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Students’ Climate Report


Chapter 2

Consequences of Climate Change in different sectors

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Table of Contents

Students’ Climate Report 1

Chapter 2 1

Consequences of Climate Change in different sectors 1

Table of Contents 2

How different sectors of society are and will be, affected by climate change in our country 6
Communications and transport in our country 6
France: 6
Greece: 7
Italy: 7
Slovakia: 9
Spain: 10
Sweden: 11
Supply systems in our country 12
France: 12
Greece: 13
Italy: 13
Slovakia: 14
Spain: 15
Sweden: 15
Buildings in our country 17
France: 17
Greece: 19
Italy: 22
Slovakia: 22
Spain: 22
Sweden: 23
Tourism and outdoor activities in our country 25
France: 25
Greece: 26
Italy: 27
Slovakia: 27
Spain: 28
Sweden: 29
Forestry and agriculture in our country 30
France: 30
Greece: 30

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Italy: 32
Slovakia: 32
Spain: 34
Sweden: 34
Ecosystems in our country 35
France: 35
Greece: 35
Italy: 36
Slovakia: 37
Spain: 37
Sweden: 37
Health in our country 39
France: 39
Greece: 40
Italy: 42
Slovakia: 42
Spain: 43
Sweden: 43
How climate change in other parts of the world can affect our country 45
France: 45
Greece: 45
Italy: 46
Slovakia: 46
Spain: 47
Sweden: 49

How different sectors of society are and will be affected by climate change in our region 50
Communications and Transport in our region 50
France - Paris Ile-de-France 50
Greece - Kos: 51
Italy - Parma: 51
Slovakia - Žilina: 52
Spain - Cambrils: 53
Sweden - Norrbotten: 54
Supply Systems in our region 55
France - Paris Ile-de-France 55
Greece - Kos: 56
Italy - Parma: 57
Slovakia - Žilina: 58
Spain - Cambrils: 59
Sweden -Norrbotten: 59
Buildings in your region 60

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France - Paris Ile-de-France 60


Greece - Kos: 61
Italy - Parma: 61
Slovakia - Žilina: 62
Spain - Cambrils: 63
Sweden - Norrbotten: 63
Tourism and outdoor activities in our region 64
France - Paris Ile-de-France 64
Greece - Kos: 65
Italy - Parma: 66
Slovakia - Žilina: 66
Spain - Cambrils: 67
Sweden - Norrbotten: 68
Forestry and agriculture in our region 69
France - Paris Ile-de-France 69
Greece - Kos: 70
Italy - Parma: 71
Slovakia - Žilina: 71
Spain - Cambrils: 72
Sweden - Norrbotten: 73
Ecosystems in our region 75
France - Paris Ile-de-France 75
Greece - Kos: 76
Italy - Parma: 78
Slovakia - Žilina: 79
Spain - Cambrils: 80
Sweden - Norrbotten: 80
Health in our region 81
France - Paris Ile-de-France 81
Greece - Kos: 82
Slovakia - Žilina: 84
Spain - Cambrils: 84
Sweden - Norrbotten: 85
Consequences of climate change in our region 86
France - Paris Ile-de-France 86
Greece - Kos: 88
Italy - Parma: 89
Slovakia - Žilina: 90
Spain - Cambrils: 90
Sweden - Norrbotten:
91

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References 93
France: 93
Greece: 93
Italy: 96
Slovakia: 97
Spain: 98
Sweden: 98

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How different sectors of society are


and will be, affected by climate
change in our country
Communications and transport in our country

France:
Transport: a challenge .This sector uses one third of the power consumption in France. It does
not cease growing but the possible economies are important. Efficient policies are necessary
to reach that point. This is difficult to carry out because it runs up against practices firmly
established and with situations generating displacements (distance of the workplace, distances
between places of production and consumption…).
Grenelle Environment proposes need for deep transformation of the policies transport. It must
allow a significant reduction of energy consumptions and thus of the gas emissions for
purpose of greenhouse: transport of the goods reorientated on transport river, railway or
maritime (coastal traffic in particular), taken into account the development of town planning
the challenges dependent on transport (active transport, installations specific for public
transport, fight against the urban sprawl…), To reduce dependence with the personal vehicles
there are new offers of mobility, fleets of vehicles in division or more extended and faster
public transports.
New types of urban vehicles, not very consuming and not very polluting, built with materials
which can be recycled are already available.
Transport is responsible moreover of the quarter of the national greenhouse gas emissions in
France in 2007. The emissions due to transport increased by 19% between 1990 and 2007.
This increase is explained mainly by the increase in the road traffic. However, in France, after
one long period of uninterrupted rise, the gas emissions for greenhouse effect of transport
tend to be stabilized since 2001, whereas they continue to grow in Europe (EU-27). This
stabilization is concomitant with the stagnation of the use of the private cars in France.
Aggregate emissions of six greenhouse gases of transport and other sectors, in France and
Europe (UE-27) Index bases 100 in 1990 (Eq.CO2 tons).

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Transport is the first carbon dioxide sector transmitting (CO2) in France. In 2007, 34% of the
total CO2 emissions were due to transport. From 1990 to 2007, the CO2 emissions of
transport progressed from 15%. The road traffic is responsible for 94% of the CO2 emissions
of transport.The emissions of international and national air transport corresponding to the
kerosene catch on the French territory were estimated on the whole at 21.6 million tons
eq.CO2, that is to say the equivalent of 17% of the emissions eq.CO2 of the road traffic.

Greece:
In recent years, climate change is defined as the result of several changes in weather
conditions that last a long period of time.This phenomenon is occurred by both natural and
human factors and it causes some effects in different topics, which also include the
communications and transport.
In our country, Greece, the transport sector is able to face some challenges due to climate
change. First of all, the rise in temperatures and the creation of extended heat waves are
known to cause rail buckling, which makes it more difficult for train schedules to be executed
properly, pavement deterioration and also worsens the thermal comfort of passengers in
vehicles.
Moreover, the sea-level rise now can easily become a threat to harbours and other marine
services, forcing them in many cases to stay inactive. In a similar way, air transportation
services can also become inactive, depending on different wind patterns found in the
atmosphere. It should also be pointed out that the community is equally affected by the
climate change. In a consequence of the problems being caused in the air and marine services,
both imports and exports of products are reduced, thus making the country's product profit
smaller.
In addition, since Greece is a major tourist attraction, the unavailability of such services
would also lead to a very important issue, the reduction in tourist visits.

Italy:

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The transport sector is responsible for the majority of greenhouse gases produced. The
diagram below shows the emission of greenhouse gases in Italy during 2014.

The most of the emissions are caused by street traffic, while the emissions caused by planes
and boats are lower.

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In recent years, economic subsidies have been given to help the use of more eco-friendly
fuels. Italy is the European country with the highest number of LPG and natural gas vehicles
on its roads and it has a very efficient distribution network. Moreover, economic subsidies
have been given to encourage people to convert their polluting, petrol cars into LPG vehicles.
The number of these eco-friendly vehicles is very high, in spite of the still poor natural gas
distribution network.
Climate change increases the frequency of some extreme weather events, such as severe heat
waves and intense precipitation, consequently increasing the risk of damages to transportation
infrastructures. This will require highest expenses to maintain, repair and - possibly also -
rebuild roads and entire city areas.

Slovakia:
The increase in air temperature will positively affect the transport sectors that are most
vulnerable to frost and snow, i.e. road transport, inland navigation and air transport. Increase
in snow precipitation totals can be expected during winter in mountain areas in the central
and south of Slovakia. Decrease in snow precipitation totals, numbers of frost days or days
with glaze can be expected in lowlands.
Warming causes the increase in number and intensity of extreme meteorological phenomena
that directly affects all kinds of transport.
The increase in air humidity in colder seasons may have negative impacts due to more
frequent creation of fog, icing. In particular road transport, but also air transport, will be
affected negatively by these effects.
Inland navigation on the Danube, the Morava and lower part of the Vah rivers will be affected
negatively by the decrease in flows during summer, but also by heavy rains in summer along
with steep increase in water level. Water transportation on the Danube depends on expected
climate change in the upper flow catchment and the right tributaries in the Alps.
The year 2010 was the wettest one during the last century. The extreme floods were recorded
in Slovakia mostly in May and June 2010. Altogether there were 206 days of flood alerts until
the end of August (85% of the time) and the floods affected the whole territory of the Slovak
Republic. High saturation of the Nitra river basin in June 2010 caused flood in Nitrianska
Streda and Nove Zamky. Extreme flood events, which resulted from long-lasting rainfalls in
the beginning of June, occurred in several river basins of the Central Slovakia. Eastern
Slovakia has been continuously affected by floods since the mid May.
Rail lines between Margecany and Krompachy in Košice Region, on Slovakia’s main
east-west rail trunk line, were blocked by landslides on the morning of August 17 in 2010.
Natural disaster in High Tatra (November 19, 2004) - many parts of High Tatra Mountains
areas were declared natural disaster areas after a savage storm killed two people and left a
trail of damage across the national Park.
Numerous people were injured, roads were blocked, thousands of cubic meters of trees were
ripped off. Many houses were damaged or blacked out and train lines were cut during the
wild Friday thunderstorm.

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A train station in High Tatra was blocked off by trees ripped off by severe wind. (Photos from www.tatry.sk).

Spain:
Searching information about effects on transport and communications one would expect to
find references for the sea level increase and the catastrophic impact on the infraestructures
flooded by sea. But, even knowing that the forecast for the level is certainly increasing (see
figure below), it is not as influential or catastrophic as expected. Therefore the focus must be
changed. Since has been reported for long time that one of the most influence sectors on GHE
is the emissions derived from transport and that much is being done to reduce the impact, we
can even expect a positive impact of climate change on transport and communication
(according to IPCC inform) in some aspects that can be extended for all countries that are
taking seriously the effects of transport emissions:

Evolutions of the sea level at LEstartit (catalan city by the Mediterranean)


--- Trend ---- monthly trend ----mobile average
Picture taken from Chapter 4 of wider publication

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1. The measures to be adopted in the field of transport and mobility must be aimed at
reducing the vulnerability and GHG emissions, taking into account in particular:
a) The rationalization of the demand for mobility and transport of both goods and people
through the development, among others, of management tools, information, tariff integration
and intermodal platforms, that allow optimizing the entire transport infrastructure network.
b) The drive to improve the energy efficiency of the fleet of vehicles, energy diversification
and the most energy efficient means of transport, while not transferring emissions to other
pollutants with local impacts.
c) The creation of technical and management conditions that facilitate the integration and
intermodality of the different modes of transport.
2. Freight transport fleets and public passenger transport operators must inform users of the
service of the amount of GEH issued for the provision of the service.
3. In the different media or computer applications that inform or allow to consult different
modes of displacement, the public transport operator must emphasize the amount of GEH
saved when moving through active modes instead of doing it in a private vehicle motorized.

Sweden:
With more downfall it’s going to influence the transport system in Sweden due to the
increasing temperatures. In Sweden we mainly use the road- and railway systems to transport
goods and people. Due to the increasing downfall there are going to be periods with massive
downfall which could cause the roads to collapse which is going to affect the road- and
railroad systems. One part of the problem is an economical question because it costs a lot of
money to restore the roads again and it is also a question of safety for people driving on the
roads.
Due to the temperature changes, we are going to have an increasing amounts of car accidents.
Due to the temperature dropping from below zero to above zero degrees, the roads get
slippery which could lead to more accidents.
In some parts of northern Sweden, there is a lot of snow but with recent climate changes it
sometimes gets abnormally more snow than average, which could possibly lead to more
disturbances in traffic.
Sweden has a lot of forest and the foresting industry uses a lot of dirt- and gravel roads to get
their vehicles and people out to the forest to be able to do their work. Due to more downfall
these roads get unusable, causing them to wither apart.

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Supply systems in our country

France:
The water is a natural resource present in our environment. It’s necessary for the survival of
humans and animals. The earth is constituted at 70% of water. The resource of drinking water
is distributed unequally through the country.The situation varies a lot according to the
location of the country. In France, the drinking water supply and sanitation utilities are
decentralized public services.
The warming trend will lead to the withdrawal of snow cover in the Alps and the Pyrenees.
Because of this, the periods during which water level is low (from June-July to
October-November) will lengthen, resulting in a decline in the production of electricity by
nuclear plants and dams, while also modifying the ecological characteristics of rivers.

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Greece:
WATER SUPPLY
On average, Greece has quite abundant water resources of 58 billion cubic metres per year
(1977–2001), of which the country uses only 12 percent. Of that, 87 percent is used by
agriculture, 3 percent by industry and only 10% (or 1.2 percent of total water resources) for
municipal water supply.There is a great diversity though in the water supply system. Water
resources are especially scarce on the Greek islands, some of which are supplied by tanker
ships or have turned to seawater desalination.
(Supply Systems in your Region - Greece Kos).
Droughts are a recurrent phenomenon throughout Greece, including a drought in 1993 that
was considered the worst in at least 50 years and another drought in 2007.
Greece lags behind in the implementation of the European Union’s Urban Wastewater
Treatment Directive of 1991, which required all municipal wastewaters to be treated by 2005.
The biggest cities are in compliance with the directive. Athens and Thessaloniki, which
discharge into sensitive areas, have wastewater treatment plants with nitrogen removal.

ELECTRICITY-POWER SUPPLY
Most of the energy of Greece comes from the Public Power Corporation (known mostly by
its acronym ΔΕΗ, or in English DEI). Half the energy of DEH is produced using lignite
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Power_Corporation_of_Greece).
Twelve percent (12%) of Greece's electricity comes from hydroelectric power plants and
another 20% from natural gas. Renewable types of energy used in Greece are solar, wind and
biomass. The consequences in the climate change from these energy supplying systems vary,
worse being from the lignite.
During summer and especially during July and August there is a significant increase of
electricity demand (due to the use of air-cooling devices) in 2070-2100 compared with
1961-1990 that varies between 13% and 22% for the scenarios examined. On the contrary,
during winter the electricity demand decreases up to 7% due to the increased mean
temperature (Hellenic Republic, 2006). The Mediterranean will need 2-3 fewer weeks a year
of heating but an additional 2-5 weeks of cooling by 2050
(https://www.climatechangepost.com/greece/energy/). It is estimated that in Athens by 2080
energy demand during July will increase by 30% due to air conditioning (Alcamo et al.,
2007). At present, power providers (DEH mostly) do not seem to account for climate impacts
in their development plans, meaning that they could be overestimating their ability to meet
future electricity needs.

Italy:
The Italian Integrated Water Supply system is very heterogeneous.
Many areas are fully provided by drinking water flowing directly to their homes all day, but
there are other areas where the water flows from the tap only a few days a week.
About 70% of the underground resources is located in the large flood plains of Northern Italy.
Water supply is becoming a social and economic emergency in the South of Italy (Apulia,
Basilicata, Sicily and Sardinia), because of groundwater shortage but also of inadequate

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maintenance of the distribution network. The decrease of rainfall, caused by global warming,
could worsen this situation.

In Italy, electricity generation is still dominated by Enel (25.4% of 2012 Italian power
production), followed by Eni (9.5%), Edison (7.2%) and other small producers. The Italian
electricity network is almost entirely owned and ran by Terna, a national company.

The climate changes in the Mediterranean area will increase the electrical consumption
during summer time, because of the use of air-conditioning. Then, in summer time, the
request will grow as well as the risk of blackout. Furthermore, some climate change
phenomena, like the decrease of the availability of water cooling, could have a bad influence
on productive capacity of the electrical system.

Slovakia:
Climate change will impact thermoelectric power production in Slovakia through a
combination of increased water temperatures and reduced river flow, especially during
summer. In particular, thermoelectric power plants in southern and south-eastern Slovakia
will be affected by climate change.
Žitný ostrov is the biggest natural groundwater source in the Slovak Republic (SR) and in
Central Europe with app. 20 400 l.s-1 capacity. Flooding of sewage system can be a hazardous
situation for homeowners. It may result in sewage backed-up into the home, contaminated
drinking water, and lack of sanitation until the problem is fixed. Drinking water can act as
infection disease vector in case of microbiological contamination, mainly typhoid fever,
bacterial dysentery, cholera, anthrax, leptospiroses, viral hepatitis A, enteroviroses, parasitic
and other diseases. The most frequent waterborn diseases in SR conditions are (mainly in
persons living under lower hygienic standards) bacilar dysentery, infectious hepatitis A,
certain animal-transmitted diseases and other diarrhoea diseases. The risk of those diseases is
higher during flood periods or in cases of sewage failures.
In November 2004 during the storm in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia, southern Poland) on
the lee side of the High Tatras, wind speeds reaching about 80 to 100 kn in gusts were
measured. The Tatras National Park on the southern lee side of the High Tatra Mountains
suffered serious damage. An area of about 10.000 km² forest was destroyed, leaving behind
flat land with fallen trees. Many roads were blocked and electric power cut. The storm
damaged a number of buildings, blocked public transport and for several days cut off a
number of people from the outside world.
In the summer 2010 a storm lasting several hours in the Upper Nitra area caused local floods,
The overflowing Handlovka River flooded roads to Handlova shortly after noon and the town
had been without electricity for several hours. A so-called thousand-year flood filled the
streams reaching a depth of 3 metres in some places.

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Spain:
The Catalan Water Agency works with the aim of making more water available and to
guarantee its supply through diverse measures that include aquifer recovery, reuse,
conservation, improvements in water and desalination.
To this end, since 2002, the Tordera desalination plant, located in Blanes, has been in
operation, which serves to meet the demands of the area and preserve the good status of the
aquifer of the Tordera River, thus guaranteeing its water quality.
In addition, since summer 2009, the Llobregat desalination plant, the largest in Europe
dedicated to urban supply, has been operational.
The droplet is updated daily with information on the status of the water resources of the
inland basins of Catalonia. Furthermore, if you consult the document on the status of the
reservoirs, you will find data on the reserves of the inland basins of Catalonia and those of the
Hydrographic Confederation of the Ebro, also updated daily. You can also consult the pages
referring to the situation, characteristics, levels and volumes of the water in Catalan
reservoirs.

Sweden:
The production of electricity in Sweden mainly consists of hydroelectric energy and nuclear
power, with both standing for 80 % of the total production. Other ways of producing
electricity for the country are through wind power, along with a handful of ways to obtain
electricity through heat.

If a drastic change in climate would occur, for instance, the amount of downfall could affect
how effectively the tap water is being filtered, or how efficient the sewage water is being
cleaned. There are about 1 700 waterworks located in different municipalities throughout
Sweden, where each serve the purpose to provide each home or estate with drinking water. In
the waterworks, materials and other microparticles such as liquid metals, fish, Algiers,
bacteria are being filtered in one of many processes through their system, before being
available to our homes.

However, a problem that might be present in the future is a rising amount of browning in the
surface water, and it might be necessary to impose a membrane technique as a
countermeasure.
The inevitable rise of temperature has led to a rather delayed winter in Sweden, which from a
certain perspective could be beneficial to some degree. Simply put, If the ground doesn't get
frozen, there is still the possibility to produce food, which for example, can prolong the
season of certain fruits or foods that would normally require a certain limited period to
produce.

A goal that Sweden is aiming for is to only rely on renewable energy in a coming generation.
This goal is the main focal point of why the nuclear power is to be removed by 2020. While it
sounds promising, it still has some potential negative effects. A renewable energy source such
as wind power is maybe not so dependable as a nuclear power plant as wind is not something
that is permanent and windmills not being nearly as powerful as a power plant, which would

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require a dozen of windmills and space to operate at the same frequency. The amount of
energy the inhabitants of Sweden use will be hard to substitute with only renewable energy,
since it will it take time to shut down the power plants and build new renewable ones.

