BIomass Energy Data Book 1 | Biomass | Biodiesel

USEFUL WEB SITES GOVERNMENT LINKS U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Research Service Forest Service National Agricultural Library National Agricultural Statistics Service U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program Alternative Fuels Data Center Clean Cities Fuel Economy Biomass Energy Data Book Buildings Energy Data Book Power Technologies Data Book Transportation Energy Data Book Energy Information Administration OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY Center for Transportation Analysis FIRSTGOV FEDERAL GOVERNMENT – FEDSTATS U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS U.S. CENSUS BUREAU U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY www.usda.gov www.ars.usda.gov www.fs.fed.us www.nal.usda.gov www.nass.usda.gov www.energy.gov www.eere.energy.gov www.eere.energy.gov/biomass www.afdc.nrel.gov www.ccities.doe.gov www.fueleconomy.gov cta.ornl.gov/bedb www.btscoredatabook.net www.nrel.gov/analysis/power_databook cta.ornl.gov/data www.eia.doe.gov www.ornl.gov cta.ornl.gov www.firstgov.gov www.fedstats.gov www.bls.gov www.census.gov www.commerce.gov www.bea.gov www.epa.gov

NON GOVERNMENT LINKS American Corn Growers Association American Soybean Association National Biodiesel Board National Oilseed Processors Association National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition Pellet Fuels Institute Renewable Fuels Association www.acga.org soygrowers.com www.biodiesel.org www.nopa.org www.e85fuel.com pelletheat.org www.ethanolrfa.org

ORNL/TM-2006/571

BIOMASS ENERGY DATA BOOK: EDITION 1

Lynn Wright Consultant Oak Ridge, Tennessee Bob Boundy Roltek Clinton, Tennessee Bob Perlack Stacy Davis Bo Saulsbury Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

September 2006

Prepared for the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6073 managed by UT-BATTELLE, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725

or otherwise. Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) representatives.gov Web site: http://www.htm Reports are available to DOE employees.DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1. or process disclosed. nor any of their employees. VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD: 703-487-4639 Fax: 703-605-6900 E-mail: info@ntis.osti. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof. completeness. does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement. makes any warranty. Box 62 Oak Ridge.html This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.osti. trademark.osti. may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield. DOE contractors. process.ntis. manufacturer. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www. product.S. express or implied. are generally available free via the U. or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. 1996. or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy. recommendation.O.fedworld. or service by trade name. or usefulness of any information.gov Web site: http://www. or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. TN 37831 Telephone: 865-576-8401 Fax: 865-576-5728 E-mail: reports@adonis.gov/support/ordernowabout. . 1996.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1. and International Nuclear Information System (INIS) representatives from the following source: Office of Scientific and Technical Information P. Reference herein to any specific commercial product. apparatus.gov/contact.

Stacy Davis. Tennessee 37932 Telephone: (865) 946-1256 FAX: (865) 946-1314 E-mail: DAVISSC@ornl.GOV Web Site Location: http://www.Users of the Biomass Energy Data Book are encouraged to comment on errors.C. S.ornl. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. emphases. EE-3B Forrestal Building. Information on an existing table should be referred to Ms. Stacy C.gov/bedb . Budget and Analysis Department of Energy.gov Web Site Location: cta.W.ornl. and organization of this report to one of the persons listed below.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ The Biomass Energy Data Book can be found on the web at: cta.energy. Room 5F-034 1000 Independence Avenue.Nguyen@EE. Davis Oak Ridge National Laboratory National Transportation Research Center 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville. omissions. Washington.DOE.eere. D. 20585 Telephone: (202) 586-7387 FAX: (202) 586-1637 E-mail: Tien.gov Tien Nguyen Office of Planning.

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.......xxi 1...........................4 Estimated Renewable Energy Consumption for Industrial and Transportation Sectors......................................................................................................vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................ 2004..................................................... 2002...................................1 Overview of Historic/Current Biomass Consumption by Source and Sector Biomass Overview Table 1............................................................xv ACRONYMS.10 Figure 1............................................................3 Geographic Locations of Major Crops..... 2001........... 1973—2005 .........7 Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Sources.....................................................................................1 Table 2..........3 Table 1.....................1 Table 1............... 2005 ................................................. 1973—2005.........................................................................xix ABSTRACT ...............................................................................2 Major Uses of Land in the United States..................................................................................................1 Summary of Biomass Energy Consumption..........9 Figure 1.............................................................................................................................................. 1973—2005............................... 2003 .....................................................................................................................5 Energy Production by Source............ 1973—2005.......3 Renewable Energy Consumption by Source..............................8 Total Residue Produced on Agricultural Lands...................................................................2 Energy Consumption by Source....................................18 Selected Non-Tax Federal Biofuel Incentives ................................4 Table 1.............................2 Major Federal Biofuel Tax Incentives ......................5 Estimated Renewable Energy Consumption for Residential and Commercial Sectors.......................................................2 Table 1..................................xvii PREFACE..............................................................................7 Overview of Biomass Resources Table 1.......17 Brief Overview Taxes and Incentives Table 2............. BIOFUELS .6 Figure 1................................................................12 Future Energy Crop Supply Potential—Cellulosic Biomass 2... INTRODUCTION TO BIOMASS............................................ 1973—2005 .....19 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 ............6 Table 1...................................................

.............................................. 2004 ...............................................35 Table 2.......................6 Comparisons of Energy Inputs and GHG Emissions for Three Ethanol Scenarios and Gasoline ...............................................................................................................28 Figure 2..........23 Fuel Ethanol Imports by Country........................................... 2005 ...... 2 Diesel .......................................... 2006 ..........................................29 Figure 2.....viii Ethanol Overview Table 2................................................................................................10 Ethanol Production by Plant Energy Source.................44 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 ......................30 Figure 2...........................................3 Table 2.............................8 Table 2............15 Comparison of Ethanol Energy Balance with and Without Inclusion of Coproduct Energy Credits ..........................................12 Gasoline and Ethanol: Comparison of Current and Potential Production Costs in North America....................... 2006...................................................43 Table 2...38 Figure 2.....5 Ethanol Net Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions ..........9 World Ethanol Production by Country...........................31 Figure 2.................. 2002 ....4 The Production of Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass ...................3 The Ethanol Production Process – Dry Milling ...................................16 State Ethanol Incentives..............11 Ethanol-Blended Fuel Use by State............................................................................26 Ethanol Production by Feedstock...........25 Ethanol Production Statistics......................................... Gasoline and No...................................................................... 2005......................24 Historic Fuel Ethanol Production .....................................................................................................1 Ethanol Production Facilities Current and Planned..39 Figure 2..37 Figure 2......................7 Comparative Results between Ethanol and Gasoline Based on an Evaluation by the GREET Model .............................................5 Table 2..40 Table 2............32 Ethanol Consumption Table 2...14 Economic Contribution of the Ethanol Industry............ 1999—2006 ......21 Fuel Property Comparison for Ethanol....................................................4 Specifications Contained in ASTM D 4806 Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasoline .............................................36 Table 2.............................. 2005................................................................. 2004 ...............2 The Ethanol Production Process – Wet Milling .........34 Economics Table 2....................6 Table 2.........................................................................7 Table 2.22 Ethanol Production Table 2.27 Table 2.......................13 Undenatured Ethanol Cash Operating Expenses and Net Feedstock Costs for Dry-milling Process by Plant Size...........

.................61 3................................1 Table 3.................................................12 A Fast Pyrolysis Process for Making BioOil .. 2005 .............. 2005.......23 Estimated Impacts from Increased Use of Biodiesel....................................................................66 New Renewable Capacity Supported through Utility Green Pricing Programs..............52 Table 2..................46 Table 2.............................................25 BioOil Composition .11 Commercial Biodiesel Production Methods............................ 2004.............................53 Figure 2.........................................50 Table 2.............8 Active and Proposed Biodiesel Production Facilities..................................68 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .......................26 BioOil Fuel Comparisons...................21 Specification for Biodiesel (B100) ...........................................S...................................................9 Estimated U.................49 Figure 2......................54 Biodiesel Consumption Table 2.....5 Biomass Power Technology in Commercial/Demonstration Phase during 2000—2006 ............................................................................ 2002 ...................67 Utility Green Pricing Programs Using Biomass and Biomass Based Resources .................... 2005 ........60 Table 2...10 Typical Proportions of Chemicals Used to Make Biodiesel...............................56 BioOil Overview Figure 2........................................................20 Composition of Various Oils and Fats Used for Biodiesel...........17 World Biodiesel Capacity........... BIOPOWER ..... 2004 ................24 BioOil Characteristics .............................58 Table 2...............3 Table 3............55 Economics Table 2...................4 Table 3......................22 Average Biodiesel (B100 and B20) Emissions Compared to Conventional Diesel...................................................................................64 Biomass Power Technology Fuel Specifications and Capacity Range....ix Biodiesel Brief Overview Biodiesel Production Table 2...............18 Active Biodiesel Production Facilities................................65 New Renewable Capacity Supplying Green Power Markets................................19 Proposed Biodiesel Production Facilities.............59 Table 2.48 Figure 2............... Biodiesel Production.. 1999—2005 .....................47 Table 2.................................51 Figure 2.............63 Brief Overview Table 3..............................2 Table 3.....................................................................................................................................................

.............91 Brief Overview Table 4...........86 Table 3.3 Corn: Area....6 Table 3.................................. 2003—2005........... 1985—2005 ..............................S.....................83 Biopower Regulations......98 Table 5.. Department of Energy Sugar Platform Biorefinery Projects........14 Number of Home Electricity Needs Met Calculation..........................11 Net Generation and Fuel Consumption at Power Plants Consuming Coal and Biomass by State and Plant Name..........13 Renewable Energy Impacts Calculation........100 Figure 5...........15 Major Federal Biomass Power Incentives ...........................1 Corn Baseline Projections........ 2004—2015 ........... 2006......... 1996—2005....... Harvested Acres.........81 Table 3........................... 2002....85 Table 3.....1 Corn Used for Ethanol Production.............................................. 2006 ...................................................93 5................ 2002 .........................70 Renewable Energy Certificate Product Offerings.. and Production....................... Production...........................2 Corn Usage by Segment............... FEEDSTOCKS........ and Value.............................................95 Primary Biomass Feedstocks Grains Table 5.............................92 U........10 Total Net Generation of Electricity by State from Wood and Wood Waste.....................................................................................12 Coal Displacement Calculation......................................73 Current Landfill Gas Power Plants .79 Fossil Fuel Displacement by Biopower Table 3.................................... 2005 .........................................................8 Table 3.....................................1 Table 4....................................................2 Biorefinery Platforms ............96 Figure 5.......101 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 ................................................78 Table 3....97 Figure 5..............................................72 Current Biomass Power Plants .84 Figure 3.............17 State Renewable Energy Goals (Nonbinding)................. Yield.............................................................................9 Competitive Electricity Markets Retail Green Power Product Offerings............... by State........x Table 3.... October 2005 .................99 Corn: Area..................................................................................7 Table 3............. BIOREFINERIES ....................................................75 Table 3........................................................ Incentives and Taxes Table 3......................3 Corn for Grain.... 2003..............89 4............................ October 2005..............16 State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Purchase Requirements ............................................. Yield.....1 States with Renewable Portfolio Standard ................ 2006 ...........................................................................................................................82 Table 3.....2 Table 5.....................................................

...5 Corn Yield.......................109 Figure 5.................. and Production............. Production...................19 Pellet Fuel Shipments from Pellet Fuel Manufacturers ....................8 Table 5...... Excluding Government Payments....118 Table 5.......... and Value............... 1996—2005............................... 1984—2005 ...... 1996—2005.................. 1975—2005 ............103 Table 5.............................................4 Corn Acres..... 2004—2015.............. 1995—2004 ..................................... by State ..............................13 Soybeans and Products Baseline......102 Figure 5..................106 Corn Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.... and Value.............................................. 2003—2005...14 Soybeans: Area........ Production...............8 Unused Mill Residues by County ................................. 2003—2005 ............................ Excluding Government Payments...........9 Sorghum: Area................................. Excluding Government Payments........................................... Yield...............................107 Corn Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.......115 Oilseeds Table 5....... 2002—2003 .....................16 Soybeans: Area...... Excluding Government Payments..................................................................114 Table 5.....119 Figure 5....................................................... Yield....18 Residues from Primary Forest Product Mills ....110 Table 5........................116 Table 5.126 Table 5.............................................20 Pellet Appliance Shipments from Manufacturers ........... Harvested Acres.........105 Corn for Grain: Marketing Year Average Price and Value......113 Table 5............. by State.................... 1996—2005 .............................10 Sorghum: Supply and Disappearance.... 2002 ......................11 Sorghum Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre....................125 Pellet Fuels Table 5.. Yield........................................................ Harvested Acres...........117 Table 5..7 Corn: Supply and Disappearance..126 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 ...................................................................... 2002 ...124 Figure 5................4 Table 5............. 1996—2003 ............120 Table 5............ 2002—2003 .........15 Soybeans: Supply and Disappearance.. 1996—2005.... Excluding Government Payments.......... Yield.6 Sorghum for Grain........................ 1995—2003 ........7 Soybeans for Beans........ by State.......................................112 Table 5......xi Figure 5... Planted and Harvested............... 2002—2003 ........................121 Secondary Biomass Feedstocks Mill Wastes Table 5..........................................6 Table 5..............17 Soybean Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre..................................5 Table 5...............................................12 Sorghum Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre................ and Production.......111 Sorghum: Area......

....... January 2006 .............................................................................128 Table 5..........151 GLOSSARY....................................155 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 ...............................23 Landfill Gas Projects and Candidate Landfills by State...............131 Landfill Gas Table 5..............................................129 Figure 5......21 Residues from Construction and Demolition by State..9 Total Construction and Demolition Residues ................................................................................................................................................xii Tertiary Biomass Feedstocks Urban Residues Figure 5.............................................................................................132 Feedstock Characteristics APPENDIX A: CONVERSIONS.............................145 APPENDIX C: ASSUMPTIONS ............................................................130 Table 5........................22 Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills by State .....133 APPENDIX B: BIOMASS CHARACTERISTICS .........................................................................10 Total Municipal Solid Waste Wood Residues..........................................................

Department of Energy’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) staff in the Office of Planning. Budget and Analysis. We would also like to thank Jamie Payne of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Budget and Analysis. who designed the cover. Finally. who masterfully prepared the manuscript. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . We would like to thank Alex Farrell of the University of California. and the Biomass Program for their support of the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book project. this book would not have been possible without the dedication of Debbie Bain (ORNL). for allowing us to publish material from his article in Science. Berkeley.xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to express their gratitude to the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this document.S. Zia Haq of the EERE Biomass Program. Our team of thorough reviewers include Tien Nguyen and Phil Patterson of the EERE Office of Planning. we would like to thank the U. and David Andress of David Andress and Associates. First.

xiv Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

DOE EERE EIA EPA EPAct ERS FTE FY GHG GPRA GW IEA LFG MJ MMBtu MW MSW NASS NEMS NREL NRCS ORNL RPS SRIC TBD TVA USDA Annual Energy Outlook American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers British thermal units Carbon dioxide Conservation Reserve Program Diameter at breast height Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Information Administration Environmental Protection Agency Energy Policy Act Economic Research Service Fuel Treatment Evaluator Fiscal Year Greenhouse Gas Government Performance Results Act Gigawatt International Energy Agency Landfill Gas Megajoule Million British thermal units Megawatt Municipal Solid Waste National Agricultural Statistics Service National Energy Modeling System National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Resources Conservation Service Oak Ridge National Laboratory Renewable Portfolio Standard Short Rotation Intensive Culture To Be Determined Tennessee Valley Authority United States Department of Agriculture Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .b.h.xv ACRONYMS AEO ASABE Btu CO2 CRP d.

xvi Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

Given the increasing demand for energy.xvii PREFACE The Department of Energy.g. and other factors such as incentives. Since most of the biomass resources currently being used for energy or bioproducts are residuals from industrial. An effort has been made to identify the best sources of information on capacity. there is no way to systematically inventory biomass feedstock collection and use and report it in standard units. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . economic profitability associated with each of those alternate demands. In all cases it should be recognized that estimates are not precise and different assumptions will change the results. It is even more difficult to track the diverse array of biomass resources being used as feedstocks for biomass energy production. the methodology has been documented in Appendix C and additional references have been provided. This first edition focuses on biomass conversion technologies and commercially utilized biomass resources. and Analysis in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Biomass utilization information is derived from biomass energy production data. For some technology areas there are industry advocacy groups that track and publish annual statistics on energy production capacity. The Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA) produces annual estimates of biomass energy utilization and those estimates are included in this data book. corn grain) is produced.. has contracted with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to prepare this Biomass Energy Data Book. or may be proprietary. production and utilization of many of the types of biomass energy being produced in this country. Information from industry groups are also provided to give additional detail. policymakers and analysts need to be well-informed about current biomass energy production activity and the potential contribution biomass resources and technologies can make toward meeting the nation’s energy demands. sophisticated biorefineries producing multiple products. For estimates derived from ORNL analysis. agricultural or forestry activities. not inventories of actual collection and utilization. For some types of biomass energy production. The information may not be available. though not necessarily actual production or utilization. This book presents some of the information needed for deriving those estimates. but relies on assumptions about energy content and conversion efficiencies for each biomass type and conversion technology. environmental impacts of collection of the biomass. there are no annual inventories or surveys on which to base statistical data. All biomass resource availability and utilization information available in the literature are estimates. The purpose of this data book is to draw together. that not all biomass energy contributions have been identified. under one cover. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and it is currently only available online in electronic format. alternate demands for that biomass type.from wood or pellet stoves used in homes to large. through the Office of Planning. as well as providing biomass resource estimates that have been estimated by either ORNL staff or other scientists. It is certain. Biomass availability data relies on understanding how much of a given biomass type (e. Biomass energy technologies used in the United States include an extremely diverse array of technologies . Budget. however. biomass data from diverse sources to produce a comprehensive document that supports anyone with an interest or stake in the biomass industry.

xviii Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

and Analysis in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. biodiesel and BioOil. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. Following the introduction to biomass. The sources used represent the latest available data. is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol. There are five main sections to this book. from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Budget. and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader’s convenience. Designed for use as a convenient reference. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries. biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures.xix ABSTRACT The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning.

xx Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

7 quadrillion Btu of energy to the 69. Biomass resources also include the gases that result from anaerobic digestion of animal manures or organic materials in landfills.S. food processing and other industrial wastes. and energy crops.1 1. There are many types of biomass resources currently used and potentially available. Other plants store the energy as more complex sugars. These plants include grains like corn and are also used for food.S. called cellulosic biomass. The use of biomass fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel by the transportation sector is small but rising rapidly. Department of Energy. The industrial sector (primarily the wood products industry) used about 1. visit the U.” prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory staff (for the Department of Energy) together with scientists from the U. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . and is not generally used as a food source. is made up of very complex sugar polymers (complex polysaccharides).7 quadrillion Btu of energy to the 99. INTRODUCTION TO BIOMASS BIOMASS OVERVIEW Biomass is material that comes from plants.S. The estimated availability of agricultural and forestry biomass in 2001 was recently reported in a document entitled “Biomass as Feedstock For a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply. however. through a process called photosynthesis.gov/biomass/index.html.4 quadrillion Btu in 2005. to secondary sources such as sawmill residuals. Changes in the way that land is managed will be necessary for increasing biomass resource availability in the U.eere. These are mostly used for food. called starches. Agricultural Research Service and USDA Forest Service. this figure may understate consumption in these sectors due to unreported consumption. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Biomass Program at: http://www1.1 quadrillion Btu of energy produced in the United States or about 4% of total energy production. biomass production contributed 2. At present. This includes everything from primary sources of crops and residues harvested/collected directly from the land. Some plants. the more commonly quoted figure is that biomass contributed 2. to tertiary sources of post-consumer residuals that often end up in landfills. Since a substantial portion of U. organic urban wastes.8 quadrillion Btu of energy consumed in the United States or about 3%. For additional overview information. such as home heating by wood collected on private property.04 quadrillion Btu of biomass. Another type of plant matter. like sugar cane and sugar beets. In 2005. energy is imported. The ultimate limit for the amount of biomass that can be sustainably produced on agricultural land in the United States depends on land availability. store the energy as simple sugars. The residential and commercial sectors consume .S. The areas of the country with adequate rainfall and soil quality for production and harvest of energy crops are roughly the same areas where major crops are currently produced in the United States. Department of Agriculture (USDA).energy. For more detailed information on current and future biomass resources in the United States see the feedstock section. Specific feedstocks being tested include agricultural and forestry residues. Plants use the light energy from the sun to convert water and carbon dioxide to sugars that can be stored. This type of biomass will be the future feedstock for bioethanol production. wood resources contribute most to the biomass resources consumed in the United States and most of that is used in the generation of electricity and industrial process heat and steam.

2

In 2005 biomass accounted for about 45% of the renewable energy production in the United States.

Table 1.1 Energy Production by Source, 1973—2005 (Quadrillion Btu)
Fossil Fuels Natural Gas Natural Crude Plant b Gas (Dry) Oil Liquids 22.19 19.49 2.57 21.21 18.57 2.47 19.64 17.73 2.37 19.48 17.26 2.33 19.57 17.45 2.33 19.49 18.43 2.25 20.08 18.10 2.29 19.91 18.25 2.25 19.70 18.15 2.31 18.32 18.31 2.19 16.59 18.39 2.18 18.01 18.85 2.27 16.98 18.99 2.24 16.54 18.38 2.15 17.14 17.67 2.22 17.60 17.28 2.26 17.85 16.12 2.16 18.33 15.57 2.17 18.23 15.70 2.31 18.38 15.22 2.36 18.58 14.49 2.41 19.35 14.10 2.39 19.08 13.89 2.44 19.34 13.72 2.53 19.39 13.66 2.50 19.61 13.24 2.42 19.34 12.45 2.53 19.66 12.36 2.61 20.20 12.28 2.55 19.44 12.16 2.56 19.69 12.03 2.35 19.26 11.50 2.47 18.66 10.84 2.32 Renewable Energy Nuclear Electric Power 0.91 1.27 1.90 2.11 2.70 3.02 2.78 2.74 3.01 3.13 3.20 3.55 4.08 4.38 4.75 5.59 5.60 6.10 6.42 6.48 6.41 6.69 7.08 7.09 6.60 7.07 7.61 7.86 8.03 8.14 7.96 8.22 8.13 Hydroelectric c d Power Biomass 2.86 1.53 3.18 1.54 3.15 1.50 2.98 1.71 2.33 1.84 2.94 2.04 2.93 2.15 2.90 2.48 2.76 2.59 3.27 2.62 3.53 2.83 3.39 2.88 2.97 2.86 3.07 2.84 2.63 2.82 2.33 2.94 2.84 3.06 3.05 2.66 3.02 2.70 2.62 2.85 2.89 2.80 2.68 2.94 3.21 3.07 3.59 3.13 3.64 3.01 3.30 2.83 3.27 2.89 2.81 2.91 2.24 2.64 2.69 2.65 2.82 2.74 2.69 2.88 2.71 2.73
a

Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Coal 13.99 14.07 14.99 15.65 15.75 14.91 17.54 18.60 18.38 18.64 17.25 19.72 19.33 19.51 20.14 20.74 21.35 22.46 21.59 21.63 20.25 22.11 22.03 22.68 23.21 23.94 23.19 22.62 23.49 22.62 21.97 22.71 23.15

Total 58.24 56.33 54.73 54.72 55.10 55.07 58.01 59.01 58.53 57.46 54.42 58.85 57.54 56.58 57.17 57.87 57.47 58.53 57.83 57.59 55.74 57.95 57.44 58.28 58.76 59.20 57.51 57.25 58.52 56.78 56.03 55.95 54.97

Geothermal 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36

Solar NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

Wind NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.14 0.15

Total 4.43 4.77 4.72 4.77 4.25 5.04 5.17 5.49 5.47 5.99 6.49 6.43 6.03 6.13 5.69 5.49 6.29 6.13 6.16 5.91 6.16 6.06 6.67 7.14 7.08 6.56 6.60 6.16 5.33 5.84 6.08 6.12 6.01

Total 63.58 62.37 61.36 61.60 62.05 63.14 65.95 67.24 67.01 66.57 64.11 68.83 67.65 67.09 67.61 68.95 69.36 70.77 70.41 69.98 68.30 70.71 71.18 72.50 72.43 72.83 71.71 71.27 71.88 70.76 70.07 70.29 69.11

Source: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review, March 2006. Table 1.2, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html Note: NA = Not available. _______________________
a b

End-use consumption and electricity net generation. Includes lease condensate. c Conventional hydroelectric power. d Wood, waste, and alcohol fuels (ethanol blended into motor gasoline).

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

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Table 1.2 Energy Consumption by Source, 1973—2005 (Quadrillion Btu)
Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power 0.91 1.27 1.90 2.11 2.70 3.02 2.78 2.74 3.01 3.13 3.20 3.55 4.08 4.38 4.75 5.59 5.60 6.10 6.42 6.48 6.41 6.69 7.08 7.09 6.60 7.07 7.61 7.86 8.03 8.14 7.96 8.22 8.13 Hydroelectric Powerf 2.86 3.18 3.15 2.98 2.33 2.94 2.93 2.90 2.76 3.27 3.53 3.39 2.97 3.07 2.63 2.33 2.84 3.05 3.02 2.62 2.89 2.68 3.21 3.59 3.64 3.30 3.27 2.81 2.24 2.69 2.82 2.69 2.71 Renewable Energya

Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Coal 12.97 12.66 12.66 13.58 13.92 13.77 15.04 15.42 15.91 15.32 15.89 17.07 17.48 17.26 18.01 18.85 19.07 19.17 18.99 19.12 19.84 19.91 20.09 21.00 21.45 21.66 21.62 22.58 21.91 21.90 22.32 22.47 22.89

Natural Gasb 22.51 21.73 19.95 20.35 19.93 20.00 20.67 20.39 19.93 18.51 17.36 18.51 17.83 16.71 17.74 18.55 19.71 19.73 20.15 20.84 21.35 21.84 22.78 23.20 23.33 22.94 23.01 23.92 22.91 23.63 22.97 23.04 22.57

Petroleumc,d 34.84 33.45 32.73 35.17 37.12 37.97 37.12 34.20 31.93 30.23 30.05 31.05 30.92 32.20 32.87 34.22 34.21 33.55 32.85 33.53 33.84 34.67 34.55 35.76 36.27 36.93 37.96 38.40 38.33 38.40 39.05 40.59 40.44

Totale 70.32 67.91 65.35 69.10 70.99 71.86 72.89 69.98 67.75 64.04 63.29 66.62 66.22 66.15 68.63 71.66 73.02 72.46 72.00 73.52 75.05 76.48 77.49 79.98 81.09 81.59 82.65 84.96 83.18 83.99 84.39 86.23 85.95

Biomassd,g 1.53 1.54 1.50 1.71 1.84 2.04 2.15 2.48 2.59 2.62 2.83 2.88 2.86 2.84 2.82 2.94 3.06 2.66 2.70 2.85 2.80 2.94 3.07 3.13 3.01 2.83 2.89 2.91 2.64 2.65 2.74 2.88 2.73

Geothermal 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.22 0.32 0.34 0.35 0.35 0.36 0.34 0.29 0.32 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.35 0.36

Solar NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

Wind NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.11 0.11 0.14 0.15

Total 4.43 4.77 4.72 4.77 4.25 5.04 5.17 5.49 5.47 5.99 6.49 6.43 6.03 6.13 5.69 5.49 6.29 6.13 6.16 5.91 6.16 6.06 6.67 7.14 7.08 6.56 6.60 6.16 5.33 5.84 6.08 6.12 6.01

Totald,h 75.71 73.99 72.00 76.01 78.00 79.99 80.90 78.29 76.34 73.25 73.10 76.74 76.47 76.78 79.23 82.84 84.96 84.70 84.64 85.99 87.62 89.28 91.25 94.26 94.77 95.19 96.84 98.96 96.47 97.88 98.21 100.32 99.84

Source: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review March 2006. Table 1.3, www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/overview.html Note: NA = Not available. _______________________
End-use consumption and electricity net generation. Natural gas, plus a small amount of supplemental gaseous fuels that cannot be identified separately. c Petroleum products supplied, including natural gas plant liquids and crude oil burned as fuel. Beginning in 1993, also includes ethanol blended into other gasoline. d Beginning in 1993, ethanol blended into motor gasoline is included in both "Petroleum and "biomass," but is counted only once in total consumption. e Includes coal coke net imports. f Conventional hydroelectric power. g Wood, waste, and alcohol fuels (ethanol blended into motor gasoline). h Includes coal coke net imports and electricity net imports, which are not separately displayed.
b a

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

4

Except for corn and soybeans, all biomass resources being used in 2005 for energy are some type of residue or waste. Corn grain is used for ethanol and soybeans are used for biodiesel fuel.

Table 1.3 Renewable Energy Consumption by Source, 1973—2005 (Trillion Btu)
Hydro-electric Powera 2,861.45 3,176.58 3,154.61 2,976.27 2,333.25 2,936.98 2,930.69 2,900.14 2,757.97 3,265.56 3,527.26 3,385.81 2,970.19 3,071.18 2,634.51 2,334.27 2,837.26 3,046.39 3,015.94 2,617.44 2,891.61 2,683.46 3,205.31 3,589.66 3,640.46 3,297.05 3,267.58 2,811.12 2,241.86 2,689.02 2,824.53 2,690.08 2,714.66 Biomass Woodb 1,527.01 1,537.76 1,496.93 1,711.48 1,836.52 2,036.15 2,149.85 2,482.86 2,494.56 2,477.05 2,639.27 2,628.82 2,575.77 2,518.13 2,465.16 2,551.66 2,637.10 2,190.58 2,189.70 2,290.45 2,226.86 2,315.17 2,419.60 2,466.79 2,349.50 2,175.42 2,223.73 2,256.75 1,979.50 1,898.77 1,929.37 2,015.07 1,825.52 Wastec 2.06 1.90 1.81 1.89 1.81 1.46 2.05 1.64 88.00 119.00 157.00 208.00 236.32 262.86 289.00 315.33 354.36 408.08 439.72 473.20 479.34 515.32 531.48 576.99 550.60 542.30 540.16 510.80 513.54 575.55 571.35 564.78 563.91 Alcohol Fuelsd NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7.00 19.00 35.00 43.00 52.00 60.00 69.00 70.00 71.00 63.00 73.00 83.00 96.99 108.61 116.50 83.56 105.81 116.92 121.57 139.32 146.67 174.69 238.13 299.31 339.77 Total 1,529.07 1,539.66 1,498.73 1,713.37 1,838.33 2,037.61 2,151.91 2,484.50 2,589.56 2,615.05 2,831.27 2,879.82 2,864.08 2,841.00 2,823.16 2,936.99 3,062.46 2,661.66 2,702.41 2,846.65 2,803.18 2,939.11 3,067.57 3,127.34 3,005.92 2,834.64 2,885.45 2,906.88 2,639.72 2,649.01 2,738.84 2,879.16 2,729.20 Geothermale 42.61 53.16 70.15 78.15 77.42 64.35 83.79 109.78 123.04 104.75 129.34 164.90 198.28 219.18 229.12 217.29 317.16 335.80 346.25 349.31 363.72 338.11 293.89 315.53 324.96 328.30 330.92 316.80 311.26 328.31 339.14 349.16 355.75

Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Solarf NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.06 0.11 0.15 0.11 0.09 55.29 59.72 62.69 63.89 66.46 68.55 69.86 70.83 70.24 69.79 68.79 66.39 65.45 64.39 63.62 63.20 62.98

Windg NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 0.03 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.01 22.03 29.01 30.80 29.86 30.99 35.56 32.63 33.44 33.58 30.85 45.89 57.06 69.62 105.33 114.57 141.75 149.49

Total 4,433.12 4,769.40 4,723.49 4,767.79 4,249.00 5,038.94 5,166.38 5,494.42 5,470.57 5,985.35 6,487.90 6,430.65 6,032.73 6,131.54 5,686.93 5,488.65 6,294.21 6,132.57 6,158.09 5,907.15 6,155.96 6,064.78 6,669.26 7,136.80 7,075.15 6,560.63 6,598.63 6,158.23 5,327.91 5,836.06 6,080.71 6,123.35 6,012.08

Source: Energy Information Administration, Monthly Energy Review March 2006, Table 10.1., www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html Note: NA = Not available. _______________________ Conventional hydroelectric power. Wood, black liquor, and other wood waste. c Municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, tires, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass. d Ethanol blended into motor gasoline. e Geothermal electricity net generation, heat pump, and direct use energy. f Solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation, and solar thermal direct use energy. g Wind electricity net generation.
b a

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

625.35 171.80 1.45 1.85 1.281.15 1.93 Total 1.600.04 1.51 29.00 4.79 Transportation Sector Biomass Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Woodc 1.667.396.594.409.281.635.44 1.25 195.15% of primary industrial energy consumed in the United States The forest products industry consumes 85% of all wood residues (including black liquor) currently used for energy in the United States.44 1.00 1.52 1.476.62 1.865.583.93 1.690. generating over half of their own energy.97 1. and other wood waste.85 1.28 168.51 Alcohol Fuelsf NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7. e Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.68 30.11 150.60 31.55 4. 1973–2005 (Trillion Btu) Industrial Sectora Biomass Hydroelectric Powerb 34.783.72 1.619.603.63 1.04 145.05 33.00 70.18 32.672.32 1.59 1.99 1.442.07 1.874.696.00 83. Monthly Energy Review.400.81 116.688.57 1.13 299.438. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .32 1.890.77 307.284.54 48.404.57 1.69 238.63 164.600.33 1.441.02 32.28 1.630.32 33.576.04 33.516.483.17 1. sludge waste.76 1.00 2.12 1.00 73.580.632. March 2006.72 117.192.159.55 184.063.07 1.907.30 1.40 2.74 1.00 63.88 1.90 3.778.31 1.532.71 200.gov/emeu/mer/renew.898.80 1.59 62.32 1.841.77 33.10 4.61 116.608. tires.475.86 1.68 178. Table 10.eia.91 43.199.29 1.63 1.564.27 1.03 223.23 1.17 1.904.89 1.50 83.56 105.90 2.00 60. _______________________ a Industrial sector fuel use.827.00 1.602.00 1.00 19.85 154.20 32.26 33.00 52.914.84 33.71 1.363.640.92 121.25 1.66 1.857.626.438.400.74 1.85 1.915.79 1.62 1.05 1.847.69 155.64 1.25 1.730.08 1.5 Ethanol provided 1.678.679.16 199.70 281.56 1.634.25 1.69 1.34 1.56 31.00 69.683.52 1.20 2.652.77 58.61 1.77 1.33 1.219.00 1.02 33.09 32. black liquor.70 1.781.645.965.94 32.00 1.80 3.970.32 184.639.42 1.71 1.57 1.56 1.610. d Municipal solid waste.79 4.51 181.73 1.783.00 1.50 38.00 1.41 192.404. agricultural byproducts.42 1.164.11 1.72 1.095.666.063.790.4 Estimated Renewable Energy Consumption for Industrial and Transportation Sectors.00 1.975.00 71.98 1.25 1.72 1.10 2.88 1.95 29.00 43.76 4.00 33.29 203.27 1.721.86 1.24 32.12 169.431. including that at industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity plants.31 339.54 1.882.html Note: NA = Not available.37 32.66 42.97 1.99 108.09 1.10 3.64 255.00 1.932.80 Total 1.96 1.94 1.85 1.00 96.40 30.845.70 60.79 Geothermale NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 1.19 54.159.57 139.843. b Conventional hydroelectric power.219.00 35. c Wood.40 4. f Ethanol blended into motor gasoline.79 1.2% of the transportation fuels consumed in the United States in 2005 and biomass provided 0.814.50 1.664.878.74 1.2b www.14 Wasted NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 86.592.32 146.06 54.doe. and other biomass.907.56 34.164.77 Source: Source: Energy Information Administration. Table 1.97 1.253.64 28.24 1.00 1.633.79 4.91 1.67 174.57 229. landfill gas.461.313.843.579.84 1.02 180.

