You are on page 1of 2


reason and impartial considerations

overriding self-interest.
 It is a system of beliefs about what is
right behavior and wrong behavior CHARACTERISTICS OF MORAL
(Rubin, 2015). STANDARDS
 Morality deals with how a person
relates with others and with the world  Moral standards involve behaviors
to promote what is good (Thiroux and that seriously affect other people’s
Krasemann, 2009). well-being.
 Is the effort to guide ones conduct by  Moral standards take a more
reason (Rachels, 2015). important consideration than other
standards, including self-interest.
WHAT IS MORAL EXPERIENCE?  Moral standards do not depend on
any external authority but in how the
 It is any encounter wherein a person person perceives the
understands that the values he or she reasonableness of the action.
believes to be important are either  Moral standards are believed to be
realized or thwarted (Hunt and universal.
Carnevale, 2011). For instance,  Moral standards are based on
when you decide to give a poor objectivity.
person some money because you  Moral standards are associated with
feel that it is right thing to do, is a vocabulary that depicts emotion or
moral experience. feelings.


 It gives a sense of justification in  Non-moral standards can be

one’s judgment and helps ensure that considered as relative standards by
decisions at work are not made which something or someone is
based on purely subjective factors. judged as either good or bad. The
rules of non-moral standards vary
WHAT ARE RULES? because these rules depend on the
guidelines agreed by a particular
Standards that guide human group.
 A statement that tells you what is or
is not allowed in a particular situation ETIQUETTE
 Rules are in place to manage harmful
behaviors; prevent chaos; and  Is a set of rules on how an individual
encourage stability should responsibly behave in the
 For example, traffic rules, sports society. Table manners such as the
rules proper use of utensils and the proper
MORAL STANDARDS manner of eating are examples of
 Moral standard is a code of what is
right or wrong without reference to POLICY
specific behaviors or beliefs (Lynn,
1997). It deals with matters that the  It is a clear, simple statement of how
person thinks have serious an organization plans to handle its
consequence and is based on good services, actions, or business.
Policies are guiding rules to help with of another person; or a group of people’s
decision making. Example is the potential harm.
wearing of school uniform and ID.
Organizational dilemma – is when a
LAW member or members of the organization is in
a situation where there is moral conflict, and
 Law is a rule created and enforced by the decision will potentially harm either some
the government and its agencies to members of the group or organization.
maintain order, resolve disputes, and
protect a person’s liberty and rights. Structural moral dilemma – is when a
person or group of persons who holds high
Commandment level positions in the society faces a morally
conflicting situation wherein the entire social
 It is a rule that is to be strictly system is affected.
observed because it was said to be
set by a divine entity such as those in According to St. Thomas Aquinas,
the Ten Commandments (Stahl, the fundamental difference between animal
2009). ethics and human ethics is that animals
behave instinctively while human behavior is
STRUCTURAL Rational Behavior - It is a decision making
process where the person acts in ways that
Personal – a person whose choice will best achieve his or her needs in accordance
adversely affect very important people in with his or her set preferences, priorities, and
your life principles.

Organizational – a business owner whose What does “human person” mean?

choice will adversely affect either the
company or the employees  A human person is a being with
inborn properties that he or she uses
Structural – a high ranking government to direct his or her own development
official who needs to choose between toward self-fulfillment. One of the
implementing or not implementing a policy inborn properties of the human
not because it will affect the poor person is freedom.
communities, but not implementing it will also
impact the environment What is your understanding of freedom?

Dilemma - is a situation in which a difficult  Freedom is a gift.

choice has to be made between two or more  Freedom is Complementary to
alternatives, especially equally undesirable Reason
ones. Thus, when you find yourself facing a  Freedom is Absolute
problem but the solutions available to you will  Freedom demands responsibility
only create another problem or worse create
more problems, then you are in a dilemma.


Personal Moral Dilemma – is when your

decision in a situation where there is moral
conflict is the cause of either your own; that