trainees awareness level. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.03 USE OF RADAR (00:10) BACKGROUND USE OF RADAR INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The latest radars have 2 functions. The Weather Radar detects Precipitation Droplets in the form of Rain droplets. and hail that has commenced to melt (wet hail). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. then only TAs may be issued based on closure rate. Snow. These are WEATHER DETECTION & AVOIDANCE and MAPPING.

The pilot selectable TILT ANGLE on the radar control panel. WX + Turbulence. (displayed on ND). and only if wet. . Turbulence can be detected up to 50 nm. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. is the angle between the radar antenna and horizon regardless of the aircraft pitch and bank (if within the stabilisation limits which are typically ?15° pitch. When the shift is beyond a given threshold. . The analysis of weather. or the adjustment of map returns requires the correct use of the Gain control. The angle between the weather radar antenna and the local horizon is the TILT. The red area which is the last to turn into yellow is the strongest part of the build up. turbulence is detected. The gain control allows the detection of the strongest part of a cell displayed in red on ND. Slowly reducing the gain. Some radars provide a Ground Clutter Suppression function which is operative in WX mode and suppresses 85% of stationary targets or ground targets (called GCS).the MODE of operation (WX. If the water vapour contains large droplets the vertical movement in the cloud is strong to allow the build up in droplet size and as there is strong vertical currents there will also be turbulence. Effective tilt management is the single. The antenna is stabilised. At normal jet aircraft cruising levels the white fluffy cumulus cloud in front is composed of ice crystals and it is not until the temperature is around 0ºC that the cloud becomes water vapour. As water vapour is far more readily seen by the radar than ice crystals we need to tilt the radar down to see the return from the water vapour and not from the ice crystals. The return velocity variance of the droplets is measured by the Doppler principle. most effective key to get a more informative weather radar display. The WET TURBULENCE is characterized by a wide velocity variance between the rain drops. while yellow areas turn into green ones (level 1 return). MAP).the GAIN of the receiver (automatic or manual) and .129/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The primary use of radar is to know where the weather is and after interpreting the radar return to avoid (as far as possible) the area of the weather. The velocity variance of the droplets creates a return signal frequency shift due to the relative motion between the A/C and the droplets. When the Gain control is used manually it should be put back to AUTO when no longer required. ±?5° bank).the TILT of the antenna. USE OF RADAR Some values for phases of flight. This strongest area has to be avoided by the greatest distance. The stabilisation of the ± 3 antenna is achieved using IRS data. The pilot has several tools to operate the radar. . the red areas (level 3 return) slowly turn into yellow areas (level 2 returns).

130/136 PHASE OF FLIGHT TAXI Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes DETECTION AND MONITORING PROCEDURES Clear on parking area. TILT DOWNWARD as the A/C climbs and maintain GND RETURNS ON TOP OF ND Use WX TILT slightly NEGATIVE: maintain GND RETURNS ON TOP OF ND. set ND to lowest RNG. G. or move its centre. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. check appearance/disappearance of GND RETURNS Weather suspected SLOWLY SCAN up to + 10° then TILT + 4° To avoid OVER SCANNING. . It aids the realism to put TX weather (off track) into any training situation.04 WET RUNWAYS (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND The session guide for each part of the syllabus details the ambient weather conditions.000 ft in higher altitudes.000 ft APPROACH TILT + 4° To avoid ground returns INSTRUCTION The Weather Radar is functional in all our Simulators and the trainees should use it as they would in normal operations. As far as this part of the training is concerned we only consider whether the runway is Dry or Wet. Use TURB to ISOLATE Turbulence – GAIN to AUTO REMARKS RADAR CHECK AWAY FROM PEOPLE Scanning along departure path TILT angle is a function of ALT/ND RANGE No ground returns beyond line of sight Poor ground return over calm sea / even ground TAKE OFF CLIMB CRUISE DESCENT During DES. We do not address any issues in connection with runway contamination as it is not specific to a particular type of aircraft. TILT UPWARD about + 1° / 10. you can rotate it. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. TILT DOWN then UP. and before you activate it. then + 1°/5000 ft below 15. To heighten their situational awareness when they forget to use it temporarily raise the level of turbulence to a high level. or to allow it to move as a result of the ambient wind. When you insert a thunderstorm. It is also possible to either fix the storm in its position.