10 NA 9.60 61.92 45.16 102.00 27.00 5.78 1995 596.60 109.20 58.00 6.73 486.07 1976 481.html Note: NA = Not available.30 1997 433.70 64.00 NA 24.34 17.44 1.95 NA NA 370.02 1975 425.67 87.87 8.66 459.17 52.96 22.40 83. and other wood waste.06 1996 595.50 63.00 NA 22.45 59.00 1988 885.00 NA 1987 852. Small amounts of commercial sector are included in the residential sector.20 85.00 7.43 45.63 4.96 46.71 1974 370.95 0.23 1999 413.61 106.00 NA NA 859.67 2001 370.48 102.95 NA 7.00 NA NA 876.23 48.00 22.30 0.68 975.68 0.15 1.63 1.10 34.02 50.22 46.00 NA NA 899. www.96 58.00 NA 22.60 64.18 2005 332.00 NA 21.47 96.00 9.48 87.00 NA 21.10 10.08 NA 1980 859.24 103.63 NA 9.00 NA 22.07 NA 8. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .63 NA NA 481.86 33.42 55.73 0.41 NA 8.00 NA 22.00 10.63 0.40 59.44 407.78 NA NA 541.00 6.14 7.00 NA 22.82 41.29 NA 10. Monthly Energy Review March 6.49 1.96 2.85 NA 11.20 80.22 79.85 NA NA 621.00 NA 32.07 NA 8. 1973–2005 (Trillion Btu) Residential Sector Commercial Sectora Biomass Biomass GeoHydroGeob b c c d Total thermal electric Wood Waste Total Year Wood thermal Solar Total 1973 354.00 NA 22.08 NA NA 728.00 21.74 2004 332.00 NA 21.15 27.39 79.00 NA 27. Table 1.30 4.78 NA 1978 621.46 3.92 106.00 NA 29.41 NA NA 425.77 66.45 76. b Wood.00 7.00 NA 24.49 39.doe. _______________________ a Commercial sector fuel use.5 Estimated Renewable Energy Consumption for Residential and Commercial Sectors.75 89.91 1991 613.05 41.03 103.02 NA 7.90 642.00 NA 29.00 16.00 NA NA 869.69 2002 313.40 1.50 1. biomass accounted for about 82% of the renewable energy used in the residential sector and about 84% of the renewable energy used in the commercial sector.90 57.24 14.29 1977 541.70 113.15 41.41 7.00 1986 876.00 65.50 55.11 40.03 40.13 54.50 61.10 NA 6.00 5.02 NA 7.00 NA 21.67 1.33 1.46 2003 359.10 2000 433.70 114.00 NA NA 923.00 NA 21.44 667.50 5.16 47.03 1994 537.26 100.20 63.83 13.05 26. including that at commercial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants.35 8. d Solar thermal direct use energy and photovoltaic electricity generation.75 711.96 81.00 71.00 NA NA 852.00 NA 27.27 44.01 32.00 NA 32.37 1992 645.81 NA 13.10 15.00 57.71 NA 6.85 57.14 41.14 1989 918.31 53.00 NA 32.27 88. 2006.43 48.69 1990 581.24 113.00 6.91 2. black liquor.00 NA 1985 899.36 503.10 1.88 15.00 1981 869.11 8.77 676.13 39.11 0.25 3.85 57.81 1979 728.00 NA 29.6 In 2005.10 110.00 NA 1982 937.30 7.43 53.2a.99 39.83 NA 11.00 NA 22.71 8.30 1.00 NA NA 885.00 1984 923.49 67.50 65.75 381.29 NA 10.eia.76 47.73 667.71 NA 6.69 616.15 434.22 6.52 80.85 439.00 52.46 5.81 NA 13.20 86.10 NA NA 354. c Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.68 1993 548.80 61.00 NA 22.00 NA 24.50 92.83 NA 11.90 57.16 Source: Energy Information Administration. Table 10.44 407.53 606.34 17.02 53.00 NA NA 937.00 NA NA 925.62 1998 387.30 110.00 5.80 71.10 NA 9.52 1.43 39.gov/emeu/mer/renew.00 35.54 3.02 505.00 1983 925.00 6.

sludge waste. http://www.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .doe. and black liquor from pulp mills is the single largest source accounting for more than two-thirds of total biomass energy consumption. biomass contributed 2. landfill gas.S. 2005 Source: Energy Information Administration. In 2005. energy consumption of nearly 100 quadrillion Btu (EIA. August 2006. Figure 1. recently surpassing hydroelectric power. and other secondary and tertiary sources of biomass) accounts for about 20% of total biomass consumption. wood waste. The remaining share is alcohol fuel derived principally from corn grain.8% of the total U. Wastes (which include municipal solid waste. Monthly Energy Review.7 Biomass is the single largest source of renewable energy in the United States. tires. Wood.1 Summary of Biomass Energy Consumption.eia. 2006). agricultural by-products.gov/emeu/mer/contents.

248 0. Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery Yearbook.034 0.797 1.040 7 814. Form EIA-906.730 74.781 352.003 0 0. More than one-half of this total is black liquor – a pulping mill by-product containing unutilized wood fiber and chemicals.499 0. 2003 Biomass Energy Consumption (Trillon Btus) For Useful Net Thermal Generation Output Total For Electricity (Million 1.741 0.8 Total industrial biomass energy consumption was approximately 1.265 199.641 2.986 1.001 0.019 0.730 5. Office of Coal.801 49 216.290 167 9.564 30.679 3. "Power Plant Report. ____________________ a Other includes Apparel.322 416 293.092 1. Wood and wood wastes generated in primary wood processing mills account for another third of total industrial biomass energy consumption.745 3. and analysis conducted by the Energy Information Administration.533 trillion Btu in 2003.310 0.701 7.780 18.217 0.150.019 4.697 16. Rubber and Misc.155 59 10.078 1.000 - Industry Total Agriculture. . Stone.154.000 5.540 2.881 0.439 100. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .340 574.058 0.536 6. b Primary purpose of business is not specified. and related industries. and Concrete Products.278 0.067 0.136 3.142 104 37.004 0.290 167 1.168 12 216.131 0.834 41.176 36.496 1.062 8 0.444.073 33.276 12 0.125 43 0.037 2 0.442 16.010 2. The data contained in this table are from a survey of manufacturers that is conducted every four years by the EIA.041 0.379 0.080 0. Nuclear.063 0.233 149 79.913 253 21.441 0.532.059 0 0. Black liquor is combusted in recovery boilers to recover valuable chemicals and to produce heat and power. Furniture and Fixtures.208 375.483 1.730 79. Electric and Alternate Fuels.870 0.872 1.153 4.6 Industrial Biomass Energy Consumption and Electricity Net Generation by Industry and Energy Sources.627 4. Transportation Equipment.300 0. Table 1.014 0.947 378.385 18 31.228 9 1.214 0.398 0.643 27.427 1.586 0. Plastic Products.179 0.073 0.364 200.122 1.201 14 3.010 2. Forestry.068.222 28.730 74.720 6.848 53 0.138 798.318 5.071 0.173 4 1.738 192. Clay.706 1.039 3 0.039 1.001 9.137 16.072 0.600 251 7.242 29. Petroleum Refining. and Mining Manufacturing Food and Kindred Industry Products Lumber Paper and Allied Products Chemicals and Allied Products Other b Nonspecified a Energy Source Total Total Agricultural Byproducts/Crops Total Total Agricultural Byproducts/Crops Other Biomass Gases Other Biomass Liquids Tires Wood/Wood Waste Solids Total Sludge Waste Wood/Wood Waste Liquids Wood/Wood Waste Solids Total Agricultural Byproducts/Crops Black Liquor Landfill Gas Municipal Solid Waste Other Biomass Liquids Other Biomass Solids Sludge Waste Tires Wood/Wood Waste Liquids Wood/Wood Waste Solids Total Landfill Gas Municipal Solid Waste Other Biomass Liquids Other Biomass Solids Sludge Waste Wood/Wood Waste Solids Total Total Landfill Gas Municipal Solid Waste Sources: Energy Information Administration.720 6.067 5 0.274 0.079 28 0.247 7 2.311 0." Government Advisory Associates.= Not Applicable.120 239. Glass. The bulk of industrial biomass energy consumption is derived from forestlands. Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding.

4 0.1 73.3 NA 1.5 NA 0.7 1.8 12.7 1.0 NA 0.0 0. Turhollow.8 3.0 20.8 3.3 1.8 3.5 NA 0.3 0.0 67.0 50.1 0.1 Source: Table from page 55 of: Perlack. Based on 2001 Agricultural Statistics. L.5 1.1 1233. Table 1.3 23. B. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .0 101. Stokes.9 NA 4.1 17..1 10.9 Approximately 492 million dry tons of biomass residues are produced from agricultural lands in the United States. Wright.html.4 60.1 492.3 23. The amount of this residue that can be collected depends on numerous factors affecting soil sustainability.0 25.. (Scroll down to feedstocks.0 NA 1.5 0.8 0.0 0. and Erbach.6 0..6 1.4 4.0 0.2 35.0 0.0 0.5 20.4 2.0 0.0 0. Graham.0 NA 0.2 NA 1.0 4.0 3.0 225.D. R.4 NA 0.4 NA 1.7 4.7 14.1 NA 1.3 2.9 NA 1.) Note: Some totals may differ slightly from the original source due to rounding differences.0 0.. DC.3 1.0 67. these data were used to provide the baseline supply for the document noted in the source.4 2.7 13.1 NA 1.0 0.L. R.0 0. 2001 Crop Corn Grain Sorghum Barley Oats Wheat-winter Wheat-spring Soybeans Rice Cotton lint Alfalfa Other hay Silage corn Silage sorghum Other Crops Crop failure Summer fallow Grasses (CRP) Trees (CRP) Environment (CRP) UNAccounted Pasture Wood fiber Perennials Totals Total Acres cropland Total Residue harvested Product Fiber plant redsidue Yield or reserved Yield Yield mass produced dry tons/acre/year million dry tons/year million acres 68.0 NA 0.. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply.2 31.0 NA 0.1 20.L. 2005. as well as the efficiency of the collection equipment.6 193.0 0.0 40.8 0.0 20.9 0.0 1.1 1.0 70.8 3.0 0.8 12.3 450.0 0.6 NA 0.0 6. http://www.0 2.8 7.3 NA 3.0 0. such as water and wind erosion. NA = Not available.2 0.0 1.0 0.0 21.8 NA 1.7 NA 0.3 4.0 17.2 2.4 24.9 95.0 6.8 0.0 12.0 5.2 13.1 6.gov/biomass/publications.0 6.0 2. A.J.0 0.eere.7 Total Residue Produced on Agricultural Lands.0 8.4 0.0 39.0 448.0 NA 0.0 NA 0.0 115.F.5 0. Nearly half of this total residue production is from corn.8 0.7 0.energy.

A. 2002 U.treesearch.pdf and by searching for publications by Alig at: www.nrcs. special use land and urban land may be a source of post-consumer biomass residuals. ERS in a 2002 publication on land use stated that 105 million acres in the special uses category overlaps with forestland. but are not areas where biomass crops could be produced on a large scale. Based on the 2002 land use inventory.. They have been producing similar estimates since 1945. too dry to provide much biomass resources. If that area is added to the ERS forestland category then it nearly matches the NRCS forest land use estimate. May 2006. Economic Information Bulletin Number 14.. land use categories differ slightly depending on who is reporting the results. URL’s for NRCS and FS estimates are given below. S. thus about 49% of U.2 Major Uses of Land in the United States. Vesterby. Definitions of the ERS land use categories follow. but based on a 2002 land inventory. in that category (747 million acres based on 1997 inventory data).10 The United States has a total land area in all 50 states of 2. Grassland pasture and range land is. the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the Forest Service (FS) place land into somewhat different categories. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . R. Bucholtz. were generated by the Economic Research Service (ERS) of USDA. M. for the most part. The Forest Service documents only deal with forest land.S.. Source: Lubowski. www. However. Roberts.gov/publications/eib14.S.usda.fed.gov/technical/nri02/landuse. NRCS and FS land use references can be found at: www.263 billion acres..usda.S. but include a larger area of the U.ers. 2002” USDA Economic Research Service. The NRCS divides the land into additional sub-categories (such as a “Federal land” category). Figure 1. Miscellaneous. M. Baez. “Major Uses of Land in the United States. The numbers below published in 2006.N. 2006. Other USDA organizations.fs.us/pubs.J. and only gives values for the lower 48 states. 20% of that land was categorized as cropland and 29% as forest-use land. land is a potential source of biomass residuals or biomass crops for bioenergy.

Grassland pasture and range: Permanent grassland and other nonforested pasture and range.11 Figure 1. marshes. Urban areas are based on Census Bureau definitions which identify “urban clusters” based primarily on population density. summer fallow. Cropland in Alaska and Hawaii total less than 0. swamps. Forest-use land: Total forest land as classified by the U. and land used for rural highways. Miscellaneous land: This includes tundra. land with crop failure.S. This category includes a small amount of rural residential area within forested areas. deserts. and other unclassified areas generally of low agricultural value. roads and railroad rights-of-way. idle cropland (including Conservation Reserve Program land). and cropland used only for pasture. Special Uses: This land includes recreation and wildlife areas. Forest Service includes grazed forest land (134 million acres) as well as other forest land (517 million acres). national defense areas. Urban land: Urban lands are newly separated from special use lands in the 2006 Major Land Uses report prepared by ERS. bare rock areas. 2002 Notes: Cropland: All land in the crop rotation. including cropland used for crops.2 (Continued) Major Uses of Land in the United States. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . not political boundaries.4 million acres. and rural airports. It does not include land in the special uses category that is forested. It also includes 11 million acres for farmsteads and farm roads. snow and ice fields.

12 Current commodity crop locations are good indicators of where biomass resources can be cultivated. Figure 1. 2004 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .3 Geographic Locations of Major Crops.

3 (Continued) Geographic Locations of Major Crops. 2004 Source: U.S.gov/nass/aggraphs/cropmap.htm. Department of Agriculture.13 Figure 1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .usda. http://www. National Agricultural Statistics Service.

It is also extremely important to select appropriate sites and optimize agronomic or silvicultural management techniques to eliminate weed competition and assure that adequate nutrients and water are available (but without overfertilizing or irrigating).S. in fact. This estimate takes into consideration factors affecting forest access. many perennial crops (grass and tree species) that show high potential for production of cost-competitive cellulosic biomass. While a portion of this residue does have a value in maintaining soil quality and crop productivity. sweetgum and sycamore.Cellulosic Biomass: A Discussion of Future Energy Crop Supply Potential President Bush spoke in his January 31. Some annual crops are also being evaluated as dedicated energy crops including corn. The perennial crops will normally show better environmental performance due to lower chemical requirements and better erosion control.S. Also. silver maple. There are. because of very high yields. trees grown as single stem row crops. warm season. such as Miscanthus. and kenaf (a woody annual crop). the major cellulosic resources are corn "stalks" and wheat straw. The fraction that could be available for bioenergy and bioproducts is less than 1% of the total size of the fuel treatment biomass resource. or thick-stemmed grasses with rhizomes. Other perennial energy crops that might be preferred in some situations include other thin-stemmed grasses. in some higher yield areas of the U. quality and consistency. These represent both existing and potential biomass resources. The amount of this biomass potentially available for bioenergy uses is estimated to be about 60 million dry tons annually.14 FUTURE ENERGY CROP SUPPLY POTENTIAL—CELLULOSIC BIOMASS "Woodchips. such as Reed Canary grass or Big Bluestem grass. Stalks. It is important to use this resource in a way that is environmentally and economically sound and that supplies the needs of biorefineries in terms of cost. or Arundo (all may sometimes be marketed as E-Grass). The “best” crop for a given area can only be determined by local soil and climate conditions and the desired end-use. eucalyptus. Energy cane. From the agricultural sector. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . sorghum. though very underutilized. Well over 8 billion dry tons of biomass has been identified by the U. 2006. the compost market could compete for urban wood resources. Switchgrass is a thin-stemmed. and Switchgrass" . In both cases. stalks and switchgrass" as the source of cellulosic biomass. One of the largest unexploited categories is wood that needs to be removed from forests to reduce the risk of forest fires. or trees grown as multiple stem row crops such as willow or poplar coppice. Factors affecting the rate at which this source of material will become available include public opinion toward this type of removal. perennial grass that has shown high potential as a highyielding crop that can be grown in most areas of the nation that are also suitable for crop production. Cost of production of energy crops is very sensitive to yield.S. State of the Union address of producing biofuels by 2012 using "woodchips. residue recovery and the desirability of using some of the recoverable biomass for conventional wood products. The "woodchips and stalks" represent resources that are currently available from forestry and agriculture. there is an excess of residue produced that could be beneficially removed. the relatively high costs of removal. Thus “switchgrass” can be viewed as a surrogate for many “perennial energy crops” when doing biomass supply analysis. Both are left in the field after the grain is harvested in much of the U. and transportation has not compared favorably to their relatively low value as an energy resource. The other large underutilized forest sources of woodchips are logging residues and urban wood residues. Forest Service as needing fuel treatment removal. as well as delivered costs and the extent to which technology is developed for utilizing small diameter wood for products other than bioenergy. thus development of better energy crops involves traditional genetic selection and/or molecular genetics. such as poplars. handling.

15 Crop residues and high yield dedicated energy crops will not become cellulosic biomass supplies unless efficient. Available at: http://www1. integrated biomass supply systems are developed. harvesting and collection.html (search for Roadmap). 2003. Roadmap for Agricultural Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States. and transportation for each crop type and end use scenario.eere. storage. and users in 2003 spells out the R&D needs for assuring that cellulosic biomass can be supplied in a way that meets the cost.gov/biomass/document_database.energy. A roadmap developed jointly by researchers. Source: U. preprocessing. quality and consistency requirements of biorefineries (or biopower or biofuels production facilities). Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Department of Energy. fully integrating crop production. This means first of all.S. producers.

16 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

waste vegetable oils. called fast or flash pyrolysis. Hydrogen can be recovered from this syngas. such as hydrogen and methane. which is then converted into ethanol in a fermentation process similar to brewing beer. biodiesel. The BioOils currently produced are suitable for use in boilers for electricity generation. Fischer-Tropsch diesel. BIOFUELS BRIEF OVERVIEW A variety of fuels can be produced from biomass resources including liquid fuels. and gaseous fuels. but can also fuel engines or fuel cells for electricity generation. occurs when heating compact solid fuels at temperatures between 350 and 500 degrees Celcius for a very short period of time (less than 2 seconds). animal fats. such as ethanol.17 2. there are only two commercial fast pyrolysis technologies as of 2006. The biomass-derived ethyl or methyl esters can be blended with conventional diesel fuel or used as a neat fuel (100% biodiesel). or microalgae oils. Biofuels are primarily used to fuel vehicles. FUELS Ethanol Ethanol is made by converting the carbohydrate from biomass into sugar. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. However. The gas can also be run through a biological reactor to produce ethanol or can also be converted using Fischer-Tropsch catalyst into a liquid stream with properties similar to diesel fuel. The process. development and demonstration efforts. such as corn. BioOil A totally different process than that used for biodiesel production can be used to convert biomass into a type of fuel similar to diesel which is known as BioOil. methanol. Biofuels from Synthesis Gas Biomass can be gasified to produce a synthesis gas composed primarily of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.S.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .gov/RE/bio_fuels. Additional research and development is needed to produce BioOil of sufficient quality for transportation applications. Source: U. Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel today with current capacity of 4. http://www.3 billion gallons per year based on starch crops. Soybeans and Canola (rapeseed) oils are the most common vegetable oils used today. all of these fuels can also be produced from natural gas using a similar process.eere. Syngas produced today is used directly to generate heat and power but several types of biofuels may be derived from syngas. also called syngas or biosyngas. or it can be catalytically converted to methanol.energy. Biodiesel Biodiesel is produced through a process in which organically derived oils are combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst to form ethyl or methyl ester. Biodiesel can be made from any vegetable oil. Ethanol produced from cellulosic biomass is currently the subject of extensive research. While there are several fast pyrolysis technologies under development. called Fischer-Tropsch diesel. Department of Energy. Data on biofuels from synthesis gas are not currently included in the Biomass Data Book.

there is the Renewable Portfolio Standard for biofuels and several other types of incentives.ethanolrfa. 2008 Income Tax Credit for EPACT 2005 §1342.1 Major Federal Biofuel Tax Incentives Title Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC) Volumetric Excise Tax Credit for Biodiesel Volumetric Excise Tax Credit for Biodiesel Volumetric Excise Tax Credit for Biodiesel Small Ethanol Producer Credit Code or Lawa Public Law 108357b Fuel Type Incentive Qualifying Period January 2005 – December 2010 Limitsc Available to blenders/ retailers ethanol of 190 proof or $0. biodiesel used or blended 2008 $0.18 Federal tax incentives for alcohol fuels were first established in 1978 for 10% blended gasoline (gasohol) creating an effective Federal subsidy for ethanol of $0.10 per gallon ethanol or biodiesel produced up to 15 million gallons Expires December 31. 2008 Expires December 31. See brief summary of all biofuel related provisions in the final version of the Energy Policy Act at: http://www. In several cases. b Public Law 108-357 was the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004. Tax incentives for biodiesel were first initiated in 2004 with the American Jobs Creation Act.000 limit on tax credit Source: Renewable Fuels Association. Subtitle D $1. (e. the most recent action is a modification of prior actions.Expires December 31. cellulosics) EPACT 2005 c §1344.50 per pure gal of waste-grease biodiesel used or blended $1.g.g. Table 2. corn grain.00 per pure gal of agri. 2008 < 60 million gallon production capacity Cap at $1. Title XIII.g. E85 and B20 Subtitle D Infrastructure Ethanol or biodiesel Permits taxpayers to claim January 2006 – December 2007 a 30% credit for cost of installing clean-fuel vehicle refueling property at business or residence $30. Subtitle D EPACT 2005 §1344. In addition to the tax subsidies. Subtitle D EPACT 2005 §1347.51 per pure gal of greater from biomass ethanol used or blended. and extended the subsidy.40/gallon.ethanolrfa. 2008 Available to blenders/ retailers Available to blenders/ retailers Available to blenders/ retailers $0. Title XIII. Title XIII. Title XIII. Title XIII. http://www. corn grain. c EPACT 2005 is the Energy Policy Act of 2005. from soybeans or other oil seeds) Waste-grease biodiesel Renewable diesel – made from biomass by thermal deploymerization process Ethanol from biomass (e.10 per gallon ethanol or biodiesel produced up to 30 million gallons Expires December 31.org/policy/regulations/federal/standard/ a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .org/policy/regulations/federal/standard/ ____________________ Most recent Internal Revenue Service code or public law affecting the status of the incentive.00 per gal of diesel fuel used or blended Expires December 31. cellulosics) Agri-biodiesel (e. Various subsequent acts have raised or lowered. modified.5 million per yr per producer Can offset the alternative minimum tax Same as above Small Biodiesel Producer Credit EPACT 2005 §1345. Title XIII. Subtitle D EPACT 2005 §1344. Subtitle D Agri-biodiesel $0.

The program is scheduled to end in September 2006. One gallon of cellulosic ethanol and ethanol produced in facilities using animal waste to displace fossil fuel use qualifies as 2. _______________________ The Energy Policy Act of 2005 contains many sections that could help in facilitating the development of biofuels or biomass power and/or that request new studies to assist in developing further policy.ethanolrfa.loc. For a description of 42 of the relevant sections see the September-October 2005 newsletter published by General Bioenergy. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . 50% of the funds are to go to demonstration projects with 20% or greater cost-share. §1511 Federal agencies to showcase biobased products EPACT 2005 EPACT 2005 Incentive for commercial Directs Department of Energy to provide loan guarantees for cellulosic ethanol not more than 4 commercial demonstrations. and establishes program of public education regarding federal use of biobased products EPACT 2005 EPACT 2005 Title II.D&D Modifies the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000. Farm Security and Commodity Credit Rural Investment Corporation Bioenergy Act of 2002 Program Source: The Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. 7.19 Table 2. §943 Procurement of Biobased Products Title XV. (www. Increase ethanol production The USDA Farm Service Agency has for several years encouraged new biofuel production capacity by making cash payments to bioethanol and biodiesel producers for new production. Includes development and demonstration as relevant activities.ers. §203 Renewable 4.gov/cgi-bin/thomas.epa. §942 Production Cost competitive Incentive for Cellulosic cellulosic biomass by Biofuels 2015 Title II. to include one using cereal straw and one using MSW as feedstocks.com) under newsletter Archives.html EPA regulations relevant to RFS: http://www.org/policy/regulations/federal/standard/ of ethanol by 2012 summary of RFS and other biofuels incentives: http://www. http://www. Must have capacity of 30 million gallons or more. Not included in this summary are sections pertaining to alternative-fueled vehicles. It spells out research priorities and distribution of funds. Broadens scope from industrial products to fuels and biobased products. http://thomas. §941 Effective biomass R.5 billion gallons http://www. Inc.bioenergyupdate.0 billion gallons ethanol brief summary of RFS provisions: Fuels Standard (RFS) in 2006.ethanol.5 gallons towards satisfying the RFS Expands Biobased Procurement Program to Federal government contractors.gov/oms/renewablefuels/ Title II.gov/Features/FarmBill/.org/rfs.usda.2 Selected Non-Tax Federal Biofuel Incentives Federal Action a EPACT 2005 Title Goal Notes and More information Title II.

such as E85. Synthetic ethanol is produced from ethylene. Source: DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. When cellulosic bioethanol becomes commercially available.gov/biomass/bioethanol Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .S. A small amount of synthetic ethanol is exported to other countries. Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel today. Ethanol is currently produced using a process similar to brewing beer where starch crops are converted into sugars. Although producing bioethanol from cellulosic biomass is currently more costly than producing bioethanol from starch crops. though a small share is used by the beverage industry and the industrial industry. or in its pure form E100. ethanol is blended with gasoline to form an E10 blend (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline). Manufacturer approval of ethanol blends is found in vehicle owners' manuals under references to refueling or gasoline.gov/biomass/abcs_biofuels. In many areas of the United States today. http://www1. but it can be used in higher concentrations.20 ETHANOL OVERVIEW There are two types of ethanol produced in the United States – fermentation ethanol and synthetic ethanol. Ethanol is used to increase octane and improve the emissions quality of gasoline. however. the U. Pure ethanol or E100 is used in Brazil but is not currently compatible with vehicles manufactured for the U. and the ethanol is then distilled into its final form. Government has launched a Biofuels Initiative with the objective of quickly reducing the cost of cellulosic bioethanol. it will be used exactly as the bioethanol currently made from corn grain.html and http://www1. the sugars are fermented into ethanol.eere. and grasses) is made by first using pretreatment and hydrolysis processes to extract sugars. only flex fuel vehicles (FFVs) are designed to use E85.energy. Fermentation ethanol (or bioethanol) is produced from corn or other biomass feedstocks and is by far the most common type of ethanol produced. In 2005. more than 3. market. accounting for more than 90% of all ethanol production. followed by fermentation of the sugars. and is used mainly in industrial applications. a petroleum by-product. Fermentation ethanol is mainly produced for fuel.6 billion gallons were added to gasoline in the United States to improve vehicle performance and reduce air pollution. Bioethanol from cellulosic biomass materials (such as agricultural residues. Researchers are working to improve the efficiency and economics of the cellulosic bioethanol production process. All automobile manufacturers that do business in the United States approve the use of E10 in gasoline engines.energy.eere. trees.S.

and Procedures.007 ASTM Test Method D 5501 D 381 E 203 D 512 D1688 D1613 6. mg/100 ml max Water content. volume %. The state of California has additional restrictions that apply in addition to the performance requirements in ASTM D 4806. max Inorganic Chloride content. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . mass percent (mg/L). Specifications.5 5 1 1.ethanolrfa. mg/kg. max Acidity (as acetic acid CH3COOH). max Denaturant content. min volume %.1 0.96 4.76 40 0. Table 2.3 Specifications Contained in ASTM D 4806 Standard Specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for Blending with Gasoline Property Ethanol volume %. min Methanol.org/industry/resources/guidelines/. max Solvent-washed gum. volume %.1 0. http://www.21 Below are the primary quality specifications for denatured fuel ethanol for blending with gasoline meeting Federal requirements. max pHe Appearance Specification 92.0 D 6423 Visibly free of suspended or precipitated contaminants (clear & bright) Source: Renewable Fuels Association.5-9. mass ppm (mg/L) max Copper content. volume %. Industry Guidelines.