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Buildings in our country

France:

The urban model proof against the catastrophe


the urban model, developed following the success of the house at the end of the years 1970.
However, the expansion of this model on territories exposed at the risks raises many
interrogations . This new shape of suburban housing is marked by the leisure activities (
swimming pool, corner barbecue, etc), corresponding to suburban dream: to have a house
located in the countryside but which is not any more a firm or a farm. These signs of the
suburban Utopia will be particularly put at evil by the natural disaster having taken the form,
of a flood: many testimonies describe the explosion of bay windows under the water pressure
of the water which invades little by little the houses, the discharge of the fuel oil tank in the
swimming pool. These elements are important to take into account for better understanding
how the population felt following environmental disasters.: many victims explained why after
the catastrophe, they felt like homeless and assisted. However, the inhabitants victims of the
floods remain marked by this event.
The floods which touched France
1910 the most traumatic: the Seine is impacted by risings of the river – 50,000 flooded
buildings – 5 deaths – approximately 1.6 billion € damage; 1930: Montauban and Moissac –
3,000 destroyed houses and 11 bridges – more than 300 deaths.
In the night of March 3rd, 1930, the Tarn-et-Garonne is absorbed by water of the Tarn,
Aveyron and the Garonne because of exceptional rains on grounds gorged with water and a
hot wind dissolving snow. ; 1940: Aiguat, torrential risings in the Eastern Pyrenees – 840 mm
of rain in 24:00 precipitations considered as the record of Europe – 50 deaths in France, 300
in Catalonia. The victims are located mainly at Amélie-the-Baths (Valley of Tech);
1992: Vaison-The-Roman, torrential risings of Ouvèze – approximately 200 mm in a few
hours – 47 deaths. Flow mud of approximately 50 cm in the camp-site upstream of Vaison. In
1616 a comparable flood apparently took place without creating victims (the population lived
on the heights of bridge left bank)
2010: Floods in the VAr, torrential rising – 27 deaths – 700 million euros of damage. In
Draguignan, flood which goes up from 3 to 4 meters and generates a mud torrent (Malmont)
carrying rocks.

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The departments of south-east are frequently exposed to episodes of extreme rains (often
named “Cevennes episodes”) involving fast risings by overflow of the waterways. These
episodes of intense rains affect the solid masses of the Cevennes, of the southern Alps , the
Eastern Pyrenees and Corsica.
In metropolis, the low zones being able to be confronted with this phenomenon represent a
surface of 7,000 km2 (56% on the Atlantic facade, 26% on the frontage Sleeve – North Sea
and 17% on the Mediterranean circumference). The agricultural lands cover nearly the three
quarters of this surface and the artificialized territories where the main issues concentrate
account for approximately 10% of the low zones. Nearly 850,000 people live in these zones
and 570,000 residences are concerned.The overseas territories are particularly exposed – in
the Antilles because of the local seismic activity.
In 2009, a ministerial working group carried out a case study on the littoral of the
Languedoc-Roussillon area, assuming a rise in the marine level of one meter. At horizon
2100, the report concludes at the risk from total destruction from approximately 140,000
residences and 10,000 establishments, 80,000 people directly concerned and 26,000
employees. The risks of damage are then estimated at several tens of billion euros.

Movements of ground
The progression of coastal dune towards the inland (displacement of sand under the effect of
the wind). The retreat of the coast results from a natural erosion from the ground and rock by
water and the wind.Nearly a quarter of the 7,100 km metropolitan coasts is concerned with
this phenomenon of erosion. More half of the littoral moves back in Gard, the
PYrénées-Atlantiques, the Seine-maritime and the Pas-de-Calais. Artificialized surfaces
occupy a quarter of the grounds concerned gathering a population of approximately 140,000
inhabitants and 150,000 residences.
The last group of movements of ground is called shrinkings and swellings of clays. They
follow the drought and with the rehydration of the grounds, and vary according to the water
content of clays whose retraction or swelling can move the ground of several centimetres
with sometimes consequent effects on the walls and foundations of the buildings which are
not adapted. In our country, the phenomenon occurs at the time of periods of summer
drought. In 2003, the heatwave episode involved cracks on more than 100,000 buildings
causing a total compensation for 1.2 billion euros by the insurances. Between 1982 and
2013.19 000 orders of natural disaster were taken for this reason. This risk affects 60% of the
metropolitan territory but only certain zones are seriously touched: the Paris basin, the
Aquitanian basin, the department of the Puy-de-dôme,

The negative impact of the greenhouse effect results in an increase in the interior
temperatures, therefore degradation of the comfort of summer in the habitat with excessive
use of air conditioning. In the cities the temperature is stronger than in suburbs. This kind of
habitat which is much more difficult to protect from heat and the radiation. Small towns in
the South of France are better adapted to strong heats with shutters and shaded streets. In
order to avoid using air conditioning, one thinks of acting on the frame of the house itself, the
color of the walls, the installation of shutters or blinds or on the plantation of trees in order to
limit the action of the sun in summer.

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Greece:

The effects of climate change on the built environment can be separated into direct and
indirect effects. For example, direct consequences of the sea-level rise include increased
flooding and risks for human safety. The indirect effects include increased costs for repair and
maintenance of the built environment and increased migration flows due to environmental
causes. Climate change drastically increases the energy consumption of buildings, especially
during summer.

In case the threat is not treated efficiently buildings can be very vulnerable to climate change.
In the future there may be an increase in the risk of collapse, declining health and significant
loss of value as a result of more storms, snow or subsidence damage, water encroachment,
deteriorating indoor climate and reduced building lifetime.

In Greece, Climate Change affects the building structure. During summer and especially
during July and August there is a significant increase of electricity demand due to the use of
air-cooling device. It is estimated that in Athens by 2080 energy demand during July will
increase by 30% due to air conditioning. The peak in energy demand hence falls in the dry
season, which is expected to become even drier in the future. On the contrary, during winter
the electricity demand decreases up to 7% due to the increased mean temperature. Greece will
need 2-3 fewer weeks a year of heating but an additional 2-5 weeks of cooling by 2050.
People should recognise that climate change will have a powerful effect on how buildings are
designed and constructed.
United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Sustainable Buildings and Climate
Initiative estimates the construction trades contribute as much as 30% of all global
greenhouse gas emissions and consume up to 40% of all energy used worldwide.
Reducing water use is becoming critical to sustainable building design. Skilful design and
planning can reduce water usage by 50% or more. Strategies include water efficient fixtures
and equipment, water efficient irrigation and landscaping, recycling water so it can be used
more than once, and capturing rainwater. Purification of water on-site and advanced septic
systems have also been shown to be effective.

In Greece, there are a few scarce attempts to construct low energy houses. For instance, the
stunning underground home of the picture, utilizes a natural palette of materials to maintain a
low profile while complementing the serene Mediterranean landscape that surrounds it.
Situated in a small valley with views of the coast, consists of two stone walls bridged by a
beautiful green roof that spans two adjacent slopes. The home takes advantage of rustic
materials that maximize energy efficiency while allowing the house to blend in with the
rugged terrain of Greece's Antiparos Island.

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http://inhabitat.com/beautiful-underground-aloni-house-blends-in-with-the-earth/
http://www.climateandmonuments.com/climate-change-in-greece?lightbox=image13l
d
http://inhabitat.com/beautiful-underground-aloni-house-blends-in-with-the-earth/
http://greenbuildingelements.com/2015/06/07/how-climate-change-affects-building-d
esign/
http://en.klimatilpasning.dk/sectors/buildings/climate-change-impact-on-buildings.asp
x

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Italy:
Buildings heating and cooling are activities that need large amounts of energy, with
significant emissions of greenhouse gas. During the last few years, our country has promoted
not only the use of renewable power source, but it also tried to improve the energetic
efficiency of buildings. For example, it tried to reduce the request of heat during cold season,
with measures like thermal insulation of the building or heat recovery, the most significant
source of consumption.

Slovakia:
The changing climate has the potential to increase premature deterioration regionally and
weathering impacts on the built environment, exacerbating vulnerabilities to climate extremes
and disasters and negatively impacting the expected and useful life spans of structures.
Soviet-era panel-style buildings are an important consideration when planning for climate
change in the region. Most block flats, which were designed to have a lifespan of about thirty
years, already were in disrepair at the time the regimes fell. Bulgaria, for instance, recently
indicated that 10% of its panel dwellings were in need of urgent repairs while the Slovak
Ministry of Construction estimated that it would cost over 10.3 billion Euros and take more
than thirty years to complete the structural repairs necessary to ensure the safety of these
buildings. Although they are in need of basic renovation, there is growing evidence that panel
buildings, both block flats used for housing and public buildings of similar construction, have
the potential to be efficiently renovated and to incorporate energy-saving retrofits. The major
aspects of retrofitting focus on energy-saving measures. These include thermal insulation,
windows replacement, and modernization of central heating systems. In addition to these
measures, green roofing is being tested as a further means for improving the quality of living
spaces as well as a way to manage fluctuations in precipitation. Studies suggest that rooftop
gardens:

1. help to control interior temperature, by decreasing the heat entering and exiting a
building through the roof, and thus reduce energy demand. Widespread introduction
of gardens will add to urban greenspace and, in the process, help moderate heat island
effects.
2. can reduce the level of runoff and moderate the potential of flooding during heavy
rainfall.
3. assist in harvesting rainwater. The basic idea is that rainwater is filtered into storage
tanks and then used for non-potable activities such as laundry, toilets, and watering
plants.

Spain:
Despite the different climatic conditions for each building, the four cases have the same goal,
summarized by Sánchez himself: “We want to show that there are new technologies in
experimentation phases that are already feasible and profitable, at a technical and economic
level, to the application of rehabilitating buildings.” Hence the European guidelines were

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very concrete: the project must renovate already existing buildings and must involve
public–private collaboration.
“The intention is that the test be as practical and realistic as possible. In the European
post-crisis scenario, we need more rehabilitation than construction,” acknowledges Sánchez
de la Flor.
The first solution is based on the use of two existing technologies. They will cover the whole
exterior with slabs separated from the facade by an air chamber, as is already done in many
buildings. In addition, the engineers will put a water channel in the space, “a technique that
was used for the first time at the Seville Expo in 1992 to create microclimates, by researchers
from the University of Seville,” the Cadiz professor explains. In addition, the inner chamber
of the facade will open or close, depending on the temperatures. “For example, in winter it
will be closed so as to not let the heat escape from the building.
The union of both techniques has not been simple, as Sanchez de la Flor writes: “There have
been many years of studies and trials between the universities of Cadiz and Seville. We were
able to demonstrate that it works in an experimental situation and it will now be applied for
the first time to a residential building.” This second smart skin will add cross ventilation to
regulate the entrance of outside air to “take advantage of favorable external conditions,”
explains Sánchez de la Flor. The system will activate only when outside temperatures are
cooler.
A set of sensors will monitor the smart building’s 1,077 square meters and transmit the data
to a central computer that will decide when to activate the ventilation. Depending on
conditions, the system will be capable of bringing down the interior temperature of the
building up to five degrees on extremely hot days. All this will lead to energy savings and
reductions in carbon dioxide emissions. The savings that can be achieved will repay the
investment in less than 15 years.

Energy conservation and renewable technologies for buildings to face the impact of the climate change and minimize the use
of cooling

Sweden:
Due to more increasingly common floods here in Sweden we are going to have some
problems and one of those problems is of course going to be that we have more water damage
to our houses since that we are not prepared for these floods that have become more common
here in the of Sweden and especially in the north where the floods are even more rare. Due to

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that we have not been used to having floods here neither is our houses prepared for the floods
and that means two things.
The first thing is that our houses is not prepared for these huge amounts of water that might
seek its way into our houses and that leads to that we are going to have a lot more damage to
our houses compared to if they were prepared for the floods or at least a little prepared for the
flooding. One important thing to mention here is that most of our houses here in Sweden is
that mostly made from wood, but what does that mean? Well it means that if our houses get
damaged by water they are going to suffer a lot more damages than a house built out of
another more water-resistant material, so with wooden houses we get damages such as rotting
wood which a concrete building would not suffer.
The second problem that we are going to have due to increasing amounts of rain is that when
we get floods and our houses get damaged in a higher rate than ever before that is going to
cost both the municipalities and regular people a lot of money to repair the damages.
another consequence is that we might see a shift in where people want to live because people
might not want to stay in areas that are in the danger zone when it comes to floods and we
might also see that some areas of Sweden might not be habitable.

Floods (Expressen Arvika 2000) http://www.postvagnen.com/forum/index.php?mode=thread&id=753864

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Tourism and outdoor activities in our country

France:
The French direction of Tourism carried out an exploratory study at horizon 2100 with a
warming of 3 to 4 °C. The effects of the climate change on the tourist activity are more or less
sensitive.
Snowing up would decrease and the ski resorts located below 1,800 meters would be in
danger. The water shortages would become difficult to manage under the pressure of tourism
according to places and seasons. The coral reefs overseas would be in danger. Coastal
erosion, limited today, would come to threaten the balneal tourist model.
The most exposed regions are Alsace, south, the Ile-de-France, Brittany and four departments
of overseas: the Guadeloupe, Mayotte, Reunion and Martinique. The least exposed regions
are the Limousin, Guyana, Picardie.
Increase in the temperature: reduction in the snowy coat and necessary diversification
of tourism in mountains
With an increase in the average temperature of 2 °C:
– above 2,500 meters, snowing up is slightly delayed and the cast iron a little more
rapid (a dozen days of snowing up in less) and one sees a small reduction in
the thickness of the snowy coat;
– with 1,500 meters, the number of days with snow on the ground falls one month, passing
from 5 with 4 months in the northern Alps and from 3 to 2 months in the Southern Alps and
the Pyrenees. With this altitude, the thickness of the snowy coat decreases by 40 cm in the
Northern Alps (it is currently of 1 meter) and 20 cm in the Southern Alps and the Pyrenees
(30 to 40 cm currently).

Erosion of the littoral and impact on the seaside resorts:


France knows a slow increase of the sea level, this independently of the effect of the
greenhouse; this t should rather accelerate this phenomenon which contributes among others
to erosion coasts. 20% of the French tourist communes currently have their beaches
attacked by erosion.
Thus, 1,047 communes defined in 1999 by the French Institute of the environment
as very touristic are concerned to more than 80%.
In zone of high mountain, 98% of the tourist communes are subjected to the risks, and 16% of
them are likely to be affected by five types of different risks. Tourist communes of the littoral
(75%) and the countryside (66%) although less concerned than those in the mountains remain
at risk.

The case of French overseas: coral reefs in danger


The future of the coral reefs is also dubious. Indeed, the corals underwent in the past
important degradations. The prospects for the decades to come are worrying and
the most serious studies consider massive disappearances of the alive coral. Economic
Consequences can be catastrophic when it is the resource on which is based tourism.

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Greece:
The tourism industry in Greece accounts for approximately 16% of GDP
(http://www.climatechangepost.com/greece/tourism/). Within Europe, the country has over
3% of international tourist arrivals. The proportion of foreign holidaymakers is very high, at
almost 75% (UNWTO, UNEP and WHO, 2008).
Tourism constitutes one of the more important economic activities in Greece. In 2003, Greece
welcomed approximately 14 million tourists (excluding cruises). The major portion (90%)
came from Europe and 70% from EU countries. In 2003, the accommodation capacity was
approximately 650,000 beds in more than 8,500 hotels. Compared to 1996, the number of
hotel beds in 2003 increased by 20%. About 60% of the total bed capacity (hotels) is located
on the islands (Giannakopoulos, Bindi, Moriondo, LeSager and Tin, 2005).
Taking into account its high ratio of international tourists and the high proportion of
employment (20%) from tourism, Greece will be one of the losers from climate change
(UNWTO, UNEP and WHO, 2008).
For tourist areas in Greece the impact of climate change on comfort for tourists has been
estimated for 2021–2050 compared with 1961–1990, based on a mid-line scenario for carbon
dioxide emissions and economic growth. According to Giannakopoulos, Kostopoulou,
Varotsos, Tziotziou and Plitharas (2011), the results show that:
● the number of days where temperature is above 35°C will probably increase by 5-10
days
● the number of warm nights per year (above 20°C) will probably increase by about a
month
● the length of the tourism season, defined as days with maximum temperatures above
25°C, will probably increase by more than 20 (±7) additional summer days in all
tourist areas of Greece. This estimation may increase to 30 (±7) (i.e. an extra month
per year) in coastal areas of Crete.

Other problems are shortages of water, that restrict the operation of tourist facilities
(swimming pools, golf courses), and increasing risk of forest fires in many areas. The return
of malaria to the southern Mediterranean region also cannot be ruled out (UNWTO, UNEP
and WHO, 2008).
There are four broad categories of climate change impacts that will affect tourism
destinations, their competitiveness and sustainability (EEA, JRC and WHO, 2008):
· Direct climatic impacts
Indirect environmental change impacts. Changes in water availability, biodiversity loss,
reduced landscape aesthetic, altered agricultural production (e.g., wine tourism), increased
natural hazards, coastal erosion and inundation, damage to infrastructure and the
increasing incidence of vector-borne diseases will all impact tourism to varying degrees.
Impacts of mitigation policies on tourist mobility.Policies that seek to reduce GHG
emissions will lead to an increase in transport costs and may foster environmental attitudes
that lead tourists to change their travel patterns.
Indirect societal change impacts. Climate change is thought to pose a risk to future
economic growth and to the political stability of some nations. Climate change is
considered a national and international security risk that will steadily intensify, particularly
under greater warming scenarios. Tourists, particularly international tourists, are averse to
political instability and social unrest.

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Italy:

In Italy, climate changes are influencing the wintry and summery tourism sector. One of the
most sector at risk is the ski one, that has been endangered by short and mild winters. In the
last years, on the southern alpine areas, located between 1000 and 2500 meters, where there is
the most amount of the italian ski plants, the snowy precipitations have decreased by 18%.
The problem is not only the snow shortage: recently it has not snowed at Christmas time but
it does it in February-March, when the tourism season has already ended.
Even in summer, tourism could be changed by global warming: if summer were too hot,
tourists would choose another destination. More frequent and more intense heat waves and
even fires will probably discourage tourists to go on our the coasts of our islands and
southern regions in summer. Also, the increase of the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea
could make the birth of jellyfishes and algaes easier. Eventually, the raising of the sea level,
caused by global warming, could endanger one of the most important cities for the Italian
tourism: Venice.

Slovakia:

Overall, climate change could increase the touristic appeal of the central and eastern
European countries. Only minor effects are expected from climate change though, as cultural
tourism, which is not dependent on climate, is more important. Increasing summer
temperatures will result in a positive effect for northern regions like the Baltic. However, in
many regions summer tourism is still in its infancy. Among the countries that will experience
positive climatic effects by 2030, Estonia (partly because of its proximity to Finland),
Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Switzerland are the most dependent on tourism .
Positive impacts are expected for cycling tourism and water sports. Negative impacts are
expected for water tourism due to the decrease in rainfall totals and their non-uniform
distribution in summer. Lower located centres of ski tourism (up to the altitude of 1000 m)
will be more vulnerable with less snow, irregularity in the occurrence of snow cover, and
shorter skiing season. On the other hand, positive impact is expected at higher localitites
(above 1200 m) with more snow, longer skiing season, and strong frost reduction.
Bratislava, the country’s most important tourist destination, faces two potential threats related
to climate change, according to the SHMÚ study: more heat waves, with temperatures
exceeding 30 degrees Celsius, and more flooding from the Danube.
Moreover, Slovak winter tourism will suffer heavily from a decreasing number of snow days
per season. People will have to travel to mountains at least 800 metres above sea level or
higher for skiing.
Hikers had to be more cautious in mid-January as unusually warm winter pulled bears out of
their dens. Instead of remaining deep in winter hibernation, they were out and about, hungry
and nervous. These normally dormant or migrating animals have remained active. When it is
warm enough, [the viper] wakes up and goes out to check whether spring has come. Tourists
should be careful, awakened bears can be sullen and nervous, it was found out that of the
eight bear dens in the Great Fatra, a mountain range in northern Slovakia that he monitors,
five were empty. Further problems may ensue as active bears deplete their fat reserves and
become hungry. If they do not fall asleep again they will search for food in trash cans and

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other places close to humans. Tourists could encounter a bear in the Great and Lesser Fatra,
Tatras, Starohorské vrchy mountains or in the Poľana mountain range.
On the other hand, summer tourism in all regions should prosper from the higher number of
sunny days. However, study authors stress that if Slovakia really wants to make profit from
improving conditions for summer tourism it has to offer better services, infrastructure,
security and information to tourists. The country also must improve its information and
warning system protecting people from sudden and extreme weather changes, according to
experts.