if the shoulder harness is locked before being removed from the central buckle in order to make it easier to refasten then it should be fastened as the metal buckle will hurt if it hits you due to the turbulence. Both pilots (at all times) should have the lap and crotch part of their seat belts fastened. Inserting Rain does not make a Wet runway.04.10 G.06 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (00:15) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. There are however some considerations that need to be discussed with your trainees.131/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes INSTRUCTION The runway condition is to be found (depending on the simulator) on an Environment page. Keep in mind that the simulator is designed with certain limits and these affect its ability to faithfully represent movement in the rolling and yawing planes. . Ensure the Cabin Crew are advised in time to finish and secure the cabin. at the pre-flight planning stage (clear air turbulence forecast in met briefing) or by a change of flight level if turbulence is reported by preceding aircraft. G. as there will be a much smaller margin between VMAX and VLS leading to the increased risk of over speed warnings or activation of low speed protections. The best advice is to avoid areas of severe turbulence either by use of the weather radar (for thunderstorms etc). Cruise levels at close to maximum level should not be used when turbulence is anticipated. However. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared.05 FLIGHT IN SEVERE TURBULENCE (00:05) CONSIDERATIONS CONSIDERATIONS Flight in Severe Turbulence is not Type Specific so is not addressed in our Transition course. The appropriate speeds are to be found in the FCOM and QRH. Performance information for various contaminations are given in FCOM Volume 2. If the shoulder harnesses are unfastened and retracted there is no need to fasten them in turbulence.

The GPS workings are transparent to the crew and will only require attention in the case of a fault or a downgrading of the position information. This is a positive confirmation to the crew that GPS is accurate. GPS PRIMARY is an Airbus term defining an operational concept. The FMGC’s will use the GPIRS position as the FM position so long as GPS PRIMARY is indicated on the MCDU PROG page.132/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes BACKGROUND The GPS is a satellite based radio navigation aid. the FM position is updated to runway threshold (+ T/O SHIFT if applicable). It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. It means that adequate GPS accuracy and integrity are provided and that GPS is available as the basis for the FM position. The position calculated by the twin GPS receivers is added to the IRS calculated position producing a GPIRS position.02. This is then fed to the FMGC’s and a FM position is produced. Reasonableness tests on the GPIRS and IRS positions are carried out and any unreasonable position is disregarded for the purpose of FM position calculation.22. The amber GPS PRIMARY LOST cannot be cleared from the ND and is to remind the pilots that GPS is not available. and gives indications of when this position information cannot be relied upon. GPS PRIMARY will be indicated on the MCDU PROG page and the ND. The GPS fitted to the Airbus family of aircraft monitors the integrity of the position information provided. This message should be cleared using the CLR pushbutton. At take off.20 provides a full description of FMGS position computation. Navigation accuracy up-or downgrade will be shown in the same way as already used for non GPS navigation. even with GPS.20 FCOM 4. a message will be displayed on the MCDU and ND. . This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. The table below summarizes how FM position is derived with and without GPS PRIMARY FM POSITION WITHOUT GPS WITH GPS On ground before take-off Mix IRS position GPIRS At take-off Runway threshold (+ T/O shift) GPIRS Flight MIX IRS & Radio Position GPIRS -(tending towards Radio Position) Flight without GPS or Radio MIX IRS position + Last Not Position update memorised FM position. During flight preparation. FMGS position calculation. applicable gradually tending towards IRS position FCOM section 1. If the GPS status changes.

70 details the procedures to be used. The calculation involved relies on the number of.20 The full GPS standard will permit predictions to be made regarding the feasibility of a GPS approach at destination. indicates that GPIRS is used for FM PROG position calculation. . Navigation accuracy is shown. Thus. a GPS PRIMARY LOST message in amber will be displayed accompanied by a triple click. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. and the position of. the satellites at ETA. If raw data indicates that the aircraft is not on the required flight path the pilot must revert to raw data to correct the flight path. Before beginning the approach a check of GPS PRIMARY and HIGH accuracy must be made which replaces the navigation accuracy check.05. There are two types of GPS approach: A. Individual certification authorities are discussing GPS accuracy. Before the FAF check GPS PRIMARY and HIGH accuracy with a RNP of 0. Raw data must be displayed and monitored at all times. B. PREDICTIVE GPS* Displays information about the predicted availability of GPS at destination ETA or at a particular waypoint ARRIVAL Allows selection of GPS approach Full descriptions of the above pages can be found in FCOM 4.03. the minima and acceptance of GPS in each country must be checked before using GPS as a prime means of navigation in the approach phase. If GPS PRIMARY is lost during a GPS Stand Alone Approach. GPS OVERLAY APPROACH The aircraft performs an approach along the trajectory of a published non precision approach using GPS position information in GPS PRIMARY navigation mode. The “time window” is pilot modifiable. FCOM 4.3 NM or less. If this occurs or there is a navigation accuracy downgrade a Missed This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. GPS STAND ALONE APPROACH The aircraft is guided along the trajectory of an approach the waypoints of which are not referenced to any ground base navigation aid. reliability and such.133/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes The following is a list of MCDU pages associated with the use of GPS and a brief description of their use: MCDU PAGE FUNCTION SELECTED NAVAIDS Allows de-selection or selection of GPS GPS MONITOR Display of GPS positions and other GPS derived information IRS 1 (2) (3) GPIRS Position for each IRS PROG When GPS PRIMARY is shown. The current status of GPS permits approaches to Cat 1 limits at best.