81–0. °F Reid vapor pressure.7–7.1 165 §!ÃÃ §%ÃÃ §&ÃÃ § ÃÃ §'ÃÃ 1 6 18.energy.2 1.2 --N/A 40–55 Negligible Negligible b -40–30 2. Btu/cubic foot @ 68° F Fuel in liquid state.280 0.22 Table 2. psi Research octane no.000 95.7 – Source: U.000–19.200–20000 18.796 6. http://www. °F Lower Higher Btu/gal @ 60° F Btu/lb @ 60° F Btu/lb air for stoichiometric mixture @ 60° F Higher (liquid fuel-liquid water) Btu/lb Lower (liquid fuel-water vapor) Btu/lb Higher (liquid fuel-liquid water) Btu/gal Lower (liquid fuel-water vapor) Btu/gal @ 60° F Mixture in vapor state. volume % Freezing point.61 172 2.43 14.6 No.700 128. °F Centipoise @ 60° F Flash point.9 – 0.gov/afdc/altfuel/fuel_properties. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .800 115.4 7.378 396 44 12. ASTM D97.6–4. Alternative Fuels Data Center. weight Volume % fuel in vaporized stoichiometric mixture Ethanol C2H5OH 46.1 34. °F Autoignition temperature.44 -45 495 1. c Based on Cetane.500 84. Pour Point.57 9 6. Office of Energy Effiency and Renewable Energy. lb/gal @ 60° F Boiling temperature.290 0.5 80–437 8–15 90–100 81–90 86–94 5–20 Negligible Negligible -40 a 0. Btu/lb or air Specific heat.(1) Fuel in water.7 0.4 Fuel Property Comparison for Ethanol.5 Gasoline C4 to C12 100–105 85–88 12–15 0 0.0–6.3 108 92 100 -100 100 -173.07 52.2 1.400 18.800–20. (R + M)/2 Cetane no.html.4 370–650 0. 2 Diesel C3 to C25 84–87 33–16 0 0.37–0. ____________________ a b Calculated.100 a 76.19 55 793 4.800 11.000–19.78 6.S.2 13. Btu/lb °F Stoichiometric air/fuel.000 138.000 92. 60° F/60° F Density.7 2 §(ÃÃ § $ÃÃ § ÃÃ 19.3 19 2. 2 Diesel Property Chemical Formula Molecular Weight Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Specific gravity.89 6. Motor octane no. Department of Energy.9 1. Gasoline and No.000 124.48 a 14. volume % Water in fuel.72–0.eere. closed cup.400 c 96.

264 4.K. Industry Statistics. 2005 (Millions of gallons.23 The U.004 449 240 198 114 103 93 92 79 65 61 58 45 44 40 33 32 30 29 24 22 17 17 14 12 12 7 5 4 3 3 710 12.227 1. Brazil China India France Russia Germany South Africa Spain U. not just fuel ethanol. and Brazil produced about 70 percent of the world’s ethanol in 2005. Thailand Ukraine Canada Poland Indonesia Argentina Italy Australia Saudi Arabia Japan Sweden Pakistan Philippines South Korea Guatemala Ecuador Cuba Mexico Nicaragua Zimbabwe Kenya Mauritius Swaziland Others Total 2005 4.org/industry/statistics/#E Note: Some countries listed in the table titled: "U.S. The table below includes all types of ethanol. all grades) Country U.150 Source: Renewable Fuels Association. Table 2.S.ethanolrfa. http://www. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .5 World Ethanol Production by Country. Fuel Ethanol Imports by Country" do not appear in this table because they process ethanol (dehydration) rather than produce it from feedstock.S.

4 5. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .6 Fuel Ethanol Imports by Country (Millions of gallons) Country Brazil Costa Rica El Salvadore Jamaica Total 2002 0 12 4.5 2003 0 14.9 39.9 Source: Renewable Fuel Association.org/industry/statistics/ Note: Some countries listed in this table do not appear in the table titled: "World Ethanol Production by Country" because they process ethanol (dehydration) rather than produce it from feedstock.3 60. http://www.9 2004 90.7 6.5 29 45.3 25.6 159.24 The United States imports a small percentage of ethanol from countries within relatively close geographic proximity. Table 2.7 36.ethanolrfa.

org/industry/outlook/index.html.php. though production has increased dramatically since 2001.630 1. Monthly Oxygenate Report http://www. 1908-1997: Renewable Fuels Association. Table 2.eia.770 2.130 2.ethanolrfa.100 1.25 Fuel ethanol production has been on the rise in the United States since 1980.doe.800 3. "From Niche to Nation: Ethanol Industry Outlook 2006.400 1.470 1.900 Source: 1998-2005: Energy Information Administration.7 Historic Fuel Ethanol Production Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Millions of Gallons 175 215 350 375 430 610 710 830 845 870 900 950 1.350 1. http://www.200 1.400 1.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/monthly_oxygenat e_telephone_report/motr.300 1.400 3." Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .100 1.

1999-2006 (as of January of each year) Year Total Ethanol Plants Ethanol Production Capacity (million gallons per year) Plants Under Construction Capacity Under Construction (million gallons per year) Farmer Owned Plants Farmer Owned Capacity (million gallons per year) Percent of Total Capacity that is Farmer Owned Farmer Owned Plants Under Construction Farmer Owned Capacity Under Construction (million gallons per year) Percent of Total Under Construction Capacity States with Ethanol Plants 1999 50 2000 54 2001 56 2002 61 2003 68 2004 72 2005 81 2006 95 1. Additional information on specific plant locations and up-to-date statistics can be obtained at the Renewable Fuels Association.7 21 390. www.643.7 5 1.336.921.6 796.100.5 18 64.706.6 1.347.041.0 645.org/industry/statistics/ Table 2. Table titled: "Ethanol Industry Overview.8 11 3.ethanolrfa.677.1 1.7 25 483.778.” www.748.8 Ethanol Production Statistics.701.3 340.0 40 1.ethanolrfa.7 6 1.388.7 16 4.8 15 3.0 33 754.4 31 77.org/industry/statistics/ Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .26 Between 1999 and 2006.6 1. the number of ethanol plants in the United States nearly doubled.3 473.9 6 2.0 28 598.0 14 91.0 46 293.1 17% 5 19% 3 25% 3 28% 10 29% 8 34% 12 38% 10 39% 4 77 100% 17 60 66% 17 60 71% 18 335 86% 19 318 66% 20 447 75% 19 450 60% 18 187 11% 20 Source: Renewable Fuels Association. accompanied by a rapid rise in production capacity.3 13 2.

0% 1.9% 2.8% 0.0% 1.8% 0. but in the near term. 2006 Plant Feedstock Corn Corn/Milo Corn/Wheat Corn/Barley Milo/Wheat Waste Beverageb Cheese Whey Sugars & Starches Total a Capacity (million galllons/year) 4.9 Ethanol Production by Feedstock. ____________________ a b Includes seed corn.3% 1.0% 4.0% 1. the vast majority of ethanol is made from corn.8% 0.27 Although ethanol can be made from a wide variety of feedstocks.3% 0. of Plants 85 5 2 1 1 5 2 1 102 % of Plants 83.3% 4.872 % of Capacity 92. Table 2.0% No.0% Source: Environmental Protection Agency.0% 100.Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis" September 2006. Includes brewery waste Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .9% 2. Office of Transportation and Air Quality "Renewable Fuel Standard Program .0% 100.2% 0.516 162 90 40 40 16 8 2 4. corn remains the dominant feedstock. Future cellulosic production methods using grasses and woody plant material may eventually account for a sizeable share.7% 3. EPA420-D-06-008.

9% 2." September 2006. Table 2. ____________________ a Includes a natural gas facility which is considering transitioning to coal.0% 98 2 1 1 102 % of Plants 96.0% 100. Office of Transportation and Air Quality. EPA420-D-06-008. of Plants 4671 102 50 49 4872 95.28 The great majority of ethanol production facilities operating in the United States use natural gas as their energy source.0% 1.0% Source: Environmental Protection Agency.1% 2.1% 1.Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis.0% 100. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .10 Ethanol Production by Plant Energy Source.0% 1. 2006 Energy Source Natural Gas Coal Coal & Biomass Syrup Total a Capacity MMGal/year % of Capacity No.0% 1. "Renewable Fuel Standard Program .

org/.ethanolrfa.1 Ethanol Production Facilities Current and Planned. For an up-to-date listing of all production facilities. www.29 The majority of ethanol production facilities are concentrated where corn is grown. visit the Renewable Fuels Association.org/. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . http://www. 2005 Source: Renewable Fuels Association. Figure 2.ethanolrfa.

This steeping facilitates the separation of the grain into its many component parts. Figure 2. While the basic steps remain the same. or processed into corn syrup.Wet Milling In wet milling. There are two production processes: wet milling and dry milling. The remaining fiber. The steeping liquor is concentrated in an evaporator. gluten and starch components are further segregated using centrifugal. is co-dried with the fiber component and is then sold as corn gluten feed to the livestock industry. The fermentation process for ethanol is very similar to the dry mill process. the process has been considerably refined in recent years.2 The Ethanol Production Process . http://www. This concentrated product. Source: Renewable Fuels Association. heavy steep water.30 The production of ethanol or ethyl alcohol from starch or sugar-based feedstocks is among man’s earliest ventures into value-added processing. an environmentally friendly alternative to salt for removing ice from roads. dried and sold as dried or modified corn starch. the grain is soaked or "steeped" in water and dilute sulfurous acid for 24 to 48 hours. the corn slurry is processed through a series of grinders to separate the corn germ.ethanolrfa. The gluten component (protein) is filtered and dried to produce the corn gluten meal co-product. Heavy steep water is also sold by itself as a feed ingredient and is used as a component in Ice Ban. After steeping. This product is highly sought after as a feed ingredient in poultry broiler operations.org/resource/made/ Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . screen and hydroclonic separators. leading to a very efficient process. The main difference between the two is in the initial treatment of the grain. The corn oil from the germ is either extracted on-site or sold to crushers who extract the corn oil. The starch and any remaining water from the mash can then be processed in one of three ways: fermented into ethanol.

a high quality. After fermentation. During this part of the process.31 Figure 2. The anhydrous ethanol is blended with about 5% denaturant (such as natural gasoline) to render it undrinkable and thus not subject to beverage alcohol tax. http://www. It is then ready for shipment to gasoline terminals or retailers.org/resource/made/ Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . The solubles are then concentrated to about 30% solids by evaporation. nutritious livestock feed. resulting in Condensed Distillers Solubles (CDS) or "syrup. The mash is processed in a high-temperature cooker to reduce bacteria levels ahead of fermentation.3 The Ethanol Production Process .ethanolrfa. The mash is cooled and transferred to fermenters where yeast is added and the conversion of sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide (CO2) begins. a simple sugar. Source: Renewable Fuels Association. Ammonia is added for pH control and as a nutrient to the yeast. which is referred to in the industry as "meal" and processed without separating out the various component parts of the grain. the mash is agitated and kept cool to facilitate the activity of the yeast." The ethanol is concentrated to 190 proof using conventional distillation and is then dehydrated to approximately 200 proof in a molecular sieve system.Dry Milling In dry milling." The coarse grain and the syrup are dried together to produce dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The stillage is sent through a centrifuge that separates the coarse grain from the solubles. The CO2 released during fermentation is captured and sold for use in carbonating soft drinks and the manufacture of dry ice. the resulting "beer" is transferred to distillation columns where the ethanol is separated from the remaining "stillage." Enzymes are added to the mash to convert the starch to dextrose. The fermentation process generally takes about 40 to 50 hours. the entire corn kernel or other starchy grain is first ground into flour. The meal is slurried with water to form a "mash.

the hemicellulose fraction of the biomass is broken down into simple sugars. Chart courtesy of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Biomass Pretreatment. fuel ethanol industry is based primarily on the starch in the kernels of feed corn.. A small portion of the cellulose is also converted to glucose in this step.S. and soluble six-carbon sugars.S. For example. releasing simple sugars.4 The Production of Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass • • • • • Hydrolysis is the chemical reaction that converts the complex polysaccharides in the raw feedstock to simple sugars. Process Description. Biomass Handling. Note that there are a variety of options for pretreatment and other steps in the process and that some specific technologies combine two or all three of the hydrolysis and fermentation steps within the shaded box. which feed on the sugars. Biomass goes through a size-reduction step to make it easier to handle and to make the ethanol production process more efficient.32 This process flow diagram shows the basic steps in production of ethanol from cellulosic biomass. In this hydrolysis reaction. While cellulosic ethanol is not yet commercial in the U. acids and enzymes are used to catalyze this reaction. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced as the sugar is consumed. Figure 2. the complex chains of sugars that make up the hemicellulose are broken. it has been demonstrated by several groups and commercial facilities are being planned in North America. The complex hemicellulose sugars are converted to a mix of soluble five-carbon sugars. Brazil uses its huge crops of sugar cane to produce fuel for its transportation needs. In this step. The basic processes for converting sugar and starch crops are well-known and used commercially today. The fermentation reaction is caused by yeast or bacteria. For example. America’s largest agricultural crop. The current U. xylose and arabinose. In the biomass-to-bioethanol process. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . While these types of plants generally have a greater value as food sources than as fuel sources there are some exceptions to this. agricultural residues go through a grinding process and wood goes through a chipping process to achieve a uniform particle size. Fermentation is a series of chemical reactions that convert sugars to ethanol. A chemical reaction called hydrolysis occurs when dilute sulfuric acid is mixed with the biomass feedstock. mannose and galactose.

Converting cellulosic biomass to ethanol is currently too expensive to be used on a commercial scale. the remaining cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose. The fermentation reaction is caused by yeast or bacteria. http://www1. Xylose is the most prevalent pentose released by the hemicellulose hydrolysis reaction. Alternatively the enzymes might be purchased from commercial enzyme companies. Ethanol Recovery. In this step the ethanol is separated from the other components in the broth.energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. In this step. most cannot easily ferment five-carbon sugars. Researchers are working to improve the efficiency and economics of the ethanol production process by focusing their efforts on the two most challenging steps: • • Cellulose Hydrolysis.org/resource/made/ and the Department of Energy. http://www. Cellulose Hydrolysis. which limits ethanol production from cellulosic biomass. releasing glucose. In this step. which are also called pentoses.gov/biomass/abcs_biofuels. A final dehydration step removes any remaining water from the ethanol. The cellulase enzymes that are used to hydrolyze the cellulose fraction of the biomass are grown in this step. Researchers are using genetic engineering to design microorganisms that can efficiently ferment both five.eere. Source: Renewable Fuels Association. In this enzymatic hydrolysis reaction. through a process called fermentation. The fermentation product from the glucose and pentose fermentation is called ethanol broth. Cellulose hydrolysis is also called cellulose saccharification because it produces sugars. Pentose Fermentation.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Burning lignin actually creates more energy than needed and selling electricity may help the process economics. Researchers are developing enzymes that work together to efficiently break down cellulose. Lignin and other byproducts of the biomass-to-ethanol process can be used to produce the electricity required for the ethanol production process. The hemicellulose fraction of biomass is rich in five-carbon sugars. ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced. xylose is fermented using Zymomonas mobilis or other genetically engineered bacteria. which feed on the sugars. The crystalline structure of cellulose makes it difficult to hydrolyze to simple sugars. ready for fermentation.33 Figure 2.ethanolrfa. cellulase enzymes are used to break the chains of sugars that make up the cellulose. Glucose Fermentation.and six-carbon sugars to ethanol at the same time. Lignin Utilization. Pentose Fermentation. While there are a variety of yeast and bacteria that will ferment sixcarbon sugars. Fermentation is a series of chemical reactions that convert sugars to ethanol.4 (Continued) The Production of Ethanol from Cellulosic Biomass • • • • • • Enzyme Production. The glucose is converted to ethanol. As the sugars are consumed.

033 — — 2.313 43.940 — — 32 4.052 Source: Renewable Fuels Association.349.001 — 332.215.629 — — 552 — — — 4.207 1.135 1.S. Total Thousands of gallons 313.837 3.ethanolrfa.785 12.209 — — 15. "From Niche to Nation: Ethanol Industry Outlook 2006.983 466.795 105.975 — 1.085.11 Ethanol-Blended Fuel Use by State.022 1. 2004 State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Dist.639 — 34. of Col.480.421 — — 64.220.295 302. Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U.178 18.916.167.408 840.696 1.898 371.php.34 Table 2.931 — 1.660 1. http://www.793 — 3.org/industry/outlook/index.385 1.590.779." Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .299 — — — — — 239.766.

21 $0.43 $0.40 $0.12 Gasoline and Ethanol: Comparison of Current and Potential Production Costs in North America (U.6 Note: Gasoline gate cost based on $24/barrel oil in 2002. Table 4.27 Source: International Energy Agency. Biofuels for Transport. gasoline production cost is projected to increase over time.23 $0.37 $0. $30/barrel in 2020.43 Post-2010 $0.S. dollars per gasoline-equivalent liter) Gasoline Ethanol from corn Ethanol from cellulose (poplar) 2002 $0. cellulosic costs from IEA based on NREL estimates. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Table 2.53 2010 $0. with about 1% per year cost reduction in future. Production cost for ethanol is projected to decrease over time. corn ethanol from IEA.25 $0.35 While the current production cost for gasoline is significantly less than for ethanol.

0231 0.1355 0.0030 0.4451 0.000 549.0544 0.1099 0.4124 0.0043 0.0077 0.972 10.0060 0.0377 0.900 1.0039 0.0015 0.000 gal 1. and Gallagher.0228 0.9 548.5494 0.13 Undenatured Ethanol Cash Operating Expenses and Net Feedstock Costs for Dry-milling Process by Plant Size.684 2.0059 0.000 bu 1.0038 0.5450 0.0609 0.784 272.36 Twenty-one ethanol dry mill processing plants contributed to the survey results reported here.0339 0.6828 0.0341 0.0374 0.0348 0. 2002 Feedstock Corn Sorghum Other Alcohol production: Fuel Industrial Total Ethanol yield Feedstock costs Byproducts credits: Distiller’s dried grains Carbon dioxide Net feedstock costs Cash operating expenses: Electricity Fuels Waste management Water Enzymes Yeast Chemicals Denaturant Maintenance Labor Administrative costs Other Total Total cash costs and net feedstock costs Unit 1. July 2005.261 0.185 10.0043 0.0357 0.0035 0.0041 0.2520 0.1607 0.000 276.8030 0.0365 0. USDA’s Ethanol Cost of Production Survey. Agricultural Economic Report Number 841.8095 0. Note: bu – bushels gal – gallons dol – dollars Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .0325 0.9207 Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Dol/gal Source: Shapouri. 2005. Table 2.900 2.9945 Large 89.0478 0.0046 0.3802 0.213 NA NA 275.000 gal Gal/bu All Dry Mills 193.9 272. P.0319 0.0229 0.5405 0.000 bu 1.0039 0.6623 0.S.409 44. U.409 44. The costs reported are 2002 dollars.000 ton 1.684 1.0356 0.04 0.0474 0.784 2.7965 0.0366 0.9574 Small 103.0044 0.0349 0. Department of Agriculture.2433 0.008 0. H.649 0.0396 0.000 gal 1.

988 121.10 Employment (Jobs) 89.330.70 2004 Impact Earnings (Mil $) $2.80 $1.546 4. followed by new plant construction.50 $276.00 $142.282.20 $700. 1255 Drummers Lane.80 $179.37 The ethanol industry spent nearly $5.10 $205.175.60 $688.30 $78.054. 2004 2004 Expenditure (Mil $) $3.9 billion.582. Most of this spending was for corn grain.70 $94.50 $844. and created over 143.243 5. Suite 320.80 $2.90 $129.10 $4.70 $12.60 $46.30 $264.50 $311.00 $42.90 $279. economy.10 $645.967 3.00 $5.50 $167.166.14 Economic Contribution of the Ethanol Industry.3 billion in 2004 to produce ethanol.879.00 $94. Director.90 $712. Wayne. Urbanchuk.263 4.046 8.356 Corn Chemicals Electricity Natural Gas Water Labor Maintenance Insurance Overhead Subtotal Construction Total Source: John M.351.759.20 Output (Mil $) $8. These expenditures created an estimated $15.00 $15.50 $201. LECG LLC.70 $270.S.com Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .034. Table 2.530 21.50 $26.000 jobs.607 608 1.20 $3. increased household earnings by nearly $3.30 $166.90 $21.826 143.979. PA 19087. www.20 $528.262 3.10 $3.3 billion in additional output in the U.lecg.

Vol.transportation. “Development and Use of GREET 1. Farrell. “Fossil Energy Use in the Manufacture of Corn Ethanol. Some differences can be explained by use of older versus new data. and cellulosic ethanol. Department of Agriculture. Rep.D.S. R.E. O’Hare. de Olivera. Crit.J.38 Figure 2. Jones. 519 (2004) D. The model suggests that ethanol produced from cellulosic materials reduces both GHG’s and petroleum inputs substantially. January 27. Berkeley.anl. 2006.5 Ethanol Net Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions The net energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions associated with ethanol production have been analyzed by multiple groups in the past 5 years. Some analysts have shown negative energy input to output balances while others have shown neutral to positive balances. Patzek. 2002).6 Fuel-Cycle Model for Transportation Fuels and Vehicle Technologies. 23. 14. DC. www. IL. ”The 2001 Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol. Resource Res. Bioscience. Greenhouse gas emission estimates have also varied accordingly. kammen. Vaughn. Washington. B. Shappouri. (c) account for different energy types. 2004). Source: A. Additional references: T. Adjusting system boundaries reduces scatter in the results. T. Turner. The group first replicated the results of six published studies with EBAMM then adjusted all six analyses to (a) add coproduct credit where needed. Ethanol Can Contribute To Energy and Environmental Goals.D. E.T.E. DC. Wang.J. D. ethanol today. ANL/ESD/TM-163. A. Patzek. The results shown below in figures A & B show the original and adjusted values for the six studies. McAloon.” (Tech. recently developed a Biofuel Analysis MetaModel (EBAMM) as a new analyses tool. Science.” (U.ncga. Alexander Farrell and others in the Energy and Resources Group at the University of California. by inclusion or exclusion of co-products and by use of different system boundaries. EBAMM generated values for 3 cases including CO2 intensive ethanol.” (National Corn Growers Association. Nat. Rykiel. 2006.M. 311. Washington.pdf Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .E. Graboski. 65(2005) M. M. Argonne.gov/pdfs/TA/153. (b) apply a consistent system boundary.com/ethanol/main M. B. Plant Science. All studies show that ethanol made from conventionally grown corn can have greenhouse gas emissions that are slightly more or less than gasoline per unit of energy but that conventional corn ethanol requires much less petroleum inputs. M. and (d) calculate policy relevant metrics. 2001). Plevin. http://www. A. Argonne National laboratory. 593(2005) H. Rev. Pimentel. 55. and a gasoline comparison.

The CO2 intensive case assumes the ethanol is produced in a lignite-fired biorefinery located far from where the corn is grown. D. Berkeley using their Biofuel Analysis MetaModel. O’Hare. The Cellulosic case assumes ethanol is produced from switchgrassgrown locally. Cellulosic ethanol is expected to have an extremely low intensity for all fossil fuels and a very slightly negative coal intensity due to electricity sales that would displace coal. Vol 311. 2006. “Other” includes nuclear and hydroelectric generation.D. Turner. The Ethanol Today case includes typical values for the current U. January 27. Kammen. Science. Jones. For gasoline both petroleum feedstock and petroleum energy inputs are included. Source: A.6 Comparisons of Energy Inputs and GHG Emissions for Three Ethanol Scenarios and Gasoline The graphic above was developed by the Energy and Resources group at the University of California. Farrell. 2006. M. B.S.J. corn ethanol industry. R. It is comparing the intensity of primary energy inputs (MJ) per MJ of fuel produced (ethanol or gasoline) and of net greenhouse gas emissions (kg CO2 – equivalent) per MJ.org Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .M. Ethanol Can Contribute To Energy and Environmental Goals.39 Figure 2.science.E. Plevin. www. A.T.

anl.5 includes a data point from M. Wang based on use of the GREET (Greenhouse gases.html Figure 2.transportation. Regulated Emissions.40 Figure 2. and Energy Use in Transportation) model.gov/software/GREET/index. This page provides more information about this public domain model that is available at: http://www.7 Comparative Results between Ethanol and Gasoline Based on an Evaluation by the GREET Model Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

http://www. Energy Systems Division Seminar Argonne National Laboratory August 3. Transportation Technology R&D Center.7 (Continued) Comparative Results between Ethanol and Gasoline Based on an Evaluation by the GREET Model Sources: Figures: Michael Wang "The Debate on Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts of Fuel Ethanol". 2005. Text: Argonne National Laboratory.gov/software/GREET/index.transportation.41 Figure 2.anl.html. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

42 Figure 2.7 (Continued) Comparative Results between Ethanol and Gasoline Based on an Evaluation by the GREET Model The GREET model was developed by Argonne National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in order to fully evaluate energy and emission impacts of advanced vehicle technologies and new transportation fuels. The first version of this public domain model was released in 1996. Since then, Argonne has continued to update and expand the model with GREET 1.7 version now available. The model allows researchers and analysts to evaluate various vehicle and fuel combinations on a full fuel-cycle basis that includes wells to wheels and the vehicle cycle through material recovery and vehicle disposal. For a given vehicle and fuel system, GREET separately calculates the following: • Consumption of total energy (energy in non-renewable and renewable sources) and fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal). • Emissions of CO2-equivalent greenhouse gases – primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. • Emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic oxide, particulate matter with size smaller than 10 micron (PM10), and sulfur oxides. GREET includes more than 30 fuel-cycle pathway groups and the following vehicle technologies: • Conventional spark-ignition engines • Direct injection, compression ignition engines • Grid-connected hybrid electric vehicles • Grid-independent hybrid electric vehicles • Battery-powered electric vehicles • Fuel-cell vehicles

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

43 Table 2.15 Comparison of Ethanol Energy Balance with and Without Inclusion of Coproduct Energy Credits Tables A and B, from a paper by H. Shapouri and A. McAloon, show the effects of partitioning the energy inputs to coproducts as well as to the ethanol produced at wet and dry mills. Table A summarizes the input energy requirements, by phase of ethanol production on a Btu per gallon basis (LHV) for 2001, without byproduct credits. Energy estimates are provided for both dry- and wetmilling as well as industry average. In each case, corn ethanol has a positive energy balance, even before subtracting the energy allocated to byproducts. Table B presents the final net energy balance of corn ethanol adjusted for byproducts. The net energy balance estimate for corn ethanol produced from wet-milling is 27,729 Btu per gallon, the net energy balance estimate for dry-milling is 33,196 Btu per gallon, and the weighted average is 30,528 Btu per gallon. The energy ratio is 1.57 and 1.77 for wet- and dry-milling, respectively, and the weighted average energy ratio is 1.67.
Table A Energy Use and Net Energy Value Per Gallon Without Coproduct Energy Credits, 2001 Production Process Corn production Corn transport Ethanol conversion ethanol distribution Total energy used Net energy value Energy ratio Milling Process Weighted Dry Wet average Btu per gallon 18,875 18,551 18,713 2,138 2,101 2,120 47,116 52,349 49,733 1,487 1,487 1,487 69,616 74,488 72,052 6,714 1,842 4,278 1.10 1.02 1.06 Table B Energy Use and Net Energy Value Per Gallon with Coproduct Energy Credits, 2001 Production Process Corn production Corn transport Ethanol conversion ethanol distribution Total energy used Net energy value Energy ratio Milling process Weighted Dry Wet average Btu per gallon 12,457 12,244 12,350 1,411 1,387 1,399 27,799 33,503 30,586 1,467 1,467 1,467 43,134 48,601 45,802 33,196 27,729 30,528 1.77 1.57 1.67

Source: H. Shappouri, A. McAloon, ”The 2001 Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol,” (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, 2004).

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44

These states offer extra incentives for ethanol production or consumption (gasohol or E85). Details on these incentives can be found at www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/vbg/ progs/laws.cgi

Table 2.16 State Ethanol Incentives, 2005
State Illinois Iowa Kansas Maine Maryland Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska New Jersey New Mexico Pennsylvania Producer incentives State tax incentives Other incentives

Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Vehicle Buyer’s Guide for Consumers, State and Federal Laws and Incentives, www.eere.energy.gov/cleancities/vbg/progs/laws.cgi

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

biodiesel. In the future. B10 or B20. Source: U. Department of Energy. depending on their costs and availability. Raw vegetable oil cannot meet biodiesel fuel specifications. nontoxic. The process leaves behind two products -. animal fats or recycled greases. It is usually used as a petroleum diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates.energy.html and the National Biodiesel Board. hydrocarbons and air toxics from diesel-powered vehicles. most biodiesel is made from soybean oil or recycled cooking oils. Biodiesel that meets ASTM D6751 and is legally registered with the Environmental Protection Agency is a legal motor fuel for sale and distribution. biodiesel can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines in its pure form with little or no modifications. and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics.gov/RE/bio_fuels. the resulting diesel fuel may be called B5. carbon monoxide. Animal fats. Where available. Fuel-grade biodiesel must be produced to strict industry specifications (ASTM D6751) in order to insure proper performance. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transesterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil.S. In the United States. representing the percentage of the biodiesel that is blended with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel is simple to use. The fuel is a mixture of fatty acid alkyl esters made from vegetable oils. and other recycled oils can also be used to produce biodiesel.shtm Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .methyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products). blends of all kinds of fats and oils may be used to produce biodiesel. When used as an additive. it is not registered with the EPA and it is not a legal motor fuel. therefore. renewable resources.org/resources/biodiesel_basics/default.eere. biodegradable.45 BIODIESEL Biodiesel Overview Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel produced from domestic. other vegetable oils. Biodiesel is the only alternative fuel to have fully completed the health effects testing requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. http://www. http://www. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

17 World Biodiesel Capacity.42 21.49 1.46 During 2002. _______________________ Feedstock in the United States is soy. May 2004. in Europe. Note: Production of biodiesel in 2003 is roughly 65% of capacity.79 101. France and Italy. some blends blends <25% blends <25% Source: International Energy Agency "Biofuels For Transport: An International Perspective. in general. were the dominant producers of biodiesel worldwide.1. Europe.05 Typical use blends <25% blends <25% mainly 5% 100% biodiesel.49 8. Table 1. and particularly the EU countries of Germany.51 0.97 165.14 2.13 378. Table 2.59 357. India. rapeseed and sunflower. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .38 4.g." page 30.11 63. Some minor production (e.56 397.49 18. Africa) not reported. 2002 (million gallons) Country United States IEA North America Austria Belgium Denmark France Germany Italy Spain Sweeden UK EU Poland IEA Europe World Capacitya 18.45 9.

LTD SMS Envirofuels South Texas Blending Sun Cotton Biofuels Texoga Technologies Virginia Biodiesel Refinery Seattle Biodiesel. http://www.shtm. Huish Detergents Johann Haltermann. Table 2. LLC Peter Cremer (TRI-NI) Green Country Biodiesel. Inc. Inc.biodiesel. LLC Biodiesel Industries Biodiesel of Las Vegas Environmental Alternatives American Ag Fuels. Inc Blue Sky Biodiesel Biodiesel Industries of Greater Dallas-Fort Worth Corsicana Technologies. "Existing Plants .Production Map & Table. LLC Peach State Labs US Biofuels Inc. Pacific Biodiesel Pacific Biodiesel Ag Processing. Under Production. covering all regions of the United States. 2005 Company Bean Commercial Grease Soymor Channel Chemical Corporation SeQuential Biofuels American Bio-Fuels LLC Bio-Energy Systems.47 The geographic distribution of biodiesel production facilities is wide ranging. Inc Mid-States Biodiesel Soy Solutions West Central Stepan Company Griffin Industries FUMPA BioFuels Minnesota Soybean Processors Missouri Better Bean Biodiesel of Mississippi.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/default. LLC Imperial Western Products Procter and Gamble Bio Energy of Colorado Rocky Mountain Biodiesel Industries Purada Processing. Earth Biofuels Earthship Biodiesel.18 Active Biodiesel Production Facilities." Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . LLC Renewable Alternatives City Belgrade Glenville Gulfport Salem Bakersfield Vallejo Coachella Sacramento Denver Berthoud Lakeland Rome Rome Kahului Honolulu Sergeant Bluff Nevada Milford Ralston Millsdale Butler Redwood Falls Brewster Bunceton Nettleton Meridan Taos Las Vegas Las Vegas Brooklyn Defiance Cincinnati Claremore Wartburg Denton Corsicana Pasadena Houston Poteet Laredo Roaring Springs Oak Ridge New Kent Seattle Howard State ME MN MS OR CA CA CA CA CO CO FL GA GA HI HI IA IA IA IA IL KY MN MN MO MS MS NM NV NV NY OH OH OK TN TX TX TX TX TX TX TX TX VA WA WI Source: National Biodiesel Board.