Spain:

Climate change is predicted to have significant impact on the physical resources supporting
tourism in Spain and provoke shifts in tourism, not only in coastal areas but also for light
outdoor activities and winter sports.
The tourism industry in southern European countries like Spain and Italy could be under
threat due to climate change, an EU report has warned.

In a study, entitled 'Time is of the essence: adaptation of tourism demand to climate change in
Europe', it has been found that changing climate conditions could make sunny southern
tourist destinations less attractive.

Hotter and drier summers in southern countries like Spain could potentially lead to higher
rates of droughts, forest fires, and the death of some wildlife.

This temperature rise could also make it simply too hot to comfortably visit Mediterranean
countries in the height of summer.

Things like forest fires, made worse by climate change, could impact tourism

However, tourists shouldn't go cancelling their Spanish holidays - the report's predictions are
focused on the year 2100. It seems a long way off now, but researchers are keen to plan
ahead.

It is estimated that the southern Mediterranean countries could lose tourism revenues worth
up to 0.45 per cent of GDP every year.

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Sweden:
In Sweden there is a large mountain range that is located just alongside the Norwegian
border. These mountains are bare due to their altitude and what this does is that it attracts a lot
of tourists because they look nice first and foremost but also since they are bare with no trees
at the higher points of the mountains it makes them very good for having hiking trails for
tourists to walk on.
The treeline is making its way higher up, due to the amount of snow which has been a lot less
during recent winters. Which also leads to less frozen ground and the trees grows higher up
with more ease in the mountains. Depending on how wet or dry the ground is and with higher
temperature, the ground becomes warmer which makes the ground drier.
With warmer temperatures during both winter and summer it’s going to have a large effect on
the tourism and outdoor activities in the mountain areas. Warmer temperatures could lead to
shorter winters with more downfall, but the downfall might not be snow, instead it might be
rain because of the temperature being higher, which will affect the ski resorts in the country.
Though we will get affected negatively by this there is some upside to it, since we are located
so far north we are not going to be affected by it as much as in the alps.
The snowmobiling tourism and snowmobiling in general is going to be affected by it too
when the snow disappears, the winters get shorter both in the inland and at the coast
especially. One effect of this is that the skiing resorts must to make fake snow to keep up with
the climatechange.
The summers is going to become warmer in the mountains which could lead to more tourists
in the summer. The negative effect of this is that the summers could become rainier. Another
effect by the temperature change is the surface temperature could get higher, which lead to
increasing amount of diseases from the warmer water. The sportfishing tourism is big in the
mountains, but it could get affected if the water gets warmer, because the fish is very
sensitive, and might react negatively to the changes and not be able to survive in those areas.

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Forestry and agriculture in our country

France:

Another paramount sector affected head on: agriculture. Although the areas of the sphere hot
and dry will be impacted, French agriculture will be it too. The report “the impacts of the
climate change in Aquitaine”, published by fifteen Aquitanian researchers in collaboration
with the INRA, made for the first time a complete valuation of the possible consequences of
climate warming on a precise French region. Conclusion: the agricultural sector of Bordeaux,
particularly the wine sector, could be upset.

“The Interprofessional Council of the Bordeaux wines is known as favorable to a modification of the regulation
allowing the introduction, on an experimental basis, new type of vines “– Source: http://urlz.fr/2hRd

By 2050, Bordeaux could reach the temperatures of Oporto today (Portugal), according to the
department research of the ONF (National office of the forests). The episodes of drought and
high heats could damage the sheets and the grapes, for with final deteriorating the quality of
the wine and bringing an alcohol excess. Two principal solutions are considered by the
researchers: to move the vineyards in fresher regions (or at least on exposed slopes North)
and to modify type of vines used. The type of vines of the South of Europe or the south-east
of France could thus be privileged and already returned in phase of test: Grenache, Spanish
Rioja, Touriga Portuguese nacional, Georgian Saperavi, Greek Xinomavro…
Agronomic techniques are also explored: to advance the date of sowings , to increase the
genetic diversity of the seeds (cruelly homogeneous today), to develop the agroforestry and
the techniques of shade, to optimize the irrigation… novel methods of vinification are also
planned, in particular to contain the alcohol level and to limit the loss of acidity. Only one
certainty: for the wine, the transition already started.

Greece:

According to the conclusions of the international workshop “Adaptation to Climate Change


in Mediterranean Forest Conservation and Management”, which was organized in Athens in
April of 2008 by WWF and the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the resilience
and the adaptation capacity of Mediterranean forest ecosystems are being critically reduced
by the combined impact of climate change and human activity. The combination of climate
change with environmental pollution, rapid changes in land use due to the expansion of

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economic activity and urban areas, and the fragmentation of forest areas by transport
infrastructures creates a hazardous situation for Mediterranean forests
(http://www.wwf.gr/en/areas/forests/forests-and-climate-change).
Forest wildfires are the most direct and dramatic consequence of climate change in Greece.
Dry weather conditions, extended periods of high temperatures and extreme meteorological
phenomena, contribute to the increase in wildfire frequency, intensity and extent
(http://www.wwf.gr/en/areas/forests/forests-and-climate-change).
Nevertheless, the impact of climate change has already become evident in Greece through the
devastating wildfires of the summers of 2007 and 2009. In 2007, 2,500 square kilometers
were burnt during an exceptionally hot summer with repeated heat waves
(http://www.wwf.gr/en/areas/forests/forests-and-climate-change).

Satellite image of forest fires in Peloponnese in 2007. Source: NASA Earth Observatory.
http://www.seos-project.eu/modules/resources/resources-c03-p06.gr.html

The impact of climate change is further evident in the massive drying of pines and firs (e.g.,
in Chelmos and Giona). After examining dry pines in the general area of Peloponnese, the
National Agricultural Research Foundation determined the cause to be an insect invasion
brought on by the stress that many of them had undergone as a result of various factors
related to climate change (http://www.wwf.gr/en/areas/forests/forests-and-climate-change)
At the same time, forests play an important part in dealing with the climate change by
reducing its impact. They sequester the atmosphere’s carbon dioxide (CO2) and convert it to
biomass. They diminish the impact of severe meteorological phenomena and are necessary in
preserving biodiversity, while their absence can intensify desertification
(http://www.wwf.gr/en/areas/forests/forests-and-climate-change).

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Forests suffer the consequences of climate change and are, at the same time, the first line of
defense against it. It is, therefore, imperative to take action against the hostile environment
created by climate change. Contributing to the effort of conserving the country’s natural
wealth, WWF Greece has already made integrated proposals concerning the adaptation of
forests to climate change available to the state. Climate change will likely alter the frequency
and intensity of forest disturbances, including wildfires, storms, insect outbreaks, and the
occurrence of invasive species. The productivity and distribution of forests could be affected
by changes in temperature, precipitation and the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. Climate
change will likely worsen the problems already faced by forests from land development and
air pollution.
According to the latest projections, changes in climate will mean that by 2050 the world’s
ecosystems, including all its important forests, will be releasing more carbon than they are
capable of absorbing (https://books.google.gr/b).

Useful links
http://www.wwf.gr/images/pdfs/gr_adapting.pdf
http://www.ieep.eu/assets/1293/Final_report_EP_CC_impacts_on_islands_case_studies_anne
x_FINAL_clean.pdf (tourism)
https://stopclimatechange.net/fileadmin/content/documents/international-climate-discussions/
Les_impacts_du_changement_Anglais_Imp.pdf
http://www.climatechangepost.com/greece/

Italy:
Forest ecosystems will be affected by climate change because long periods of dry and hot
weather increase the probability of forest fires. Southern Italy and the Islands are particularly
affected by this changing situation.
Climate change have an effect even on agriculture, changing the conditions for the growth of
crop and plant.
Increasing temperatures influence the life of plants and vegetables. For example, in the past,
cereals ripened and were harvested in different periods from now.
Nowadays olive trees, tomato and durum wheat, which are typical mediterranean products,
are farmed in Pianura Padana, and avocado and bananas, typical tropical products, are farmed
in Sicilia.
Extreme events, such as frequent drought or floods,have heavy effects on agriculture.
The lack of snow in winter consequencing damaging agriculture one of the serious
consequences of climate change we have had in the last few years.

Slovakia:
Agriculture: climate change will affect Slovak agriculture both positively and negatively
since higher temperatures extend the growing season but cause problems to farmers in
regions where summer heat waves already limit production. Thanks to higher temperatures
farmers are able to grow warm weather plants like corn and tomatoes even in northern
Slovakia at 600 meters above sea level.
On the other hand, negative consequences of higher temperatures will outweigh positive as
the related heat waves, floods, weather variability and immigration of new biological species
including microorganisms, pathogens, weeds and pests result. It is almost sure that some

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original plant and animal species will go extinct while others might experience calamity-level
over reproduction.
Forestry: forecasts say that long-term river flow will decrease 25 percent by 2075. The lack
of water together with weather extremes and prolonged periods of hot and cold will become
burden on Slovak agriculture, making it more water demanding. The major agriculture
production areas in southern Slovakia and already suffer from lower precipitation meaning
additional spending on irrigation is likely, according to the SHMÚ.
Drought is a stress factor for forest ecosystems (30,32). In the period 1951-2005 aridity
significantly increased in south Slovakia.
Climate change have impacts on the growth and natural mortality of Norway spruce Picea
abies, European beech Fagus sylvatica, and oak Quercus sp. Growth simulations indicated
that climate change will substantially affect the growth of spruce and beech, but not of oak, in
Central Europe.
In Slovakia, the proportion of Norway Spruce in total composition of forests is expected to
decrease from the current 27% to less than half this percentage due to climate change; spruce
is relatively vulnerable to climate change due to its shallow root system. European beech, on
the other hand, will substantially grow due its relatively good adaptability and stress tolerance
Forest pests react on changing conditions of the environment. This means that the impacts of
climate change could result in changing behaviour of relatively unimportant pests, which can
cause large damages in the future. Even small oscillations in temperature might have
extensive impacts on forests.
On November 19th the beautiful High Tatra Mountains in Slovakia experienced their greatest
natural disaster in the last 100 years. Wind-speeds of more than 170 km per hour swept away
almost half of the coniferous forest. The windstorm completely damaged or strongly harmed
13 000 hectars of the forest. The unusual windstorm caused extremely big damage in the
stand by windthrow and windfall in a 330 thousand-hectare region including the forests of the
Tatras – about 73 thousand hectare of forests altogether. The windstorm destroyed a total of
4.5 million cubic metres of wood (damage of windthrow and windfall), which is near the
normal amount of Slovakia’s all-year-long logging.

Devastation of Forest in the High Tatras after Storm on 19 November 2004. (Photos from www.tatry.sk).
When it comes to forest-centred economics, the report on climate change consequences
presumes that production will decrease by 5.5 percent until 2050 – a € 123 million loss –
should nothing be done to mitigate or reverse these trends. Along with falling production less
and less numbers of workers will be needed, resulting in around 3,000 fewer jobs in the forest
economy by 2050.

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Spain:
Temperatures would rise nearly 5C globally under the worst case scenario by 2100, causing
deserts to expand northwards across southern Spain and Sicily, and Mediterranean vegetation
to replace deciduous forests.
Moreover, climate change could have a devastating effect on Spain's agriculture, potentially
wiping out some of the country's most popular products such as olives and lemons.

Sweden:
Throughout Sweden there is large amounts of forest, but the largest areas of forest can be
found in the inland up north. In reverse there is more agriculture in the southern parts of the
country.
The agriculture can be affected in a lot of different ways. For example the harvest can be
damaged by, water, drought and storms and so on. With climate change these effects could
possibly become more common. With climate change downfall could increase which could
lead to worse harvests, due to crops or seeds getting destroyed by heavy downfall or. Climate
Change could also lead to temperatures rising or falling which could affect the harvest
negatively, but it could also lead to positive effects, if temperatures rises there could be a
possibility to harvest twice in one season, in colder areas of Sweden. Another possible effect
caused by climate change is increasing amounts of wind and storms becoming more common,
this could impact agriculture and forestry negatively, by destroying crops or seeds and it
could also destroy large areas of forest. This would cost the forest owners and the farmer’s
huge sums of money, which could result in them not continuing their work.
The forest industry in Sweden is important since it is important for the economy and provides
Sweden and other parts of the world with lumber and wood, or as refined products such as
furniture for example.
Climate change could become a problem within the forest industry due to the fact that
forestry vehicles are unable to do their work since gravel and dirt roads could get destroyed
by large amounts of water. This will cost the forest industry large sums of money.
The forestry companies has for a long period of time used methods of digging ditches to lead
away water to be able to reach acquirable areas. This method has been used for long, but with
climate change the amounts of water in the forest could increase, which could lead to this
method being used more frequently. This could have negative effects on the surrounding
areas due to the water being lead to nearby water sources such as rivers or lakes that causes
overfertilization.

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Ecosystems in our country

France:
The basic assumption is based on a rise of 1°C of the average temperature and a translation of
the climate of about 150 kilometers towards north or on an increase in altitude of 150 meters.
The Mediterranean climate goes up then in this direction and the stages of vegetation gain in
altitude in particular in the Alps. In addition, the foreseeable increase in the frequency and the
intensity of the summer droughts, corollary with that of the temperatures, is likely to increase
forest deteriorations and can weaken durably certain trees by opening up the way for the
parasitic attacks in particular. The question of the increase in the storm risk, because of the
climate change, is also posed. Such a context of the new risks of forest fires in periods of heat
wave and/or long episodes of drought were already observed in 2003.

Impacts on the biodiversity in France.

In France the effects vary according to the species, some benefitting from the rise of the
temperatures to find refuge on the territory, when others move gradually towards north, until
disappearing soon from the country – or disappearing purely and simply if the change is too
brutal. Among the winners: the greylag goose, the holm oak, Saint-Pierre, the processionary
caterpillar (so many dreaded the owners of dog) or the Cirl Bunting (a bird, as its name does
not indicate it). Other sides of the coin, the yellowhammers, the titmouses and more generally
the migratory birds will suffer severely from the warming.

Male Cirl Bunting

Greece:

Regional temperatures in the Mediterranean basin are now ~1.3°C higher than during
1880-1920, compared with an increase of ~0.85°C worldwide. Climate model projections
indicate that the projected warming in the Mediterranean basin this century continues to
exceed the global trend. Without ambitious mitigation policies anthropogenic climate change
will likely alter ecosystems in Greece this century in a way that is without precedent during
the past 10,000 years.
In addition to climate change, other human impacts affect ecosystems, such as land-use
change, urbanization, tourism and soil degradation. Many of these effects are likely to

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become even stronger in the future because of the expanding human population and economic
activity.
Various terrestrial ecosystems in Greece are close to the environmental limits, for example
with respect to their ability to cope with drought stress, due to wildfires and fresh water
scarcity.
Wetland systems are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of water supply. Even
small changes in fresh water input or output can affect the water balance of wetlands such
that plant communities and habitat for animals are strongly affected .
Wetlands in Greece face on-going climate impacts including 20% less rainfall in the course of
the previous century. Further deteriorating of these wetlands due to climate change is
expected. Projections were made for two Greek wetlands: Lake Cheimaditida and Lake
Kerkini. Lake Cheimaditida is a natural lake that covers an area of 10 km2 at its maximum
water level. Lake Kerkini is an artificial lake fed by a river that has developed into a unique
wetland ecosystem covering an area of 73.2 km2.
These projections are based on two scenarios of climate change that have been fed into a
large number of European regional climate models. The influence of groundwater inflow and
outflow on the lake’s water balance was not taken into account (Doulgeris, Papadimos &
Kapsomenakis, 2016).
According to these projections, climate change will further disturb the water balance in both
lakes by increasing evaporation, and by decreasing water input from precipitation and lake’s
catchment run-off. Consequently, the surface area of Lake Cheimaditida may shrink by 20%
during the period 2020 - 2050 and by 37% during the period 2070 - 2100; the water volume
of the lake may decrease by 39 and 61%, respectively. Lake Kerkini’s surface area may
shrink by 5% during the period 2020 - 2050 and by 14% during the period 2070 - 2100; the
water volume of the lake may decrease by 18 and 38%, respectively. In fact, these
percentages may be even higher due to a possible increase in irrigation demand in the future,
in a warmer and drier climate (Doulgeris, Papadimos & Kapsomenakis, 2016).
Climate change does not only affect the quantity of the water but also its quality. Climate
change is projected to exacerbate many forms of water pollution, including sediments,
nutrients, organic carbon, pathogens, pesticides, salt and thermal pollution causing
imbalances both in wetlands and marine ecosystems in Greece.
Especially about the marine ecosystems, as mentioned in more detail in the chapter
“Ecosystems in your Region - Kos”, because of the “tropicalisation” effect lessepsian species
are migrating into the eastern Mediterranean
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lessepsian_migration), causing great imbalance. Finally,
because of the “tropicalisation” effect, a lot of animals coming from Africa and Asia
(mosquitoes and birds mostly) are also migrating to Greece.

Italy:
Climate changes influence the life of animals and plants. In Italy, for example, owls and
swallows reproduce and migrate in advance because of the climate changes. Some species of
willow, a type of tree, are spreading out into zones where they have never been colonized. In
addition, the diffusion of invasive species and of pathogenic agents can transform the
structure and composition of animals and plants.
The river dryness kills the biodiversity, because the lack of water brings to the reduction of
seaweeds and invertebrate animals and also the increase of pollution causes the death of
biodiversity.

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Slovakia:
Climate change will affect mainly those animals and plants which can not adapt to new
environments quickly. Since animals are mobile they will move together with migrating
climate to cooler areas to the north to be replaced by new species coming to Slovakia for
example from Balkans. At present, there are several insect species and other animals living in
Slovakia which were not observed here 30 years ago. Plants are in significantly more
complicated situation since a tree simply can not rip its roots off and move to another, more
proper, place.
Windstorm in the High Tatras (2004) - between 15.30 and 18.00 on 19th November, 2004
The extremely strong north-western wind, which also caused damage in infrastructure,
changed the land of Tatras literary beyond recognition. In practice it destroyed the total of the
40-110-year-old stand of the nearly 12-thousand-hectare (2-2.5 kilometres wide and 40-50
kilometres long) forest region fundamentally damaging the whole ecological system of the
forest. The hurricane partly changed the ecosystem of the Tatra National Park, its effect on
the flora and fauna is incalculable. 25 percent of the 50-thousand-hectare forest managed by
the National Park was destroyed mainly on the gentle slopes at the foot of the hills where
forests were planted in the 30′s. Experts say devastation was so big that it might even alter the
climate of the mountain. The Tatra National Park was practically destroyed and some say it
can only be the same again in about 100 years.
It is sure that not only the forests but also the fauna was swept away by the hurricane which
caused irreparable damage in the High Tatras.