There can be a situation where there is a NOTAM stating that during a certain period satellite navigation is unavailable.07 RVSM AIRSPACE (00:05) BACKGROUND INSTRUCTION BACKGROUND Increased congestion in available flight levels in various parts of the world have led to the introduction of Reduced Vertical Separation Minima between FL290 and FL410. If GPS Navigation has been de-selected and the crew is flying a Managed Approach after checking the Navigation Accuracy you can force them into a Selected Approach by inserting a Slow Map Shift. Although not part of our syllabus it is useful to know that an Emergency Descent in RVSM airspace requires Heading selection as the first action.01 SIMULATOR INFORMATION LIMITATIONS REALITY RULES PLANNING DEBRIEFING PREPARATION UNSERVICEABILITIES TRAINEE PERFORMANCE This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. INSTRUCTION Any event that causes the loss of the autopilot or air data requires a PAN call to the effect that the aircraft is no longer RVSM capable. To achieve the required level of altitude accuracy the use of the auto pilot is mandatory.134/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes Approach is normally carried out. In this case GPS Navigation shall be deselected from the Radio Navigation FMGS page. G. unless raw data allows for a satisfactory continuation. . Instead of 2000ft vertical separation above FL290 in RVSM airspace this is reduced to 1000ft. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. The levels available are continued from lower levels so that “East” is ODD and “West” is EVEN. S. INSTRUCTION Our syllabus is mostly based on GPS being Primary.

If you don’t know the answer to a question. admit the fact. This means the trainees should listen to the ATIS on the correct frequency and not refer to the session guide for the meteorological conditions. and find out the correct answer. ATC can ask for “Sqawk Ident” and TCAS traffic can be programmed at any suitable stage. Do not freeze the simulator position or use the slew. DEBRIEFING Always make written notes during the session with which to debrief. We are trying very hard to achieve reality in the FFS. Think ahead of the current exercise and plan where you want the aircraft to be when you have completed the present event or demonstration. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course.135/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes LIMITATIONS Full Flight Simulators have evolved so that today it can be hard for a Trainee to say at a given moment whether he is in an aircraft. Modern Full Flight Simulators do have areas where they do not faithfully represent the aircraft. This is therefore the reason some manoeuvres should be practised without motion (recovery from unusual attitude for example) because the motion system cannot faithfully reproduce the “seat of the pants” feeling from the real aircraft. REALITY RULES Insist from the first day of referring to reality in all possible areas. function unless you are in IMC. In your Debriefing try and make any criticism constructive. or a simulator. PLANNING Poor planning by an Instructor can result in wasted time if the radar vectors are unsuitable for the next exercise. Without giving correct information straight out criticism achieves little. or speed up. What has been proven many times is that if the trainee thinks he is in an aircraft and not a simulator he will achieve much more from the session. Both of these functions (if the trainees realise they are being used) destroy the reality that we are trying hard to create. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. Radio calls should be made on the correct frequencies. . The Ground Engineer should Buzz the cockpit to confirm the request for ground power disconnection. These areas involve movement around the Rolling axis where the roll is limited to about 20º either side of the vertical. and the Yawing axis where movement is limited by the physical restraints of the motion system. The amount of pitch up or down is also dampened from actual values.

and arrangements can be made for the trainees to have more sessions. . a Dual Hydraulic failure. UNSERVICEABILITIES You will no doubt come across a situation where you lose time in the simulator due to a Simulator malfunction. You need to be very careful how you go about remedying this situation. and this means you have to ensure that they know where to look for all the information that is required to be refreshed before you commence your briefing. or the Emergency Electrical configuration is the morning of the session they will be unable to take in all you need to say in the time available. In order to do this you need a list of references that you can give your trainees so that if they are not the investigative type they will still have a basic understanding of how the systems work before we try and show them. Don’t ever forget to ask yourself whether you would put your family on the trainees aircraft. It shall not be used outside of the context for which it has been prepared. competent Airbus pilots and not to put your trainees up for a Skill test in the hope that they pass. and where to find the information. For every session the trainees should be as fully prepared as possible. This document relates specifically to the Airbus TRI Type Specific course. If the first time they hear you talk about a Dual Engine failure. TRAINEE PERFORMANCE You may come across a situation where the trainees just haven’t got it right by the end of the session. If you have trouble answering that question then perhaps they are not in the right place! Your job is to help turn out safe. You have to communicate your concerns to a superior. In cases such as this you need to follow the procedure for the particular Training Centre for an additional session.136/136 Airbus TRI Type Specific Course Notes PREPARATION Always take the time to go through the next days session and tell your trainees what preparation you want them to do. Remember you cannot prolong the session by more than about 5 minutes without having a roll on effect to every other session.

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