Inc. LLC Simple Fuels. Inc Jatrodiesel Inc. Three Rivers Biofuels United Biofuels. Inc.org/buyingbiodiesel/producers_marketers/ProducersMap-existingandpotential. LLC Smithfield Biofuels. 2005 Company Alabama Biodiesel Corporation EarthFirst Americas Grecycle Arizona. LLC Earth Biofuels. LLC Green Range Renewable Energy Mid America Biofuels Missouri Biofuels Prairie Pride Earth Biofuels. Ag Solutions Michigan Biofuels. LLC North Dakota Biodiesel. LLC Baker Commodities Bay Biodiesel.biodiesel. Inc AMPM Environmental Services Biodiesel of Mississippi Central Texas Biofuels New Fuel Company NFE Biofuel & Energy. Organic Fuels. Inc. LLC Baker Commodities Northeast Biodiesel Co. LLC Atlantic Bioenergy. LLC Blue Ridge Biofuels Filter Specialty Bioenergy.pdf Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Keystone BioFuels. Best Energy Solutions. Sustainable Systems. Inc. LLC City Moundville Mobile Tucson Las Angeles Martinez Vinton Alamosa Clayton Pinellas Park Brunswick Honolulu Iowa Falls Clinton Wall Lake Chicago Morristown Claypool Morganfield Billerica Greenfield Gladstone Belleville Ironton Mexico Bethel Butler Jackson Culbertson Mount Olive Ashville Autryville Minot Fulton Dayton Tulsa Durant Portland Middletown Erie Howard Shiremanstown Neville Island York Louisburg Moscow McMinnville Giddings Dallas Houston Houston Cleburne South Boston Seattle Gillette State AL AL AZ CA CA CA CO DE FL GA HI IA IA IA IL IN IN KY MA MA MI MI MN MO MO MO MS MT NC NC NC ND NY OH OK OK OR PA PA PA PA PA PA TN TN TN TX TX TX TX TX VA WA WY Source: http://www. Inc.48 Table 2. Agri-Energy. LLC Renroh Environmental Company Baker Commodities Energy Fuel Dynamics.19 Proposed Biodiesel Production Facilities. SeQuential Biofuels Agra Biofuels BioPreserve Duff Science Co. Inc NextGen Fuel. LLC Blue Sun Biodiesel Mid-Atlantic Biodiesel Renewable Energy System Biomass Energy Services Baker Commodities Cargill Clinton County BioEnergy Western Iowa Energy Chicago Biodiesel Integrity Biofuels Louis Dreyfus Union County Biodiesel Company.

49

Figure 2.8 Active and Proposed Biodiesel Production Facilities, 2005

Source: http://www.biodiesel.org/buyingbiodiesel/producers_marketers/ProducersMap-existingandpotential.pdf

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50

Production of biodiesel has grown since 1999, but the most notable growth was in 2005 when production tripled to 75 million gallons.

Figure 2.9 Estimated U.S. Biodiesel Production, 1999-2005
80.0

75.0

70.0

60.0

Million Gallons

50.0

40.0

30.0 20.0 15.0

25.0

20.0

10.0 0.5 0.0 1999 2000 2.0

5.0

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Source: National Biodiesel Board, Biodiesel Fact Sheets, Production Capacity, http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/default.shtm

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51

It is extremely important to realize that vegetable oils are mixtures of tryglycerides from various fatty acids. The composition of vegetable oils varies with the plant source. The table below indicates the percentages of each type of fatty acid that is in common vegetable oils or animal fats. The two numbers at the top of each column represents the number of carbon atoms and double bonds (e.g. 16:0 refers to the 16 carbon atoms and 0 double bonds found in the long chain of Palmitic acid). See text on Typical Proportions of Chemicals Used to Make Biodiesel (Figure 2.10) for a description of several types of tryglycerides that are found in vegetable oils.

Table 2.20 Composition of Various Oils and Fats Used for Biodiesel (Percentage of each type of fatty acid common to each type of feedstock)

Oil or fat

14:00

16:00 6-10 8-12 8-9 9-10 20-25 5.9 4.8 4.3 3.0 24-26 28-30 24-32 4-7 23.24 16:1=3.

18:00 2-5 2-5 2-3 2-3 1-2 1.5 1.4 1.3 0.8 10-13 12-18 20-25 2-4 12.96

18:01 20-30 19-49 50-60 73-84 23-35 8.8 74.1 59.9 13.1 28-31 40-50 37-43 25-40 44.32

18:02 50-60 34-52 20-30 10-12 40-50 83.8 19.7 21.1 14.1 1-2.5 7-13 2-3 35-40 6.97

18:03 5-11 trace trace trace

20:00

22:01

Soybean 1-2 Corn Peanut Olive Cottonseed 0-2 Hi Linoleic Safflower Hi Oleic Safflower Hi Oleic Rapeseed Hi Erucic Rapeseed 7-10 Butter 1-2 Lard 3-6 Tallow Linseed Oil Yellow grease (typical) 2.43

13.2 9.7 .2-.5 0-1 25-60 0.67 7.4 50.7

Source: Adapted from: J. Van Gerpen, B. Shanks, and R. Pruszko, D. Clements, and G. Knothe, 2004, “Biodiesel Production Technology,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory subcontractor report NREL/SR510-36244, chapter 1, page 1. Please see this document for a full discussion. Available on-line in DOE’s biomass document database. Search by author or title. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/biomass/document_database.html.

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . D.gov/biomass/document_database.energy. http://www1. Biodiesel Production Technology. B.52 Figure 2. As indicated. Pruszko.10 Typical Proportions of Chemicals Used to Make Biodiesel The most cursory look at the literature relating to biodiesel reveals the following relationship for  OEV RI ELRGLHVHO   production of biodiesel from fats and oils: 100 lbs of oil + 10 lbs of methanol lbs of glycerol . There are five types of chains that are common in soybean oil and animal fats shown below (others are present in small amounts). a short-hand designation for these chains is two numbers separated by a colon. and G.eere. Van Gerpen. This is the end that the methanol attaches to when methyl ester is produced. sometimes called fatty acid chains. R2. Note that the number of carbon atoms includes the carbon that is double bonded to the oxygen atom at one end of the fatty acid (called the carboxylic carbon). Clements. National Renewable Energy Laboratory subcontractor report NREL/SR-510-36244. Source: Reproduced from: J.This equation is a simplified form of the following transesterfication reaction: R1. and R3 in the above equation are long chains of carbons and hydrogen atoms. The first number designates the number of carbon atoms in the chain and the second number designates the number of double bonds. Chapter 1. Shanks. Knothe. Available on-line in DOE’s biomass document database. Search by author or title. and R. page 1. 2004.

modifications of individual limiting requirements may be agreed upon between purchaser. B. 0. 0. Biodiesel Production & Quality Standards. 2. Table 2. blends of over 20% biodiesel with diesel fuel should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis until further experience is available.gov/biomass/document_database.020 max.001 max.energy. ASTM D 6751. 360 max. Biodiesel Fact Sheets. Atmospheric Equivalent Temperature.6. 47 min.53 The parameters for B100 fuel are specified through the biodiesel standard.0 0. Shanks.020 max. seller and manufacturer.240 max.21 Specification for Biodiesel (B100) Property Flash Point Water & Sediment Kinematic Viscosity. No. 0. Available on-line in DOE’s biomass document database. D.9 .050 max.html _______________________ a The carbon residue shall be run on the 100% sample.eere. Search by author or title. Knothe. National Renewable Energy Laboratory subcontractor report NREL/SR-510-36244. mm2/sec. This standard identifies the parameters that pure biodiesel (B100) must meet before being used as a pure fuel or being blended with petrodiesel.050 max. Units Degrees C % vol. and R. The National Biodiesel Board has adopted ASTM biodiesel specifications. 1. page 23. Pruszko. http://www1. and G. Although biodiesel (B100) can be used.80 max. 0. To meet special operating conditions. 0. % mass % mass Degrees C % mass mg KOH/gm % mass % mass % mass Degrees C Source: National Biodiesel Board. 90% Recovered ASTM Method D93 D2709 D445 D874 D5453 D130 D613 D2500 D4530a D664 D6584 D6584 D 4951 D 1160 Limits 130 min. A considerable amount of experience exists in the US with a 20% blend of biodiesel with 80% diesel fuel (B20). 3 max. 2004.05 max. Clements. Notes: 1. Biodiesel Production Technology. 40 C Sulfated Ash Sulfur Copper Strip Corrosion Cetane Cloud Point Carbon Residue 100% sample Acid Number Free Glycerin Total Glycerin Phosphorus Content Distillation Temp. Report 0. Van Gerpen. 0. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Chapter 1. Alternate source providing explanations for the various specifications can be found at: J.

54 Figure 2. stearic. R’’. Source: National Biodiesel Board. Fact Sheet "Biodiesel Production and Quality. 3. but sometimes ethanol) is charged in excess to assist in quick conversion. and linoleic acids for naturally occurring oils and fats.biodiesel. R’. The chemical reaction for base catalyzed biodiesel production is depicted below. It is a direct conversion to biodiesel with no intermediate compounds. Conversion of the oil to its fatty acids and then to biodiesel. Direct acid catalyzed transesterification of the oil. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . No exotic materials of construction are needed. and R’’’ indicate the fatty acid chains associated with the oil or fat which are largely palmitic. There are three basic routes to biodiesel production from oils and fats: 1.shtm Note: The term glycerin may include glycerol and related co-products of the glycerol production process." http://www. signified by ROH (usually methanol.org/resources/fuelfactsheets/default. The catalyst is usually sodium or potassium hydroxide that has already been mixed with the methanol. 2. oleic. Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil. The short chain alcohol.11 Commercial Biodiesel Production Methods The production processes for biodiesel are well known. It yields high conversion (98%) with minimal side reactions and reaction time. Most of the biodiesel produced today uses the base catalyzed reaction for several reasons: • • • • It is low temperature and pressure. One hundred pounds of fat or oil (such as soybean oil) are reacted with 10 pounds of a short chain alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to produce 10 pounds of glycerin and 100 pounds of biodiesel.

c 2-nitroflourine results were within test method variability. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . regulated and non regulated emissions from both B100 (100% biodiesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel) are significantly lower than for conventional petroleum based diesel.55 The results of a study conducted by the EPA on the emissions produced by biodiesel show that except for nitrogen oxides (NOx). B100 B20 Emissions in relation to conventional diesel -67% -48% -47% +10% -100% -80% -90% -50% -20% -12% -12% +2% -20%a -13% -50%c -10% Note: Testing was performed by the EPA.gov/otaq/models/biodsl. Average reduction across all compounds measured.22 Average Biodiesel (B100 and B20) Emissions Compared to Conventional Diesel Emission Type Regulated Total Unburned Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide Particulate Matter Nox Non-Regulated Sulfates PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)b nPAH (nitrated PAH’s)b Ozone potential of speciated HC Source: National Biodiesel Board.epa. Biodiesel Fact Sheets. The full report titled "A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions" can be found at: www.htm B100 is 100% biodiesel while B20 is a blend of 20% biodiesel and 80% conventional petroleum based diesel. Table 2. Emissions. _______________________ a b Estimated from B100 result.

2 –0.8 7.4 0.1 0.6 14. The overall net impact on farm incomes is estimated to be an increase of about 0.56 The market effects of increased biodiesel production and use in the United States would likely drive up the price of soybean oil while driving down the price for soybean meal used in livestock feed.3 –0.7 –1.8 2.3 2 –1.2 High 1.3%. Table 4.7 0. Table 2.3 Soybean oil production Soybean oil price Soybean meal price Soybean price Livestock price (“broilers”) US net farm income Source: International Energy Agency "Biofuels for Transport: An International Perspective.1 –3.23 Estimated Impacts from Increased Use of Biodiesel Market scenario (percentage change from baseline) Low Medium 0.12." Page 96.3 0.7 0. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .4 1 –0.

Three of the commercial facilities are in Wisconsin and one is in Ottawa. Additional research and development is needed to produce BioOil of sufficient quality for transportation applications. The company launched the first BioOil cogeneration facility in West Lorn. where value added chemicals are produced in addition to a consistent quality BioOil. The BioOils currently produced are suitable for use in boilers for electricity generation. Canada.dynamotive. This technology is based on the biomass refining concept. http://www. Ensyn is just beginning to enter the energy market. Ensyn has four RTP[tm] facilities in commercial operation. Ontario. called fast or flash pyrolysis. The process.57 BioOil Overview A totally different process than that used to produce biodiesel can be used to convert biomass into a type of fuel similar to diesel known as BioOil. Sources: DynaMotive Energy Systems Corporation. The flooring company provides the wood residue and DynaMotive’s 2. Ensyn currently produces about 30 chemicals products from RTP[tm] BioOil with lower value remnant BioOil used for energy. occurs when heating compact solid fuels at temperatures between 350 and 500 degrees Celsius for a very short period of time (less than 2 seconds). has commercialized a fast pyrolysis technology under the name of Rapid Thermal Processing RTP[tm]. DynaMotive is now in the process of building a second 200 ton-per-day plant in Western Canada.ensyn. While there are several fast pyrolysis technologies under development. in collaboration with Erie Flooring and Wood Products Company.com/. DynaMotive Energy Systems is commercializing a proprietary fast pyrolysis process that converts forest and agricultural residue into liquid BioOil and char. a new facility and a BioOil refining plant are currently under construction. there are only two commercial fast pyrolysis technologies as of 2006. http://www. The largest of these facilities. processes about 75 green tons per day of mixed hardwood wastes. Ensyn Group Inc. Ensyn Group Inc.com/ Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .5 megawatt plant uses its fast pyrolysis technology and a gas turbine to supply power to the wood product’s mills and lumber kilns. built in 1996.

boilers and the briquette industry. The entire reaction from injection to quenching takes only two seconds. The gases enter a quench tower where they are quickly cooled using BioOil already made in the process. pumped and transported. The feedstock flashes and vaporizes and the resulting gases pass into a cyclone where solid particles.com/biooil/technology. BioOil has many of the advantages of petroleum fuels since it can be stored. and DynaMotive Energy Systems. gas turbines. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .58 BioOils are being commercially produced in North America by only two companies as of 2006—Ensyn Group.dynamotive.12 A Fast Pyrolysis Process for Making BioOil Source: http://www. One hundred percent of the feedstock is utilized in the process to produce BioOil and char. and non-condensable gases vary depending on feedstock composition.html Information from DynaMotive’s website describes the process as follows. while the non-condensable gases are returned to the reactor to maintain process heating. The relative yields of BioOil. char. char. The BioOil condenses and falls into the product tank. Inc. are extracted. Figure 2. The non-condensed gases are re-circulated to fuel approximately 75% of the energy needed by the pyrolysis process. It is currently being combusted directly in boilers. The fluidized bed is heated to 450-500 degrees Celsius in the absence of oxygen. The char that is collected is a high Btu value solid fuel that can be used in kilns. Prepared feedstocks with less than 10% moisture content and a 1-2 mm particle size are fed into the bubbling fluid-bed reactor. and slow and medium speed diesels for heat and power applications. The characteristics of the BioOil are described in tables found under BioOil in the Biofuels section of this book and can also be found at the source listed above.

The table above is based on the fast pyrolysis method using the specific feedstock listed in the table. On a volume basis the heating value compared to diesel is approximately 55%. Table 2.4 50 7 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .10 <0.9 <0. and emits no SOx and low NOx when combusted.8 23.4 40 6 Bagasse 2.6 20. free flowing liquid comprised of highly oxygenated compounds.2 15. o o Pine 53% Spruce 47% (including bark) 2.4 23.dynamotive.html Note: wt% =percent by weight.19 16.10 <0.59 "BioOil is a dark brown. As a fuel.2 kgs/litre. Heating value on a weight basis is approximately 40 % to that of diesel. The exact composition of BioOil may vary depending on feedstock and processing.02 1.4 24. BioOil is considered to be CO2 neutral. Other companies also produce BioOil though conversion processes and feedstocks can vary widely. BioOil density is high at 1.5 <0.com/biooil/whatisbiooil.24 BioOil Characteristics Feedstock BioOil Characteristics pH Water Content wt% Methanol Insolvable Solids (Lignin content wt%) Solids Content wt% Ash Content wt% Density kg/L Low Heating Mj/kg Kinematic Viscosity cSt @ 20 C Kinematic Viscosity cSt @ 80 C Source: DynaMotive. http://www." –DynaMotive.02 1.

dynamotive.4 24.6 5.8 Source: DynaMotive.5 2.com/biooil/whatisbiooil. The table above is based on the fast pyrolysis method using the specific feedstock listed in the table.8 Concentrations wt% Water Methanol Insolvable Solids & Lignin Cellubiosan Glyoxal Hydroxyacetaldehyde Levoglucosan Formaldehyde Formic Acid Acetic Acid Acetol Bagasse 20.4 5.html Note: wt% =percent by weight.3 3 3.2 3 3.9 10.2 6. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .9 1.9 1. http://www.7 6. Other companies also produce BioOil though conversion processes and feedstocks can vary widely.2 10.2 4. The exact composition of BioOil may vary depending on feedstock and processing. Table 2.7 4." –DynaMotive.8 23. The following table lists the chemical composition of major BioOil constituents.25 BioOil Composition Feedstock: Pine 53% Spruce 47% (including bark) 23.60 "BioOil is miscible with alcohols such as ethanol and methanol but is immiscible with hydrocarbons.

Other companies also produce BioOil though conversion processes and feedstocks can vary widely.4 50 41 0.01 0.4 0." –DynaMotive Table 2.7 0 Light Fuel Oil 18.dynamotive. The table above is based on the fast pyrolysis method using feedstock composed of 53% pine and 47% spruce including bark.15 to 0.61 "BioOil fuels have unique characteristics that distinguish them from petroleum-based (hydro carbon) products.9 4 2 <0.200 36.600 39.28 Heavy Fuel Oil 17.com/biooil/whatisbiooil.02 Trace Trace -33 <0.3 -18 N/A N/A Heat of combustion Btu/lb Heat of combustion MJ/liter Viscosity (centistokes) 50oC Viscosity (centistokes) 80oC Ash % by weight Sulphur % by weight Nitrogen % by weight Pour Point oC Turbine NOx g/MJ Turbine SOx g/MJ Source: DynaMotive. The exact characteristics of BioOil may vary depending on feedstock and processing.5 to 3 0. http://www.100 19.5 7 4 <0. The table below illustrates the primary differences between BioOil and other fuels including light and heavy fuel oil. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .5 0 -15 1.26 BioOil Fuel Comparisons BioTherm BioOil 7.03 0.html Note: N/A = Not available.

62 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

compared to coal-fired plants in the 100-1500 MW range. The biogas can be cleaned and filtered to remove problem chemical compounds. and small industry. The gas can be used in more efficient power generation systems called combined-cycles. The small capacity plants tend to be lower in efficiency because of economic trade-offs. or large enough to provide power for a small city. Source: U. Department of Energy. Although techniques exist to push biomass steam generation efficiency over 40%. This steam is introduced into a steam turbine. co-fired. Because much of the existing power plant equipment can be used without major modifications. Modular systems employ some of the same technologies mentioned above. causing the turbine to rotate. Biomass technologies are highly scaleable – small enough to be used on a farm or in remote villages. nitrogen oxides (NOx). Co-firing involves substituting biomass for a portion of coal in an existing power plant furnace. Biomass gasifiers operate by heating biomass in an environment where the solid biomass breaks down to form a flammable gas. Technologies have now been developed which can generate electricity from the energy in biomass fuels. more electricity is generated from biomass than any other renewable energy resource in the United States. There are four primary classes of biopower systems: direct-fired.the energy is stored within the biomass until it is needed. there is little or no loss in efficiency from adding biomass. actual plant efficiencies are often in the low 20% range. so as the steam flow causes the turbine to rotate. Most of today's biopower plants are direct-fired systems that are similar to most fossil-fuel fired power plants. the electric generator turns and electricity is produced. This allows the energy in biomass to be converted to electricity with the high efficiency (in the 33-37% range) of a modern coal-fired power plant. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . biomass is primarily used to provide heat for cooking and comfort. Next to hydropower. Today in parts of the developing world (and until several decades ago in the United States). and modular systems. Other forms of renewable energy are dependent on variable environmental conditions such as wind speed or sunlight intensity. These systems are now under development and could be most useful in remote areas where biomass is abundant and electricity is scarce. The turbine is connected to an electric generator.63 3. which combine gas turbines and steam turbines to produce electricity. BIOPOWER BIOMASS POWER OVERVIEW Biomass power technologies convert renewable biomass fuels to heat and electricity using processes similar to that used with fossil fuels. and other air emissions. farms. biomass reduces sulphur dioxide (SO2). Compared to the coal it replaces. efficiency-enhancing equipment cannot pay for itself in small plants. co-firing is far less expensive than building a new biopower plant. The biomass fuel is burned in a boiler to produce high-pressure steam. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Biomass power boilers are typically in the 20-50 MW range. gasification. The efficiency of these systems can reach 60%. It is the most economic near-term option for introducing new biomass power generation. A key attribute of biomass is its availability upon demand . but on a smaller scale that is more applicable to villages. There are many opportunities for these systems in developing countries. where it flows over a series of aerodynamic turbine blades. After "tuning" the boiler for peak performance.S.

htm Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . TN. moving bed Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) dual vessel Co-firing in CFB gasifiers Kilns or retorts Pryolysis units (for slow. steam Primary Energy Conversion Technology Heat exchanger Steam turbine Steam turbine Steam turbine Final Energy Products Hot air. J. bioler/turbine. 1995. project “Energy from biomass: an assessment of two promising systems for energy production”. Technology and Society. Heat. electricity Electricity Electricity Heat Power. steam spreader stoker or cyclonic Fluidized-bed combustor FB – bubbling CFBcirculating Heat. steam (several types) updraft. furnace Furnace. counter current fixed bed Downdraft.uu. steam Heat. and van Wijk. Biomass Combustion Power Generation Technologies. hot water Electricity Electricity Electricity Suspension boilers: Air Heat. steam Direct combustion Steam turbine Electricity Direct combustion Gasification (atmospheric) Gasification (atmospheric) Gasification (atmospheric) Gasification (atmospheric) Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Anerobic digestion Co-firing in coal-fired boilers Heat. R. 95029). Utrecht (Report no.1 Biomass Power Technology in Commercial/Demonstration Phase during 2000-2006 Technology Category Direct combustion Direct combustion Direct combustion Direct combustion Biomass Conversion Technology Stove/Furnace Pile burners Stoker grate boilers Primary Energy Form Produced Heat Heat. Chapter 3 in: Sims. heat Heat. power and combined heat and power. Study performed within the framework of the extended JOULE-IIA programme of CECDGXII. van den. Note: See Glossary for definitions of terms found under the "Technology Category" column. gas and charcoal Low to medium Btu producer gas Source: Compiled by Lynn Wright. Faaij. electricity. A. Bioenergy Options for a Cleaner Environment: In Developed and Developing Countries. R.nl/nws/www/publica/95029. 2003. Elsiver. electricity. The following references are suggested for further reading: Overend. power Low Btu producer gas medium Btu producer gas Low or medium Btu producer gas Charcoal Synthetic fuel oil .64 Table 3. Utrech University. Ralph. 193 pages Broek.chem.. landfills Low Btu producer gas Steam turbine Combustion boiler + steam generator and turbine Spark engine (internal combustion) Burn gas in boiler w/ Steam Turbine Burn gas in boiler w/ Steam Turbine Cook stoves and furnaces Diesel engines. ISBN: 0-08044351-6. fast or flash pyrolysis) Digesters. Department of Science. gas engine. gas turbine Electricity Process heat or heat plus electricity Power. Available at website: http://www. Oak Ridge.

non-stringy bark. ORNL/TM-2002/199. shavings. sander dust. has a moisture content (MC) of 50 to 60% (by wet weight) while secondary or tertiary sources of biomass may be delivered at between 10 and 30%.65 Table 3. i. moving bed atmospheric gasifier Wood flour. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks.04 in -0..25-2 in (6-38 mm) Moisture Content Requirements (wet Average capacity range / link to basis)b examples 10 – 30% 15 kWt to ? < 65% 4 to 110 MWe Pile burner fed with underfire stoker (biomass fed by auger below bed) Stoker grate boilers Commonly used fuel typesa solid wood. hog fuel 10-30% 4 to 110 MWe 0. up to 300 Example 1 Example 2 Suspension boilers Cyclonic Sawdust. non-stringy bark. end cuts. brewery byproducts. fixed bed (updraft) atmospheric Downdraft. sander dust Sawdust. b Most primary biomass. wood chips and pellets Virtually any kind of wood c d residues or agricultural residues except wood flour Sawdust. shavings. sander dust Suspension boilers. Slagging may be more of a problem in some types of combustion units with high alkali straws and grasses.bubbling or CFBcirculating) Co-firing: pulverized coal boiler Co-firing: cyclones Co-firing: stokers. + up to 12 MWe Example ~ 25-100 kWe Example ~ 5 to 10 Mwe Example e e e Circulating fluidized bed Most wood and chipped agricultural 0. urban land clearing debris. other industry organic residues 0. and other wood residue components of municipal solid waste (as wood chips). Air spreader-stoker Fluidized-bed combustor (FB. Non-stringy bark.ornl. and processed sawdust. c Wood residues may include forest logging residues and storm damaged trees (hog fuel). flour.g.04-0. non-stringy bark. food processing residues. pellets. urban wood residues such as construction and demolition debris. non-stringy bark. shavings. e The biomass component of a co-firing facility will usually be less than the equivalent of 50MWe. shavings.25 – 2 in (6 -50 mm) 10-50% (keep 20 to 300 Mwe many in 20 to 50 within 10% of design MWe range rate) 0. nut shells <0. chips. mostly wood residues or peat no flour or stringy materials Sawdust. tree trimmings. _______________________ Primary source for fuel types is: Badger. orchard trimmings. pallets and packaging materials. hog fuel Sawdust. chip rejects. d Agricultural residues may include straws and dried grasses. secondary mill residues (e.g. primary mill residues (e. 0.6 mm) < 2 in (<50 mm) < 15% < 20% < 60% many < 30 MWe 1. Phillip C. rice hulls. hog fuel Chipped wood or hog fuel.25 in (<6 mm) <0. chips.25 in (6 mm) max 0.aspx (search by title or author). gasifier residues but no flour or stringy materials Fast pryolysis Anerobic digesters Variety of wood and agricultural resources Animal manures & bedding.06 in (1-1. flour. nut hulls. shavings. dry sawdust). unless the boilers have been specially designed to handle these type fuels. 2002.9% liquid depending on type. pressed logs. Available at http://bioenergy. etc. Oak Ridge.5 MWe to 30 Mwe Many at 20 to 25 MWe.25 in (1-6 mm ) < 10% NA 65 to 99. shavings Low alkali content fuels. shavings. sander dust Sawdust. fluidized bed Counter current. TN. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 a . flour. dual vessel. flour. chipped bark and chip rejects). A lower MC always improves efficiency and some technologies require low MC biomass to operate properly while others can handle a range of MC.5 Mwe Example 1 Example 2 145 to 1700 x 103 kwhr/yr Example 1 Example 2 Source: Compiled by Lynn Wright. non-stringy bark. fruit pits.25 – 2 in (6 -50 mm) 15-50% (CFB).2 Biomass Power Technology Fuel Specifications and Capacity Range Biomass Conversion Technology Stove/Furnace Pile burners Particle Size Requirements Limited by stove size and opening Limited by grate size and feed opening 0.1 to 35% solids ~ 2. as harvested. wood scrapes.gov/main.e.5 in (<12 mm) < 3 in (<72 mm) 0. dried sewage sludge Wood chips.25 – 4 in (6 – 100 mm) < 2 in (<50 mm) < 25% 10 – 50% 10 – 50% < 20% <15% Up to 1500 MWe Example 40 to 1150 MWe Example MWe Example 5 to 90 MWt.

” which is an optional service or tariff offered to customers.6 6.6 8.8 0.6 135. Electricity markets are now open to full competition in a number of states. Table 3. rural electric cooperatives.9 0.5.4 0 31.1 35.3 % 91. Finally. More than 500 utilities in 34 states offer green pricing or are in the process of preparing programs.9 100 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. are increasingly interested in green power. consumers can purchase green power through “renewable energy certificates. some of which may offer green power.66 There are three distinct markets for green power in the United States.4 100 MW Planned 364. while others are phasing in competition. 2004 Source Wind Biomass Solar Geothermal Small Hydro Total MW in Place 2045. These utilities include investor-owned utilities.” These certificates represent the environmental attributes of renewable energy generation and can be sold to customers in either type of market.5 58. Chapter 3.5 8. including colleges and universities. http://www.html Note: MW = megawatt.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3. Power Technologies Energy Data Book.4 1. Table 3. and other publicly-owned utilities.6.3 455 % 80. whether or not they already have access to a green power product from their existing retail power provider.nrel.6 0.3 New Renewable Capacity Supplying Green Power Markets. retail electricity customers can choose from among multiple electricity suppliers. and government entities.5 2233. In regulated markets.1 12.1 0 6.1 0. And business and other nonresidential customers. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . In restructured (or competitive) electricity markets. Utility market research shows that majorities of customer respondents are likely to state that they would pay at least $5 more per month for renewable energy. a single utility may provide a green power option to its customers through “green pricing.

7 100.1 25. 36 utilities in 19 states had implemented green pricing options that used or included biomass feedstocks.9 4.0 13.3 1.8 0. Power Technology Energy Data Book.8 10.7 57.2 0.3 6.5 8.4 New Renewable Capacity Supported through Utility Green Pricing Programs.nrel.7.5 705. Many utilities are offering green pricing to build customer loyalty and expand business lines and expertise prior to electric market competition.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3.0 MW Planned 139.1 30.5 0. Table 3.1 0.0 31. As of 2003.0 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Participating customers pay a premium on their electric bill to cover the extra cost of the renewable energy.67 Green pricing is an optional utility service that allows customers an opportunity to support a greater level of utility company investment in renewable energy technologies. Table 3.2 100.5 % 82.1 0.html Note: MW = megawatt. http://www.3 228.7 % 61.1.0 76. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . 2004 Source Wind Biomass Solar Geothermal Small Hydro Total MW in Place 584.

wind.0¢/ kWh 2000 2.0¢/kWh 2000 1999 1997 1999 7. solar landfill gas. landfill gas Start Date Premium 2003 / 2000 6. solar biomass. solar Continued on next page Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . solar PV.landfill gas. wind. landfill gas Green Power Project biodiesel.67¢/ kWh 1998 / 2001 3.0¢/kWh Contribution Varies by utility Georgia landfill gas. PV.975¢/kWh 2.5¢/kWh 6. landfill gas. wind Green Power for a wind. Table 3.0¢/kWh 2. solar EarthWise Energy central PV. of Water and Power Sacramento Municipal Utility District Tri-State Generation & Transmission City of Tallahassee / Sterling Planet Florida Power & Light / Green Mountain Energy Gainesville Regional Utilities Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Georgia Electric Membership Corporation Georgia Power Savannah Electric TVA Iowa Alliant Energy Farmers Electric Cooperative Iowa Association of Municipal Utilities Program Name Resource Type Renewable Energy biomass co-firing Rate Green Power Switch wind. landfill gas.68 There are a growing number of utilities offering green pricing programs that utilize biomass resources. solar Green Energy landfill gas. landfill gas.0¢/kWh 1.0¢/kWh TBD 5. landfill gas landfill gas 2002 2004 2003 2000 2001 TBD TBD 2000 2001 2004 2003 1. landfill gas Green LA Greenergy wind. biomass. hydro Renewable Resource Power Service Green for You Sunshine Energy GRUgreen Energy Tampa Electric's Renewable Energy Green Power EMC Green Energy wind.5¢/kWh Colorado Florida biomass. wind.0¢/kWh 2. wind. solar Green Power Switch wind.5-10¢/ kWh 3.5 Utility Green Pricing Programs Using Biomass and Biomass Based Resources State Alabama Utility Name Alabama Power TVA Arizona Salt River Project Tucson Electric California Los Angeles Dept. solar Second Nature wind.0¢/kWh 10.6¢/kWh 0. wind Green City Energy wind. small hydro GreenWatts landfill gas.67¢/ kWh 2.

0¢/kWh Kentucky Michigan Minnesota Mississippi North Carolina Dominion North Carolina NC GreenPower Power.nrel.0¢/kWh Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Power Technologies Energy Data Book. landfill gas.2. wind. landfill gas Start Date 2003 Premium Contribution Indiana EnviroWatts Green Power Rider EnviroWatts EnviroWatts Green Power Switch GreenWise Electric Power Energy for Tomorrow Second Nature Green Power Switch landfill gas wind. landfill gas wind. http://www.0¢/kWh Contribution 0.5¢/kWh 2. Tri-State: Kit Carson Electric Cooperative City of Bowling Green Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative Eight different cooperatives landfill gas.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3. solar biomass. Progress Energy/CP&L Plus 7 cities and 14 cooperatives TVA Green Power Switch Green Power Program Renewable Resource Power Service Renewable Resource Power Service Bowling Green Power Green Power Green Power Program Nebraska New Mexico Ohio Oregon South Carolina Omaha Public Power District Tri-State: Chimney Rock Public Power District.0¢/kWh-4.5 (Continued) Utility Green Pricing Programs Using Biomass and Biomass Based Resources State Illinois Utility Name City of St. wind. solar. small hydro wind. wind wind. landfill gas. Inc.8. digester gas landfill gas landfill gas landfill gas. hydro wind.04¢/kWh 2.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .35¢/kWh 1. Table 3. wind landfill gas.0¢/kWh 2. landfill gas landfill gas landfill gas 2000 2002 2001 2001 1999 1998 2001 2.9-1.0¢/kWh 3.8-2. solar.0¢/kWh 2. solar 2001 2001 2000 2002 2000 2001 2000 2002 2000 2003 2.67¢/kWh 3. Hoosier Energy PSI Energy/Cinergy Wabash Valley Power Association East Kentucky Power Cooperative TVA Lansing Board of Water and Light We Energies Alliant Energy TVA Program Name TBD Resource Type wind. solar. landfill gas. wind landfill gas.75¢/kWh 2.67¢/kWh 4.0¢/kWh 2. Charles / ComEd and Community Energy.5¢/kWh 1. landfill gas wind.67¢/kWh 3.0¢/kWh 2. landfill gas small hydro.69 Table 3. Power.