Spain:
Rising temperatures could spell the end of Spain's thriving wine industry, changing the taste
of grapes and potentially destroying whole vineyards. "Winemakers have already seen their
production affected, with shorter maturation periods for the grapes, less water and changes in
the patterns of diseases," says Greenpeace Spain.
Climate change could have a devastating effect on Spain's agriculture, potentially wiping out
some of the country's most popular products such as olives and lemons.

Goodbye wine industry

Sweden:

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Climate change is affecting our animals in many ways. A longer snow-free period and milder
winters will increase many animals winter survivals. Snow is difficult for the deer but in a
warmer climate reduces winter mortality, and they can grow and spread. There are fears that
climate change could increase the risk of animals establishing in unfamiliar places where they
haven’t existed before. In Sweden raccoons, white-tailed deer and wild boar has been spotted
in new areas. Brown bear and badger hibernates during winter, but shorter, milder winters can
mean that they will not hibernate for as long, and perhaps in a foreseeable future they may
even start to become active during the winter if the weather gets extremely mild.
Fish can also be affected by a changing climate since their metabolism, reproduction, growth
and activity is largely controlled by the surrounding temperature. Different species have
different temperature, which divides the fishes who lives in the cold water and warm water
and they will be affected differently by the changing climate.
The weather forecast is also changing a lot, it rains more, and the rainfall will increase up to 5
– 15 % in Sweden by 2100. The biggest increase will happen in the mountains, that will
affect the rivers and the fish that lives in the watercourse. It will also become warmer outside
during summertime, which could increase the risk for storms and drought in the country.
Various kinds of extreme events could have large impacts on species and the ecosystems.

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Health in our country

France:
The climate change influences the social determinants of health: fresh air, drinking water,
food in sufficient quantity and security of the residences. Zoom on five categories of diseases
whose frequency is likely to increase considerably these next years.

Cardiovascular and pulmonary affections


In 2003, the heat wave had involved 70,000 deaths in Europe, mainly elderly people,
primarily due to pneumonias, strokes and myocardial infarctions.

However such episodes, heat waves and cold waves, should reproduce in a more intense and
regular way in the years to come. In the world, the number of natural disasters related to the
weather has more than tripled since the years 1960.
These same cold and heatwaves support the peaks of pollution at the origin of many allergies,
but also of asthma, a disease which touches 4 million people in France.

During year 2014, in Paris region, one counted 16 days beyond the thresholds of atmospheric
pollution, in particular because of elevated levels of fine particles, the famous PM10, which
penetrate deeply in our pulmonary system.

Allergies and asthma

Infectious diseases and parasitic

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The climate change should also modify the geographical distribution of the vectorial diseases
(conveyed by certain insects and acarina). Already, one observes an increase towards the
north of many insects carrying diseases, of which the mosquito tiger which from now on is
firmly established in France. By 2010, cases of “dengue” and of” chikungunya” will be
detected and allotted to this mosquito.

Greece:
Environmental consequences of climate change, such as extreme heat waves, rising
sea-levels, changes in precipitation resulting in flooding and droughts, and degraded air
quality, affect directly and indirectly the physical, social, and psychological health of humans.
For instance, changes in precipitation are creating changes in the availability and quantity of
water, as well as resulting in extreme weather events such as intense precipitation and
flooding which cause many accidents and great problems in the infrastructures, supplies and
communication.

Many potential direct effects of climate change on cancer risk, such as increased duration and
intensity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are well understood.
Changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations and other drivers alter the climate and bring
about myriad human health consequences especially in big cities.

Photochemical smog in Athens


Source: http://www.kathimerini.gr/823495/article/epikairothta/perivallon/anw-toy-orioy-oi-times-ozontos-sthn-prwteyoysa

Respiratory allergies and diseases may become more prevalent because of increased human
exposure to pollen (due to altered growing seasons), molds (from extreme or more frequent
precipitation), air pollution and aerosolized marine toxins (due to increased temperature,
coastal runoff, and humidity) and dust (from droughts).
Climate change can be a driver of disease migration, as well as exacerbate health effects
resulting from the release of toxic air pollutants in vulnerable populations such as children,
the elderly, and those with asthma or cardiovascular disease.

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Heat-related illness and deaths are likely to increase in response to climate change and
especially for vulnerable populations specific geographic regions.
Certain adverse health effects can be minimized or avoided with sound mitigation and
adaptation strategies. Strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change can prevent
illness and death in people now, while also protecting the environment and health of future
generations.

As years go by, it becomes more and more apparent that climate and the weather conditions
are important components that affect human's health. It's a considerable influence which it's
not taken into account of by many people because it is thought that their health depends
primarily on their actions, heredity or the easy access on the health services.
Environmental consequences of climate change, such as extreme heat waves, rising
sea-levels, changes in precipitation resulting in flooding and droughts, intense hurricanes, and
degraded air quality, affect directly and indirectly the physical, social, and psychological
health of humans.
According to a report, about 124 Greeks will die for every million of its population in 2050,
making it the third worst hit country per capita globally behind China and Vietnam.
On the other hand, it is believed that climate change will harm food supplies so drastically
that half a million people will die worldwide in 2050 alone. Changes in food availability and
intake also affect dietary and weight-related risk factors such as low fruit and vegetable
intake, high red meat consumption, and high bodyweight.
These all increase the incidence of non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, stroke,
and cancer, as well as death from those diseases.
As a matter of fact, Greece’s economic conditions can not afford to pay the staff and medical
equipment that's why an increase in life-threatening infections has risen. Many people, in
Greece that were supposed to live, now they are dying.
Taking all the above into consideration, this should be a warning call that there is no time to
waste in ramping up EU climate ambition, as lives are on the line, globally, but also in
Europe.

https://tools.niehs.nih.gov/cchhl/index.cfm
https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/materials/a_human_health_perspective_on_climate_change
_full_report_508.pdf

https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=http://www.bankofgreece.gr/BoGD
ocuments/%25CE%259A%25CE%25BB%25CE%25B9%25CE%25BC%25CE%25B1%25C
F%2584%25CE%25B9%25CE%25BA%25CE%25AE%2520%25CE%2591%25CE%25BB
%25CE%25BB%25CE%25B1%25CE%25B3%25CE%25AE%2520%25CE%25BA%25CE
%25B1%25CE%25B9%2520%25CE%25A5%25CE%25B3%25CE%25B5%25CE%25AF%
25CE%25B1.pdf&ved=0ahUKEwjVsqD63orTAhWHuRQKHdX0A9QQFggYMAA&usg=A
FQjCNEmEjOiMZgPKRJytqil6HOCnDYHXg&sig2=5sPNAQwYiK3vlfIIj0YC2A

https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research
/programs/geh/climatechange/health_impacts/&ved=0ahUKEwjs8Yfe24rTAhVJD5oKHe9A
AeMQFgh5MA4&usg=AFQjCNGyCAKPswwTOfo1COZoXdykC-uf6g&sig2=64S0_Qlbm
DvLrLXmXtTHCQ

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http://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/news/climate-change-will-kill-more-italian
s-and-greeks-than-syrians/

https://www.google.gr/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/01/patients-dying-greece-
public-health-meltdown

Italy:
Climate changes and health are so connected. In the future the increasing of the temperature
will be of 2°C, with more anomalies in summer .The cities that have concrete and asphalt,
will be the most damaged by global warming. Today we are observing an important increase
of the temperature, 3°C respect the bordering areas, with negatives effects on old people and
on people suffering from cardiovascular diseases. That is why some cities are implementing
some strategies to limits warm effects, increasing green areas for the citizens, from big
gardens to small green areas.

Slovakia:
Climate change is a burden on people’s health all over the world and leads to premature
deaths due to extreme weather. Warmer winters and prolonged dry and wet periods will
favour an array of dangerous insect and various organisms which have been unable to survive
in Slovakia’s climate to date. Therefore people, animals, plants and trees might suffer from
diseases which have been rare or generally unknown for Slovaks.
Another problem is an occurrence of plants producing allergens, particularly pollen, which
our population is not accustomed to. Even this may cause increasing problems with allergies.
In general, food borne diseases prosper from inappropriate production, transport, storage and
manipulation during high daily temperatures. For example people tend to exceed cooling
devices’ capacity on hot days or leave food outside for too long. Intensive rains also may
cause contamination of water by pathogens, according to SHMÚ study.
During the last 50 years, human activities - notably the burning of fossil fuels led to
discharges of large amounts of carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases have affected global
climate. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by more than
30% compared to pre-industrial levels, capturing more heat in the lower atmosphere. The
resulting changes in the global climate bring widespread risk to health - from death from
extreme heat by changing the nature of infectious diseases.
Intense short-term fluctuations in air temperature can also seriously affect health - causing
overheating, ie hyperthermia or hypothermia extreme, so hypothermia - leading to increased
mortality and respiratory disease.
The amount of pollen and other allergens is also higher in extreme heat. These can trigger
asthma, which affects many people.
More variable rainfall patterns are likely to jeopardize supplies of drinking water. Globally,
water scarcity affects four out of 10 people. Water scarcity and poor water quality can
compromise the health and hygiene.
Climatic conditions cause diseases transmitted through water, and carriers such as mosquitos.
Disease sensitive to climate change are among the most widespread global killers.

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Steps to reduce GHG emissions or to reduce the impacts of climate change on health could
have a positive impact on health. For example, to support the safe use of public transportation
and active movement - such as biking or walking as alternatives to using the car - could
reduce carbon dioxide emissions and improve public health. Not only can reduce the number
of accidents and injuries, but also air pollution and related respiratory and cardiovascular
diseases. Increasing physical activity can improve the comprehensive mortality statistics.

Spain:
Spain's Ministry of Agriculture, Food and the Environment, in a report published on the
effects of climate change in Spain, spoke of several ways in which it could affect Spaniards'
health. More heatwaves and cold snaps could have a serious effect on people's health, as
could air pollution, which could cause respiratory problems. Warmer weather could also see
the rise of mosquito-borne diseases in Spain.

Sweden:
With climate change and warmer temperatures, the downfall in Sweden will increase which
will affect the health of us humans in diverse ways. Research has shown that distinct groups
of people are more sensitive to elevated temperatures, and that the most affected by the
warmth are the elderly people. Conclusions have been made that people adapt to the climate
that is where they live. Because of this, there is various optimum temperatures which is
different for people in various parts of the world.
Milder winters have a positive effect on people with asthma, heart diseases and rheumatic
disorders. Even damage caused by frostbite are expected to decrease due to warmer
temperatures. Longer summers combined with earlier springs and new plants, can lead to
longer pollen seasons which will come with longer troubles for the ones with allergies.
Increasing outdoor temperatures and downfall will increase humid-and mould damages
indoors, and give mites an opportunity to procreate, which could lead up to more humans to
get affected and develop allergies.
Due to warmer temperatures, floods will increase and because of that, contaminants through
drinking water will increase. During floods the surface of the water and drinking water can
blend with sewage, and spread bacteria to humans.
Warmer water due to increasing temperatures will result in longer periods for bathing season,
but at the same time micro-organisms and algal bloom in lakes and seas will have the
opportunity to grow. This entails increasing risks for the practicing people to get
stomach-infections and rash. Due to these kinds of problems and risks increasing with a
warmer climate, the way of storing food gets more important, because of the increasing risks
of bacteria spreading and make people sick.

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In Sweden, we can see that a new species has settled down in more parts of the country. Ticks
gets more ordinary on the coastline in the northern parts of Sweden due to the warmer
climate, which is a new phenomenon when the species of vector haven’t been common in that
part of Sweden before. This could result in diseases such as borrelia increasing in Sweden in
the future.

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How climate change in other parts of the world can affect our country

France:
Natural and technological risks
The risk results from the confrontation of a phenomenon threatening with a territory. Its
importance depends on nature, the probability and the intensity of the risk, but also of the
populations and goods exposed and their vulnerability. The French territory is largely
exposed to the natural risks, dependent on the climate or to geology: floods, storms, cyclones,
avalanches, forest fires, movements of ground, earthquakes, volcanoes, tidal waves. The three
sources of major technological risk are present in France: industrial facilities, nuclear and
dam. Moreover, the transport of dangerous matters has more located consequences but its
probability is higher.

Greece:
There are some global indications of climate change that can in principle affect all the planet,
for example the accelerated increase of the mean temperature of Earth, along with the more
intensive weather conditions and destructions resulting from it. This could in principal force
massive migration of people from other countries to Europe and in particular Greece.
However at the moment the main reasons for migration is war and financial problems at
different areas of Earth.
One major consequence though is the increase of migration of different kind of species (eg
birds and fish) due to the “tropicalisation” effect happening in Greece,
(http://www.faoeastmed.org/pdf/posters/Impact_Lessepsian_Eastern_Mediterranean_Fisherie
s.pdf), but also, due to climate changes that happen (or have happened already) to other
nearby countries of the Eastern Mediterranean or even Northern Africa and Asia and Asia
Minor.
During the last years there have been a lot of animals (mosquitoes and birds) migrating to
Greek islands (and Kos in particular) from Africa and Asia. Birds pass through Greece (an
Kos) and stay throughout the winter. Also, the migration of lessepsian species into the eastern
Mediterranean (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lessepsian_migration) has created an unbalance
in the marine ecosystems.
River flood risk has increased during the last years and although river flooding in the
Southern parts of mainland Greece are mostly due to phenomena related to climate change in
the country, the flooding risk of rivers of the North, like Axios (also in FYROM), Strymónas
(also in Bulgaria), Nestos (also in Bulgaria), Evros (also in Turkey and Bulgaria) has to do
mainly with the climate change in the nearby countries.
Moreover, the deforestation of the larger region of the Eastern Mediterranean, including
Turkey, countries of the Northern coast of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean coast of
Africa (Syria, Israel, Lebanon, etc), contributes to the desertification of the region.
Climatic conditions make the Mediterranean region one of the areas most severely affected
by land degradation. 12 of the 27 European Union Member States declared themselves as
affected countries under the 1992 United Nation Convention on Combating Desertification

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(UNCCD): in the Mediterranean: Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain
and in central and eastern Europe: Hungary, Latvia, Slovak Republic, Bulgaria and Romania
(EEA, JRC and WHO, 2008).

Italy:
One of the consequences of climate change is the increasing of people migration from most
exposed areas to safe areas. People are forced to migrate because of desertification, dryness,
floods and hurricanes. This problem is evident in Africa, where food crisis are always more
frequent. The most of African people come to Italy because of wars and bad climate
conditions. Migrants come from Eritrea, Somalia, Nigeria, Sudan, Ethiopia but also from
Tunisia, Egypt, Syria and they reach Libya, where they get decrepit pontoons to go to
Lampedusa, the little island located in southern Italy. In 2016, 150 thousand migrants have
disembarked in Lampedusa, where they have found welcoming structures and assistance.

Slovakia:
Green grass, flowering trees and flying insects are a surprise to see in early January, a time
Slovaks normally associate with snowball fights. With an average annual air temperature that
has risen by around 2 degrees over the last century, climatologists say it is time for the
country to prepare for increased plant allergens, lower water supplies and falling income from
tourism.
In 2013 Slovakia experienced four days with super tropical night which means that
temperature did not fall below 25 degrees Celsius at least in one place. This is the most such

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nights since record keeping began. Annual levels of precipitation have been increasingly
fluctuating. For example, 2003 saw only 74 percent of the yearly average, while in 2010 it
rained 164 percent above the average.This results in periods of flooding and dry spells.
Average temperatures could increase between 2 to 4 degrees Celsius by 2075, which would
mean what is now the climate the Danubian Lowland in south Slovakia would be the
conditions in the Liptov region of northern Slovakia. Higher temperatures should negatively
affect water balance, agriculture, biodiversity and health of population, according to the
SHMÚ.
The 2010 Central European floods were a devastating series of weather events which
occurred across several Central European countries during May and June 2010. Poland was
the worst affected. Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, Serbia and
Ukraine were also affected.
Climate change, according to Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic from
December 2014, has a huge impact on the way Slovakia changes through the years.
During the period 1881-2008, the average annual air temperature in Slovakia increased by
about 1,6˚C (Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak
Hydrometeorological Institute (2009). During the period 1881-2008, average annual
precipitation totals in Slovakia decreased by about 3.4%. In southern Slovakia the decrease
was more than 10%, in the north and northeast an increase of up to 3% was documented.
By the end of the twenty first century, countries in central Europe will experience the same
number of hot days as are currently experienced in southern Europe!! (Ministry of the
Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (2009)
Results from model calculations show a temperature increase in Slovakia in 2081-2100
compared to 1971-1990 of 3.8⁰C per year. For March and November respective increases of
5.2⁰C and 3.3⁰C are projected (1). If no action is taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
annual mean temperature in central Europe may increase up to 4-4.5°C in continental regions
by the end of the 21st century.
The Slovak Republic – Climate Change related facts
● increase of mean annual temperature by about 1.1°C i n the 20th century
● decrease of annual atmospheric precipitation by about 5.6% in the 20th century
● the decrease of more than 10% of total precipitation in the southern Slovakia
● in the north and north-east increase of up to 3% over the century
● decrease of the relative humidity - 5%
● decrease of snow coverage over the whole territory
● landslides, soil erosion
● changes in the valley shape as a result of floods and heavy rain
● desiccation and salinization of soil
● decrease in water resources in the south and east of Slovakia
● increase in the occurrence of drought and floods
● change of hydrologic cycle
● the deterioration of general health, older and lonely people aged over 75, children and
disabled will be the most affected
● occurrence and spread of pests and diseases on plants, trees and animals
● higher risk of forest fire
● changes in the population dynamics of the pests

Spain:

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Spain may have reduced its carbon emissions in 2014 by 2.1 percent, but it is still way below
the European target of five percent. Experts predict Spain could have temperatures similar to
North Africa by 2050 if climate change continues to affect the country at its current rate.
Loss of ecosystems and habitat could spell the extinction of the brown bear, as well as dozens
of other animals. The Cantabrian brown bear is an endangered species in Spain, which is
home to the highest number of at-risk species in Europe.
A report by the European Environment Agency in May 2015 declared Spain the most
polluted country in Europe, exceeding safe pollution levels 150 times in summer 2014,
putting people at risk of breathing problems and lung disease. We already know that summer
2015 was the hottest on record in Spain - so as the summers heat up, Spain's pollution levels
could pose a real threat to people's health.
Climate change could see increased storm activity over northern Spain, with a high risk of
severe flooding that could have a serious effect on the country's fishing industry. Greenpeace
Spain estimates that over 200 hectares of land along the Bay of Biscay will be at serious risk
of flooding during the second half of this century. Half of this area is comprised of urban and
industrial areas.
As sea levels rise, there will be an increase in coastal erosion around Spain, which could have
serious implications for one of the country's most important industries - tourism. Take a look
at how Spain's southern coast might look if sea levels rise by five metres.

Spain registered its hottest year on record in 2015, including a record-breaking heatwave that
lasted from June to July. If climate change continues at its present rate, Spain can expect
hotter summers, more heatwaves and forest fires.
The islands' subtropical climate could spell disaster if temperatures continue to rise, causing
extreme weather conditions including torrential rain and the potential increase in toxic algae
which could destroy beaches and have a catastrophic effect on the tourism industry in the
Canary Islands. The worst scenario for CO2 emissions will see deserts spread across southern
Europe.

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Sweden:
How Sweden will be affected depends on how many degrees the average global temperature
will increase. Heat waves and prolonged drought in southern Sweden could become
increasingly common. Downpour may become more usual, and the intensity of heavy rain
might increase.
If the average temperature on Earth will continue to increase the world's glaciers is going to
melt faster. This could lead primarily to two consequences of global importance. Larger
amounts of meltwater will increase the sea level.
The glaciers are important freshwater sources, if these sources of freshwater disappear due to
global warming important sources of freshwater will disappear. Countries that are heavily
dependent on melt water to irrigate farming will therefore risk getting less water available. If
changes occur in the gulfstream Sweden could get heavily affected, one example is large
temperature changes within the country.
If the temperature increases in Sweden, dangerous diseases could spread from animals from
other countries. E.g. of this is Taiga tick, a little insect that is carrying a deadly virus, which is
now found in the north of Sweden, due to increased temperatures throughout the country.