75¢/kWh 1.6% captured methane. 33% existing small low impact hydro. 30% bioenergy 40% new wind.0¢/kWh 50% small hydro.53¢/kWh (for 100% usage) — — 40% small hydro. 1% solar b Certification — — — — — Green-e Non-residential product Cape Light Compact Green 1.2¢/kWh 0.95/mo.0¢/kWh 1.1¢/kWh 4.5¢/kWh — — Pennsylvania EcoChoice 100 Green Electricity 10%.35¢/kWh Enviro Blend Clean Power Choice Program Renewable Electricity Green Power Program New York Clean Sterling Green Think Green! 1.5¢/kWh 1. 30% bioenergy — Environmental Resources Trust — — — — — Environmental Resources Trust — Niagara Mohawk / Sterling Planet Suburban Energy Services /Sterling Planet Sterling Green Sterling Green Renewable Electricity 1. 34% new landfill gas landfill gas landfill gas 50% to 100% eligible renewables 75% small hydro. 10% wind Resources Trust 100% renewable — Gexa Green Green Electricity 10%. wind. 44. 51% or 100% h PEPCO Energy Services of usage Rhode Island Energy Cooperative of h Pennsylvania 2.1¢/kWh State Connecticut Company Community Energy (CT Clean Energy Options Program) Product Name CT Clean Energy Options 50% or 100% of usage Fee — Levco 100% Renewable Electricity Program 0.35¢/kWh (for 100% usage) 2. 51% Maryland d PEPCO Energy Services or 100% of usage PEPCO Energy Services Massachusetts Cape Light Compact e d 1.5¢/kWh to 0.768¢/kWh (for 50% or 100% 100% usage) New England GreenStart 50% 2.75¢/kWh (for 100% usage) NA — — — — Resource Mix 50% new wind.6 Competitive Electricity Markets Retail Green Power Product Offerings. 24% new wind or landfill gas.0¢/kWh — Sterling Planet (CT Clean Energy Sterling Select 50% or Options Program) 100% of usage Green Electricity 10%. 50% large hydro — — — — — — 33% wind. 30% bioenergy 75% landfill gas. $3. 19% biomass.4¢/kWh (for or 100% of usage 100% usage) Sterling Premium 50% or 100% of usage — — Massachusetts Electric/Nantucket Electric/Mass Energy Consumers Alliance Massachusetts Electric/Nantucket Electric/Sterling Planet New Jersey Green Mountain Energy Companyf PSE&G/JCP&L/ Sterling Planet New York Energy Cooperative of New York Long Island Power Authority / EnviroGen Long Island Power Authority / Sterling Planet Long Island Power Authority / Sterling Planet Niagara Mohawk / EnviroGen g — •!$ÈÂsǂ‡hyÃv†Ãrà — Environmental Resources Trust 1. 30% bioenergy. 15% wind. 25% small hydro 55% small hydro. 0. 25% hydro 40% wind.70 A growing number of states have companies that offer a range of green power products that allow consumers to purchase electricity generated in part or entirely from biomass resources. 50% landfill gas 98% waste-to-energy and hydro (Class II). 1% solar Green-e — 100% renewable — Narragansett Electric / Sterling Planet TX VA Gexa Energy i Sterling Supreme 100% 1. fuel cells. 51% or 100% j PEPCO Energy Services of usage — landfill gas — Continued on next page Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Environmental 25% new solar.5¢/kWh 1. 5% new solar — 5% new wind.7¢/kWh (for 100% usage) — 89% landfill gas.0¢/kWh 1. 35% bioenergy. 34% bioenergy 25% new wind. 5% wind.98¢/kWh -1. and landfill gas 33% new wind. Table 3. 10% wind 40% wind. 30% small hydro.4% solar. 33% small hydro. 30% small hydro. 2% new solar.0¢/kWh 1. 25% biomass. 30% small hydro.15¢/kWh 1.78¢/kWh 3. 51% District of Columbia c PEPCO Energy Services or 100% of usage Green Electricity 10%. 10% wind. October 2005 Residential a Price Premium 1. 75% existing landfill gas 75% landfill gas. 1% new solar 75% small hydro.

and PSE&G service territories. f Green Mountain Energy offers products in Conectiv.nrel. Program only available in Niagara Mohawk service territory. j Products are available in Dominion Virginia Power service territory. b New is defined as operating or repowered after January 1.55¢/kWh. e Price premium is based on a comparison to the Cape Light Compact's standard electricity product.8.71 Table 3. prices based on 1000 kWh of usage monthly. Except for Gexa Green. ______________________ Prices updated as of July 2005 and may also apply to small commercial customers. c Offered in PEPCO service territory. Premium varies depending on energy taxes and usage.1¢/kWh for TXU service territory (specifically Dallas. which is listed in price per kWh. i Product prices are based on price to beat of 12.html. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .8. h Product prices are for PECO service territory (price to compare of 6. g Price premium is for Niagara Mohawk service territory.503¢/kWh). and include monthly fees. Price is for PEPCO service territory based on price to compare of 6. Product prices are for PSE&G (price to compare of 6. October 2005 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. http://www.21¢/kWh).6 (Continued) Competitive Electricity Markets Retail Green Power Product Offerings. d Product offered in Baltimore Gas and Electric and PEPCO service territories. 1999 based on the Green-e TRC certification standards. Prices may differ for large commercial/industrial customers and may vary by service territory. Product prices are for renewal customers based on annual average costs for customers in PEPCO's service territory (6. Power Technologies Energy Data Book.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3.8¢/kWh). Texas) (Except where noted). JCPL. Table 3.

Table 3. 1999. 50% landfill gas. customers do not need to switch from their current electricity supplier to purchase these certificates). by BEF) Montana. Wyoming.0¢/kWh Green-e Clean Energy Partnership/Sterling Planet National New Clean Energy MIx 24% wind. 1% solar 0.e. South Dakota (wind) 45% new wind 50% Nationwide new biomass 5% new solar Various (including efficiency and CO2 offsets) 2. renewable energy credits.7 Renewable Energy Certificate Product Offerings. Alberta new biomass CoolHome New biogas and new Vermont and wind Pennsylvania (biomass).8. TerraPass Nationwide ~$11/ton CO2 — Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Alberta National 2.6¢/kWh Environmental Resources Trust Maine Interfaith Power & Light/BEF Washington..8¢/kWh 1. ÈÁrÃ†‚yh…Ôà Èà Oregon.6¢/kWh Green-e TerraPass Inc. Power Technologies Energy Data Book. 25% biomass. Organizations that offer green certificate products using biomass resources are listed below.72 Renewable energy certificates (RECs)—also known as green tags.html Note: — = Information not available. or tradable renewable certificates—represent the environmental attributes of power generated from renewable electric plants. Green Tags (supplied •('ÈÁrÃvqÔà ÈÁrÃ†‚yh…Ôà Èà Oregon.nrel. Table 3. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . A number of organizations offer green energy certificates separate from electricity service (i. _________________________ a The Climate Neutral Network certifies the methodology used to calculate the CO2 emissions offset. Most product prices are as of July 2005. based on the Green-e TRC certification standards. October 2005 Location of Renewable Resources Utah Certificate Marketer Blue Sky Energy Corp Product Name Renewable Resources Residential Price Premium 1.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3.0¢/kWh — NativeEnergy 0.0¢/kWh a Sterling Planet Green America 1.95¢/kWh Certification — Greener Choice™ Green Landfill Gas Tags Bonneville Environmental Foundation Green Tags •('ÈÁrÃvqÔà Washington. http://www. new biomass Montana. Wyoming. New is defined as operating or repowered after January 1.9.

61054735 31.991465 Yes 1986 9224 No 1986 9224 No 1986 9224 No 1986 9224 No 1986 9224 No 1986 8538.991465 Yes 1969 8538.841304881 6.50214419 0.991465 Yes 1989 8538.991465 Yes 1985 8538.503397937 8.991465 Yes 1989 8538.73 Table 3.12519927 4.044617579 0.43077 Yes 1983 12368.53833579 10.33804027 10.53833579 8.128873283 0.13531303 10.447784134 4.199175363 0.991465 Yes 1987 8538.487078891 7.66667 Yes 1983 9224 No 1984 8538.760897033 3.609668 Yes 1989 9224 No 1989 8538.84375 16.001523055 15.991465 Yes 1976 8538.25 5.280605752 1. LLC Stone Container Corporation Florence The Pacific Lumber Company Greenville Steam Company Viking Energy of McBain Whitefield Power and Light Co Susquehanna Plant Viking Energy of Northumberland The Pacific Lumber Company Loyalton Facility Woodland Biomass Power Limited Mendota Biomass Power Limited Wadham Energy Limited Partnership Burney Forest Products HL Power Plant A R Lavallee Incorporated S D Warren Company 2 Winslow.05291407 22.001523055 14.991465 Yes 1980 8538.69876766 6.0130841 18.991465 Yes 1974 8538.56859989 18.542490288 9.43077 Yes 1987 8538.213845328 11.991465 Yes 1985 8538.991465 Yes 1989 9224 No 1989 9224 No 1989 Continued on next page.00 0.201707828 1.35622526 14.448629561 3. Maine S D Warren Company 2 Boralex Stratton Energy Inc Viking Energy of Lincoln Boiler/Generator/ Committed Unit G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G State Name Florida Florida Florida Florida Florida Maine Maine California South Carolina California Florida South Carolina Maine California Washington Maine Virginia California California Idaho Idaho Texas Louisiana New Hampshire California California California California California California California California California Oregon Oregon Alabama California California California California Florida Maine New Hampshire Oregon California California California Maine Michigan New Hampshire New Hampshire New Hampshire Oregon South Carolina California Maine Michigan New Hampshire Pennsylvania Pennsylvania California California California California California California California Maine Maine Maine Maine Maine Michigan County GULF GULF GULF GULF GULF PENOBSCOT PENOBSCOT MENDOCINO FLORENCE MENDOCINO GULF FLORENCE SOMERSET MENDOCINO STEVENS FRANKLIN PRINCE SAN JOAQUIN SHASTA BENEWAH ADAMS HARRISON CALCASIEU MERRIMACK LASSEN PLUMAS AMADOR LASSEN BUTTE BUTTE SHASTA SHASTA TUOLUMNE JACKSON JACKSON HOUSTON PLACER PLUMAS SHASTA HUMBOLDT LIBERTY PENOBSCOT GRAFTON GRANT SHASTA SHASTA SHASTA SOMERSET MONTMORENCY SULLIVAN GRAFTON CARROLL DOUGLAS FLORENCE HUMBOLDT PISCATAQUIS MISSAUKEE COOS LYCOMING NORTHUMBERL HUMBOLDT SIERRA YOLO FRESNO COLUSA SHASTA LASSEN YORK CUMBERLAND KENNEBEC CUMBERLAND FRANKLIN ALCONA Capacity MW 0.882171777 13.180422596 0.991465 Yes 1980 15339 Yes 1981 12368.448629561 0.991465 Yes 1963 8538.70598521 25.991465 Yes 1986 9224 No 1986 25416.852791878 20.50316385 11.10515075 14.991465 Yes 1956 8538.991465 Yes 1989 8538.66667 No 1982 8538.991465 Yes 1982 25416.169269438 6.50036449 24.044617579 1.002430238 4.066280247 10.991465 Yes 1988 25416.57367613 21.35622526 16.87655412 41.991465 Yes 1952 8538.991465 Yes 1979 8538.128873283 0.901181102 5.991465 Yes 1984 9224 No 1985 8538.991465 Yes 1952 8538.128873283 0.42246966 1.27220787 18.991465 Yes 1989 9224 No 1989 9224 No 1989 9224 No 1989 9082.35622526 16.94882449 6. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .214788805 0.91578166 16.365140968 4.59498243 16.36716597 12.733695627 2.51030066 10.991465 Yes 1985 8538.45844126 16.991465 Yes 1937 8538.991465 Yes 1977 8538.991465 Yes 1947 8538.673694411 1.8 Current Biomass Power Plants Plant Name Florida Coast Paper Co LLC Florida Coast Paper Co LLC Florida Coast Paper Co LLC Florida Coast Paper Co LLC Florida Coast Paper Co LLC Great Northern Paper Great Northern Paper Fort Bragg Western Wood Products Stone Container Corporation Florence Fort Bragg Western Wood Products Florida Coast Paper Co LLC Stone Container Corporation Florence Somerset Plant Fort Bragg Western Wood Products Vaagen Brothers Lumber Incorporated Forster Inc Strong Plant Stone Container Corporation Hopewell Diamond Walnut Wheelabrator Hudson Energy Co Rayonier Inland Wood Products Tamarack Energy Partnership Snider Industries Incorporated Agrilectric Power Partners Limited Bio Energy Corporation Susanville Facility Collins Pine Company Project Wheelabrator Martell Inc Susanville Facility Pacific Oroville Power Inc Pacific Oroville Power Inc Mt Lassen Power Burney Mountain Power Ultrapower Chinese Station Biomass One L P Biomass One L P Crestwood Corporation Dothan Lincoln Facility Quincy Facility Burney Facility Fairhaven Power Co Timber Energy Resources Incorporated Sherman Energy Facility Pinetree Power Incoporated Co Gen LLC Wheelabrator Shasta Wheelabrator Shasta Wheelabrator Shasta Gorbell Thermo Electron Power Hillman Power Company L L C Hemphill Power and Light Company Bridgewater Power Company LP Pinetree Power Tamworth Inc Co-Gen II.373263 Yes 1988 9224 No 1988 8538.991465 Yes 1961 8538.96450375 15.43077 No 1988 9224 No 1988 9224 No 1988 7995.448629561 4.4990433 27.991465 Yes 1937 8538.43077 Yes 1986 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 9224 No 1987 25416.991465 Yes 1989 8538.35655942 6.57285808 24.991465 Yes 1985 9224 No 1985 9224 No 1985 9224 No 1985 9224 No 1985 9224 No 1985 9224 No 1985 8538.7596732 6.19195204 13.89923255 16.23257666 3.51695997 14.991465 Yes 1954 8538.44424521 Heat Rate Cogeneration On-line Year 8538.991465 Yes 1974 8538.38108255 0.

36820024 37.991465 Yes 1998 8538.962570193 1.Biomass Aberdeen Boiler/Generator/ Committed Unit G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G C C C C C C C C C C C State Name California California Maine Maine North Carolina Arkansas California Maine Massachusetts Michigan Michigan Vermont California Maine Michigan New York Ohio Ohio Florida Maine Virginia Virginia Florida Kentucky Louisiana Michigan Washington Tennessee California Washington Washington California California Colorado Colorado South Carolina South Carolina Illinois Minnesota Minnesota Virginia Virginia Washington Arizona Illinois Massachusetts Massachusetts Washington County SAN JOAQUIN KERN PENOBSCOT SOMERSET CRAVEN BRADLEY RIVERSIDE ANDROSCOGGI WORCESTER GRATIOT CRAWFORD CALEDONIA KERN AROOSTOOK WEXFORD FRANKLIN FULTON FULTON POLK AROOSTOOK PITTSYLVANIA PITTSYLVANIA PALM BEACH TAYLOR CALCASIEU GENESEE SNOHOMISH MACON SHASTA OKANOGAN OKANOGAN PLACER PLUMAS ADAMS ADAMS HORRY HORRY a a a a a a a a a a a Capacity MW 20.2184593 35.6 No 1997 10891. NonMandated St.86121164 17.8 (Continued) Current Biomass Power Plants Plant Name Tracy Biomass Plant Delano Energy Company Incorporated Great Northern Paper Somerset Plant Craven County Wood Energy L P Potlatch Corp Southern Wood Products Mecca Plant Beaver Livermore Falls Pinetree Power Fitchburg Inc Lyonsdale Power Company LLC Grayling Generating Station Ryegate Power Station Delano Energy Company Incorporated Beaver Ashland Cadillac Renewable Energy KES Chateaugay Power Station Sauder Power Plant Sauder Power Plant Ridge Generating Station Aroostook Valley Multitrade of Pittsylvania County L P Pl Multitrade of Pittsylvania County L P Pl Okeelanta Power Limited Partnership Cox Waste to Energy Agrilectric Power Partners Limited Genesee Power Station Limited Everett Cogen Bioten Operations Inc Anderson Facility Washington Veneer Washington Veneer Lincoln Facility Quincy Facility Trigen-Colorado Metro Facility Site Trigen-Colorado Metro Facility Site Horry LFG Site Horry LFG Site Jacobs Energy Corporation St.90 2.50 41.6 No 1993 9224 No 1993 10891.85 0.62 7.8 Yes 1993 9224 No 1994 9224 No 1994 9224 No 1994 9224 No 1994 8538.991465 Yes 1995 9224 No 1995 9224 No 1995 9224 No 1996 8538.8 Yes 1993 10891.842118014 46.99570523 19.68 7.991465 Yes 1990 8538.00 4.74 Table 3.48884374 36.22 16.25127717 16.00 1.06031261 29.52 3.991465 Yes 1998 8011 Yes 1999 8011 No 1999 29657 Yes 2000 29657 Yes 2000 29657 No 2001 29657 No 2001 8911 No 2002 8911 No 2002 8911 No 2002 8911 No 2002 8911 No 2002 8911 No 2002 8911 No 2003 8911 No 2003 8911 No 2003 8911 No 2003 8911 No 2003 Source: (National Electric Energy System (NEEDS) Database for IPM 2004.07152119 0.347412 61.991465 Yes 1992 9224 No 1992 9224 No 1992 9224 No 1993 9224 No 1993 10013.75 0.gov/airmarkets/epa-ipm/#needs.62961823 3.443855289 0.50652465 21.8 No 1998 8538.03528491 36. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Mandated Scott Wood Scott Wood Gorge Energy Div SDS Environmental Forest Solutions Jacobs Energy Corporation Ware Biomass Cogen Massachusetts RPS 2003 .00 0.33887206 1.060566964 5.69179392 7.60 23.79 9. Paul Cogen.52 1.683280889 48.086375057 0.00 2.075439298 1.799762734 3.07467078 19.731874145 0.991465 Yes 1991 9224 No 1991 9224 No 1992 9224 No 1992 8538.50248146 27. ____________________ a Data are not available.991465 Yes 1996 10013.679977523 0. Paul Cogen.085144462 3.00 Heat Rate Cogeneration On-line Year 9224 No 1990 9224 No 1990 8538.139857154 36.991465 Yes 1990 9224 No 1990 8538.80 5. http://www.30915139 36.epa.085144462 40.347412 41.

54425 11805 0.76434101 11000 11.000000002 13648 1.10 11805 2.767358272 11805 0.778130417 11805 1.399517393 11805 0.783213037 11805 0.000000037 13648 1.245327517 11805 0.759300247 13648 0.10 11805 0.10 11805 2.5218204 11000 5.00 13648 1.000000047 13648 1.00 13648 1.769899605 11805 4.943396199 11805 4.857569492 13648 4.778894571 11805 0.765217333 11805 0.933474164 11805 0.857569492 11805 0.698586128 13648 0.754613209 13648 1.765217333 13648 0.000000047 13648 1.777833611 11805 2.9 Current Landfill Gas Power Plants Boiler/Generator/C Plant Name ommitted Unit Puente Hills Energy Recovery G Palos Verdes Gas to Energy Facility G Coyote Canyon Steam Plant G BKK Landfill G O Brien Biogas IV LLC G North City Cogeneration Facility G North City Cogeneration Facility G North City Cogeneration Facility G North City Cogeneration Facility G Prima Desheha Landfill G Prima Desheha Landfill G Kiefer LF G Kiefer LF G Kiefer LF G BKK Landfill G Tazewell Gas Recovery G KMS Joliet Power Partners LP G Roxana LF G Roxana LF G Roxana LF G Brickyard G Brickyard G Brickyard G Dixon G Dixon G Dixon G Streator G Streator G Biodyne Pontiac G Deercroft Gas Recovery G Metro Methane Recovery Facility G HMDC Kingsland Landfill G HMDC Kingsland Landfill G LFG Energy Inc G LFG Energy Inc G LFG Energy Inc G LFG Energy Inc G LFG Energy Inc G High Acres Gas Recovery G Blackburn Co-Generation G Blackburn Co-Generation G Blackburn Co-Generation G Blackburn Co-Generation G G Charlotte Motor Speedway Cuyahoga Regional Landfill G Cuyahoga Regional Landfill G Roosevelt Biogas 1 G Roosevelt Biogas 1 G Roosevelt Biogas 1 G Roosevelt Biogas 1 G Tajiguas Landfill G KMS Joliet Power Partners LP G Biodyne Pontiac G Upper Rock G Upper Rock G Upper Rock G Roxana LF G Fall River Electric G Fall River Electric G Randolph Electric G Randolph Electric G Randolph Electric G Fall River Electric G Grand Blanc Generating Station G M M Nashville G M M Nashville G Roosevelt Biogas 1 G Metro Gas Recovery G Metro Gas Recovery G Metro Gas Recovery G Metro Gas Recovery G State Name California California California California New Jersey California California California California California California California California California California Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Indiana Iowa New Jersey New Jersey New York New York New York New York New York New York North Carolina North Carolina North Carolina North Carolina North Carolina Ohio Ohio Washington Washington Washington Washington California Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Massachusetts Massachusetts Massachusetts Massachusetts Massachusetts Massachusetts Michigan Tennessee Tennessee Washington Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin County LOS ANGELES ORANGE ORANGE LOS ANGELES MIDDLESEX SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO SAN DIEGO ORANGE ORANGE SACRAMENTO SACRAMENTO SACRAMENTO LOS ANGELES TAZEWELL WILL MADISON MADISON MADISON VERMILION VERMILION VERMILION LEE LEE LEE LA SALLE LA SALLE LIVINGSTON LA PORTE POLK BERGEN BERGEN ERIE ERIE ERIE ERIE ERIE MONROE CATAWBA CATAWBA CATAWBA CATAWBA CABARRUS CUYAHOGA CUYAHOGA KLICKITAT KLICKITAT KLICKITAT KLICKITAT SANTA BARBARA WILL LIVINGSTON ROCK ISLAND ROCK ISLAND ROCK ISLAND MADISON BRISTOL BRISTOL NORFOLK NORFOLK NORFOLK BRISTOL GENESEE DAVIDSON DAVIDSON KLICKITAT MILWAUKEE MILWAUKEE MILWAUKEE MILWAUKEE Capacity MW Heat Rate 44.933474164 11805 0.857569492 11805 0.752165154 11805 0.777833611 11805 1.75 Table 3.881475967 11805 0.786481001 11805 0.000000002 13648 1.769899605 11805 2.881475967 11805 0.943396199 11805 0.95 11805 2.933474164 11805 0.698586128 13648 0.000000047 13648 1.000000002 13648 1.698586128 13648 Cogeneration No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No On-line Year 1986 1988 1989 1993 1997 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 Continued on next page.10 11805 2.765217333 11805 0.857569492 13648 0.95 11805 0.566133167 11805 0.65094446 11805 2.698586128 13648 0.000000058 13648 1.499151173 11805 1.000000037 13648 1.000000002 13648 0.986892485 11805 0.765217333 11805 0.879903479 11805 0. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .60288061 11000 17.933474164 11805 2.984199375 11805 9.000000058 13648 1.65094446 11805 2.769899605 11805 2.879903479 11805 0.000000037 13648 1.10 11805 2.765217333 11805 0.943396199 11805 0.00 13648 1.

80 11805 0.494937456 11805 2.686324989 11805 0.36 13648 1.36 13648 1.43 13648 1.50 13648 1.494937456 11805 0.36 13648 1.20 13648 1.80 11805 0.Cities G Badlands G Biodyne Congress G Biodyne Congress G Biodyne Congress G Biodyne Pontiac G Model City Energy G G Model City Energy G Model City Energy G Model City Energy Model City Energy G Model City Energy G G Model City Energy Green Knight G Green Knight G Green Knight G Superior Glacier Ridge Landfil G Superior Glacier Ridge Landfil G Omega Hills Gas Recovery G Jamacha LFG C Operating Industries LFG C Lopez Canyon LFG C Central Disposal Sonoma Phase C AB1890City/Cty San F C Quad Cities C Morris C Morris C Morris C Biodyne Pontiac C Onyx Zion LFG C BioEnergy Com-Ed Biogas C South Side LFG C Brent Run C Elk River C Douglas County LFG C C Brookhaven Facility Brookhaven Facility C Blackburn Co-Generat C Bradford C Rolling Hills C Rolling Hills C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C State Name Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Arizona Arizona Arizona Arizona Arizona California Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois New York New York New York New York New York New York New York Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin California California California California California Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Illinois Indiana Michigan Minnesota Nebraska New York New York North Carolina Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas County KENOSHA KENOSHA KENOSHA KENOSHA WINNEBAGO WINNEBAGO WINNEBAGO MARICOPA MARICOPA MARICOPA MARICOPA MARICOPA RIVERSIDE COOK COOK COOK LIVINGSTON NIAGARA NIAGARA NIAGARA NIAGARA NIAGARA NIAGARA NIAGARA NORTHAMPTON NORTHAMPTON NORTHAMPTON DODGE DODGE WASHINGTON a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a Capacity MW Heat Rate 0.686324989 11805 0.686324989 11805 0.04 13648 5.80 11805 0.9 (Continued) Current Landfill Gas Power Plants Boiler/Generator/C ommitted Unit Plant Name Pheasant Run Landfill Gas Recovery G Pheasant Run Landfill Gas Recovery G Pheasant Run Landfill Gas Recovery G Pheasant Run Landfill Gas Recovery G Winnebago County Landfill Gas G Winnebago County Landfill Gas G Winnebago County Landfill Gas G Tri .02 13648 1.36 13648 1.76 Table 3.36 13648 1.02 13648 1.794993515 11805 1.36 13648 1.02 13648 1.95 13648 0.75417871 11805 0.50 13648 2.40 13648 1.686324989 11805 2.794993515 11805 1.27 13648 0.16 13648 4.90 11805 2.04 13648 1.36 13648 1.02 13648 1.686324989 11805 0.90 13648 1.930046772 11805 0. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .36 13648 1.Cities G Tri .80 11805 0.90 11805 0.80 13648 2.99 13648 0.930046772 11805 0.75417871 11805 0.28 13648 3.30 13648 4.30 13648 1.80 11805 1.494937456 11805 2.Cities G Tri .36 13648 1.Cities G Tri .30 13648 1.36 13648 1.930046772 11805 0.20 13648 0.36 13648 Cogeneration No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No On-line Year 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 Continued on next page.60325 11805 0.20 13648 5.75417871 13648 0.02 13648 1.794993515 11805 3.75 13648 0.76 13648 2.10 11805 1.686324989 11805 0.50 11805 0.52 13648 1.36 13648 1.36 13648 1.36 13648 1.75417871 13648 0.30 13648 1.Cities G Tri .36 13648 1.686324989 11805 0.

99 13648 0. Phas C Covel Gardens C Arlington LF C Chesterfield County LFG C Amelia Landfill LFG C Va Beach Mt Trashmore II LFG C Pheasant Run Landfil C Pheasant Run Landfil C Ridgeview C Ridgeview C Ridgeview C Acme Landfill C AB1890RiversideCty.77 Table 3.38 13648 2.9 (Continued) Current Landfill Gas Power Plants Boiler/Generator/C ommitted Unit Plant Name Tessman Road Project LFG.94 13648 4. http://www.00 13648 2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .C C California Street C AB1890Colton (NEO Co C AB1890Milliken(NEO C C AB1890Mid-Valley(NEO C Keller Canyon LFG C AB1890EgyDevelopment C AB1890BFI.80 13648 0.80 13648 0.Baytown C Security Recycling LFG C Coastal Plains C Coastal Plains C WMI Atascocit LFG C Essex Junction Wastewater Trea C Janesville Landfill (WI) C State Name Texas Texas Texas Virginia Virginia Virginia Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin Wisconsin California California California California California California California California California California Florida Illinois Kentucky Massachusetts Massachusetts Massachusetts Michigan New York South Carolina Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas Texas VERMONT Wisconsin County a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a Capacity MW Heat Rate 4.23 13648 6.90 13648 0.90 13648 5.80 13648 0.71 13648 5.65 13648 8.99 13648 2.37 13648 9.94 13648 6.55 13648 0.98 13648 0.78 13648 4.80 13648 5.99 13648 6.76 13648 3.42 13648 0.epa.95 13648 1.94 13648 4.38 13648 2.47 13648 2.66 13648 3.80 13648 0.75 13648 0.Added Capac C Hutchins LFG C City of Conroe LFG C Sanifill .gov/airmarkets/epa-ipm/#needs.06 13648 2.47 13648 2.99 13648 11.80 13648 0.38 13648 4.14 13648 2.75 13648 3.91 13648 Cogeneration No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No On-line Year 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 Source: National Electric Energy System (NEEDS) Database for IPM 2004.18 13648 2.LFG C Plainville LFG C Chicopee II LFG C Grand Blanc C 3 Landfill Gas Projects C Palmetto C Reliant Energy Renew C Reliant Energy Renew C Blue Bonnet LFG C Tessman Road LFG .50 13648 9.52 13648 3. Newby Isl C Bradley C SW Alachua C Beecher LFG C Bavarian Waste C Massachusetts RPS 2003 .97 13648 0.32 13648 5.27 13648 0.

065.gov/cneaf/solar.599 1.1% 31.379 2.997 27.055 2.893 3.968.049 1.2% 29.470 699.423.073.1% 68.006 5.8% 15.renewables/page/rea_data/rea_sum.889 35.776.947 38.891 6.0% 24.723.654 2.1% 5.137 1.390.895 750.150 323.493 1.515 9.3% 73.2% 51.724 1.9% Total from all Renewables 12.5% 31.665.589 1.754.4% 13.913.480.126 5.doe.922 1.465 2.289 1.038 Percent of all Renewables 29.232 7.392 936.226.0% 41.759 182.095 54.087 4.4% 0.136 Source: Energy Information Administration.0% 0.214 3.624 1.031 1.197.10 Total Net Generation of Electricity by State from Wood and Wood Waste.5% 3.130.593 143 63.218 1.886.826.9% 1.552 377.4% 46.727.145 51 644.955.656 2.327.7% 10.767 412.7% 8.640 2.110 3.386. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .7% 19.5% 7. Table C6.7% 33.196 5.437. 2002 (Thousand Kilowatt Hours) State Alabama Alaska Arkansas California Florida Georgia Idaho Iowa Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana New Hampshire New York North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania South Carolina Tennessee Texas Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Total Wood/Wood Waste 3.900 3.0% 8.809 9.045 624.126.904 106.7% 0.277.804 126.eia.451.634.218.927 1.097.5% 0. Renewable Energy Annual 2004.599 2.407.310.724 4.474.021.067 239.179 948.575.116.327 639.963.0% 17.7% 35.5% 11.168 8.552.821.748.7% 1.608 3.086 766.1% 98.303 91 365.78 Table 3.6% 1.6% 0.682.630.957.506 5. http://www.687 1.411 79.676.785 4. Note: States not listed contained no data for wood/wood waste.7% 7.500.170.671.892 1.6% 21.978 508.html.462 355.273 9.228.580.

572 17.215 20.79 37.61 30.10 36.473 82.74 11.16 5.04 0.332.741.033.85 99.817 8.768.982 57.007.18 7.663 1.10 68.023 11.597.16 62.058 20.83 88. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .355 26.69 1.89 3.76 42.215 6.724.498 3.154 2.56 1.20 14.237 8.65 0.30 8.15 8.98 1.73 0.772.615.464 59.72 98.284.53 0.993 593.999 2.018 305.776.333 32.689.408.148 9.92 94.367 66.624 20.52 99.86 31.03 10.03 0.48 0.75 93.235 1.539 701.754 20.74 0.525.495 3.232.988.53 9.416 22.801 1.573 4.48 84.98 71.99 14.437 1.360.85 12.452.11 Net Generation and Fuel Consumption at Power Plants Consuming Coal and Biomass by State and Plant Name.75 22.674.999.388 257.028 761.922 6.77 56.981.864.98 0.63 8.613 15.172 3.327.342 236.96 7.994 405.649 76.273 17.495 452.569 499.663 2.77 78.865 76.28 1.02 98.538 39.44 10.35 0.05 4.75 0.198 18.49 9.308 12.16 3.558 45.123.67 0.75 3.079.967 17.23 77.664.421 14.090.488.895 15.576.042.650 120.436 3.05 9.829.11 6.216 2.698 6.869 60.67 6.55 60.17 98.381 12.957.20 80.670 988.406 144.709 616.122 6.595 819.760 3.493.021 14.296 571.06 4.779 351.033 6.502 37.018 10.40 8.048.01 97.406 417.01 75.39 87.818 126.79 Table 3.95 5.266 6.341 9.22 0.517 437.094 220.669 20.72 1.73 98.52 96.73 59.433 18.793.923 7.10 9.090.444.531.154.167.758.419 5.108 416.78 2.073.01 76.186 298.225.97 0.616 303.167 4.812.009 60.174 197.111 6.082.654 16.78 52.18 60.035 17.413.585.96 2.591 458.967 10.09 3.16 1.326 314.075.101.22 54.15 91.538 6.14 98.566 3.301.21 7. 2003 Net Electricity Generation (Thousand Kilowatthours) 173.168 5.267.54 15.57 57.432 5.76 99.001.837 3.301 18.273 12.99 1.220 25.08 0.646 684.24 98.09 0.00 0.649 55.685 528.356 823.484 23.803 3.717.039 28.33 12.409.00 0.597 12.054.029.689 450.10 92.406 1.509 Energy Consumed Percent of Energy Consumed from from Biomass Biomass Coal Other (MMBtu) 5.911 13.975 44.25 80.603 45.04 2.228 450.621.472 8.599 250.830 10.34 60.956.485 477.285.919.85 78.943 11.60 1.29 69.444.98 19.84 0.599 154.753 8.080 14.543 13.21 4.805 41.834 272.390 573.04 8.187 849.668.769.02 0.44 1.123.00 73.826 23.85 22.54 18.87 0.91 71.927 Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Connecticut Florida Fairbanks North Star Eielson AFB Central Heat & Pow Pima Little River San Joaquin Kern Hartford Escambia Escambia Duval Nassau Polk Orange Bay Duval Georgia Early Effingham Floyd Chatham Richmond Bibb Laurens Hawaii Illinois Iowa Oahu Maui Macon Randolph Story Linn Linn Johnson Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Michigan Daviess De Soto Morehouse Oxford Cumberland Allegany Dickinson Alpena Delta Muskegon Manistee Wayne Minnesota Mississippi Missouri St Louis Itasca Lowndes St Louis City Jackson Jasper Pike Saline St Charles Boone Continued on next page.641.929.99 16.280.592 35.01 97.558.951.25 77.716.776 133.494 315.134.666 62.60 5.06 90.258 3.529 4.940 501.20 0.91 1.79 91.271.55 22.92 99.56 8.06 58.883 379.578 84.699 613.83 1.094.80 0.12 0.851 78 2.961.80 10.793.467 7.71 86.19 37.32 42.34 80.961 19.39 99.841.014 36.653 48.87 3.170.644 96.397 5.225 4.14 7.50 30.404.609 278.70 57.68 10.560 9.81 6.625.151 463.852 147.310 196.46 97.71 97.29 1.28 87.892.79 64.254 428.831.164.75 32.125.21 58.200.03 18.455 1.18 30.54 0.44 28.00 7.935.29 82.068.36 13.242.21 12.608.19 1.670 130.87 9.24 0.03 54.705.674 1.695 21.867.501 12.74 40.698 479.32 43.79 13.811 5.081.833.086.240.834 739.204 3.833 127.352.970 35.27 0.742 496.727 10.72 91.12 27.512.876.81 6.857 270.728 26.269 20.32 State Alabama County Talladega Choctaw Marengo Autauga Mobile Wilcox Plant Name U S Alliance Coosa Pines Georgia Pacific Naheola Mill Gulf States Paper International Paper Prattville Mobile Energy Services LLC Weyerhaeuser Pine Hill Operati Irvington Ashdown Stockton Cogen Mt Poso Cogeneration Covanta Mid-Connecticut Energy Crist International Paper Pensacola Northside Generating Station Jefferson Smurfit Fernandina B C D McIntosh Jr Stanton Energy Center Stone Container Panama City Mi Cedar Bay Generating LP Georgia Pacific Cedar Springs Savannah River Mill Inland Paperboard Packaging Ro International Paper Savanna Mi International Paper Augusta Mi Riverwood International Macon SP Newsprint AES Hawaii Hawaiian Comm and Sugar Puunen Archer Daniels Midland Decatur Baldwin Energy Complex Ames Electric Services Power P Prairie Creek Sixth Street University of Iowa Main Power Elmer Smith Mansfield Mill International Paper Louisiana Rumford Cogeneration S D Warren Somerset Luke Mill International Paper Quinnesec Louisiana Pacific Mead Paper S D Warren Muskegon TES Filer City Station Wyandotte Hibbing Rapids Energy Center Weyerhaeuser Columbus MS Anheuser Busch St Louis Sibley Asbury Hercules Missouri Chemical Wor Marshall Sioux University of Missouri Columbi Total Energy Consumed (MMBtu) 13.641 1.004 2.734 631.911.

564 21.09 0.154 52.914 21.224.88 8.325.467 6.722.235.344 8.42 92.27 12.65 51.189 5.746.11 (Continued) Net Generation and Fuel Consumption at Power Plants Consuming Coal and Biomass by State and Plant Name.328 279.90 43.81 2.893.66 8.851.23 5.245 56.087 296.57 87.50 72.032 776.554 12.957.87 0.591 174.155 4.801.50 2.011 32.114.340 101.23 11.972 3. Derived from Table 9: Net Generation and Fuel Consumption at Power Plants Consuming Coal and Biomass by State and Plant name.244 114.885 665.51 1.720.260 12.02 64.04 79.760 9.872 14.34 1.189.32 7.04 99.23 7.html Note: MMBtu = One million British thermal units.265.700 6.763 6.590 83.976 18.319 17.914 5.26 0.572.328 9.280 1.209 12.28 68.256 383.125.675.674.406.614.255 17.54 56.059 4.29 21.795.85 0.213 1.116 319.18 7.26 23.21 52.641 3.79 98.641.69 80.454 527.09 17.013 1.453 389.230 3.054 18.90 98.50 33.635 28.274 393.32 56.441.39 9.582 323.280 630.10 2.104 671.572 3.587.216 196.60 23.90 91.06 80.783.369 25.05 0.402 334.248 39.519 532.422 211.63 13.361 3.151.075.101 113.244 29.121 47.91 0.49 36.163 3.22 76.959.43 26.892 25.36 2.280 402.280 806.732.63 53.481.28 25.415.75 38.293 13.64 3.181 208.64 71.026 20.87 81.01 48.72 99.04 24.25 1.004.890 344.130 246.846 15.43 45.041 42.657 205.379 8.15 7.00 25.74 81.488 203.07 6.75 1.771 327.282 4.07 6.344.539.73 23.678 21.77 84.11 9.16 67.35 7.52 State New York County Yates Jefferson Plant Name AES Greenidge LLC Black River Power LLC WPS Power Niagara Canton North Carolina Corn Products Winston Salem International Paper Roanoke Ra International Paper Riegelwood Elizabethtown Power LLC Lumberton Weyerhaeuser Plymouth NC Picway Mead Custom Paper Chester Operations Northhampton Generating LP Kline Township Cogen Facility P H Glatfelter Johnsonburg Mill International Paper Eastover F International Paper Georgetown Stone Container Florence Mill Bowater Newsprint Calhoun Oper Tennessee Eastman Operations Packaging Corp of America Weyerhaeuser Kingsport Mill Georgia Pacific Big Island International Paper Franklin M St Laurent Paper West Point SPSA Waste To Energy Power Pla Stone Container Hopewell Mill Covington Facility Weyerhaeuser Longview WA Albright Willow Island Union Carbide South Charleston Georgia Pacific Nekoosa Mill Fraser Paper International Paper Kaukauna M Blount Street Manitowoc Bay Front Packaging of America Tomahawk Univ of Wisc Madison Charter S Waupun Correctional Central He Biron Mill Niagara Mill Whiting Mill Wisconsin Rapids Pulp Mill Wausau Mosinee Paper Pulp Edgewater Total Energy Consumed (MMBtu) 11.659.31 0.30 6.000 5.18 88.489 20.63 66.553 423.340 525.755 8.362 374.769 288.279.308 315.040.21 0.574.034.947.273 5.861 251.900 73.825.658 10.30 42.705.699 8.19 0.709.827 23.73 70.126.13 16.635 36.40 45.584.73 33.634 Energy Consumed Percent of Energy Consumed from from Biomass (MMBtu) Biomass Coal Other 99.943 451.25 25.10 39. 2003.666 3.01 76.608 180.665 326.90 74.181 4.17 1.39 36.32 1.211 29.735.12 11.10 41.762.06 98. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .304.80 Table 3.01 82.702.37 1.234 1.239.08 50.095.711 133.208.360 7.renewables/page/trends/table1.83 22.24 0.341 4.978.766.779 820.31 17.064.86 45.210 1.94 10.33 81.255.662 15.781 20.16 98.60 2.353.569 373.973 14.112.299.661 1.409 3.709.doe.30 1. 2003 Net Electricity Generation (Thousand Kilowatthours) 1.951 4.56 86.357.563 503.91 21.761.82 0.73 0.564 680.820 95.44 61.81 0.94 0.572.54 13.055 18.91 0.864 23.03 0.311 12.65 75.17 58.354 355.930 122.138 21.752 17.12 9.137 12.859 173.86 47.100 16. Blank cell indicates the plant had no consumption or other energy to report.72 9.962 12.575.21 57.636.534 6.eia.669.987 201.26 56.27 98.14 13.47 73.330.338.529.384 8.37 33.49 39.301 117.926.060 5.007 3.81 0.92 16.20 0.29 54.94 5.894 710.553 300.541.872 1.09 66.35 46.335.78 17.806 196.749 25.275 1.624.26 8.246 4.321 22.727 525.550 8.550 529.92 0.33 27.13 18.077.634.309.448 10.591.422.948.195 4.000.gov/cneaf/solar.95 1.636 18.380 1. http://www.300 40.402.399 Niagara North Carolina Haywood Forsyth Halifax Columbus Bladen Robeson Martin Pickaway Ohio Pennsylvania Ross Delaware Northampton Schuylkill York Elk South Carolina Richland Georgetown Florence Tennessee McMinn Sullivan Hardin Sullivan Virginia Bedford Isle of Wight King William Portsmouth City Hopewell City Covington Washington West Virginia Cowlitz Preston Pleasants Kanawha Wisconsin Wood Price Outagamie Dane Manitowoc Ashland Lincoln Dane Dodge Wood Marinette Portage Wood Marathon Sheboygan Total Source: Energy Information Administration.01 1.854 7.60 75.388.29 5.422.803 8.72 13.812.48 53.80 78.37 98.264 1.946 0.72 8.

217 20. February 2006). Table A6.715. D.C. Annual Energy Review 2004.000 22.107 8.000 273.399. Heat Rate: Annual Energy Outlook 2006. DOE/EIA-0383 (2006) (Washington. http://www. DOE/EIA-0383 (2006) (Washington.435 20.954.html.232.579. Table A16. DOE/EIA-0384(2004) (Washington. August 2005).125.558.760 46. D. Annual Energy Outlook 2006.107 3.150 PV 280..314 10..81 Table 3. Table A16.235. 1997 and Program data.594.411.623 Solar Thermal 388.900 20.. Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations. Note: Capacity values exclude combined-heat-and-power (CHP) data but include end-use sector (industrial and commercial) non-CHP data.411. D.000 8. February 2006).C. Capacity Factors: Hydropower calculated from EIA.600.107 368. 2006 Conversion Formula: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Capacity (A) x Capacity Factor (B) x Annual Hours (C) = Annual Electricity Generation (D) Annual Electricity Generation (D) x Conversion Efficiency (E) = Total Output (F) Total Output (F) / Fuel Heat Rate (G) = Quantity Fuel (H) Technology (A) Capacity (kW) (B) Capacity Factor (%) (C) Annual Hours (D) Annual Electricity Generation (kWh) (E) Conversion Efficiency (Btu/kWh) (F) Total Output (Million Btu) (G) Coal Heat Rate (Btu per short ton) (H) Coal (short tons) Wind 11.107 177.205 36.0% 8. Conversion Efficiency: EIA. Original Sources: Capacity: EIA.760 36.076 Geothermal 2.606 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.411.12 Coal Displacement Calculation.583 44.495 90.064.187 10.000 411.000 18.107 5. D.2% 8.760 17. Table 12. Table F1.C.525 10.686 20. DOE/EIA-0383 (2006) (Washington.411.919 20.176.5% 8.296 20.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter12.427.411. EPRI TR-109496. Annual Energy Outlook 2006.584.882.760 303.000 150. February 2006).4% 8. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .893 24.204.096 80.3.nrel.705 Technology (A) Capacity (kW) (B) Capacity Factor (%) (C) Annual Hours (D) Annual Electricity Generation (kWh) (E) Conversion Efficiency (Btu/kWh) (F) Total Output (Million Btu) (G) Coal Heat Rate (Btu per short ton) (H) Coal (short tons) Hydropower 78.893.411.C. Power Technologies Energy Data Book.449.472 10.760 831..107 467.727 10.049.211.312.760 552.0% 8.556 Biomass 6.401.128 10.455.058.355 22.991.0% 8. All others based on DOE.

760 10. 2006 Conversion Formula: Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Capacity (A) x Capacity Factor (B) x Annual Hours (C) = Annual Electricity Generation (D) Annual Electricity Generation (D) x Competing Heat Rate (E) = Annual Output (F) Annual Output (F) x Emissions Coefficient (G) = Annual Emissions Displaced (H) Technology (A) Capacity (kW) (B) Capacity Factor (%) (C) Annual Hours (D) Annual Electricity Generation (kWh) (E) Competing Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) (F) Annual Output (Trillion Btu) (G) Carbon Coefficient (MMTCB/Trillion Btu) (H) Annual Carbon Displaced (MMTC) Technology (A) Capacity (kW) (B) Capacity Factor (%) (C) Annual Hours (D) Annual Electricity Generation (kWh) (E) Competing Heat Rate (Btu/kWh) (F) Annual Output (Trillion Btu) (G) Carbon Coefficient (MMTCB/Trillion Btu) (H) Annual Carbon Displaced (MMTC) Wind 11. Power Technologies Energy Data Book.205 36. February 2005).893 24.232. Competing heat rate from fossil-fueled steam-electric plants heat rate. DOE/EIA-0384(2003) (Washington. All others based on DOE. 1997 and Program data.211.0% 8.01783 3.096 80.525 10. Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations.107 8.01783 8.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter12.01783 6.0% 8. September 2004). Table A16.01783 0.2% 8. Heat Rate: EIA. Table A16.427.1 0.991.472 10.954.107 3. DOE/EIA-0383 (2005) (Washington.nrel. Table 12.312. DC.455.594. 2005.235. Note: Capacity values exclude combined-heat-and-power (CHP) data but include end-use sector (industrial and commercial) non-CHP data.328 Solar Thermal 388.6 0.355 22.128 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.172 PV 280.2 0.760 303.01783 0. 2003.760 10. Capacity Factors: Hydropower calculated from EIA.176.4 0. Annual Energy Review 2003.760 831. page B-16. DC.13 Renewable Energy Impacts Calculation. GPRA2003 Data Call.html Original sources: Capacity: EIA.600.128 36.187 17. EPRI TR-109496.727 10.4 0.760 46.0% 8.107 467.449.01783 54. Annual Energy Outlook 2005.064. DC. DOE/EIA-0383 (2005) (Washington.569 Hydropower 78.583 44. Table A6. http://www.314 10.107 368.107 177. Carbon Coefficient: DOE.1.4% 8.100 Biomass 6.5% 8. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .495 90.558.107 5.635 Geothermal 2.579. Appendix B. February 2005).760 552. Annual Energy Outlook 2005.9 0.82 Table 3.

All others based on DOE.804 Geothermal 2.576 3.472 11. Note: Capacity values exclude combined-heat-and-power (CHP) data but include end-use sector (industrial and commercial) non-CHP data.760 831.205 36.187 11. D. D.C.760 552.760 36.991.C. Capacity Factors: Hydropower calculated from EIA.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter12.83 Table 3.495 90. February 2005).449.558.14 Number of Home Electricity Needs Met Calculation. Annual Energy Outlook 2006. Annual Energy Outlook 2006. Original sources: Capacity: EIA.576 1.893 24. DOE/EIA-0383 (2005) (Washington.520. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .190..068 Hydropower 78.576 71.C. 1997 and Program data. 2006.992. 2006 Conversion Formula: Step 1 Step 2 Capacity (A) x Capacity Factor (B) x Annual Hours (C) = Annual Electricity Generation (D) Annual Electricity Generation (D) / Average Consumption (E) = Number of Households (F) Technology (A) Capacity (kW) (B) Capacity Factor (%) (C) Annual Hours (D) Annual Electricity Generation (kWh) (E) Average Annual Household Electricity Consumption (kWh) (F) Number of Households Wind 11.148.760 303. Household electricity Consumption: Calculated from EIA.583 44.760 46.0% 8.594.727 11.954.525 11. EPRI TR-109496.576 26.. Tables A4 and A8.760 17.497 Biomass 6.nrel. Table A16.579.4% 8.096 80. February 2006).576 47.5% 8.736 Solar Thermal 388.232.355 22.211. http://www.314 11. Annual Energy Outlook 2005.427.176.235.128 11.808 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.576 3.2.html.312.515 PV 280. DOE/EIA-0383 (2006) (Washington. February). Table A16. Power Technologies Data Book..0% 8. D.0% 8. 2006. Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations.455. DOE/EIA-0383 (2006) (Washington.600.2% 8. Table 12.

dsireusa. Credit to operator not owner. Rates are adjusted annually. exclusion of biomass co-fired with fossil fuel Open-loop biomass . the tax credit was expanded in 2005 to include open-loop biomass at ½ the tax credit available to a closed-loop facility.asp Internal Revenue Code bulletins on §45 at http://www.irs. landfill gas.pdf)“Renewable Energy Production Credit.phase out above 8¢/kWhr 2007.html A business can take the credit by completing Form 8835 (http://www.gov/irb/2005-20_IRB/ar08.org. Closed and open-loop biomass are defined as follows: Closed-loop biomass . Open-loop biomass . 10 Same as above year max from 10/23/2004 or in-service date IRC §45 Open-loop biomass .html and at: http://www.019/kWhrb -2005 Closed-loop biomass. small irrigation power facilities. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . geothermal energy. Subsequent acts extended the credit to various other types of renewable energy facilities. solar energy. 10 new year limit $0. and grasses such as switchgrass. and perennial crops such as trees. municipal solid waste. existing 5 year limit phase out above 8¢/kWhr. and qualified hydropower production.asp and in the August 2005 issue of Bioenergy Update. Examples of open-loop biomass include agricultural livestock waste and residues from forest harvesting operations and crop harvesting.009/kWhrb (2005) In service between 8/8/2005-12/31/2007. Because no biomass power facilities were able to meet the closed-loop biomass definition of the 1992 Act. in a sustainable manner.84 A tax credit for biomass power production from closed-loop biomass was first enacted as part of the comprehensive Energy Policy Act of 1992.msi-network.” _______________________ The 2004 American Jobs Creation Act and the 2005 Energy Policy Act extended the Production Tax Credit §45 so that it now includes wind.com/content/cmsdoc496.015/kWhr (1993 $ Renewed appropriations indexed for inflation) for 2006 .2026 Same as above Production Tax a Credit – extension IRC §45 Renewable Energy 42 USCS § 13317 Biomass except for Production Incentive MSW combustion d (REPI) Available to non-profit electrical co-ops. open and closed loop biomass. hydropower facilities. government facilities More information on this can be found at the following websites: http://www.15 Major Federal Biomass Power Incentives Title Production Tax a Credit – extension Production Tax a Credit – extension Production Tax a Credit – extension Code IRC §45 IRC §45 Fuel Type Incentive Qualifying Period Limits c Closed-loop biomass $0.$0. public utilities. landfill gas facilities.msinetwork.019/kWhrb -2005 co-fired with coal or other biomass In service between 2003 . c More limits and explanations of limits can be found at http://www. for the purpose of optimizing their value for bioenergy and bioproduct uses. d More information on REPI. This includes annual crops such as maize and wheat.Biomass that can be used to produce energy and bioproducts even though it was not grown specifically for this purpose.Crops grown.com/content/cmsdoc496.gov/pub/irspdf/f8835.irs.irs.015/kWhr or ½ the adjusted rate in the case of open-loop biomass.gov/irb/2004-17_IRB/ar09. as well as refined coal production and Indian coal production facilities. Table 3. b Annual inflation adjusted rate above the base §45 tax credit rate of $0. including reauthorizing language in Section 202 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 is available at http://www. small irrigation power.$0.009/kWhrb (2005) In service before 1/1/2005. shrubs. 10 year max (inflation adjusted) Anytime before 2008. $0.

To date. Retail suppliers can meet the obligation by constructing or owning eligible renewable resources or purchasing the power from eligible generators. 16 states have adopted RPS policies or renewable purchase obligations.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . but. Power Technologies Energy Data Book. Initially. http://www. Chapter 3.nrel. All these states include some type of biomass as a qualifying renewable energy technology.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3. a number of states have implemented policies by legislation or proceedings that are separate from restructuring activities. In conjunction with system benefits funds. RPS policies are expected to lead to the development of more than 17.000 MW of new renewable energy capacity by 2017.1 States with Renewable Portfolio Standards Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Figure 3.85 A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) is a policy that obligates a retail electricity supplier to include renewable resources in its electricity generation portfolio. most states adopted RPS policies as part of electric industry restructuring. more recently.

15% by biomass including landfill 2015 and 20% by 2020 gas. 3. 6% by 2009. ocean thermal. GATS. Cofiring. landfill gas. Using NEPOOL Generation Information paid to the Renewable Energy Investment System. Table 3. 10% by 2019 Solar Thermal Electric. Anaerobic Digestion. wind. Geothermal Electric. Electric delivery requirement to tier 1 resources.5% by 2005. R&D. 2004. advanced renewable energy conversion technologies. Tidal Energy. and 7% by Jan 1. digester gas. Fund for the development of Class I renewables Colorado 10% by 2015 Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Hawaii Class I: solar. tidal.5¢/kWh for Yes. 2% by 2006. fuel cells using hydrogen from renewables Investor-owned utilities Solar. 8% by end of 2005. Ocean Thermal. solar thermal. fuel cells. Landfill Gas. wind. the standards and requirements vary widely among those states that do have renewable portfolio requirements. Tidal Energy. Fuel Cells (Renewable Fuels) Penalty of 5. 1¢/kWh for tier II. Wind. ocean energy. solar. development photovoltaic. GATS Penalty of 2. Class II: licensed hydro. solar hot sited) water. and in-state landfill gas. Anaerobic Digestion. solar) Photovoltaics. and PJM 30¢/kWh for PV Unspecified Unspecified: standard to be revisited if utilities can not meet it in costeffective manner Iowa No Unspecified Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Wave Energy. Small Hydroelectric. Hydroelectric.386% Solar Thermal Electric. geothermal. fuel cells using renewable fuels. Landfill Gas. geothermal. Hydroelectric. Wind. and fuels derived from organic sources. Wave Energy. Credit Trading Penalties No central credit trading Under consideration system California WREGIS system under At discretion of CPUC Biomass. Biomass. Geothermal development Electric. MSW. Photovoltaics.5¢/kWh (increases to 5¢/kWh for multi-year noncompliance) Penalty of 2.5¢/kWh Yes. wind. Photovoltaics. Landfill Gas. 2004 increasing to 1. Investor-owned utilities must add minimum 1% annually to 20% by 2017. WREGIS system under To be determined Wind. Fuel Cells (Renewable Fuels) 11% by 2022 (0. ocean energy. hydropower. new run of river hydro (<5MW). 5% by 2008. 2010 Yes. 10% by 2010. wave.16 State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Purchase Requirements State Arizona Purchase Requirements Eligible Resources 15% by 2015 (of this PV and solar thermal 30% must be customer electric. Municipal Solid Waste. existing hydro < 30MW. Class I 1% Jan 1. new sustainable biomass. and biomass. landfill gas. and other biomass. wind. Biomass. Wind.86 Almost half of the states have renewable portfolio standards and purchase requirements. and biomass (~2% of 1999 sales) Continued on next page 3% Class I or II Technologies by Jan 1. Biomass. waste to energy.5% by 2007. Geothermal Electric. methane to purchase 105 MW recovery.

Penalties Possible sanctions at discretion of PUC Maryland Tier 1: solar. Anaerobic Digestion. Fuel Cells (Renewable Fuels) Solar. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Hydroelectric. Distributed resources receives extra credit (1. Geothermal Electric. Selfgeneration is not eligible. No. and thereafter. Non-complying retailers must submit a compliance plan. 7. Minnesota (Not true RPS) Applies to Wind. Yes qualifying biomass. other than standard regulatory oversight.5%/yr to 4% in 2009 1%/yr increase thereafter until determined by Division of Energy Resources New renewables placed into Yes. Continued on next page Penalty of 1¢/kWh goes to universal lowincome energy assistance fund.5¢/kWh for Tier 2 paid to Maryland Renewable Energy Fund Massachusetts 1% of sales to enduse customers from new renewables in 2003. including solar. and sustainable biomass. Photovoltaics. animal waste and aquatic plants). biomass. MSW. solar.16 (Continued) State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Purchase Requirements State Maine Purchase Requirements Eligible Resources 30% of retail sales in 2000 Fuel cells. wind. small hydropower (<30MW). wood. fuel Yes. Biomass. with solar requirement of 0. wave. GATS. geothermal. and MSW (<100MW). Additional 400 MW wind by 2006 and 300 MW by 2010 5% in 2008. tidal. geothermal.5% by 2008 Class I: 4% by 2008. high efficiency cogeneration. hydro. Electricity must Solar Thermal Electric. Class I. wave. NEPOOL Generation Information System. biomass Xcel Energy only: 425 MW wind by 2002 and 110 MW biomass. 3. Tier 1 increasing by 1% every other year from 2007 to 2018.87 Table 3. Wind. biomass (includes agricultural waste. Excess production from existing generators over historical baseline eligible. Tier II remains at 2. Class II: hydro <30 MW and MSW facilities that meet air pollution requirements. New Jersey Class I or II: 2. landfill gas. Entities may comply by paying 5¢/kWh. geothermal.5%. wind.5% by 2006 with 1% from Tier 1 sources. 30¢/kWh for solar. Landfill Gas. Credit Trading Yes. fuel cells using renewable fuels. 10% in 2010. wind. poultry litter incineration. Resource supply under this definition exceeds RPS requirement. & Yes. +0.16% retail sales (90MW) Goal of 20% by 2020. wind. rising to 20% by 2015. tidal. Alternative Compliance Payment of 5¢/kWh. revisit within 5 years. Financial penalties may be applied for noncompliance. cells. tidal.: Solar. and low-emission advanced biomass. Using NEPOOL commercial operation after Generation 1997. existing waste to energy Alternative Compliance fee of 2¢/kWh for Tier 1 and 1. PV. Revocation or suspension of license is possible. Information System. and landfill methane Tier II: existing large hydropower. 15% in 2015 No Montana Yes. landfill methane. Nevada 6% in 2005. wind. be delivered to MT. ocean thermal. PUC will geothermal.5% total by 2019 and in subsequent years.15).

Using NEPOOL Generation Information System. solar. Penalty of 4. increasing 0. including landfill gas. Biomass.16 (Continued) State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Purchase Requirements State New Mexico Purchase Requirements 5% of retail sales by 2006. 8% Tier 1 and 10% Tier II Solar set-aside of 0. Electricity must be delivered to NY. Yes. New (operational after Sept. eligible biomass. Credit Trading Penalties Yes. geothermal. hydro (<=5 MW). Wind. Hydroelectric. CHP/Cogeneration. Yes. ocean. Chapter 3. geothermal. Coal Mine Methane. Fuel Cells. and fuel cells.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . or fuel cells =2 kWh toward compliance.nrel. biomass.000excess RECs can $500.5¢/kWh. 2011 and thereafter. Power Technologies Energy Data Book. Hydroelectric. tidal. 1. Wind. fuel cells that use renewable fuel. Wave Energy. small hydropower. Liquid Biofuel. Wisconsin Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 3% by 2003.2% by 2011 (0. 2% of total incremental RPS requirement (7.5% annually 2015-2019 5. including cofiring. Ocean Thermal Unspecified Possibly. Utilities with Penalty of $5.1. Coal Gasification. them. geothermal. Biomass. Landfill Gas.6% can come from facilities installed prior to 1998).gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3. Increase by 1%/yr to 10% by January 1. Penalty of 5¢/kWh can be made to Renewable Energy Development Fund. wind. Rhode Island 16% by 2020. Wind. RECs valid At discretion of PUC for 4 years from date of issuance. New York 25% by 2013. Geothermal Electric. 1 kWh biomass. Anaerobic Digestion. geothermal.5% annually 2008-2010.880 MW by 2015 (5000 MW new) Target of at least 500 MW from renewables other than wind 0. Texas Solar. GATS Solar Thermal Electric. Yes. fuel cells using hydrogen derived from renewables. Anaerobic Digestion. Municipal Solid Waste. Solar Thermal Process Heat. Yes.71%) is setaside for customer-sited Photovoltaics. geothermal. ERCOT REC Lesser of 5¢/kWh or Trading System. landfill gas.5% by 2020 Solar Water Heat. Biogas. Eligibility may be xtended by PUC. Landfill Gas.5% by 2001 increasing to 2. biomass. increasing 1. increasing 1% annually 2011-2014. Other Distributed Generation Technologies. wave. wind. Fuel Cells. Photovoltaics.3. 1 kWh solar =3kWh.88 Table 3. & hydro under 60 MW. tidal. 200% of average market value of renewable energy credits. for solar penalty is 200% of PV REC value. 1% voluntary standard. CHP/Cogeneration. wind. hydro. Pennsylvania 18% by 2020. Waste Coal. 1999) or small (<2MW) facilities eligible. Tidal Energy. http://www.000 is allowed in trade or bank legislation. biomass. Eligible Resources Solar. Solar. Solar Space Heat. Table 3.

2. Chapter 3. Anaerobic Digestion. Solar Thermal Electric. Landfill Gas.nrel. Wind. Fuel Cells (Renewable Fuels) Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Photovoltaics. solar. "Other Such Alternative Sources of Environmentally Preferable Energy" Wind. and biomass Minnesota 1% by 2005 increasing by at least 1%/year to 10% by 2015 Meet growth in electricity demand from 2005-2013 with renewable energy sources (becomes mandatory in 2013 if not met). Table 3.89 In addition to State Renewable Portfolio Standards and Purchase Requirements. Landfill Gas.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . CHP/Cogeneration. Biomass. Hydroelectric. Hydroelectric. Photovoltaics.gov/analysis/power_databook/chapter3.17 State Renewable Energy Goals (Nonbinding) State Illinois Purchase Requirements 8% by 2013 (75% wind) Eligible Resources Solar Water Heat.3. Table 3. Vermont Solar Thermal Electric. http://www. Wind. Power Technologies Energy Data Book. Biomass. hydro (<60 MW). there are also some nonbinding goals that three states have adopted.