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How different sectors of society are


and will be affected by climate
change in our region
Communications and Transport in our region

France - Paris Meudon:


Potential consequences of the main risk of the rise of the water level of the Seine. The map
hereafter makes it possible to visualize the potentially flooded zone on the assumption that a
rising similar to that of 1910 would reproduce. In addition to intramural Paris, strongly
urbanized zones from now on would be touched including most of the departments of the
Valley-of-Marne and the Hauts-de-Seine.
Within these floodplains, many major stakes are identified: thus 463 km2 of territories would
be impacted including 830,000 inhabitants, 55,700 companies and 620,000 employment.
Moreover, 295 schools, 79 equipment of health, 11,637 stations of power supply, 140
kilometers of rails and 41 subway stations, 3 railway stations, 85 bridges, several hundred
kilometers of motorway, would be also potentially damaged. There is also a considerable of
historical heritage and cultural share (the banks of the Seine are classified, for example, with
the world heritage of UNESCO) which would be concerned whose many museums and
galleries. since the major rising of 1910 many investments were realized mainly to create
infrastructures of storage in the form of 4 stoppings tanks located upstream of Paris.
Moreover, a certain number of infrastructures of protection such as dams located in Paris and
the departments from the Île-de-France most exposed were carried out.

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Greece - Kos:
The whole area of Greece, particularly the Dodecanese islands and especially Kos, (as well as
other islands in the Aegean sea), are affected. Extreme weather events and changes in wind
models influence the transportation sector from which the islands suffer more.Transportation
of essential things, in every sector of life, is mainly done by ships, and during extreme bad
weather( intense wind), they are not allowed to sail, for safety reasons.
Lack of transportation or difficulties in regular transportation means isolation of the islands
for specific periods of time, usually in winter and during extremely bad weather. In such
cases there is no capability for both people transfer and products transfer. Also tourism sector
is affected greatly.
Transportation sector which is a basic contributor to environmental pollution so special
actions is needed for coping with the impacts on transportation systems, such as promotion
and support of eco-driving in addition with policy measures aimed reducing transport
demand.

Italy - Parma:
In our territory, the transport sector produces also a large quantity of CO2. Air in
Emilia-Romagna is highly polluted, and this is also due to its geographical collocation. In
fact, the Po valley is enclosed on three sides by mountains and as a consequence polluting
emissions cannot go away easily. Moreover, Emilia Romagna represents an essential center
for transport because millions of people and tons of good pass through this Region every day
to reach other Italian destinations.
Since the early 2000s, Emilia Romagna has been acting to protect the environment: for
example, a regional plan of transport has been approved to incentivize the use of different
transport systems, such as buses, trains, bike sharing and public transport in general.
Our region bought 18 electric cars to reduce the environmental impact of transports. The
region is also subsidising car sharing, programmes allowing people to use a car only for the
necessary time.

Moreover, Emilia Romagna is the region where the highest number of electric hybrid CNG
and LPG cars is circulating.

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Slovakia - Žilina:
Warming causes the increase in number and intensity of extreme meteorological phenomena
that directly affects all kinds of transport. The general increase has negatively affected the
transport sectors that are very important for our region.
The increase in air humidity in colder seasons has negative impacts due to more frequent
creation of fog, icing and black ice. It's more difficult for people to transport in those
conditions and it can make many traffic accidents.
Inland navigation on the lower part of slovak rivers will be affected negatively by the
decrease in flows during summer, but also by heavy rains in summer along with steep
increase in water level.
Rising temperatures and extended heat-wave periods increase the problems of rail buckling,
pavement deterioration and thermal comfort for passengers in vehicles.
Although, it is expected that road transport and inland navigation will be affected the most
and railways and pipelines seem to be affected the least by climate change.
Increases in intense precipitation causes damage of roads due to flooding or landslides ; and
overload of drainage systems. For example, road to Vrútky through Strečno - road through
Strečno is sometimes very dangerous because of falling stones and landslides. Although the
biggest rocks are secured, there is still high probability that the rocks fall on roads, damage
them or even kill somebody.
Powerful storms and increased wind speeds has financial and traffic-related consequences for
electric railways, e.g. because overhead wires are vulnerable to higher wind speeds.
An increase in the groundwater level could lead to increased risk of erosion of railway
cuttings. Heavier showers pose problems for the railway drainage system, and the risk of
erosion could become greater where watercourses intersect the railway line.
Heavy storms during the evening of July 21 in 2014 caused flooding which destroyed dozens
of cars and the road leading from Terchová village to the Vrátna Dolina, a valley in the Malá
Fatra mountains. The nearby city of Žilina had problems with torrential rain, there were
flooded cellars, roads and pavement. In Vrátna the storm dropped 66 millimetres of rain per
square meter, meaning 66 litres of water fell on each square meter over the course of about an
hour. Damage caused by torrential rain in the Vrátna Valley led to an avalanche of rocks, mud
and wood that destroyed dozens of cars, the local cableway, and the road from Terchová
village to the Vrátna Dolina.
The storm affected the whole region. Landslides on sections of the Hromové and Steny hills
struck cars and trapped people in huts and houses. In the town of Považská Bystrica, the flood
destroyed a 700-metre long stretch of road.
The five kilometre long road was reconstructed two years ago for several million euros via
funds from Brussels. This has been the biggest damage on a third–class road in Žilina region
ever.

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Around 40 cars were damaged or completely destroyed in Vrátna Dolina valley.(Source: SITA)

A road leading to Vrátna Dolina ski resort was destroyed. .(Source: SITA)

Spain - Cambrils:
Spain and Catalonia suffer from the same problem: a tendency of population moving to large
cities. This fact impacts communications in 2 main ways.
The first one is the unsustainable amount of vehicles that the biggest cities tend to hold. If
you sum up the number of people that lives in the 5 principal cities of Spain (Madrid,
Barcelona, Valencia, Sevilla and Zaragoza), and considering that Spain has a 46’77 million
population and an extension of 505.990 km2, it results that, approximately, the 15% of
spanish population (7 million people) lives in the 0.272% of the total extension of Spain
(1.380 km2). In Spain there’s still the bad habit of one person-one car, and taking into
account personal cars plus vehicles of public services (like police, firefighters, health services
or cleaning services), it results in a ratio vehicle-inhabitant in larger cities of 1. This is
absolutely impossible to sustain for a much longer time, and nowadays we are suffering the
effects of this massive quantity of vehicles on circulation. In Madrid, the spanish capital and
the one with the biggest environmental issues, it’s common to see a pollution cloud over the
city, mainly caused because of the high number of cars.

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The second issue of this tendency is that distances tend to get larger. For example, Cambrils is
a residential town. Of course the basic necessities are covered (supermarkets, schools or
medical services), but if you need something specific, the nearest city to Cambrils is Reus and
Tarragona, which are at least 30km away from our village, and it’s a very long distance for
going by bike. In Catalonia this is not a very big problem because the normal range of
distances vary from 30 to 40km, but in other autonomous communities like Castilla La
Mancha (where I was born), this distances increase up to 90 km or even 100 km.

Sweden - Norrbotten:
With more precipitation it’s going to have an effect on the transport system here in Norrbotten
due to the increasing temperatures. In Norrbotten we mainly use our road systems to get from
destination A to destination B. The secondly most used transportation method in the region is
going by train. Due to the increasing downfall there are going to be periods with massive
downfall and because of that the roads have a tendency to collapse which is going to affect
the road- and railroad systems. One part of the problem is an economical question because it
costs a lot of money to restore the roads again and it is also a question of safety for people
driving on the roads.
Due to the temperature changes, we are going to have an increasing amounts of car accidents.
Due to the temperature dropping from below zero to above zero degrees, the roads get
slippery which could lead to more accidents.
In some particularly parts of Norrbotten there is a lot of snow, but with recent climate
changes it sometimes gets abnormally more snow than the average which could possibly lead
to more disturbances in traffic.
Norrbotten has a lot of forest and the foresting industry uses a lot of dirt- and gravel roads to
get their vehicles and people out to the forest to be able to do their work. Due to more
downfall these roads get unusable, causing them to wither apart.

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Supply Systems in our region

France - Paris Meudon:


An example of what can happen if the Seine level increases :

An angry-looking river SEINE has risen to its highest level for decades in Paris, forcing the
closure of metro stations, museums and libraries.
The usually placid river turned into a broad, fast-flowing torrent of muddy water, but was
forecast to peak just short of the level which would flood streets and the underground railway
system.

Two Metro stations close to the river bank were closed after water started to leak through the
walls. The Louvres or Orsay museums, the Grand Palais exhibition hall and two sites of the
national library were closed protectively.

Severe flooding in the western suburbs of the French capital is feared after several days of
torrential rain in northern and central France. The mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo, warned after
a crisis meeting that the Seine might remain dangerously swollen for more than a week but
played down the possibility of serious flooding in the city itself. Days of heavy rain have led
to a huge flooding across Europe, leading to a number of deaths.

Temporary buildings constructed beside the Seine near the Eiffel Tower to host events
connected to football tournament have been under a metre of water. The environment
ministry predicted that the Seine would peak at 6.5 metres during the night – its highest level
since 1951. Earlier in the day, officials had predicted a peak of 6 metres and then 6.2 metres.
A 6.5 metre flood level is just below the point when water might start to cascade into streets
and the Metro system. In 1910, when large parts of the French capital were flooded for six
weeks, the river Seine reached a height of 8.6 metres.

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The Paris town hall admitted that the speed in the rise of the Seine had defied official
forecasts. “We have been taken by surprise,” said Matthieu Clouzeau, the city’s director of
prevention and protection. “The rise in water levels has been twice as fast as our planning
models anticipated, based on statistics from 1910.”

Greece - Kos:
WATER SUPPLY IN KOS
In the islands of Greece, people get water from regional sources, from drillings and from
desalination plants, which means that most of the islands of Greece have their own system of
water supply and draining network. Yet, not all of them have drinkable water due to the high
concentration of sodium in seawater. Also, an important fact is that not all desalination plants
work effectively or they don’t even exist in some cases.
Some of the islands, are supplied by transporting water to them such as Symi, Kalymnos and
others. However due to climate change and to the increase of the demand of water, both from
the increase of population during summer time and from the increase of agriculture, a lot of
natural wells have gone dry which lead many municipalities to import water or pay for
drillings in the area.
Particularly in Kos island two barriers have been built in order to keep some of the falling
rain water to be kept in land. Their water is partly evaporated again and a big portion is used
for watering plantations.

ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN KOS


In Kos people get electricity by the local power plant located in Mastichari which gives the
70% of the electricity during the winter, when the rest 30% comes from RES (Solar panels
and Windmills) that we have in the area such as wind and solar power plants. During summer

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time RES provide near 30-35% of the energy demand of the island. Kos provides electricity
to nearby islands such as Kalymnos, Nysiros and Pserimos.
Due to climate change the percentage of energy coming from RES has increased to 50%
because of the increase of sunny days and temperature during the year. This is a positive
consequence of course. On the other hand, the power plant is using petrol to operate which is
not so friendly for the enviroνment.
Also, some of the street lights have been replaced by solar panel Led Lamps, which is a very
effective way to lighten the streets, however not all have been replaced yet.

Italy - Parma:
Most of Emilia-Romagna groundwaters belongs to a large (12.000 km2) alluvial plain limited
by the northern Apennine margin (S), the Po river (N) and the Adriatic Sea (E).
In Emilia Romagna the use of drinking water requires a lesser amount in resources than other
uses, with a percentage of 20% versus 60% of agriculture and the remaining for the industrial
use.
However, in the last few years, the decrease of rainfall in winter, the reduction of restock of
the aquifers and the increase of heat waves in summertime, are causing an alarming situation
for the water resources.This situation affects the Po, the most important Italian river, which
flows across our region.

Emilia Romagna has a various and efficient power grid, where the diversification in the
production has been growing, also thanks to the state aid that has made new forms of energy,
based on renewable competitive sources. Today the electric power, made by renewable
sources, represents more than one third of the energy produced by our region; for example a

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lot of solar panels have been installed on public buildings or school roofs to produce
electricity without greenhouse gases.
Furthermore Emilia Romagna district has realized a plan to reduce the energy of street
lighting, replacing the old system with a new led system, that is more efficient, saving 50% of
consumption.

Slovakia - Žilina:
Climate change tends to negatively affect the power sector, inter alia, by causing cooling
problems in power plants and impairing the water supply required for hydro-power
generation.
Climate change is already bringing more intense, more frequent, and longer lasting heat
waves. These periods of extreme heat decrease the efficiency of power plants during periods
when electricity demand is the highest, placing additional stresses on the electricity system.
Water supplies are among the most critical infrastructures, such that their paralysis or
destruction could weaken a country’s defensive or economic safety. Drinking water supply
for inhabitants is one of the most important measures for human health protection, moreover,
it also characterises the living standard of particular country. Flood waters may impact
drinking water system infrastructure (wells, intakes, and treatment plants) with contaminants
carried by surface waters or saturated soil. Contaminants may include bacteria, viruses,
protozoa, or petroleum products from fuel spills in nearby areas. These forms of
contamination may constitute a hazard to public health. Shallow wells near a river or flood
area, may be at increased risk even when the wellhead itself has not been flooded.
Our electricity system is vulnerable to extreme weather events, including coastal flooding,
extreme heat, drought, and wildfires — all of which are likely to increase in the years ahead.
Electricity comes to homes and workplaces through a huge network of power stations and
cables. Most of the energy comes from oil, gas, coal, or nuclear fuels. These sources will not
last forever. In future, more of our electricity will come from renewable sources, such as
sunlight and wind.
It has become apparent during heat waves and drought periods that electricity generation in
thermal power plants (which are not so popular in Slovakia but we have in some) may be
affected by increases in water temperature and water scarcity. In the case of higher water
temperatures the discharge of warm cooling water into the river may be restricted if limit
values for temperature are exceeded. Electricity production has already had to be reduced in
various locations in Slovakia during very warm summers for example in 2003, 2005 and
2006 - in Žilina the record was beaten with highest temperature 39,6°C in 2005. Extreme
heat waves can pose a serious threat to uninterrupted electricity supplies, mainly because
cooling air may be too warm and cooling water may be too warm.

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Spain - Cambrils:
Water supply in Spain is characterized by universal access and generally good service quality,
while tariffs are among the lowest in the EU.
The largest of the private water companies, with a market share of about 50% of the private
concessions, is Aguas de Barcelona (Agbar). However, the large cities are all served by
public companies except Barcelona and Valencia. The largest public company is Canal de
Isabel II, which serves the metropolitan area of Madrid. At the same time more of the water
we take it of the Ebro river.
Droughts affect water supply in Southern Spain, which increasingly is turning towards
seawater desalination to meet its water needs.

Ebro river

Sweden - Norrbotten:
The north of Sweden mainly uses hydroelectric power to generate electricity for the entire of
Sweden. Norrbotten is no exception when it comes to using hydroelectric power to produce
electricity. We have mainly one river that we have used for hydroelectric power plants and
that is the Luleå river with its 10 power plants that produces a lot of electricity not only for
Norrbotten but also for the rest of Sweden.
Hydroelectricity produces 47% of Sweden’s entire electricity production. Most of the rivers
here in Norrbotten is protected from building any more hydroelectric power plants because of
the effects on the nearby environment.
In Norrbotten the main source of electricity is hydroelectricity. Wind power is the second
largest source of electricity in the region. In Markbygden, Piteå municipality, there are plans
to build 1101 wind turbines. This will be one of the biggest wind power stations in Europe
and produce around 10 TWh, this would be equivalent to 6.6 % of the total energy production
in Sweden. To this date, the government has approved of the construction of 774 wind
turbines, and the government is investing for the last step in the project, the last 442 turbines.
In Norrbotten there is another energy source called district heating. Depending on which
material you use, district heating can be renewable. In Piteå most houses in the inner-city and
the surrounding areas have district heating from Smurfit Kappa Piteå, a kraftliner factory. The
district heating that they provide is residual heat from the process of making the paper, and
everything that they make comes from the forest, hence it’s renewable, although the process
of growing the trees again is a slow process.

The expected effects from global warming in Sweden are that the hydroelectric power will

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probably become more efficient due to larger amounts of water caused by the increasing
downfall. The increasing amounts of wind caused by the climate change will affect the wind
power positively. However, the few non-renewable energy sources in use will need to adapt
to the new climate and change their way of production. It will mostly be the CHP factories
that use non-renewable energy sources such as oil and coal that will be affected.

In Norrbotten the most common source of drinking water is from the nearby rivers. In Piteå
for instance, the municipalities’ drinking water comes from Piteå Älven, the local river. If
however the climate change would affect the quality of the water that flows in the river, it
could affect the population.

h p://www.energimyndigheten.se/fornybart/vindkra /marknadssta s k/ny-sida/

Buildings in your region

France - Paris Meudon:


In July 2007, the French government established six working groups to address ways to
redefine France's environment policy. The proposed recommendations were then put to public
consultation, leading to a set of recommendations released at the end of October 2007. These
recommendations will be put to the French parliament in early 2008.
The name of the process, "Le Grenelle de l'Environnement", refers to a 1968 conference
when government negotiated with unions to end weeks of social unrest.
The six working groups addressed climate change, biodiversity and natural resources, health
and the environment, production and consumption, democracy and governance, and
competitiveness and employment.
The government recommendations:
Building labels
The French regulation (RT) for new construction was following an incremental logic with a
regular (every five years) increase in the exigence level requested to achieve by 2020 (RT
2020) a 40% reduction of energy consumption with respect to the RT 2000. Current label are:
THPE 2005=20% better than the RT2005. THPE EnR 2005= 30% better than RT2005+
Renewable energy production for the majority of heating.

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By 2020 (RT 2020) a 40% reduction of energy consumption with respect to the RT 2000.
Current label are: THPE 2005=20% better than the RT2005.
Within the framework of the “Grenelle de l’environnement”, a performance acceleration is
expected to meet with the following objectives for tertiary buildings:
=> Low consumption buildings (BBC) by 2010 with minimum requirements concerning the
levels of renewable energy and CO2 absorption materials by 2012.
=> Passive new buildings (BEPAS) or Positive buildings (BEPOS) by 2020.

Greece - Kos:
In the past, a few decades ago, in islands like Kos buildings didn’t have much insulation,
usually some bare minimum. Partly due to climate change, but also due to planning that has
started, most houses and all new buildings have to comply with stricter rules. During the last
years many households in Kos had to go through a lot of expenses in order to keep an
acceptable temperature within their house. They invested mostly in buying and using air
conditioning devices (AC units), but also in improving the insulation of the buildings. This is
due to the fact that the climate of Kos is affected in a way that the summers are a lot warmer
than they use to be. The demand for water is also higher, not only for everyday use, but also
in agriculture. Also in winter there are more extreme weather conditions, like more days with
very intense wind and rain. Both have as result precautionary measures that farmers, hotel
owners and other building owners have to take and pay more in order to keep their buildings
comfortable and their business healthy and growing.

Italy - Parma:
To reduce heating costs and the emissions caused by the use of interior heating systems, our
region promotes the installation of thermal insulation panels, in order to decrease the energy
demand of heating and cooling systems.
There is also another very innovative type of building: the so-called passive house. A passive
house is able to cover the most of its energy needs for internal heating and cooling using

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passive devices. The energy left is transformed in heat. A passive house is not only an active
contribution to protect the environment; it is also a very attractive opportunity for owners and
users. The high capital investment in the building phase can be regain in few years by lower
heating and cooling costs. In our Province there are some passive houses.