90 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

wet-mill corn processing and pulp and paper mills can be categorized as biorefineries since they produce multiple products from biomass. Sugar platform biorefineries would break biomass down into different types of component sugars for fermentation or other biological processing into various fuels and chemicals. the various components of which could be directly used as fuel.nrel. including ones that would otherwise be made from petrochemicals. The idea is for biorefineries to produce both high-volume liquid fuels and high-value chemicals or products in order to address national energy needs while enhancing operation economics. Currently. June 2006. BIOREFINERIES BRIEF OVERVIEW As a petroleum refinery uses petroleum as the major input and processes it into many different products. Biomass Program. Two of the most promising emerging biorefinery platforms are the sugar platform and the thermochemical platform (also known as the syngas platform). Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. a biorefinery uses lignocellulosic biomass as the major input and processes it into many different products.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . http://www. The diagram below illustrates the biorefinery concept.91 4. Thermochemical biorefineries would convert biomass to synthesis gas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) or pyrolysis oil.gov/biomass/biorefinery. Research is currently being conducted to foster new industries to convert biomass into a wide range of products.

corn. and canola oils are in wide use today for food and chemical applications. June 2006. Developing thermochemical technologies will allow a more efficient means of tapping the enormous energy potential of lignocellulosic biomass. http://www1. Transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat produces fatty acid methyl ester. Table 4.1 Biorefinery Platforms Platform Sugar Platform Description Developing technology to break cellulose and hemicellulose down into their component sugars. Thermochemical Platform Biogas Platform Carbon-Rich Chains Platform Plant Products Platform Source: U. commonly known as biodiesel. palm. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.gov/biomass/index.92 The Department of Energy Biomass Program is currently focusing efforts on two biorefinery platforms – sugar and thermochemical – but other platforms also have potential for expanding the use of biomass energy. and also make it possible to instead convert the biomass to valuable chemicals or materials. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Lignin can either be burned to provide process heat and electricity or can itself be converted to fuels and chemicals Converting solid biomass to a gaseous or liquid fuel by heating it with limited oxygen prior to combustion can greatly increase the overall efficiency. and the fatty acids from which it is made. This methane-rich biogas can be used as fuel or as a base chemical for biobased products. Selective breeding and genetic engineering can develop plant strains that produce greater amounts of desirable feedstocks or chemicals or even compounds that the plant does not naturally produce — getting the biorefining done in the biological plant rather than the industrial plant.html Note: This is not an exhaustive list of platforms. Those sugars can then be processed to fuel ethanol or other building block chemicals. Decomposing biomass with natural consortia of microorganisms in closed tanks known as anaerobic digesters produces methane (natural gas) and carbon dioxide. The glycerin byproduct of biodiesel.eere.energy. Biomass Program. Department of Energy. S. Natural plant oils such as soybean. could all be platform chemicals for biorefineries.

Department of Energy Sugar Platform Biorefinery Projects Project name A Second Generation Dry Mill Biorefinery A New Biorefinery Platform Intermediate Partner Broin and Associates Project cost $5.gov/biomass/sugar_biorefineries. germ. and endosperm from corn kernels prior to making ethanol from the remaining starch.93 In April 2002 the U. Table 4. S. Nebraska.. http://www1. protein.eere.S. Chemicals and Other Economical and Sustainable Products. Cargill. and oil from corn fiber. which will be completed in three to four years. Develop a process for pretreating a blend of distillers’ grain (animal feed coproduct from corn ethanol production) and stover to allow ethanol production from both.2 U. Develop fermentative organisms and processes to ferment carbohydrates to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and then make a slate of products from the 3HP.2 million High Plains Corporation $17. Department of Energy solicited projects for “Biomass Research and Development for the Production of Fuels. June 2006. Department of Energy.4 million Project Description Separate bran.3 propanediol) and fuel ethanol. Investigate making high-value products. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Development of a biorefinery concept that converts both starch (such as corn) and lignocellulose (such as corn stover) to fermentable sugars for production of value added chemicals (like 1. This project will pilot-scale test and validate this process for commercial use.S. were selected to assist in the development of sugar platform research. Develop and build a pilot-scale biorefinery that produces sugars and chemicals such as lactic acid and ethanol from grain.) National Corn Growers Association $2. Inc. a process was developed for separation of hemicellulose.4 million Under a previous DOE-funded project.” The following six projects. A large-scale pilot facility will be built for integration with High Plains’ ethanol plant in York. Inc.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .A.energy. $26 million $18. Biomass Program.I. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Power. Source: U. $6 million Making Industrial Biorefining Cargill-Dow LLC Happen Integrated Corn-Based Biorefinery Advanced Biorefining of Distillers’ Grain and Corn Stover Blends: PreCommercialization of a Biomass-Derived Process Technology Separation of Corn Fiber and Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals Phase II: Pilot-Scale Operation E.7 million (now Abengoa S. while leaving a high-protein animal feed. as well as ethanol and animal feed from the separated fractions.

94 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

ornl. TN. All plants in natural and conservation areas (as well as algae and other aquatic plants growing in ponds. only information on the grain and oilseeds crops are included. including the biomass feedstocks actually used. Nontheless. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Oak Ridge. oceans.95 5.gov. FEEDSTOCKS PRIMARY BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS Primary biomass is produced directly by photosynthesis and includes all terrestrial plants now used for food. Because this version of the Data Book is focusing primarily on the bioenergy industry as it exists today. However. Clearly there is also no nationwide source of information on woody or herbaceous crops being used for energy since this is occurring only on a very small scale in a few isolated experimental situations. fiber and fuelwood.bioenergy. maps and explanations for assumptions behind the potential biomass resource calculations that have been performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory biomass economists can be found on the Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network (BFIN) website at www. This Data Book covers only current usage of biomass and does not attempt to address the potential for biomass feedstock. lakes. Source: Lynn Wright. will be used for bioenergy. as the bioenergy industry develops. only a small portion of the primary biomass produced will ever be harvested as feedstock material for the production of bioenergy and bioproducts. plus some crop residues (such as orchard trimmings and nut hulls) and some residues from logging and forest operations that are currently used for heat and power production. both woody and herbaceous perennial crops will be planted and harvested specifically for bioenergy and bioproducts end-uses. or artificial ponds and bioreactors) are also considered primary biomass. In the future it is anticipated that a larger proportion of the residues inherently generated from food crop harvesting. Additionally. It would be desirable to include information on the amount and types of crop residues and forest logging. Tables. or pulp fiber residues currently being used for energy on a state by state basis. Primary biomass feedstocks are thus primary biomass that is harvested or collected from the field or forest where it is grown. other sources of information do exist concerning the future potential of biomass. feed. as well as a larger proportion of the residues generated from ongoing logging and forest operations. Examples of primary biomass feedstocks currently being used for bioenergy include grains and oilseed crops used for transportation fuel production. but that information is not readily available.

650 9.109 12.600 8.95 171.90 Loan rate 1.99 2006/07 81.46 1.674 5.120 15 13.81 2011/12 83.96 1.0 2.45 1.0 73.edu/data-sets/baseline/2005/index.575 8.4 2.7 81.434 6.105 1.6 161.595 1.33 2014/15 84.715 15 12.950 3.3 16.5 75.45 1.250 1.900 12.700 9.714 Feed & residual 5.850 15 12.264 11.724 15.000 1.14 209.2 1.400 11.95 168.550 8.394 11.965 1.470 8.024 6.125 3.15 163.U. and a continuing increase in net returns (over variable costs) through 2014.225 1.549 11.215 12.16 146.50 2005/06 81.850 12.775 11.96 USDA’s corn baseline projections show a continuing rise in bushels of corn allocated to fuel alcohol use.179 9.450 2. This analysis is updated annually.204 1.690 15 12.150 10.95 175.html _______________________ a Net returns include estimates of marketing loan benefits.15 181.875 1.159 10.275 11.619 5. percent 9. February 2005 (OCE-2005-1).4 1.14 206. 2004—2015 Item 2003/04 2004/05 Area (million acres): Planted acres 78.850 3.395 15 13.370 Domestic 8. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .95 182.070 1.625 11.200 3.549 14.765 2.93 Per bushel 1.783 6.755 1.5 2.45 1.577 2.080 1.95 170.087 958 Production 10.055 2.84 2013/14 84.109 9.0 2.mannlib.194 12. a continuing increase in corn yields.33 2009/10 82.0 76.05 1.0 1.140 2.055 15 12.40 1.549 5.194 9.6 2.240 1.700 11.52 1.8 1.35 1.0 1.85 164.95 176.675 2.95 180. http://usda.264 11.0 76.724 10.14 204.819 10. Table 5.4 2.825 3.25 1.98 1.825 2.340 2.42 1.28 179.180 1.16 1. & industrial 2.9 2.741 Imports 14 15 Supply 11.15 144.67 1.675 9.6 1.0 76.8 1.050 3. corn.075 Food.95 173.45 1.360 8.14 201.75 1.0 74.15 1.15 191.900 3. Table 8 .109 11.885 2.800 2.5 76.S.770 Fuel alcohol use 1.897 2.230 2.95 178.750 9.754 5.394 12.6 147.0 73.970 2.915 1.475 15 12.03 Returns over variable costs (dollars per acre): a Net returns 185.cornell.3 Yields (bushels per acre): Yield/harvested acre 142.114 11.244 6.604 6.8 2.140 1.7 Prices (dollars per bushel): Farm price 2.14 211.895 Ending stocks 958 1.1 152.257 10.6 154.6 158.0 Harvested acres 71.56 2010/11 83.900 15 13.589 5.864 5.000 3.6 160.845 Exports 1.1 149.725 9.040 1.035 1.95 184.2 160.2 1.410 1.12 1.95 Variable costs of production (dollars): Per acre 158.625 8.425 1.255 15 13.6 1.98 1.6 145.6 151.1 Corn Baseline Projections.164 12.265 15 12. a slight increase in corn acreage.65 1.3 2.159 11.5 74.825 1.800 2.215 1. seed.00 1.975 12.85 1.525 11.2 Supply and use (million bushels): Beginning stocks 1.45 2007/08 81.1 156.45 1.72 2008/09 82.0 75.050 Total use 10.819 Stocks/use ratio.76 Source: USDA Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2014.109 9.33 2012/13 84.1 2.164 9.4 1.1 73.

600 1. The World of Corn.800 1. 2005. 1985—2005 1.org/industry/outlook/ Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 481 .97 The figure below shows the dramatic rise in demand for corn as a feedstock for ethanol production that has occurred over the last several years.400 1.000 706 800 600 400 200 0 1985 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 349 396 429 526 566 628 996 1.com.200 Million Bushels 1.575 271 Source: National Corn Growers Association.168 1.ncga.323 1. http://www. Figure 5.ethanolrfa. Also found at: http://www.1 Corn Used for Ethanol Production.

2 Corn Usage by Segment. 2005. The World of Corn. Figure 5.98 In 2005. 2005 See d Alcohol Ce re al/Othe r Sw e e te ne rs Starch HFCS Ethanol Export Fe ed/Re s idual 20 135 190 220 285 535 1.com/WorldOfCorn/main/consumption1.ncga.575 1.850 6. ethanol production accounted for about 15% of the overall corn consumption. Corn used for feed/residual is by far the largest usage. http://www.asp Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .000 M illion Bus hels Source: National Corn Growers Association.

The year 2004 provided an unusually favorable climate for high corn yields over much of the corn belt.06 1.631 160.507 6.232.499.589 134.2 Corn: Area.487 133.040.8 95. http://www.037 15.758.229 72. crop subsidy programs.787 78.944 142.803 6.882.583 16.2 10.920 18 106.557 79.633 18.6 107.103.149.7 9. Over the past 10 years the corn acres planted have varied between about 71 and 81 million acres.440 136.9 9.1 9.3 8.502.5% of all corn grain produced was used for ethanol production.6 101.192 18.90 Corn for silage Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 a 2005 Yield per Value of harvested Area Production acre production Harvested 1.4 9.832 80.3 107.8 9.381.913 16.607 15.992 20.479 17.002 6.000 1.85 1.000 Tons 25.894 69. Yield variation relates to climate variation and improved varieties.448 7.112.580 78.878.000 Acres 1.351.99 In the baseline year of 2001. 1996-2005 Corn for grain Area Yield per Planted harvested for all Area acre Production purposes harvested 1.819 6.966.1 97.386 70.101 17.142 16.82 1. Yield.707 5.107 147.nass.293 21.222 80.671 126.206.294 6.759 75.084 5.122 14.165 72. previous year grain prices and animal demand for silage.4 102.991 6.32 2.430.94 1.086 81.054 16.2 9.922.581 22.311 Source: USDA. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .807.685 77.013 5.072 Marketing year average price per bushel Dollars 2. and Value.000 Bushels 79.9 11.476.4 86.915.42 2.768 138.603 70.71 2.082 16. 7. acreage variation is related to feed and export demands.378 24.551 72. Production.usda.612 79.156 18.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.089. 2006 Agricultural Statistics.537 72. Table 1-34.000 Acres Bushels 1.43 1.293 24.4 11.644 127. Table 5.asp _______________________ a Preliminary.1 95.97 2.051 75.8 102.702 68.000 Dollars Acres Tons 1.330 129.929 73.

750 4.120 b 33.800 464.072 a Source: USDA.500 86.050 11.300 380 3.500 157 181 173 2. by State.850 888.089.080 30 170 75 340 190 11.200 7.244.020 128 134 143 6.100 28 160 65 270 235 12.400 12.550 11.000 154.950 111 130 119 620 615 595 131 140 130 1.3 Corn: Area.950 164 180 143 5.450 3.500 539.640 53.700 2.840 466.400 3.564 9. Table 5.860 b 52.015 b 37.250 340 26 470 20 2.985 4.000 b 288.170 520 28 480 20 2.920 140.550 302.700 3.180 49.770 146 168 154 11.800 2.040 2.900 1.088.162.900 12.200 786. Yield.380 30.625 57.940 1.759 a Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming US Corn for grain Area harvested Yield per harvested acre a a 2004 2004 2002 2003 2002 2003 1.880 b 54.500 460 2.500 b b 7.900 47.200 550 2.085 329.900 71.100 1.270.220 194.700 b b 10.390 5.000 1.900 12.usda.760 44.060 470.100 Production of sufficient quantities of corn to support ethanol production facilities occurs primarily in the mid-western states.100 102.799 353.670 2.000 Bushels 23.107 142.025 b 257.350 81.880 2.100 65 8.000 22.860 11.880 3.319.500 465.2 160.300 300.000 Acres 220 47 365 530 1.030 1.670 10.350 b 22.650 7.000 86.600 11. 2006 Agricultural Statistics. and Production.nass.650 6.256 2.800 3.200 1.200 6.040 950 135 135 148 b b b b b b 162 153 154 123 152 143 39 32 28 82 90 94 290 280 230 129 130 129 50 75 60 140 170 170 11.750 5.650 3.450 10.632 29.900 129 136 148 50 50 49 129 131 140 70.926 3.860 42.000 Bushels 23.850 146 159 174 530 440 365 135 136 129 2.200 5.070 3.250 156 158 143 190 200 250 125 150 115 30 28 25 170 170 160 890 980 960 115 140 122 b b b b b b 215 295 285 105 100 116 3.929 2005 1.000 173.440 61.450 290 53 1.124.950 8.052 429.410 7.200 21.500 5 15 80 140 990 750 1.280 55.200 b b 6.500 2.750 85 78.840 970.950 70 8.880 36.580 2. http://www.516 1.600 90 80.680 1.000 4.120.920 2.000 1.350 210.830 55 100 470 130 48 3.700 7.200 b 29.022 2.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.860 1. Not estimated.700 26.240 72.960 67.350 b 65.290 30.180 4.600 2.950 13.580 120.300 230 51 1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .086 2004 1.603 2004 1.631 75. Yields vary considerably across the states.750 2.807.868.100 4 15 80 130 1.140 1.000 117.296 10.000 1. high yields in the western states occur under irrigation.400 710 1.812.250 7.430 b 259.950 59.222 Production 2003 1.250 146 166 154 b b b b b b b b b b b b 61 72 62 113 143 122 48 58 55 180 180 175 440 500 460 121 122 124 680 740 700 106 117 120 1.000 147.9 2002 1.050 55 95 490 150 45 3.4 147.050 6.150 b 19.893 8.210 420 28 490 20 2.800 80 81.575 427.400 12.700 12.080 131.750 491.900 1.198 37.250 7.200 112 105 129 3.944 73.850 2.040 84.750 5.650 1.105 367.110 3.350 2 300 4.400 2 315 4.000 Acres Acres Acres Bushels Bushels Bushels 190 195 200 122 123 119 22 27 22 190 180 195 350 305 230 140 140 131 140 150 110 160 175 172 890 1.400 120.920 23.112.150 3.000 Acres 220 53 320 540 1.750 155.250 140.600 12.956 b 42.450 120 150 135 1.560 2.280 1.600 b 22.450 650 2.850 118 139 114 13 12 12 155 155 163 b b b b b b 330 360 360 115 145 118 70 105 80 195 200 205 27 29 28 115 131 109 2.000 Bushels 23. 2003—2005 Area planted for all purposes State 2003 1.830 55 95 500 170 48 3.900 68 8.191.800 3.970 108 162 111 17 15 17 140 143 148 7.300 2.450 2 240 4.380 1.650 1.750 28.760 137.400 432.100 5.000 b 50.480 16.150 1.170 1.040 478.000 929.520 1.130 18.530 5.asp _______________________ a b Preliminary.180 137 152 132 500 410 330 134 135 136 b b b b b b 410 425 400 123 153 135 b b b b b b 2.145 1.350 250 58 1.250 4 15 86 125 980 820 1.850 4.708.600 6.650 680 1. Table 1-36.400 2.000 3.200 30 160 70 335 230 11.410 3.000 740 1.050 77.100 233.800 4.000 Acres 220 50 240 540 1.080 1.400 b 23.

The highest concentration of corn production is found in central Illinois.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .S. Department of Agriculture.101 The large majority of U.3 Corn for Grain. corn grain is produced in just a few mid-western states. 2002 Source: U. Figure 5. northern Iowa/southern Minnesota. National Agricultural Statistics Service. Harvested Acres. www.gov/research/atlas02/atlas-crops.S.usda.nass. and eastern Nebraska.

htm Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Planted and Harvested. acres harvested for grain are always less than planted acres due to silage and crop failure.102 Currently. planted acres can be related primarily to anticipated market demand. Department of Agriculture. Figure 5.gov/nass/aggraphs/crops. www. National Agricultural Statistics Service. 1984—2005 Source: U.usda.S.4 Corn Acres.

103

Doberman et. al., noted in 2002 that average corn yields have increased linearly at a rate of 1.7 bushels per acre (bu/ac) per year. At present that translates to a rate of 1.1% per year, but if the same average linear rate continues, the percentage rate will decline. Corn yields must continue to increase at a rate of at least 1% per year to meet the demands created by expected population growth. In 2002 average corn yields approached 140 bu/ac with progressive farmers routinely harvesting 160 to 220 bu/ac. Yields rose in the 60’s and 70’s largely due to increasing application of fertilizer to responsive corn hybrids; however, after 1980 yield increases were maintained without continued fertilizer increases due to significant increases in nutrient use efficiency. In the past 15 years, yields have continued to increase due to improved hybrids with greater stress resistance together with improved crop management techniques such as conservation tillage, higher plant densities and improved seed qualities. Yields at a given site fluctuate as much as 10-15% from year to year due to normal variations in solar radiation and temperature regimes assuming suitable moisture levels. Lack of sufficient moisture is the most important factor reducing yields in most of the U.S. corn belt where most corn is not irrigated. The yield potential of corn continues to be much greater than the average yields currently being obtained in most locations in the United States. Genetic improvements (particularly in drought resistance) are expected to continue to contribute to yield increases, but continued improvements in crop management will be ever more important. Key references on yield potential. Figure 5.5 Corn Yield, 1975—2005

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, www.usda.gov/nass/aggraphs/crops.htm Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

104 Figure 5.5 (Continued) Corn Yield, 1975—2005 Additional References for Corn Yield: Dobermann, A., T. Arkebauer, K. Cassman, J. Lindquist, J. Specht, D. Walters, and H. Yang. 2002. Understanding and Managing Corn Yield Potential. Proceedings of the Fertilizer Industry Round Table, Charleston, South Carolina. The Fertilizer Industry Round Table, Forest Hill, Maryland, October. Retrieved 5 January 2005 from: Dobermann, A., T. Arkebauer, K.G. Cassman, R.A. Drijber, J.L. Lindquist, J.E. Specht, D.T. Walters, H. Yang, D. Miller, D.L. Binder, G. Teichmeier, R.B. Ferguson, and C.S. Wortmann. 2003. Understanding corn yield potential in different environments. p. 67-82. In L.S. Murphy (ed.) Fluid focus: the third decade. Proceedings of the 2003 Fluid Forum, Vol. 20. Fluid Fertilizer Foundation, Manhattan, KS. Both Doberman et al. references can be obtained at the following url: http://soilfertility.unl.edu/Materials%20to%20include/Research%20Pubs/Ecological%20Intensificatio n.htm Tollenaar, M. and E. A. Lee. Yield potential, yield stability, and stress tolerance in maize. Field Crops Research 75 (2002):161-169. Duvick, D.N. and K.G. Cassman. 1999. Post-green revolution trends in yield potential of temperature maize in the North-Central United States. Crop Sci. 39:1622-1630.

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

105

Production of food for domestic livestock is the largest single use of corn grain, accounting for nearly half of all corn grain produced. Ethanol production is included in the food, seed and industrial category.

Table 5.4 Corn: Supply and Disappearance, 1996—2005 (million bushels)
Supply Disappearance Domestic use Ending stocks August 31

Year (beginning Beginning September 1) stocks Production Imports 1996 426 9,233 13 1997 883 9,207 9 1998 1,308 9,759 19 1999 1,787 9,431 15 2000 1,718 9,915 7 2001 1,899 9,503 10 2002 1,596 8,967 14 2003 1,087 10,089 14 b 2004 958 11,807 11 c 2005 2,114 11,112 10

Total 9,672 10,099 11,085 11,232 11,639 11,412 10,578 11,190 12,776 13,236

Food, Total disappear- Privately Govern Feed and seed, and ance held a residual industrial Total Exports ment 5,277 1,714 6,991 1,797 8,789 881 2 5,482 1,805 7,287 1,504 8,791 1,304 4 5,471 1,846 7,318 1,984 9,298 1,775 12 5,664 1,913 7,578 1,937 9,515 1,704 14 5,842 1,957 7,799 1,941 9,740 1,891 8 5,864 2,046 7,911 1,905 9,815 1,590 6 5,563 2,340 7,903 1,588 9,491 1,083 4 5,795 2,537 8,332 1,900 10,232 958 0 6,162 2,686 8,848 1,814 10,662 2,113 1 6,000 2,960 8,960 1,850 10,810 2,425 1

Total 883 1,308 1,787 1,718 1,899 1,596 1,087 958 2,114 2,426

Source: USDA, 2006 Agricultural Statistics, Table 1-37, http://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.asp _______________________ Includes quantity under loan and farmer-owned reserve. Preliminary. c Projected as of January 12, 2006, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates. Totals may not add due to rounding.
b a

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

837 150.900 69.08 2.444 2.28 3.2 302.5 Corn for Grain: Marketing Year Average Price and Value.55 2.056 24.244 16.17 2 142.53 2.904 947.354 1.842 491.1 97.053 63.320 3.4 61.062 2.000.446 8.570 116.94 1.9 13.04 1.53 2.1 60.53 1.25 2.233 2.000 3.624 5.5 504.2 2 8.597 2.147 319.281.03 2.25 193.608 100.9 743.104 108.85 863.188 50.400 2.130 102.010 278.092 316.96 2.46 2.4 2.37 2.35 2.358 981.37 1.707 2. http://www.6 2.574 25.155 6.145 2.825 2.45 2.35 1.65 2.85 2.7 974.025 4.125 16.28 1.65 20.385.491 186. Table 5.48 2.468.15 91.asp _______________________ a b States with no data are not listed.8 1.350.05 150. 2006 Agricultural Statistics.45 2.3 2 8.833 2.03 1.37 1.955 27.99 1.39 2.000 2.625 2.550 2.174 313.080 63.030 2.75 2.173.100 2.978 760.563 52.45 2.524 4.37 2.425 2.762 4.5 2.426 2.174 211.05 57.705 59.308 2.99 1.750 75.850 69.250 2.532 113.339 388.83 2.350 2.17 2.174.75 64.717 141.273 2.794 2.4 6.8 1.000 Dollars 1.085. Table 1-39.59 2.000 Dollars 2.791 2.usda.nass.44 2.49 2.090 10.848.990.12 2.002.9 24.373 2.106 Prices of corn used for ethanol production may vary for each mill depending on whether the mills are owned by farmers’ cooperatives or whether the corn is purchased on the open market.25 299.24 2. Prices vary across states considerably.15 163.255 189.358 6.43 2.75 2.651 15.664 2.06 Source: USDA.1 116.23 2.95 192.803 24.81 2.565 227.35 6.075 2.94 2.82 1.800 135.128 2.726 12.208 3 2.42 2.580 35.19 2.294 21.7 615.038 2.56 2.980 2.710 14.72 2.5 25.427.42 2.063 2.411 101.838 2.137 144.953 67.640 2.82 2.42 2.686.931 45.25 160.8 310.152 527.65 2.821 506.134 145.307 5.441 2.48 2.381.950 62.258 2.2 2.615 2.476.99 2.356 4.96 2.14 1.020 2.51 2.82 2. by State Statea Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming US Marketing year average price per bushel Value of production 2005b 2003 2004 2005 2003 2004 Dollars Dollars Dollars 1.97 2.369 22.28 2.273 607.9 2.95 4.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.4 2.97 1.36 2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .75 40.483 55.240 794. Preliminary.807 1.840 978.030 2.000 Dollars 1.7 2.000 915.599.930 3.655 80.332.932 2.790 1.45 16.700 257.35 54.39 2.02 1.000 2.956 308.37 1.6 2.960 69.958 1.2 2 19.085 2.87 2.871 4.68 2.415 836.15 1.370 45.6 15.890 799.37 2.264 2.466.3 2.17 1.57 2.88 1.191 6.708 13.05 374.040.104 2.85 4.643 2.117 626.274 89.665.1 753.

26 87.3 23.67 89. However.78 -30.04 281 28 72 Continued on next page.16 163.93 13.13 2.68 326.23 281 28 72 108 2. allocated overhead Total.26 21.25 319.25 349.28 12.18 23.28 5.79 150.09 1.2 5.13 236 14 86 142 2.31 0 2.4 225.37 26.97 2.62 53.42 11.02 0.07 10.22 20.19 23.8 60.9 286.86 163. and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total.9 0 0.69 191.17 140.14 26.15 138 4 96 95 2.62 34.37 91.09 18.72 32.49 0.66 Northern Crescent 2002 2003 294.49 9.45 8.03 51. when land and labor opportunity costs are considered.53 134 2.93 31.64 4.97 116.4 26.84 35.12 2.5 10.24 148.89 45 0.7 5.95 25. 2002—2003 (dollars per planted acre) Item Gross value of production Primary product: Corn grain Secondary product: Corn silage Total.85 4.65 13.4 2.47 17.19 3.47 26.62 302.72 20.79 18.87 98.17 23.55 216.41 0.99 68.71 134.83 2.06 34.22 190.17 59.8 16.96 329. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer Soil conditioners Manure Chemicals Custom operationsb Fuel.93 195. a Excluding Government Payments.77 12.41 353.1 270 5 95 127 2.06 14.6 14.35 0 1.06 25.78 25.2 11.69 15.09 Heartland 2002 2003 326.22 0.36 331.11 263.53 3.64 10. costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) a Enterprise size (planted acres) a Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) United States 2002 2003 310.89 180.32 35.94 312.74 55.03 20.37 33.85 186.54 -16.11 317.94 0.54 0 1.81 12.17 35.17 -46.99 151.3 270 5 95 157 2.32 5. then farmers in areas of high corn yield may come closer to making a profit without subsidies.09 1.32 138 4 96 138 2.54 12.36 -34.53 56.75 51.48 138.55 345.6 1.19 10.24 0.91 188.6 26.38 16.72 34.6 Corn Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre. many farmers only factor operating costs into the calculation.22 0.72 172.3 1. If the residue from corn production also had a market as a bioenergy feedstock.43 67. making corn the most profitable commodity crop in most regions of the country.02 14.19 5.47 31.17 193.44 5.11 10.83 43.8 -51.54 0.44 5.3 22.65 15.45 151.06 100.83 5.88 5.74 52.88 1.48 41.37 2.18 296.6 37.22 9.22 1.91 0.95 -14.78 53.09 22.93 Northern Great Planes 2002 2003 211.17 334.51 0.34 220.31 14.107 These data show that government subsidies are vital to ensuring a profit to farmers.01 11.39 3. lube.1 11.32 236 14 86 149 2.13 134.82 156.73 299.63 0 0.33 327.13 26.83 329.65 5.63 34.06 5. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .28 192.09 -60. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land (rental rate) Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total.43 11.7 1.77 100.79 53.36 0 2.5 10.07 147.82 31.28 5. Table 5.71 3.65 1.

2001.02 0. and commercial drying.01 193.51 33.72 39.2 12. and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total.75 2.53 169.2 70.59 1.82 156.76 20. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer Soil conditioners Manure Chemicals b Custom operations Fuel.11 4.24 144.92 47. US Department of Agriculture.94 35.6 (Continued) Corn Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre. lube. Cost of custom operations.23 24. a Excluding Government Payments.57 23. 2002—2003 (dollars per planted acre) Item Gross value of production Primary product: Corn grain Secondary product: Corn silage Total.3 72 1 99 97 2.19 0.71 3.43 -54.7 0.94 54.73 35.86 12.04 16.95 28.108 Table 5.74 141.71 399.32 310.67 83.97 29.91 12.22 162.48 9.42 0 1.09 71.12 6.54 255.32 10.65 35.95 31.37 330.06 50.78 372 -62.htm _______________________ a b Developed from survey base year.57 0.46 47.99 206.76 15.41 136.84 16.79 28. technical services.16 47.45 0.62 31.65 333.5 317.74 0.36 51.35 31.76 -68.66 0.6 Eastern Uplands 2002 2003 172.54 10.48 7. costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) a Enterprise size (planted acres) a Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) Prairie Gateway 2002 2003 308.74 73.gov/data/costsandreturns/testpick.13 16.96 176.63 16.83 298.11 138.16 20.74 14.66 225.54 14.3 0.19 15.48 32.95 0 0.35 78 21 79 120 2.09 0 1 119.ers.89 309.05 48.74 9.07 12.81 68.78 -93.93 21.02 6.05 5.57 72 1 99 98 2.22 48.78 187.02 45.27 -32.22 14.83 Southern Seaboard 2002 2003 227.49 114.36 44.47 281.23 301.59 34.67 171.1 0.63 1.4 30.62 -87.49 2.58 198.47 2.02 0. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .48 6.21 17.79 6.67 37.75 0.28 73.1 24.12 6.62 6. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land (rental rate) Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total. http://www.96 42.68 10.31 3.45 346 61 39 147 2. allocated overhead Total.16 24.45 173.22 146.41 126 2.22 5.6 0.79 50.15 56.67 6.95 2 229.54 44.03 33.usda.8 2.41 41.49 78 21 79 Source: Economic Research Service.9 331.15 0 0.86 10.25 346 61 39 67 2.

67 2.29 38.17 108.48 29.90 -76.42 11.40 11.88 1.46 3.35 86.49 70.02 39.49 28.92 172.47 369.04 0.09 3.12 262.17 193.15 207.15 2. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land (rental rate) Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total.25 349.53 3.77 331.54 12.96 54.76 0.70 30.94 312.99 63.82 189 15 85 130 2. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .38 192.94 20.12 2.usda.49 2000 244.21 201.71 3.84 236 14 86 134 2.26 2.54 2.17 140. Department of Agriculture.33 359.11 10.69 189 15 85 138 1.55 16.65 26.46 361. a Excluding Government Payments.22 2.17 0.S.44 0. allocated overhead Total.79 6.22 0. 2001.04 17. 2001-03 estimates developed from survey base year.16 0.91 0.92 24.77 89.83 43.28 3. 1996—2003 (dollars per planted acre) Item Gross value of production Primary product: Corn grain Secondary product: Corn silage Total.48 28.31 1999 228.56 1998 259.44 5.06 25.40 212.81 7.91 188.109 This table shows the historical trends of ups and downs in corn grain prices and the consequent effect on profitability. and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total.42 11.84 35.37 23.30 24.gov/data/costsandreturns/testpick.51 2001 264.17 23.12 2.75 0.96 16.53 56. http://www.56 26.51 27.71 46.31 3.11 2003 317.50 153.50 84.14 26.93 26.31 4.74 55.21 0.05 6.21 85.26 87.37 2.32 3.46 68. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer Soil conditioners Manure Chemicals Custom operations Fuel.65 0.39 1997 327.79 18.60 27.23 343.96 7.16 163.82 156.82 11.84 -96.44 10.7 Corn Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.67 186.77 189 15 85 144 1.43 15. costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) Enterprise size (planted acres) Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) 1996 366.02 41. lube.98 10.25 2002 310.50 5.ers.55 0.48 360.93 13.78 0.92 32.30 374.06 14.32 236 14 86 149 2.20 11.72 172.13 26.52 189 15 85 136 1.17 0.69 86.98 109.16 0.22 1.21 66.55 230. Table 5.41 246.96 266.12 17.31 3.57 77.62 34.13 236 14 86 Source: Economic Research Service.86 157.99 350.89 64.53 19.81 213.49 0.29 22.47 26. 1996.41 0. U.83 28.76 3.47 10.88 13.67 89.13 2.16 0.00 12.53 161.61 154.88 30.19 3.49 11.30 3.36 30.13 11.88 11.63 31.81 3.37 28.22 0.87 11.htm _______________________ 1996-2000 estimates developed from survey base year.58 -130.82 31.04 0.54 -16.02 80.91 189 15 85 135 1.96 1.96 158.16 130 2.30 24.07 29.65 47.36 7.72 0.36 11.25 319.17 0.60 -128.67 30.43 32.29 -28.78 -30.60 157.34 47.16 86.60 3.11 205.20 5.83 329.16 0.