This is an example of a low energy consumption building and represents a solution to achieve
European goals in terms of the decrease of energy consumptions.

Slovakia - Žilina:
Buildings can be vulnerable to climate change. In the future there may be an increase in the
risk of collapse, declining health and significant loss of value as a result of more storms,
snow or subsidence damage, water encroachment, deteriorating indoor climate and reduced
building lifetime. In the short term stronger storms are the greatest challenge.
Storms will constitute a safety risk in those parts of existing buildings that do not meet the
building code's safety requirements. In the longer term, more and longer-lasting heat waves
could have health-related consequences.
Widespread thunderstorm activity was observed on 21st July 2014 across central Europe with
many reports of excessive rainfall arriving from the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria.
Heavy rainfall – flash flood in Žilina in July 2014 destroyed 75 residential buildings.

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(Source: SITA) Nearby of our town (Source: SITA) The centre of Žilina

Spain - Cambrils:
The introduction of renewable energies in our life was a very big step forward worldwide. In
Spain and Catalonia, before the economic crisis of 2008, governments used to incentive the
use of solar panels in homes, give assistance to people who wanted to install new types of
systems that allow buildings to be much more thermal efficient, give grants in order to
stimulate the creation of power plants based on renewable energies, etc. In general lines, our
politicians were actively involved in this new non-contaminant way of getting energy, but as
it was mentioned, this attitude was very common before the 2008 economic crisis.
After this big blow to our economy, barely all the laws or programs focused on dynamizing
the introduction of renewable energies disappeared, and nowadays this situation has even got
worse. In the EU, where are the unique country that has established taxes to the sun. Our
government has decided that it’s right to somehow claim the propriety of the sun in our
territory and apply taxes to anyone who wants to use it. This has caused that installing solar
panels at home is everything but cheap and has slowed down hugely the process of building
eco-friendly power plants.

Sweden - Norrbotten:
Due to more increasingly common floods up here in the north and throughout entire
Norrbotten we are going to have some problems and one of those problems is of course going
to be that we have more water damage to our houses since that we are not prepared for these
floods that have become more common here in the north of Sweden. Due to that we have not
been used to having floods here neither is our houses prepared for the floods and that means
two things. The first thing is that our houses is not prepared for these huge amounts of water
that might seek its way into our houses and that leads to that we are going to have a lot more
damage to our houses compared to if they were prepared for the floods or at least a little
prepared for the flooding. One important thing to mention here is that most of our houses here
in Sweden and also in Norrbotten is that mostly made out of wood, but what does that mean?
Well it means that if our houses get damaged by water they are going to suffer a lot more

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damages than a house built out of another more water-resistant material, so with wooden
houses we get damages such as rotting wood which a concrete building would not suffer.
The second problem that we are going to have due to increasing amounts of rain is that when
we get floods and our houses get damaged in a higher rate than ever before that is going to
cost both the municipalities and regular people a lot of money to repair the damages.
another consequence is that we might see a shift in where people want to live because people
might not want to stay in areas that are in the danger zone when it comes to floods and we
might also see that some areas of Norrbotten might not be habitable.

Tourism and outdoor activities in our region

France - Paris Meudon:


France (Paris) is the first world tourist destination since the middle of the years 1980.
Tourism benefits from the quality and wealth of the natural heritage, cultural and landscape,
besides that of the equipment and infrastructures of displacement and reception. Also, attacks
with the environment (quality of bathing waters, degradation of the very attended sites…) can
question the development of tourism or its maintenance in the territories. The tourist activities
induce several types of environmental impacts, generated successively: - during displacement
on the spot of stay; -During construction and maintenance of the infrastructures and tourist
equipment; - during the stays.
Tourist displacements contribute to the gas emissions for greenhouse effect. These emissions
follow the growth of tourist mobility: more frequent departures, shorter stays for more remote
destinations.
The impacts related on displacements and the stays are characterized by their seasonal
concentration (summer and school holidays) and space (littoral, mountain, certain cities,
some great sites).
The infrastructures and touristic equipment cover the ways and freight vehicles, the
structures of accommodation (second homes, hotels, camp-sites…), the equipment of leisures

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(marinas, ski lifts, snow-blowers, aquatic complexes…). Their development and their
maintenance require the use of resources, energy, water, cause rejections of pollutants and
greenhouse gas, an artificialisation of the grounds, an attack to the landscape, often
irreversible.
It is on the other hand difficult to quantify impacts linked to the stays, which depend directly
on the practices of accommodation or leisures. By adopting the same lifestyle as in the
residence, the impacts related to the stays are comparable with those which would have taken
place without departure on holiday. But very often, the vacancies are privileged periods for
the practice of activities having a direct impact on the resources, that it is within dedicated
infrastructures (water parks, spas…) or “in nature” (excursions, white water rafting…). The
seasonal and space concentration of the tourists (multiplication of the population by fifty in
certain littoral towns in August for example) generates locally, and over relative short
periods, various pressures environmental whose intensity can locally pose problem:
production of waste, rejections of waste waters and atmospheric pollutants (displacements,
activities…), drinking water consumption, disturbance of the ecosystems.

Greece - Kos:
Tourism constitutes one of the more important economic activities in our region, the
Dodecanese islands.
All the Aegean islands attract many tourists. However, in midsummer many tourists already
find the heat extreme. By 2030 this will further increase. In addition, on many islands there
are difficulties with water supply. The frequent forest fires are also a problem for tourism
(UNWTO, UNEP & WHO, 2008; http://www.climatechangepost.com/greece/tourism/).
Water shortages could be experienced in most years on islands, partly due to the fact that
tourists use far more water per capita than the local population (Giannakopoulos, Bindi,
Moriondo, LeSager & Tin, 2005).
In the Mediterranean region, the likely reduction of tourism during the hotter summer months
may be compensated for by promoting changes in the temporal pattern of seaside tourism, for

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example by encouraging visitors during the cooler months (Amelung & Viner, 2006). Climate
change may even be beneficial for the Mediterranean tourist industry if it levels-out demand,
reducing the summer peak, while increasing occupancy in the shoulder seasons. In the
absence of such adjustments, the Mediterranean tourist industry will be among the main
losers (EEA, JRC & WHO, 2008).
If the tourist period is extended to months May and September, the negative impacts of the
heat of July and August can largely be offset, resulting in minor overall changes in the
arrivals by the year 2100 (Shoukri & Zachariadis, 2012).

Italy - Parma:
The beaches of Emilia Romagna have been the destination of many foreign tourists. The
water warming of the Adriatic Sea has caused the disappearance of some tributaries, without
them this sea could become a brackish swamp where oxygen could not reach the surface
layer, facilitating proliferation of algae and mucilage.

Even wintry tourism of Apennine areas has been damaged by the lack of snow. But there are
a lot of opportunities for this region in summer, because there are cool places where tourists
can go to escape from the intense heat of the cities.

Slovakia - Žilina:

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Žilina region is situated in the northwestern part of Slovakia. It has a predominantly


mountainious character, consist mainly of Western Tatras, Great Fatra. Settlement is
concentrated in the valleys of the largest rivers of region - Vah, Orava.
It is the most beautiful of all the richest regions of Slovakia. It contains a lot of cultural and
historical monuments, or thermal mineral springs. It has developed spas good conditions for
tourism development. There is a large number of accommodation facilities, restaurants,
information centers. It is a dense network of hiking trails bike paths, ski lifts, cable cars.
The climate change has a very bad effect on tourism and outdoor activities. High
temperatures have already destroyed many touristic places. Good example could be Skalnaté
pleso. Skalnaté pleso is moraine mountain lake in Skalnatá dolina. Despite the many rescue
operations (in the 30's and 50's of the 20th century), since 1937 has a variable level and
sometimes dries up. Its existence at risk, besides hydrological and climatic and human
factors. It used to be a beautiful and big mountain lake in 20th century. Nowadays (21
century) it is just a little splash of water. Tourists often criticize this and they never come
back. So we're losing tourist from other countries.
Also small thermal and medical springs have started to dry up because of increasing
temperatures in our region. Many tourists have stopped to come and visit our region and
country because of the climate change. It destroys our nature and people really don't like it.
During the evening of July 21 in 2014 Vrátna Dolina ski resort was hit by natural disaster.
Dozens of cars were destroyed as was a road leading from Terchová village to Vrátna Dolina.
Mountain rescuers had to assist around 120 tourists, including children, infants and a
pregnant woman who were trapped in Vrátna. Since the road was destroyed they were forced
to walk through the forest at certain points.

Vrátna Dolina ski resort suffered extensive damage during flash flood and rockslide Gondolas were covered in rockslide at
the Vrátna Dolina ski resort. Gondola house at Vrátna Dolina ski resort was filled with rocks and debris. (Source: SITA)

Spain - Cambrils:
Spain and Catalonia are both regions that have a high amount of tourists and tourism itself
supposes a big and important part of our country system, in reference to diverse aspects as
economy, politics and the whole society in its social and general meaning.
Our geographical situation is one of the principal reasons that bring lots of tourists to Spain:
because of our weather.
In recent years, we are suffering weather and climate changes in many ways. Spring and
autumn are more irregular in the sense of heavy and intermittent rains and wind. In general,
temperatures are increasing through years, making winter warmer and also summer, so it’s
getting warmer and warmer, approaching the actual situation to an unhealthy and critical one.

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On the actual situation, we can see some bad effects that climate change causes on our region.
Those are related to tourism.
One example is the tourists and their skin. Because of climate change, the sunlight hits us
heavily. This in summer is dangerous for pale skins, and it becomes even more dangerous if
those skins are not used to that radiation, which is the case of tourists from all northern
Europe.
It has been demonstrated that when your skin gets burned, you get more possibilities of
having skin injuries, such as cancer on your skin as one of the most dangerous effects.
So that’s one way of how climate change affects tourism and tourists here in Spain. Instead of
inventing new creams to protect our scream from the sunlight, I think we should try to solve
the main problem: the climate change.

Sweden - Norrbotten:
Large mountain ranges are a commodity in Norrbotten, especially alongside the Norwegian
border. These mountains are bare due to their altitude and what this does is attracting a lot of
tourist, because of the landscape with no trees at the higher points of the mountains which
makes them an optimal environment for hiking trails, something that can attract the curious
tourists. During winter, it is possible to see that the treeline is gradually growing due to the
amount of snow becoming less frequent in these latest winters. When the climate gets
warmer, the temperature in the mountain range allows the trees to have an easier way of
growing due to the heat and the water that remains from the snow. Another factor is how wet
or dry the ground is and with higher temperature the ground becomes warmer which makes
the ground dry. Trees, plants and other vegetation can grow during a rather short period when
the ground has dried.

With warmer temperatures during both winter and summer it is going to have a direct effect
on the tourism and outdoor activities in the mountain areas. If it gets warmer during the
winter, it will most likely lead to shorter winters and contribute to more downfall, which will
be disadvantageous for the skiing resorts and other areas who mainly depend on winter
tourism, since the periods where they are active are being limited, when the rain is replacing
the snow. When the winters get worse the tourists that travels to the mountain range will
probably disappear since they do not have any snow to ski on and the skiing season is being
shortened. Even though we will get affected negatively by this there is some upside to it; the
summers would be longer, and tourism during summer is something that is present in
Sweden.

However, the snowmobiling tourism and snowmobiling in general is going to be affected by


it too, as the snow disappears and the winters get shorter in both the inland and at the coast
respectively. Ski resorts have however used some sort of a countermeasure to prolong their
seasons, and that is through using artificial snow, or just fake snow, even though it is
questionable that it will last in the long run.As previously mentioned, the summers would last
longer and could attract tourists in that season when the mountains are missing its snow. Still,
it could lead to the summers being rainier, something that is not favoured by tourists or
people who prefer outdoor activities. Another big effect by the temperature change is when
the surface temperature will get higher, which in its own way could mean that diseases from
the higher temperature water will be more common. The sportfishing tourism is very big in

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the mountains, and that will get affected if the water gets warmer, and fish that is very
sensitive might react negatively, together with the fact that they might not survive if the
climate change is too drastic.

http://www.visitfjallen.se/sv/fjallvandring-fjallvandra-sverige-vandra-i-fjallen

Forestry and agriculture in our region

France - Paris Meudon:

The use of organic materials, such as wood, was placed in the middle of the low national
strategy carbon adopted in November 2015 because it contributes to the fight against the
climatic disordered state. Sector with a future for French industry, wood is a resource to
develop thanks in particular to the technology innovations. To answer the economic and
environmental challenges which represent the sector forest-wood in Ile-de-France :
● 1. To define actions of communication towards the inhabitants of the Île-de-France.
● 2. To promote the use of wood.
● 3.To stimulate forestry management.
It proposes to the Regional council to create regional forestry funds and to mobilize the
European financial resources and the interdependent or participative funds. It wishes that it

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joins the strategic forest-two funds to finance forest service roads or regroupings for the
management of private forests. The certification of the private forests and the preparation of
simple plans of management, managing a wood or a forest, will make it possible to manage
the forests from the Île-de-France durably.

Greece - Kos:
Our region mainly comprises of Kos and the nearby islands. The impact of climate change on
the agricultural sector will vary depending on the island. More frequent extreme weather
events will reduce crop production and pose a threat to livestock productivity. Heat waves are
projected to decrease crop yields due to heat stress and more frequent wildfires. Droughts will
increase land degradation and the risk of livestock deaths and wildfires, while heavy
precipitation events are expected to cause soil erosion and damage crops. More weather
extremes might also promote outbreak of diseases and transmission of diseases by animal
carriers. Warmer temperatures will also affect the spread of diseases affecting animals
themselves. For some Greek islands for example, it is projected that the annual number of
days over 35°C (‘heat wave days’) will increase by about 10 between 2021 and 2050
(https://www.climatechangepost.com).
Climate change is expected to result in adverse effects on natural conditions for crop
cultivation in the Mediterranean region (and eventually in the Aegean region). For example,
the crop growing season, timing of the cycle of agricultural crops and average yields are
expected to be among the conditions affected (Zachariades, 2012). Increased frequency of
weather extremes, such as dry spells and heat waves, will also potentially damage agricultural
production, while pest outbreaks and the increased frequency in diseases induced by higher
temperatures may pose additional risks for crop cultivation (Zachariades, 2012). At the same
time, the changing weather conditions could also create new opportunities, for example the
ability to cultivate certain crops (such as tomatoes) throughout the year
(http://www.ieep.eu/assets).
The Mediterranean region and, therefore, the Aegean are expected to face continuous periods
of drought and hence suffer from rising water scarcity, declining crop yields and
desertification. For example, the length of the dry season (where precipitation is less than
1mm per day) is expected to increase to around 10 days in southern part of Iraklion in Crete
and by 15-20 days in the northern part of Iraklion. At the same time, water demand for
agriculture is projected to continue, thus increasing competition between different water
users. The decline in water resources will have implications for the cultivation of certain
crops. For example, Greece has seen its annual production of olive oil decline by half since
2001. Climate change is thought to be an important factor contributing to this decline as a
result of higher temperatures drought and related water scarcity. The production of olive oil
may not be possible in certain areas in the future or cultivation techniques will need to change
(e.g. shifting farms to higher altitudes, changing planting patterns etc.). Unfavourable weather
conditions in summer 2013 affected the production of olive oil in Crete causing a decrease of
up to 70 per cent. A combination of warm southern winds and increased temperatures over
extended periods caused the olives to dehydrate and fall prematurely
(http://www.ieep.eu/assets).

Furthermore, the increase of frequency of extreme weather events, such as heat waves,
droughts, flooding, etc., will affect the forestry areas of our region. The stability of forestry

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is endangered mostly by the increase of fires, the appearance of new type of insects and
therefore new types of plant disease and last but not least the forests of our region suffer from
dieback. At this point it should be noted that climate change will eventually worsen the
problems already faced by our forests from land development and in many cases air pollution.

Taking all the above into consideration, forestry and agriculture are affected by climate
change mostly via the following parameters: higher temperature
(https://stopclimatechange.net), precipitation change, extreme weather conditions, sea level
rise – coastal erosion and reduction of groundwater.

Italy - Parma:
Forests have a moderate importance in our region. In fact they cover just a little portion of the
territory, but this does not mean our forests are not important: they stabilize the soil, prevent
erosion, enhance the capacity of the land to store water, and control the temperature of soil
and of air. Because of climate change, woods are slowly disappearing and with them, a
balanced ecosystem.
Agriculture is one of the most important sector for the economy of our region, but it is the
most exposed to climate changes because it depends on climate conditions. Water availability
influences the agricultural sector: before the 1990s, for example,farmers started to irrigate at
the beginning of June, but now the need to start some month early.
In Emilia Romagna one expected by 2030-2050 higher temperature, more concentrated
rainfall and increase of intensity and periods of extreme hotness and drought.
The increase of temperatures will cause a quicker and earlier ripening of plants, then the
reduction of profits. For the wine industry, the increase of temperature will change the
sensory and alcohol features of our local wines. Eventually, the high temperature could help
the development of infestant agent for farming.

Slovakia - Žilina:
The agricultural sector is one of the most important parts of the economy of Slovakia and
plays an important role in the production, export, employment of people as well as meeting
the nutritional needs of the individual countries.
But nowadays, agriculture has problems caused by climate changes –e.g. changes in
temperature, droughts, rainfalls etc.
The main problems in agriculture of Slovakia are higher temperatures. Climate change
(especially more frequent and intensive precipitation) caused bigger problems with droughts
– That is why we are forced to use the more water for irrigation. But in the summer months,
long rains and storms (rain and severe storms were unusual phenomenon in our region in
past) cause flooding and destruction of crops.
Another climate changes associated with temperature may create surroundings for the
occurrence and spread of diseases and pests on plants and animals. Higher temperatures
provide better conditions for life of insect, too. Migration and spread of exotical pests –
therefore farms and the companies which work in agriculture are forced to use various types

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of sprays – especially pesticides and insecticides. Although these sprays are aggressive
poisons, so they kill unwanted insect but cultivated plants too. So, the grown plants become
chemically treated and lose their natural quality. Spray also causes increased values of nitrites
and nitrates in the soil and may kill beneficial insect (bees) and birds.
Because of those problems, our agriculture is becoming less attractive. During the period
from 1998 - 2011 it decreased about 8% in whole country and about 3% in Žilina region.
Southern fruits such as melons in the north of Slovakia in Zilina due to global warming is not
something extraordinary. The question, however, is their size and sugar content.
Slovak republic is located in the middle of the Europe, so we have a lot of mountains and
forests. Our region is located in the north of Slovakia - That is reason, why mainly coniferous
trees there grow. Forests cover about 53% surface of region. Typical conifers are for example
Picea abies, Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua. The evergreen tree is known that
these trees grow in areas with low temperature all year round. But changes of temperature
cause that the conifers have the worst living conditions in our forests.
One of the problems are acid rains. Acid rain causes the shedding of leaves and needles from
trees and damages the soil where we plant new trees.
When season of drought come (particularly in summer months) the soil starts to dry up. This
action causes that the trees do not have enough water and start to dry up like a soil. Here are
starting forest fires that have consequences for the country and for several years. The biggest
forest fire in our country was in 30th July 2006 in High Tatras. The fire destructed 29% of
trees.
Every year forest fires, forest pests, drought or storms destroy approximately 3.1% of the
forests in our region. These values in period from 2000-2012 increased by 7% and it is still
increasing. Some invasive species are thriving - for example, spruce bark beetles have
boomed in slovak mountains. The insect have chewed up a lot of acres of spruce trees. Large
areas of windthrow calamities in mountain spruce stands during 2004 created suitable
conditions for increasing bark beetle population density.

Forest Pest Insects (Source: SITA)

Spain - Cambrils:

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In Spain the temperatures rise in the lasts years, with a higher average of 18º.The rains are
irregular. So, the impact of climate change on plants will be through two effects: The
warming and the reduction of water availability.
The warms temperatures, the higher level of CO2 and the irregular rains affects the Spain
agriculture. This can be better in winter, because the milder temperatures will make it
possible to plant more at this time of the year; but, at the same time, makes that we have to
water more in the summer.
The climate change helps the insects to spread and create pests. The milder and wetter
winters lead to a marked increase in parasite survival.

Sweden - Norrbotten:
In Norrbotten there is a mountain range to the west which does not have much forest or
agriculture. In the inland of Norrbotten there is wast areas which has large amounts of forest
which is used for forestry to provide all of Sweden with lumber and wood. In the coastal
areas of Norrbotten there is also forest that is used for forestry to give Sweden its supply of
wood, although there is a substantial amount of forest in the coastal areas of Norrbotten there
is agriculture as well. The coastal region of Norrbotten is the area with the most agriculture.
Climate change could affect the forestry and the agriculture in the region.The agriculture can
be affected in different ways. For example the harvest can be damaged by, water, drought and
storms, these negative effects could become more common with climate change. Climate
change could cause larger amounts of downfall and rain, which could lead to the harvest
becoming worse if the crops or seeds is flushed away by rain or a flood. In addition to it
becoming rainier the temperature also increases which can also destroy crops or seeds that
has been planted, but it might also be a positive thing in the region since the harvests is not
good because of the low temperatures in the region.
An additional effect of climate change in Norrbotten is that it could become windier and
storms could become more frequent, which has the ability to ruin harvests.This could cost the
farmers in Norrbotten a substantial amount of money which could lead to making farming not
profitable.
The forest industry in Norrbotten is important to the region since it is a profitable business
and provides the rest of Sweden and other countries with wood as a raw material, but also as
refined products. Climate change could increase the amounts of downfall which could have
negative effects on the forest industry. A possible problem is that the forestry vehicles are not
able to get to their destination due to the dirt- and gravel roads getting destroyed or damaged
by the large amounts of rain. Additionally this would cost the forest industry to lose large
sums of money.
The forestry companies has for a long period of time used methods of digging ditches to lead
away water to be able to reach acquirable areas. This method has been used for long, but with
climate change the amounts of water in the forest could increase, which could lead to this
method being used more frequently. This could have negative effects on the surrounding
areas due to the water being lead to nearby water sources such as rivers or lakes that causes
overfertilization.

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Ecosystems in our region

France - Paris Meudon:


The Paris region shelters 1274 indigenous species of flowers, of which more than 200 are
protected. That nearly a quarter of the territory is forestry, with the solid masses of
Rambouillet (Yvelines) and Fontainebleau (Seine-et-Marne and the Essonne), even if
become moth-eaten by the roads. But they do not shelter as many species as other European
forests. Approximately 20% of the surface from the Île-de-France are identified like “tank of
biodiversity”

One million additional inhabitants are expected by 2030. The urbanization will continue. It is
thus necessary to carry out this increase by integrating the biodiversity. This diagnosis must
help the elected officials to take into account nature as of today. “

With 20% of its urbanized territory, 966 inhabitants/km2 and 940 ha of nibbled rural areas
each year by the urbanization (that is to say the equivalent of the surface of Paris every eleven
years), the Paris region does not serve as nature reserve. The agricultural space represents
more half of the territory from the Île-de-France (53%), and only 1,5% are exploited in
organic farming. But 50% of the species of fauna and flora that one observes there are placed
on red list. “There are zones where there is no more place for the animals, regrets Maxime
Zucca, coordinator of the diagnosis of Natureparif. We note there is the decline of plants of
the fields, some are completely extinct.

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Greece - Kos:
Climate change can alter the places where species live, how they interact, and the timing of
biological events, which could fundamentally transform current ecosystems and food webs.
Climate change can overwhelm the capacity of ecosystems to limit extreme events and
disturbance, such as wildfires, floods, and drought. The impact of climate change on
particular species can ripple through a food web and affect a wide range of other organisms.

The major impacts of climate change in ecosystems of our region are due to:
Coastal erosion
Extremities in Weather Patterns
Quantity -Quality diminution of water resources
Migration of foreign species

Coastal erosion which is caused by sea level rise and sudden downpours affect abiotic factors
of local ecosystems. Although Greece has predominantly a rocky coast (70%), our island is
mostly characterised by sandy beaches and dunes as well as wetlands. Those softer parts
currently experience a high rate of erosion.

Extremities in Weather patterns create imbalance in the ecosystems of our region.

Heat waves and temperature rise create shifts in ecological conditions which could support
the spread of pathogens, parasites, and diseases, which could potentially have serious effects
on different species, forests, agriculture, fisheries, even humans. For example, pine forest in
our island and in nearby islands dry up rapidly. It is presumed that the phenomenon is due to
insects that increase their population dramatically because of high temperatures.

On the other hand, although snowfall is very rare in the Aegean islands (about once or twice
in thirty years), on January 2017 there was an unprecedented wave of snowstorms in some of
the Aegean islands, which caused modification in the life cycle of many plants.

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Snowstorm wave January 2017 in Aegean Islands

Migration of foreign species


Species strive to adapt to the constantly changing conditions in order to achieve new balance
which is unsure to be achieved. Τhat’s why some of them are led to migration. This has
occurred during the last decades, because of the “tropicalisation” effect. A lot of animals
(mosquitoes and birds) are migrating to Greek islands (and Kos in particular) from Africa and
Asia. These animals have brought contagious diseases, such as West Nile Virus and Avian
Influenza that never existed before in the region. Also, the above mentioned “tropicalisation”
effect has caused the migration of lessepsian species into the eastern Mediterranean
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lessepsian_migration), thus causing health dangers. Some
species are deadly, such as plotosus lineatus a dangerous fish that can poison humans, or
Lagocephalus sceleratus which is a poisonous fish which can be fatal if consumed.

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http://www.faoeastmed.org/pdf/posters/Impact_Lessepsian_Eastern_Mediterranean_Fisheries.pdf.

Climate change influences the water resources of our region, which are very important to
nature and for almost all human activities (like agriculture, tourism, economics etc). The
diminution of quantity and quality of water resources in our region plays crucial role for local
ecosystems.
Dozens of droughts stricken Aegean islands and the inhabitants are being forced to import
greater amounts of water every year. The extreme conditions and increase in rainfall intensity
leads to greater rates of erosion, which then enhance the contamination of the groundwater. In
addition, sewer systems may overflow during these extreme rainfall events, gushing untreated
sewage into drinking water supplies. In coastal areas, rising sea levels may have negative
effects on storm-water drainage and sewage disposal and increase the potential for the
intrusion of saline water into fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers, thus adversely affecting
groundwater resources.

Italy - Parma:
Emilia Romagna, for its position, has a very important biodiversity: 2.700 plant species, 350
animal species and numerous habitat. However, our ecosystem is slowly mutating because of
climate changes.
In the last years, new species are adapting to our climate, for example tiger mosquito that
arrived in Italy in 2007 biting 200 people.

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Another example: coypu was used to make fur coats. Nowadays coypus represent a threat to
the biodiversity in our territory.

Slovakia - Žilina:
Žilina region is one of the richest regions for ecosystems and variability of species in
Slovakia. This region has common flora and fauna with the rest of the country, though it is
characterized by its own species, too. Not even species which do not live in whole Slovakia
except Žilina region, but endemic species as well. There are Carpathian saxifrage, Senecio
abrotanifolius subsp carpaticus, Daphne arbuscula and for example Viola dacica as members
of flora group. We do not have as much fauna as flora species, although there is
Pseudogaurotina Excellens and Deroceras fatrense.
Our region is full of flora and fauna, and some of them are disappearing right before our eyes
very fast because of the climate change.Some of animals are used to be in cold weather. But
the climate changes affects them and their lives. The temperature rises and snow disappears
right before their eyes quickly.
SHMU - Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, has observed big increase of precipitation
totals and they assume it will continue. They are expecting 30% rainfall addition by the end
of the century. If they are not wrong, it will bring lot of floods, and changes not only to
ecosystems but to biodiversity, too.
They say that nature is strong. Stronger than you think.Stronger than anything we are capable
to understand and it always let us know when it does not like what is done by us. In
November 2004, the Alžbeta windstorm hit the mountainous areas of northern and central
Slovakia. The most affected area was TANAP – Tatra National Park, where downslope wind
damaged 12,000 ha of forest, mostly Norway spruce. In the areas with the highest level of
nature conservation, about 165,000 m3 of damaged wood was left uncleared. These uncleared
sites triggered a serious bark beetle outbreak. TANAP is still in recovering process, even
after more than 10 years! And that is one of our biggest problems. Animals and plants don't
have place to exist.
This horrific storm disaster should be a warning for us. What are we doing? What are we
thinking? We are actually making suffering agony from our lives and this has no end. I hope
we will get better in living and caring for our goodness and goodness of all animals and
plants which live here as we do. Earth is not only for us. The sooner we understand it, the
sooner we can get out of our misery.

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Spain - Cambrils:
As we know, climate change affects ecosystems and the natural balance all over the world.
Therefore, here in Spain we also suffer it. We can see it in many ways, as extinction of some
species of animals and plants and the reduction of their total amount.
In my town, Cambrils, we also suffer it, plants and all the life that we found on the
ecosystems surrounding us, in special the ones related with the sea, are being affected by
climate change. Other reasons are related with contamination and the disrespect and lack of
responsibility on human actions. As a result, nowadays, every summer that passes is a new
one in which we found less amount of small animals of those lovely ecosystems in our
hometown beach.
That is one clear example of how climate change affects ecosystems in our town and our
region from which we all be aware and take care and responsibility in order to not lose those
ecosystems and try to be as polite, clear and respectful to our environment and ecosystems as
we can.

Sweden - Norrbotten:
Due to climate change, the eco-systems will be affected in Norrbotten and in the rest of the
world. An ecosystem is everything living in a specific area, and can be both small and big.
Which ecosystem you look upon depends on what kind of animals and plants you look for. If
you talk about ants, their eco-system will be the anthill, and we humans have the entire world
as an eco-system. Everyone/everything in the ecosystems depend on, and affect each other in
separate ways. For an example are the plants needed for nourishment and the survival to all
the living organisms on earth for everyone/everything to be able to get the oxygen needed.
Due to this, eco-systems can easily get affected by numerous factors as pollution, forest fires,
climate change and such.
In the future, the climate is calculated to get warmer in Norrbotten. Due to warmer weather
and climate, new species will be able to live in the north of the country, but at the same time it
means that species already living in the northern climate could totally disappear due to the
warmth they can’t handle and increased competition between species.
The areas between the Swedish mountains and forest contains varied species that is living in
the mountains and the biodiversity, which is very valuable. Due to the climate change and the
decreasing warmth, the areas have moved further upwards with about 100-150 meters during
the last 100 years, and could proceed doing that about 650 meters further. This could result in
the highly biodiversity areas to substantially reduce. Which could lead unique species to
extinction.
Sweden have signed an international agreement that binds us to cherish our biodiversity, this
means that we will pursue forestry, fishing and such in a way that many species can be
preserved in the whole country, including Norrbotten. The agreement also applies to the
planning for our cities, so varied species and plants can live along the humans.
The Rivers, lakes and seas are sensitive to climate change, and a small temperature increasing
could have significant changes on the water. E.g. could the colour of the water change due to
more particles that will come with downfall and saturate the ground. The algae growth could
increase and with that, also the nitrogen content.

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http://www.handensskog.se/referensobjekt/

Health in our region

France - Paris Meudon:


The Pollution resulting from the road traffic rises specific medical problems. On the one
hand, in the vicinity direct of the lanes, the exposure is strongly raised (reference Airparif).
The traffic is thus the main source of intra-urban variations of exposure in the majority of the
urban surfaces. In addition, the emissions related to the traffic constitute a mixture of specific
pollutants (particles diesel, benzene, heavy metals), whose levels decrease for some quickly
(~300-500 m) while moving away from the road axis (ultra-fine particles, Nox). If it remains
still today rather difficult to dissociate the effects of this particular pollution of the effects of
the more general pollution of the atmosphere, a certain number of work made it possible to
highlight a specific effect of the pollution emitted by the road traffic on the genesis and which
has occurred of asthma attacks at the child, and mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular
causes.

· Since the beginning of the Nineties, the levels of black smokes were divided by nearly two
thirds. The nature of the rejections was deeply modified, with a clear increase in the
contribution of the road traffic to the particulate emissions resulting from combustion.

· - Thanks to the improvement of air quality, the percentage of deaths because of short-term
exposure to the carbonaceous particles decreased of almost two thirds in nearly 20 years.

In France, the law of August 2nd, 1961 relating to the fight against atmospheric pollutants
and odors allowed to reduce the emissions of the fixed sources considerably, in relation to the
use of fossil fuels (industry, residential heating), and the concentrations of some pollutants, in

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particular SO2. However air pollution did not disappear. It changed nature with the
development of other sources, in particular the road traffic, which led to an increase in the
concentrations of dioxide nitrogen (NO2) and ozone, like with a modification of the nature of
the suspended particles.

Greece - Kos:
The effects that the island of Kos has from the climate change are already visionable. Because
of the sea level rise, sea water has penetrated into the land. As a result, seawater has been
mixed with sweet water. Drinking water is decreased. The quality of drinking water has an
impact in humans and animals. Problems related to kidney malfunction or even failure occur
more often.
Due to higher temperatures, longer seasons of spring and autumn have been formed. This
prolonging of these seasons have led to an increase of people suffering of allergies and
asthma.
Changes in the number of days with temperature exceeding 35°C have an impact in
population discomfort (https://www.climatechangepost.com/greece/health/). This has
occurred during the last decades, leading to the “tropicalisation” effect with an overall
increase in ground temperature and sea temperature in the past 25 years.
(http://www.faoeastmed.org/pdf/posters/Impact_Lessepsian_Eastern_Mediterranean_Fisherie
s.pdf).
Hotter summer means more frequent and more severe heat waves that cause respiratory
problems, hydration, even heart attacks and in some cases even deaths.
In addition, there have been a lot of animals (mosquitoes and birds) migrating to Greek
islands (and Kos in particular) from Africa and Asia. These animals have brought contagious
diseases, such as West Nile Virus and Avian Influenza that never existed before in the region.

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Also, the above mentioned “tropicalisation” effect has caused the migration of lessepsian
species into the eastern Mediterranean (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lessepsian_migration),
thus causing health dangers. Some species are deadly, such as plotosus lineatus a dangerous
fish that can poison humans, or Lagocephalus sceleratus which is a poisonous fish which can
be fatal if consumed.

http://www.faoeastmed.org/pdf/posters/Impact_Lessepsian_Eastern_Mediterranean_Fisheries.pdf.

Also extreme weather conditions create problems in transportation and communication.


Islands in the Southeastern Aegean sea already isolated from continental Greece had always
faced access problems in the past. Now the situation is worse and is getting worse all the
time, so that sometimes patients’ lives are in danger as the access in a bigger city’s hospital is
impossible.

Italy - Parma:
There are some areas, in Lombardia, Veneto and Emilia Romagna, with adverse weather
conditions due to humidity and lack of wind. A consequence of the increase of temperature is
the spread of insects causing diseases. This muggy weather it makes feel real temperature
higher. The stuffiness is dangerous because unhealthy people can cause hyperthermia
especially on old people, kids or ill people.

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Slovakia - Žilina:
Health is the most precious thing we have. If there is no health, there is nothing to live for.
And when there's nothing to live for... Our lives are damaged more and more every year.
Great example for how our health is bounded with Earth's temperature is occurrence of
uncommon diseases in our whole country.
Let's demonstrate it on tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) – very dangerous health affection. This
disease was not familiar in our country. But because of Slovakia's climate changes, it had
found easy way how to missile us unprepared with its strength. During the period 1980 -
2004, average Slovakia's temperature increased by 1,6 ⁰C, that is approximately the period
when altitudes of TBE showed nonrandom variation over time. Every year, it's capability to
go higher above the sea level was rising within decades, so it could get even to high placed
Žilina region and this cost lot of lives.
There are more problems with climate changing and temperature rising in our region.
Slovakia as a country is in the middle Europe. Žilina region is much colder than the rest of
the country because of its northern position. As a result of already mentioned global
warming, it is not as cold as it was 15 - 20 years ago. And that's very big problem. Not only
deadly diseases as the TBE can survive here, some unusual and dangerous animals as leech
can, too. Although it is a small parasite, it's one of those which allows the TBE and killing
meningitides to be spread further and further into colder parts of whole world, so into Žilina
region as well.
Another negative factors in Žilina resulting to global warming are droughts and decrease of
rainfalls. During the period 1881-2008, average annual precipitation totals in northern
Slovakia – Žilina region decreased by about 3%. Problem with very strong heat waves struck
whole Slovakia in 2004. It caused a lot of deaths and permanent health problems.

Spain - Cambrils:
The impact of climate change is causing, among other consequences, warmer temperatures
worldwide. Spain, which has been typically hotter than the northern countries of the EU, is
reaching a very critical point, especially in summer.
Due to the influence of the different seas and oceans that surround the Iberian Peninsula,
generally speaking our climate was a very stable one, without suffering extreme cold winters
or hot summers, obviously excluding zones like the Pyrene or the Baetic mountain range, the
biggest systems of mountains of the Iberian Peninsula. But the increase of temperatures has
changed this balanced climate. Our winters last shorter than them used to only 10 or 15 years
ago and summers have get much warmer. And which impact has these higher temperatures in
our health? The danger of getting a sunburn or dehydrate has highly increased recently,
affecting in greater degree to the older and younger people, the weakest range of population.
Apart from warmer temperatures, in larger cities were the pollution is much more noticeable
than in small towns like Cambrils, the quality of the air that the inhabitants of this cities has
worsened considerably. There is not only the problem of a bigger ppm (part per million) of
CO2 (carbon dioxide), the levels of other greenhouse gases like CH4 (methane) or SF6
(sulfur hexafluoride) has increased unstoppably in larger cities, but the worst problem is the
rise of toxic gases like N2O (nitrous oxide), CO (carbon monoxide) or different types of
hydrocarbons, which causes irritation to the lungs and repetitive coughs in short term

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expositions and they can cause changes in human blood, lowering our defenses and
strengthen the possibility of getting allergies, respiratory diseases or cancer.

CO2, CH4, N2O diagrams

Sweden - Norrbotten:
With climate change and warmer temperatures, the downfall will increase, which could affect
the health of the human species in diverse ways. Research has shown that distinct groups of
people are more sensitive to elevated temperatures, and that the elderly people are the most
affected by the warmth. Conclusions have been made that people adapt to the climate where
they live. Due to this, there is various optimum temperatures which is different for people in
different parts of the world.
Milder winters have a positive effect on people with asthma, heart diseases and rheumatic
disorders. Even damage caused by frostbite are expected to decrease due to warmer
temperatures.
Longer summers combined with earlier springs and new plants, can lead to longer pollen
seasons which could come with longer troubles for the ones with allergies. Increasing outdoor
temperatures and downfall will increase humid-and mold damage indoors, and give mites an
opportunity to procreate, which could lead up to more humans to get affected and develop
allergies.
Due to warmer temperatures, floods will increase and due to this contaminants through
drinking water could increase. During floods the surface of the water and drinking water can
blend with sewage, and spread bacteria to humans.
Warmer water due to increasing temperatures will result in longer periods for bathing season,
but at the same time micro-organisms and algal bloom in lakes and seas will get the
opportunity to grow. Which entails increasing risks for the people to get stomach-infections
and rash. Due to these kinds of problems and risks increasing with a warmer climate, the way
of storing food gets more important due to the increasing risks of bacteria spreading and
make people sick.
In Norrbotten new species has settle down. Ticks have gotten more ordinary on the coastline
due to the warmer climate, which is a new phenomenon when the species of vector haven’t
been common in Norrbotten before. This phenomenon could result in diseases such as
borrelia increasing in the region.

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https://blog.getgrowfit.com/5-reasons-throat-infections-stay-longer-manage/

Consequences of climate change in our region

France - Paris Meudon:


There is a potentially catastrophic impact on the French coastline if nothing is done. The
impact of rising sea levels as a result of global warming is the risk of drastic floods and
surging seas causing widespread destruction.
The map shows the areas of the world most at risk and will become reality between now and
2200 if global temperatures increase by 2C or 4C.As the maps below suggests, the impact
could be particularly dramatic on the French coastline, with the areas in mid-blue
representing those which will be lost to the sea and the oceans in the coming decades.

Southern Brittany/Loire Estuary


The Gulf of Morbihan on the southern coast of Brittany would be particularly badly hit as
would the Loire estuary, with the cities of Nantes and Saint-Nazaire exposed to the rising
waters.

Calais / Dunkirk

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The entrance to the Channel Tunnel might need more than a few sandbags considering it
would be totally submerged, as would the towns of Calais and Dunkirk. Our
great-great-grandchildren might need to dig a longer tunnel to get across the Channel - a
much longer one, and probably a few new ports.
The mouth of the River Somme will have crept inland to the town of Abbeville, which
currently stands around 20km away.

Mediterranean coast
The main threat in the south is around the western Mediterranean coast to the west of
Marseille. The coast of Pyrénées-Orientales and Languedoc-Roussillon will recede
dramatically, but it's around the Etang de Vaccares that the waters of the Med will soak up the
most land with the town of Arles ending up pretty much submerged.

Normandy/Cotentin peninsular
The Cotentin Peninsula in Normandy would lose a lot of its land to the sea and with it some
of the famous World War Two battle sites, with the map suggesting the town of Carentan
could be underwater.

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Atlantic coast
The Atlantic coast would be severely altered, with the Gironde Estuary widening dramatically
and leaving part of the city of Bordeaux looking like Atlantis. Libourne would also be
affected as the Dordogne and Garonne river beds grow dramatically.

Greece - Kos:

Greece and Kos in particular is not as much affected by the consequences of climate change
as other parts of the world. One major consequence though is the increase of migration of
different kind of species (eg birds and fish) due to the “tropicalisation” effect happening in
Greece,
(http://www.faoeastmed.org/pdf/posters/Impact_Lessepsian_Eastern_Mediterranean_Fisherie
s.pdf), but also, due to climate changes that happen (or have happened already) to other
nearby countries of the Eastern Mediterranean or even Northern Africa and Asia and
Asia Minor.
During the last years there have been a lot of animals (mosquitoes and birds) migrating to
Greek islands (and Kos in particular) from Africa and Asia. Birds pass through Greece (an
Kos) and stay throughout the winter. Also, the migration of lessepsian species into the eastern

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Mediterranean (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lessepsian_migration) has created an unbalance


in the marine ecosystems.
River flood risk has increased during the last years and although river flooding in the
Southern parts of mainland Greece are mostly due to phenomena related to climate change in
the country, the flooding risk of rivers of the North, like Axios (also in FYROM), Strymónas
(also in Bulgaria), Nestos (also in Bulgaria), Evros (also in Turkey and Bulgaria) has to do
mainly with the climate change in the nearby countries.
Moreover, the deforestation of the larger region of the Eastern Mediterranean, including
Turkey, countries of the Northern coast of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean coast of
Africa (Syria, Israel, Lebanon, etc), contributes to the desertification of the region.
Climatic conditions make the Mediterranean region one of the areas most severely affected
by land degradation. 12 of the 27 European Union Member States declared themselves as
affected countries under the 1992 United Nation Convention on Combating Desertification
(UNCCD): in the Mediterranean: Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia and Spain
and in central and eastern Europe: Hungary, Latvia, Slovak Republic, Bulgaria and Romania
(EEA, JRC and WHO, 2008).

Italy - Parma:

Our region and our city have implemented strategies to mitigate climate changes. For
example our school has a lot of solar panels and some drinking fountains to reduce the
consumption of plastic materials.

In 2014, the Apennines were affected by heavy rains which caused the overflowing of the
rivers Parma and Baganza. The flood provoked a lot of damages, for example the destruction
of a bridge. The water reached some houses and the Telecom telephone, leaving a lot of
people without telephone line for days. The flood of Parma river was contained in part thank
to the decanting basins, built in 2005 for a project of hydrogeological prevention.

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After this catastrophic flood in Parma a campaign to raise awareness about climate changes
has been carrying out.

Slovakia - Žilina:
According to some of the climatologists Slovakia may expect a similar fate as
drought-suffering California where the farmers fight for every litre of water. Our country
may very soon join the countries where water is a scarce resource and where it will become
more expensive and less accessible.
Climate change is and will be one of the most serious problems of central Europe and
Slovakia as well. Thus it is sad that the government does not create sustainable jobs which
do not contribute to deterioration of the climate. The support to the automotive sector,
unfortunately, helps the sector which is the only one where the consumption of fossil fuels,
and also CO2 emissions, has increased in the past 20 years.
During the period 1881-2008, the average annual air temperature in Slovakia increased by
about 1,6 ⁰C. Climate change affected not only nature, but our whole lifestyle.
Negative factors in Žilina resulting to global warming are droughts and decrease of rainfalls.
During the period 1881-2008, average annual precipitation totals in northern Slovakia
decreased by about 3%. Problem with very strong heat waves struck whole Slovakia in 2004.
It caused a lot of deaths and permanent health problems.
This is just the beginning. Earth's temperature is still rising, ice in northern countries is
melting, what causes floods and life loss, too.
Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger. Floods and droughts will
become more common. Precipitation (rain and snowfall) have increased in Slovakia. Some
diseases will spread, such as mosquito-borne malaria (and the 2016 resurgence of the Zika
virus). Ecosystems will change: Some species will move farther north or become more
successful; others won’t be able to move and could become extinct.

Spain - Cambrils:
Climate change is an important aspect of our daily routine that affects us seriously in many
ways. I’ve been doing some research in a project done by myself related with renewable
energies and climate change and I’ve realised that most of the times we are not aware of how
much climate change affect us.
By doing what we do in our daily routine (that one that we think that is “normal”) we
contribute to the climate change and its bad effects. I think we should realise about that fact,
because our daily consume is not healthy for the sustainable development of our planet e.g.
overusing vehicles and consuming the amount of electricity that we consume.
All these bad actions that we daily do get us more and more far and far, step by step, from the
sustainable development of our planet and our society.
Sustainable development is considered as the correct development that makes our society
able to develop itself and grow without endanger the appropriate development of the next
future generations.
We can see all these bad effects as far as our weather here in Cambrils is getting more
irregular, increasing the warm temperatures on summer and affecting also the cold ones in
winter. We also are suffering lots of more irregular storms and wind than the amount that we
were used to had in spring and autumn years ago.

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So climate change affects all of us with no exception. We could say that our way of life,
nowadays, is not “healthy” for the correct development of our planet and we are
compromising the next generation and their healthy way of life.
Here in our country we suffer the bad effects of climate change. We have mediterranean
weather, which used to be a warm and equilibrated weather.
As years pass, we suffer more and more irregularities in our wind and storms periods. Storms
are less frequent, but they get more powerful in the way that they sometimes cause floods.
This has made that the water costs more money.
But the main effect that we suffer here is that summers are getting ever warmer that they used
to be, and that is a warning about how bad and how deep our climate can change.

Sweden - Norrbotten:
In Norrbotten we have been affected a lot by the climate change over the past few years. The
winters have gotten warmer than it has been before. When the snow melts the streets gets wet
and the water freezes to ice. It gets slippery for the cars and pedestriants and more traffic
accidents can occur. Due to the defaulted snow, less tourists could start to visit the region.
Which can result in the skiing resorts to close.
The snow decreases as the climate gets warmer and at the end of the century our snowpack
will reduce above a month in Norrbotten. The biggest reduce will be expected up in the east
and the highest disposed areas on northwest. The temperature reduces and switch between
warm and cold and it will extend over the century. On the top of the snow (Snow cover) the
ice makes it harder for the wild animals such as reindeer and wild boar, to search protection
and food under the snow.
The ice in Bottenviken will be affected due to the warm temperature. The ice melting comes
earlier every year and in Östersjön the ice has started to break (melt) 15 – 25 days earlier than
before. This affect the seals because they are giving birth on the ice that is not existing to the
same extent. Also, birds and fishes get affected by the climate getting warmer.
The weather forecast is also changing. It rains more, and the rainfall will go from 5 – 15 % in
Norrbotten by 2100. The biggest increase will happen in the mountains, which will affect the
rivers and the fish that lives in the watercourse. Warmer summers increase the risk for storms
and big drought in Norrbotten. Various kinds of extreme events can have large impacts on
species and the ecosystems.

https://www.expressen.se/kvallsposten/smhi-gar-ut-med-klass-1-varning-for-ishalka/

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References
France:
French economic and social Council October 2015
Tourism in France 2008
www.airparif.ass.fr

Greece:
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https://ncse.com/library-resource/how-will-climate-change-affect-world-society
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Giannakopoulos, C., Bindi, M., Moriondo, M., LeSager, P. and T. Tin, 2005. Climate change
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Amelung, B. and D. Viner, 2006. Mediterranean tourism: Exploring the future with the
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Zachariades, T, (2012) Climate Change in Cyprus: Impacts and Adaptation Policies, Cyprus
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Alcamo, J., J.M. Moreno, B. Nováky, M. Bindi, R. Corobov, R.J.N. Devoy, C.
Giannakopoulos, E. Martin, J.E. Olesen, A. Shvidenko, 2007: Europe. Climate Change 2007:
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x_FINAL_clean.pdf (tourism)
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Les_impacts_du_changement_Anglais_Imp.pdf
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ng+more+carbon+than+they+are+capable+of+absorbing.&source=bl&ots=AJVEgjUvI-&sig
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x_FINAL_clean.pdf (tourism)
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Les_impacts_du_changement_Anglais_Imp.pdf
https://tools.niehs.nih.gov/cchhl/index.cfm
European Environment Agency (EEA), JRC and WHO, 2008. Impact of Europe’s changing
climate – 2008 indicator-based assessment. EEA Report no 4/2008 – JRC Reference Report
no. JRC47756
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ocuments/%25CE%259A%25CE%25BB%25CE%25B9%25CE%25BC%25CE%25B1%25C
F%2584%25CE%25B9%25CE%25BA%25CE%25AE%2520%25CE%2591%25CE%25BB
%25CE%25BB%25CE%25B1%25CE%25B3%25CE%25AE%2520%25CE%25BA%25CE

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%25B1%25CE%25B9%2520%25CE%25A5%25CE%25B3%25CE%25B5%25CE%25AF%
25CE%25B1.pdf&ved=0ahUKEwjVsqD63orTAhWHuRQKHdX0A9QQFggYMAA&usg=A
FQjCNEmEjOiMZgPKRJytqil6HOCnDYHXg&sig2=5sPNAQwYiK3vlfIIj0YC2A
https://www.google.gr/url?sa=t&source=web&rct=j&url=https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research
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s-and-greeks-than-syrians/
https://www.google.gr/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/01/patients-dying-greece-
public-health-meltdown
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https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/materials/a_human_health_perspective_on_climate_change
_full_report_508.pdf
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s-and-greeks-than-syrians/
https://www.google.gr/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/world/2017/jan/01/patients-dying-greece-
public-health-meltdown

Italy:

http://mobilita.regione.emilia-romagna.it/allegati/elettrico/quaderno_mi_muovo_IT_vers_ago
sto2013.pdf
http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/files/pubblicazioni/statoambiente/annuario-2014-2015/4_Tras
porti.pdf
http://pianobilancioidrico.adbpo.it/index.php/2016/05/01/bilancio-idrico-e-cambiamenti-clim
atici/
http://www.risorsa-acqua.it/concessioni-di-derivazione/le-acque-in-emilia-romagna-concessio
ni-e-servizio-idrico/
http://www.iefe.unibocconi.it/wps/wcm/connect/3e14d72f-bf69-4612-bdf7-c39c6267924a/R
R+15.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
https://www.arpae.it/dettaglio_documento.asp?id=4347&idlivello=216

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http://www.municipio.re.it/retecivica/urp/retecivi.nsf/PESIdDoc/197680BCA5828CFAC1257
E3B0034B530/$file/Presentazione%20ARPA.pdf
http://territorio.regione.emilia-romagna.it/riqualificazione-urbana/requisiti-di-sostenibilita-e-q
ualita-urbana
http://www.eurosportelloveneto.it/docChange/5-Tecnologie%20Efficienza%20Energetica%2
0Edifici.pdf
http://www.emiliaromagnameteo.com/cambiamenti-climatici-neve-e-turismo-invernale/
http://www.pesceinrete.com/php/news/9573-adriatico-l-alga-clavelina-oblonga-soffoca-300-q
uintali-di-mitili.html
http://awsassets.wwfit.panda.org/downloads/dossier_wwf_turiscmo_cambiamento_climatico.
pdf
http://www.lipu.it/articoli-natura/11-conservazione/704-clima-gli-effetti-sulla-biodiversita-de
lle-alpi
http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/files/biodiversita/IA2010_48_29-31_Genovesi.pdf
http://www.zanzaratigreonline.it/
https://www.ausl.bologna.it/eventi/archivio/.../Pandolfi-DSP-AUSL-di-Bologna.pdf
http://www.gse.it/it/salastampa/GSE_Documenti/Il%20Solare%20fotovoltaico%202014.pdf
http://energia.regione.emilia-romagna.it/entra-in-regione/documenti-e-pubblicazioni/eventi/2
010/la-sfida-delle-fonti-tradizionali-petrolio-e-dintorni/TABARELLI_Energia_la_sfida_delle
_fonti_tradizionali_petrolio_e_dintorni.pdf/at_download/file/TABARELLI_Energia_la_sfida
_delle_fonti_tradizionali_petrolio_e_dintorni.pdf

https://www.arpae.it/cms3/documenti/_cerca_doc/ecoscienza/ecoscienza2011_2/freda_es201
1_2.pdf
http://energia.regione.emilia-romagna.it/entra-in-regione/politiche-europee/progetti-europei-1
/doc-enercy-regio/EnercyRegio_Risultati_EmiliaRomagna.pdf/at_download/file/EnercyRegio
_Risultati_EmiliaRomagna.pdf
http://www.eniscuola.net/2016/03/14/il-bilancio-energetico-in-italia/
http://www.isprambiente.gov.it/files/pubblicazioni/rapporti/Rapporto_220_2015.pdf
http://www.feem-project.net/water2adapt/files/W2A_Flood-events_ita.pdf
http://www.emiliaromagnameteo.com/1-anniversario-dellalluvione-di-parma/
http://www.isde.it/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/2015-COP21-Documento-ISDE-Italia-su-cli
ma-TaminoDiCiaulaFaggioli_ITA-FINALE-impaginato.pdf
http://www.regione.emilia-romagna.it/notizie/2016/gennaio-1/in-regione-oltre-un-terzo-delle
nergia-elettrica-prodotta-da-fonti-rinnovabili
http://www.eea.europa.eu/it/segnali/segnali-2015/articoli/agricoltura-e-cambiamento-climatic
o
https://geograficamente.wordpress.com/2014/08/31/

Slovakia:
http://www.climatechangepost.com/slovakia/
https://spectator.sme.sk/c/20049711/global-warming-hits-close-to-home.html
https://spectator.sme.sk/c/20051510/storm-mudslides-wreak-havoc-in-terchova.html
https://cdn.fbsbx.com/v/59.270821/12051797_1037019589662731_1121880301_n.pdf/Zaver
ecna-Sprava-projektu- Klim. zmena-a-Adaptacie
2012.pdf?oh=8f735c2f990c17f554e81a078b45f2d3&oe=588A9209&dl=1;

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Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic and the Slovak Hydrometeorological
Institute (2009)
http://www.climatechangepost.com/slovakia/
Bakkenes, M., Alkemade, J.R.M., Ihle, F., Leemans, R. and J.B. Latour, 2002. Assessing
effects of forecasted climate change on the diversity and distribution of European higher
plants for 2050. Global Change Biology 8: 390-407
Boisvenue, C. and S.W. Running, 2006. Impacts of climate change on natural forest
productivity: evidence since the middle of the 20th century. Global Change Biology 12:
862-882.
https://www.geocaching.com/geocache/GC36N7H_zilinske-problemy?guid=58ce8d57-4e
d2-4c25- adf3-f3ee2a3c6822 ; http://www.zilinskekrimi.sk
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749106005185
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112709006604
http://www.climatechangepost.com/slovakia/forestry-and-peatlands/
http://www.sazp.sk/slovak/periodika/sprava/kraje/zilina/hosp_lesy.html
http://www.svssr.sk/zvierata/choroby.asp
https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endemit
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1164556312000131
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/3/08-1364_article
http://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/2000/Slovakia.htm
http://referaty.aktuality.sk/odlesnovanie-deforestacia/referat-27087
http://www.uvzsr.sk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2307%3Aklimaticke-
zmeny-anzdravie&catid=100%3Aklimaticke-zmeny-a-zdravie&Itemid=66
http://www.climatechangepost.com/slovakia/climate-change/
http://www.climatechangepost.com/slovakia/
https://www.minzp.sk/files/sekcia-ochranyprirodyakrajiny/dohovory/biodiverzita/sidla-a-biod
iverzita/materialy-rec/Ekologicka_stopa.pdf
http://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/repository/11273729.pdf
http://climate-adapt.eea.europa.eu/countries-regions/countries/slovakia
https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skalnaté_pleso

Spain:
https://www.climatechangepost.com/spain/references/
https://www.thelocal.es/20151130/climate-change-catastrophes-spain-is-currently-facing
https://www.cicero.uio.no/en/publications/internal/251

Sweden:
https://corporate.vattenfall.se/om-oss/var-verksamhet/var-elproduktion/karnkraft/
http://www.cec.lu.se/sites/cec.lu.se/files/klimatforandring_ekosystem_arter_h_smith_print.pd
f
http://www.ekonomifakta.se/Fakta/Energi/Energibalans-i-Sverige/Elproduktion/
http://www.energimyndigheten.se/nyhetsarkiv/2016/2015-var-ett-ar-med-stor-elproduktion-o
ch-rekordstor-export-av-el/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cogeneration

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“Klimatförändringar i Norrbotten konsekvenser och anpassning”, Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten


http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/jamtland/SiteCollectionDocuments/Sv/publikationer/2012/Fjallen
-i-ett-foranderligt-klimat.pdf
http://www.lansstyrelsen.se/norrbotten/SiteCollectionDocuments/Sv/publikationer/miljo%20
och%20klimat/Anpassning%20klimat/naturmilj%C3%B6-klimatf%C3%B6r%C3%A4ndring
ar-norrbotten-2015.pdf
http://www.svenskfjarrvarme.se/Fjarrvarme/

https://www.smhi.se/klimat/framtidens-klimat/klimatscenarier
https://www.smhi.se/klimat/framtidens-klimat/lansanalyser#00_Sverige,t2m_meanAnnual
https://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/meteorologi/nederbord
https://www.smhi.se/klimatdata/meteorologi/temperatur
http://www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se/start/Karnkraft/Anlaggningar-i-Sverige/
http://www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se/start/Karnkraft/Det-har-overvakar-vi/Avveckling/
https://svevind.se/Markbygden

http://www.wwf.se/wwfs-arbete/klimat/earth-hour/klimatforandringar-i-sverige/1624614-sa-p
averkas-sverige-nar-temperaturen-stiger

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