National Agricultural Statistics Service.S. it could become important in expanding the range of locations of ethanol production facilities. www.usda.6 Sorghum for Grain.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Department of Agriculture.nass. but because it is largely grown in an area of the country that does not significantly overlap with corn production. Figure 5.110 Sorghum is currently a small contributor to ethanol production.gov/research/atlas02/atlas-crops. 2002 Source: U. Harvested Acres.

544 9.123 308 595.534 412 519. including syrup.37 845.526 3.26 964.385 11.000 Bushels Dollars 1.811 10.783 352 360. at assumed harvest moisture content of 14%.040 3.6 3.7 69. cwt = 100 pounds.913 10.7 60.248 8.976 13. Yield.776 13.932 11 3.8 937. Table 5.933 2.589 7.454 5.46 978.6 52.6 68.17 1.579 9.097 11.4 3.195 7.000 1.408.8 4.545 3.6 4.000 Acres 13. 1996—2005 Area Planted Area for all purposesa harvested 1.000 Acres 1.526 11.713 4.9 59. Grain weight per bushel is 56 lbs.97 904.081 320 470.3 69.626 7.4 3.552 13.140 408 411. c Based on the reported price of grain sorghum.000 Dollars Acres 795.2 67.3 69.517 6.978 343 453.464 352 393.274 4. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .736 Sorghum for grainb Yield per harvested acre Bushels 67.95 1. Production.19 843.654 3. _______________________ a b Grain and sweet sorghum for all uses. Includes both grain sorghum for grain.420 7.6 3.860 9.111 Sorghum is grown in areas that are generally too dry for unirrigated corn.7 Sorghum for silage Yield per harvested acre Marketing year Value of average price per Area cd cd cwt production Production Harvested 1. thus potential resource areas for starch based ethanol can be expanded through use of sorghum.893 3.166 2.723 9.14 855.486 6.986. 2006 Agricultural Statistics.125 9.716 10. and sweet sorghum for grain or seed. and Value.237 4.798 7.288 8.000 Tons 11.8 Sorghum: Area.5 2.9 50.218 Source: USDA.726 10.755 278 514.1 5. d Preliminary.04 715.327 311 Year Production 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005d Tons 1. Table 1-59.6 4.158 9.052 9.316 423 633.

....422 1.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.. Yield.. 2003—2005 Area planted for all purposes State 2003 1.636 2.100 111.....112 Sorghum is used for ethanol production only in the two states that planted over 3 million acres.. 3 2 70 68 210 136 7....530 1.200 8....610 8..nass... 1 1 70 83 70 83 38 25 27 47 47 50 1...... Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado b Delaware Georgia Illinois Kansas Kentucky Louisiana b Maryland Mississippi Missouri Nebraska New Mexico North Carolina Oklahoma Pennsylvania South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas b Virginia US 40 85 2.237 453.025 5..200 9 9... ..938 7...320 5....210 5 7.654 393.000 Acres 10 20 60 28 280 2 45 85 3..usda.....300 4.000 Acres 10 17 225 18 270 2 55 110 3..370 21.040 2.850 54 62 60 153...517 5..350 105 82 83 82 109 92 8..786 1....480 5 4 4 87 83 50 435 332 200 5 5 7 52 52 51 260 260 357 150 150 85 45 42 52 6. Estimates discontinued in 2005....900 2...000 1.960 10 12 10 90 90 90 900 1.050 . 6.. 2006 Agricultural Statistics..132 1......850 2..250 14.280 1.. http://www..6 68...900 2.400 195.000 Acres 10 23 66 26 160 ..712 ..486 2005a 1.. Kansas and Texas..170 15.750 6.365 14 14 13 50 52 50 700 728 650 250 240 240 37 60 52 9..7 69...000 Acres Acres Acres Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels 6 6 6 45 43 53 270 258 318 6 6 7 90 95 95 540 570 665 210 56 62 82 84 80 17.. .... .....410 ....893 Source: USDA...550 33 170 6 75 215 660 140 18 300 15 7 270 45 3.400 3...232 4..704 4. Table 1-62.000 1. .....asp _______________________ a b Preliminary. 3 4 65 84 195 336 73 18 23 84 79 80 6..840 2.....200 15 85 5 20 150 550 140 17 270 12 7 250 20 2. Table 5.. 25 135 340 120 16 270 11 10 180 22 2..000 1. by State.674 4....000 .900 127...420 2004 1.000 32.175 1..000 1. .220 4..9 Sorghum: Area.....000 1.840 210 145 130 77 108 76 16...454 Sorghum for grain Yield per harvested acre Production Area harvested 2005a 2005a 2005a 2003 2004 2003 2004 2003 2004 1.. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 ..040 1.660 9..798 6...000 32 13 24 95 80 90 3..880 500 415 250 62 78 87 31..736 52...7 411..750 25 90 .050 1..160 165 80 88 85 65 99 14.080 900 160 180 110 27 30 31 4....600 45 76 75 130.. and Production.......400 12..750 62 92 97 27 46 45 1. ..500 220..420 40 17 20 82 90 92 3.

World Agricultural and Supply Demand Estimates. and residual industrial 516 45 365 55 262 45 285 55 222 35 230 23 170 24 182 40 191 55 150 55 Ending stocks August 31 Year (beginning September 1) 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 b 2004 c 2005 Beginning stocks Production 18 795 47 634 49 520 65 595 65 471 42 514 61 361 43 411 34 454 57 394 Total 814 681 569 660 536 556 422 454 487 451 Total Exports 561 205 420 212 307 197 340 255 258 237 253 242 194 184 222 199 246 184 205 170 Total disappear. c Projected as of January 12. 2006 Agricultural Statistics.Privately Governa ment ance owned 766 47 0 632 49 0 504 65 0 595 65 0 494 41 1 495 61 0 379 43 0 421 34 0 430 57 0 375 76 0 Total 47 49 65 65 42 61 43 34 57 76 Source: USDA. _______________________ a b Includes quantity under loan and farmer–owned reserve. 2006. Table 1-61. Feed and seed.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.10 Sorghum: Supply and Disappearance. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Preliminary. Table 5.113 Sorghum is grown primarily for animal feed. 1996—2005 (million bushels) Supply Disappearance Domestic use Food.nass.usda.asp Note: Totals may not add due to independent rounding. About 11% of sorghum grain was used in the production of ethanol in 2004. http://www. seed and industrial category in 2004. This would account for most of the grain shown in the food.

78 38.39 122.23 154.6 7.32 124.21 17.6 135.33 123.36 3.87 10.66 124.98 71. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .15 38.94 0.92 17.03 20.87 79.gov/data/costsandreturns/testpick.52 23.49 5 95 15 22 62 Share 78 2.16 23.11 Sorghum Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.93 -141.38 24.72 11.69 96.26 7.28 11.14 Prairie Gateway 2002 2003 86.15 7.89 32.02 5 4.64 62.72 2.43 264.37 16.51 15.26 1 99 30 27 43 Cash 66 2.3 144.25 10 90 32 16 53 Share 31 31 16 16 53 53 Composite Composite Source: Economic Research Service. Table 5. 1995.8 7.33 2 98 41 11 48 Cash 56 2.83 4.37 6. a Excluding Government Payments.48 91.64 1 99 30 27 43 Cash 60 2.14 13.01 20. making it a potential source of crop residue in some areas of the country.67 80.17 16.48 217.01 Heartland Mississippi Portal 2002 2003 2002 2003 153.29 14.25 101.03 3.29 29.28 147. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total.79 10.43 5.89 -114.85 260.37 7.ers.04 61.59 126.35 4.49 9.63 119.59 24.74 17.22 2 98 41 11 48 Cash 71 2. U.16 287.01 2.79 176. allocated overhead Total costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Sorghum Yield: bushels per planted acre Price: dollars per bushel a Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) a Land tenure: Acres owned (percent) Acres cash rented (percent) Acres share rented (percent) c Land rent basis United States 2002 2003 95.96 9.9 13.44 38. and electricity Repairs Interest on operating inputs Total. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed b Fertilizer Chemicals Custom operations Fuel.94 7.74 5.89 176.26 20.06 0.97 101.45 22.25 29.26 202.26 53.14 9.99 24.75 6.4 7.52 65.33 11.S.24 210.75 -152.55 23.71 7.72 7.59 0.08 47.1 5.32 9.81 96.88 106.28 176.64 30.33 23.52 31.01 7. Department of Agriculture.06 65.68 0.22 4.52 17.62 3.5 3.03 11.33 47.66 -107.37 95.86 -107.114 The lower yields of sorghum grain results in lower profit in sorghum production compared to corn.15 -139.49 86.32 18.99 Eastern Uplands 2002 2003 126.01 -110.49 5.18 145.17 11.17 15.85 3.73 62.91 21.57 267.04 0.25 6.6 16.35 4.03 13.53 18.46 87.15 11.48 18.74 72.78 153.59 18.05 158.43 25.45 0.42 20.25 253.78 9.16 7.19 18.1 33 2.75 22.47 4.52 8.4 30.74 -116.68 21.08 11.75 96. Sorghum biomass production can be quite high.91 109.48 0.21 18.65 7.08 4.79 10 90 32 16 53 Share 43 2.usda.09 0.98 60.77 54.29 40.17 40.6 176.56 3.53 7.34 55.htm _______________________ a b Developed from survey base year.04 4. http://www.47 36.23 119.55 0.54 21. c Method used to determine the opportunity cost of land.77 124.89 9 91 45 2.21 197.56 106.14 13.39 -77.76 242.49 6.88 15.65 77.9 17.26 5 95 15 22 62 Share 31 2.45 66.21 28.59 3.77 29.63 15. 2002—2003 (dollars per planted acre) Item Gross value of production: Sorghum Total. Commercial fertilizer and soil conditioners.1 11. lube.25 5.11 70.18 25.85 0.66 -65.36 135.45 11.72 126.65 9.2 7.3 163.25 9 91 48 2.

49 33.22 4.35 4.38 24.2 6.79 23.26 7.78 21.2 4.97 114.1 5.58 51. resulting in considerable yield variability.69 6. allocated overhead Total costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Sorghum Yield: bushels per planted acre Price: dollars per bushel a Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) a Land tenure: Acres owned (percent) Acres cash rented (percent) Acres share rented (percent) c Land rent basis 1995 143 143 5. http://www.31 5.12 1998 96.68 1999 96.66 96.91 21. like corn.49 9. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total.93 191.95 6.38 36.63 5.gov/data/costsandreturns/testpick.06 3.02 3.15 5.67 2001 93.1 13. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .43 153.33 14.66 6.4 7.S.77 76.39 122.62 6.48 217.79 9 91 42 2.49 39.66 96.57 7. Department of Agriculture.7 9 91 67 2.91 71.27 29.59 94.17 11.19 12.67 80.37 6.06 21.83 1997 153.84 125. Commercial fertilizer and soil conditioners.63 15.92 17.99 52 2.66 -107.25 19.53 11.98 3.42 200.23 116.62 11.83 -114.ers.12 Sorghum Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.34 11.45 22.08 114.79 9 91 54 1.16 23.1 11.25 6.6 2002 95.57 -48.66 6. Sorghum is produced on lower cost.43 6.42 19.57 17.89 1.86 6.2 6.02 5.68 2000 88.72 13.37 95.24 195.09 15.29 9 91 54 1.13 12.9 76.07 14.78 21.91 -95.36 20.07 4.48 91. a Excluding Government Payments.29 6.53 4.27 80.77 76.76 125.35 21.27 5. U.23 20.1 6 17.98 17.91 17.58 53.36 20.1 170.8 56.26 201.7 1.7 21. higher risk land.74 -116. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed b Fertilizer Chemicals Custom operations Fuel.97 1.68 19.24 4.115 Sorghum costs and returns are quite variable.02 5.56 3.04 4.57 20.69 -30.48 0.38 55.85 75.37 14.26 7.98 6.9 3.55 23.89 11.05 71. lube.97 2003 101.53 4.92 14.48 26.79 23. Table 5. c Method used to determine the opportunity cost of land. 1995—2003 (dollars per planted acre) Item Gross value of production: Sorghum Total.29 2.94 0.81 187.99 16.1 4.9 3.28 1.41 18.99 12.38 55.47 9 91 33 2.26 202.86 93.19 -106. and electricity Repairs Interest on operating inputs Total.25 1.16 55.31 5.htm _______________________ a b Developed from survey base year.48 18.93 191.73 62.62 88.59 126.18 5.25 19.29 14.63 5.92 14.91 -95.32 58.usda.14 77.25 9 91 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite Composite Source: Economic Research Service.11 9 91 38 2. 1995.49 5.98 60.89 9 91 45 2.68 115.7 1.53 92.57 208.74 17.23 17.97 114.75 9 91 63 2.76 1996 170.89 32.81 1.72 13.05 -44.89 11.98 6.25 101.

772 20.9 42.491 1.4 40.37 2006/07 73.150 2.487 20. February 2005 (OCE-2005-1).55 2.030 3.269 1.39 1.400 Total demand 36.00 5.400 20.30 2.042 210 6.215 1.5 5.062 207 6.962 0.500 43.450 36.125 38.400 35.00 11.21 1.425 21.400 39.8 72.119 209 6.22 2.54 2. farm 7.60 87.60 1.06 131.150 250 176.06 127.100 Total demand 17.7 42.60 1.13 Soybeans and Products Baseline.20 Soybean meal 47.425 21.062 18.U.208 250 43.877 0.8 71.318 39.585 165 44.550 19.565 150 23. percent 4.035 165 43.70 89.30 47.4 42.edu/data-sets/baseline/2005/index.25 47.390 110 20.060 125 22.500 42.48 47.057 Production 17.030 2.00 11.00 4.100 1.450 21.2 255 2.29 2.875 120 21.05 2.218 250 44.710 165 45.400 42.485 165 41.6 209 3.650 250 155.475 1.4 209 3.85 84.645 Seed and residual 111 153 Exports 885 1.638 3.24 2010/11 73.400 2.687 17.60 1.675 1.173 Imports 270 165 Total supply 36.265 145 23.200 250 150.200 1.00 5.7 5.088 209 6.902 19.4 75.26 2009/10 72.865 155 23.50 85.02 2.1 Harvested 72.135 165 44.300 250 182.900 35.06 125.587 Domestic disappearance 16.500 6.415 130 22.550 6.955 5 3.660 135 22.085 5 3.780 150 1.05 155.077 18.450 19.810 154 1.256 33.25 84.0 72.725 148 1.765 149 1.S. Oct. 2004—2015 Item 2003/04 2004/05 Area (million acres): Planted 73.50 11.930 159 1.62 Crush margin ($ per bushel) 2.00 11.100 2.115 4 3.0 71.297 1. http://usda.030 3.28 47.204 1. Sept.8 330 2.818 18.150 250 163.9 5.875 19.00 11.60 1.00 4. 30 212 250 Soybean meal price ($/ton) 256.00 5.107 20.572 0.329 1.65 88.5 5.000 37.33 47.60 1.373 1.994 210 7.27 47.970 4 3.7 5.8 71.077 0.752 21.187 19.973 400 13.385 165 42.550 250 176.7 40.881 17.17 2014/15 72.32 47.213 250 43.9 40.375 20.150 Imports 6 6 Total supply 2. soybean and products.200 250 185.15 81.350 1.187 Soybean oil price ($/lb) 0.50 11.8 5.960 140 23.400 Ending stocks.50 11.16 1.198 250 41.150 6. Sept 1 178 112 Production 2.230 250 45.05 146.682 19.mannlib.350 22.269 1.985 165 42.8 210 3.800 6.31 47.077 21.500 44.200 250 41.68 140.00 11.00 5.230 Soybean meal (thousand short tons) Beginning stocks.60 1. 1 220 212 Production 36.205 250 41.00 5.010 Total disposition 2.925 4 3.8 71.937 21.00 11.985 230 7.232 18.00 5.2 207 3.500 43.34 4.00 4. Table 5.880 157 1.53 1.0 33.877 20.015 209 6.42 2.0 71.4 Prices (dollars per bushel) Loan rate 5. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .36 2.31 2007/08 73.116 USDA’s 2005 soybean baseline projections do not specifically show oil produced for use as a biofuel and do not reflect in the projections the probable increase in demand for soybean oil as a biofuel which is anticipated due to the Energy Policy Act of 2005.905 158 1.55 86.06 143.16 11.05 154.775 2.550 1.030 3. 30 1.808 Carryover stocks.4 16.html _______________________ a Net returns include estimates of marketing loan benefits.375 6.328 1.800 36.07 126.227 19.7 41.750 250 183.0 460 2.60 1.205 250 42.025 1.000 1.652 20.235 250 45.8 5.855 157 1.650 6.808 39.5 74.055 2.375 1.3 71.300 Ending stocks.00 Soybean price.05 160.425 20.700 38.60 1.223 250 44.8 71.850 1.700 6.040 3 3.600 46.937 0.830 155 1.550 37. It is likely that future USDA soybean baseline projections will reflect the market changes. Sept.60 1.0 210 3.70 1.055 4 3.035 165 41.100 3.250 6.107 0.65 87.500 45.252 1.596 39.22 2011/12 73.33 1.507 19.26 Per bushel 2.6 Yield/harvested acre (bushels Supply (million bushels) Beginning stocks.900 Exports 4.985 165 46.54 1.725 1.910 3 3.224 1.94 1.025 3.26 Net returns a Soybean oil (million pounds) Beginning stocks.950 6.550 Domestic disappearance 32. Table 13 .999 330 11.50 11.cornell.682 0.630 115 21.530 1.4 43.900 1.700 41.875 250 181.487 0.44 2005/06 74.77 2.127 0.025 3.550 1.340 5.150 6.60 83.0 5.91 2. August 31 Total ending stocks 112 460 Stocks/use ratio.81 2.525 2.269 Disposition (million bushels) Crush 1.20 2012/13 72.300 Exports 937 1.24 47.550 19.0 5.454 3.4 41.91 Returns over variable costs (dollars per acre): 169. Oct.057 1.500 41.962 20.60 1.95 Variable costs of production (dollars): Per acre 79.26 47.127 20.450 250 177.200 1.05 150.7 42.50 82.28 2008/09 73.650 1.00 5.425 Imports 307 105 Total supply 18.15 Source: USDA Agricultural Baseline Projections to 2014.19 2013/14 72.487 19.4 400 2.2997 0.0 71.752 0.500 44.010 4 3. 1 1.4 43.450 34.00 Crushing yields (pounds per bushel) Soybean oil 11.59 2.100 1.29 47.800 1.285 165 45.00 5.935 4 3.6 230 2.08 1.105 2.014 255 8.05 159.9 5.677 18.745 149 1.

38 5. and Value.572 12.47 4.110 72.9 2.691 18.466.74 5.000 Dollars 17.195 63.025 70.891 12. 1996—2005 Soybeans for beans Marketing year average price per bushel raised by farmers Dollars 7. the total bushels of soybeans used in biodiesel production was approximately 45 million bushels or about 1.408 74.14 Soybeans: Area.665 42.352 12.014 36.756.605.372. only 5 million gallons of biodiesel fuel was produced requiring a very small amount of all soybeans harvested.975 73.753 17. Table 3-26.894.686 43. Production.63 4.963 72.252.361 Yield per acre Production Bushels 1.948 16.432 Value of production 1.6 2.628 13.6 2.asp Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .117 In 2001.757.898 Source: USDA.266 72.usda.208 73.890. http://www.9 2.439.54 4. about 75 million gallons of biodiesel fuel was produced with about 90% being derived from soybeans.493.453.205.142 71.000 Acres 64.404 72.000 Acres 1. By 2005.0 2.013.5% of all soybeans produced.6 2.717 15.927.682 38.349 70. Yield.810 39.1 2.35 6.147 33.nass.758 38.086.5 gallons of biodiesel per bushel of soybeans (Source: National Biodiesel Board).750 38.441 73.497 73. At a conversion rate of 1.93 4. 2006 Agricultural Statistics.476 75.958 72.971 17. Table 5.653.2 3.34 5.50 Year 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Area Area Planted harvested 1.274 38.688.53 7.730 72.3 3.446 74.075 72.000 Bushels 37.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.380.9 2.741.123.005 69.

556 3.741 1.329 112.551 1.793 2.954 154.695 Total 2.330.044.589 2.386 Exports 849.361 120. elevator. interior mill.803 2.540 3.696.123.274 2.653.140.513.670 1.716.524 2.458 131.636 2.688. Table 3-29. Preliminary.000 29.747 208.825.756.006.051.088 Disappearance Seed.589.650 1.741.852 2.142 2.749 2.414 165.596.405 995.790.499 203.869 2.482 177.440.500 62.888 874.014 2.usda.102.414 Production 2.625.758 2.014 Year beginning September 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Farm 105. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .118 Table 5.525.688 2.334 804.983 1.453.130 59.254 2.541 1.061 178.15 Soybeans: Supply and Disappearance.686 Totala 2.S.890.651 1.334 3.369. Department of Commerce.615.380.249 2.986.935 88.892 187.174.162 247.asp _______________________ a b Includes imports.500 83.nass.684 123.482 290.529.523 43.252 169.595.147 2.066 2.572.441 118.932.793 2.169 Source: USDA.699.380 108.651 973.476 201. beginning with 1988.810 2.968.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.676 Table continued Year beginning September 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 b 2004 Crushedc 1.757.665 3.194 168.699 1.814 183.787 1.084 885.944.241. 1995—2004 (thousand bushels) Supply Stocks by Position Terminal market.411 3.700 58.799 348.662 164.000 112. c Reported by the U.540 2.577.961 1.682 2.372 886.833 199.063.600 84.639.750 2.436.803. 2006 Agricultural Statistics. feed and residual 111. http://www.296 131.400 Total 334.300 145.464 1.329 83. and warehouse 229.247 145.637.233 115.871 1.

361 Soybeans for beans Yield per harvested acre 2003 2004 2005 Bushels 36 38.980 15.990 1.300 270 380 430 4.850 1.686 Alabama Arizona Delaware Florida Georgia Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Nebraska New Jersey New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Pennsylvania South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia Wisconsin US 2003 1.200 2.900 1.5 26 41 28 27.16 Soybeans: Area.480 2.960 4.940 25.160 15.780 6.910 54.120 3.365 16.450 10. States with the highest production levels are Illinois and Iowa.3 Production 2004 1.086.350 111.150 263.040 5.900 1.960 4.usda.000 82. 2003—2005 Area planted State 2003 1.980 77.400 10.920 180 13 190 10.5 36 38 26 30 35 44 43.000 Acres 210 3.500 4.130 260 530 18 1.500 5.370 15.725 238.150 10. Yield.080 48.440 5.650 61.992 4.050 2.548 7.830 42.5 34 37 27.785 102.750 4.150 200 500 16 1.280 497.150 3.030 185 9 180 9.500 1.958 71.300 5. 2006 Agricultural Statistics.432 Source: USDA.260 9.200 210 19 280 9.708 51.000 Bushels 4.476 73.900 4.375 11.220 8.500 325 430 430 3.5 45 46 42 39 34 23 47 30 46 27 34 41 32 39 46 34.660 88 103 91 138 172 188 1.420 107.310 140.320 615 46.550 10.650 122.250 2.5 49 41 44 33 43 38 33 37.720 73.620 204.000 178 208 182 12 17 8 180 270 175 10.5 28 42 27 37 45 26 41 20.950 5.000 7.5 23 43.326 6.450 3.990 7.740 8.000 4.280 4.000 Bushels 6.000 Bushels 5. Table 3-31.940 379.450 5.875 57.5 40.620 532. http://www.nass.060 342.520 5.760 2.530 3.600 1.610 306.850 8.000 4.000 6.732 256 4.500 4.gov/Publications/Ag_Statistics/index.650 105.900 1.400 55.265 6.480 245 290 305 375 425 420 420 530 420 4.000 284.550 14.450 320 430 540 4.5 36 30 33 37 38 32.670 1.600 7.100 185 270 230 480 530 510 15 18 17 1.490 2.600 2.150 1.600 75.025 182.5 42.700 19.300 1. by State.570 2.123.450 164.370 495.760 111.408 360 5.180 1.590 4.000 Acres 150 3.200 32.100 500 2.050 3.5 32 39 29.500 1.450 53.700 95 190 1.000 88.896 39.000 Acres 170 2.800 105 175 1.370 5.550 1.550 10.330 2.300 595 69.670 5.150 4.520 235.250 760 435 2.665 2005 1.000 58.550 444.610 5.610 138.380 10.930 17.520 3.9 Bushels 35 39 42 34 31 50 51.900 15.240 1.980 1.260 880 480 2.5 34 35 30 29 38.640 20.000 7.750 28.285 75.770 146.400 1.119 Soybean production is highly variable by state.110 57.800 1.200 218.asp Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .000 1.550 90 140 1.453.460 3.950 4.250 740 990 850 430 495 470 1.640 1.850 1.142 Area harvested 2003 2004 2005 1.200 4.404 2004 1.670 828 53.300 1.670 21.120 1.580 72.000 4.736 578 8.050 6.240 232.380 8.475 3. and Production.890 3.2 Bushels 33 34 26 32 26 47 49 53 37 43 34 34 39 45 37 37 50.800 1.250 1.420 4.300 201. Table 5.610 72.900 9.710 2.110 207.100 2.430 1.450 7. with the mid-west producing the largest amount.040 53.600 41.500 223.310 1.000 4.830 183.800 5.210 290 540 19 1.5 42 29 34 41 28 33.500 47.750 4.760 115.208 2005 1.950 4.000 1.000 Acres Acres Acres 160 190 145 2.

gov/research/atlas02/atlas-crops. with the addition of more area in North and South Dakota and along the Mississippi Delta.html Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .nass. http://www. Department of Agriculture. Figure 5.usda. Harvested Acres.S. 2002 Source: U. National Agricultural Statistics Service.120 Soybean production area is similar to corn production area.7 Soybeans for Beans.

77 0.42 7.17 Soybean Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.19 -58.84 21.41 44.72 1.47 5.46 9.19 14.14 233.59 25.39 5.46 175.49 -4.18 135 3 97 30 6.16 8.11 0.43 129.10 176.28 3.23 1.59 225.03 14.75 4.33 237.57 40.95 11.46 16.84 9.46 11.61 163.96 25.12 5.00 0.70 84.66 11.13 7.75 16.43 4.80 11.98 9.37 158.00 0.59 70.14 0.64 210.68 95.84 15.38 1.39 184.26 1.61 27.96 213.76 7. Table 5.66 1.00 0.54 64.09 0.39 0. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land(rental rate) Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total.83 238.10 170. 2002—2003 (dollars per planted acre) United States 2002 2003 210.64 Northern Northern Great Crescent Plains 2002 2003 2002 2003 213.17 460 3 97 Continued on the next page.00 0.65 7.73 0.27 11.41 17.12 0.87 46.121 As with all agricultural crops.17 7.50 135 3 97 35 5.00 0.39 184.00 0.03 13.32 8.09 40.66 237.66 160.87 188.56 268 9 91 43 5.76 10.99 8.16 6.87 0.24 15.72 6.84 27.39 0.40 5.93 5.29 161. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer Soil conditioners Manure Chemicals Custom operations Fuel. lube. soybean returns are a little less than returns for corn when only operating costs are considered.02 460 3 97 30 6.73 0. and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total.88 155.81 167. allocated overhead Total costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) a Enterprise size (planted acres) a Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) 3.14 21.29 0.74 5.29 5.46 175.90 16. a Excluding Government Payments.59 42.31 -9.47 0.89 12.76 0.63 26.46 0.48 17.72 6.00 1.72 8.11 247.33 155.50 232.11 43.76 110.84 194.44 40.54 253.02 27.57 280 5 95 41 5.79 0.45 48.40 17.00 0.30 80.36 137.18 13.38 71.10 9. soybean costs and returns per acre vary by region.12 0.40 112.75 11.09 0.78 6.64 25.30 11.92 6.59 43.35 5.76 113.25 1.39 75.28 0.48 17.39 -33. In general.48 -3.29 8.64 -1.61 233.41 77.48 7.65 Item Gross value of production Primary product: Soybeans Total.36 9.93 246.50 1.61 73.45 6.02 237.73 9.43 81.12 0.70 22.92 -12.52 69.47 88.95 Heartland 2002 2003 225.68 194.00 0.70 0.35 105.93 5.65 10.20 268 9 91 36 6.91 14.02 49.22 94.83 5.24 116.96 9.19 40 5.37 10.12 6.19 280 5 95 36 6.00 -21.65 164.03 69. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .62 0.26 1.

48 8.17 (Continued) Soybean Production Costs and Returns per Planted Acre.54 226.20 15.11 4.55 11.85 0.02 242.83 201.82 171 8 92 23 5.16 16.94 250. operating costs Allocated overhead: Hired labor Opportunity cost of unpaid labor Capital recovery of machinery and equipment Opportunity cost of land(rental rate) Taxes and insurance General farm overhead Total.00 0.83 26.32 4.92 85.46 26.00 0. http://www.10 -61.85 121.12 1.99 7. gross value of production Operating costs: Seed Fertilizer Soil conditioners Manure Chemicals Custom operations Fuel.54 226.85 4.83 6.00 19.50 0.18 115.40 38.06 0. lube.92 236.18 246 32 68 34 6.40 34.50 -66.S.74 42.06 8.44 3.54 149.72 86.36 106.83 201.85 4.36 0.47 0.03 0.44 212.00 0.03 63.66 -45.62 71.45 200.72 11.17 18.88 0.48 90. Department of Agriculture.06 0.24 0.64 12.37 157.25 2.00 0.44 76.91 25.34 33 5.09 13.ers.96 63.93 152.00 0.58 223. 2002.72 2.25 7.91 0.43 0.24 14.18 15. and electricity Repairs Purchased irrigation water Interest on operating capital Total.48 7.00 18.94 3.28 4.86 0.67 7.41 77.95 0.15 6.122 Table 5.82 0.54 123.44 56.29 223.94 1.85 6.49 0.74 Mississippi Portal 2002 2003 303.41 180 0 100 32 7.24 59. allocated overhead Total costs listed Value of production less total costs listed Value of production less operating costs Supporting information: Yield (bushels per planted acre) Price (dollars per bushel at harvest) a Enterprise size (planted acres) a Production practices: Irrigated (percent) Dryland (percent) 169.31 7.97 0.13 50.72 85.64 44.11 11.81 38.99 16.94 19.63 23.59 0.47 89.29 21.83 169.87 8.00 180 0 100 37 5.16 5.71 242.95 22.85 8.93 107.46 124.37 157.77 15.21 159.17 247.20 11.62 55.53 7.79 6.24 7.97 10.76 12.68 538 43 57 Source: Economic Research Service.92 1.80 0.30 193.49 58.80 166.01 38.77 52.45 136.13 37.06 185.92 4.03 0.21 7.21 29.htm _______________________ a Developed from survey base year.72 146.43 21.68 79.03 13.gov/data/costsandreturns/testpick.88 1.52 6.93 50.45 22. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .52 161.21 12.18 11.59 0.00 0.20 17.42 7.77 3.21 303.38 Item Gross value of production Primary product: Soybeans Total.48 -15.39 0.97 53.38 186.71 0.18 17.71 242.47 171 8 92 37 6. a Excluding Government Payments.41 538 43 57 45 6.17 34.07 0.54 63. U.56 6.89 0.51 16. 2002—2003 (dollars per planted acre) Prairie Gateway 2002 2003 Eastern Uplands 2002 2003 Southern Seaboard 2002 2003 124.00 0.56 16.59 246 32 68 29 5.65 24.50 8.usda.13 7.47 20.94 9.33 83.19 7.93 36.25 7.02 15.99 6.41 16.35 0.09 25.93 -35.

though a very important resource for bioenergy production today. one has to estimate availability based on information and assumptions about the industries or companies generating the biomass. any current listing of pulp mills in operation will be out-ofdate within a month or two of publication because of the frequent closing of mills that is occurring. The wood already used for energy provides insight on current bioenergy produced and the “unused” biomass represents wood that is already collected and potentially very easy to make available for additional energy production. no attempt is made to include a state level estimate of black liquor production in this book.fia.fs. An estimate of black liquor production could be made based on publicly available information on pulp mills. Oak Ridge. the 2002 inventory is the latest source of information. and cheese whey (which is a by-product of cheese making processes).. tree tops and limbs) to be classified as secondary biomass. Thus. feed. or were generated by Forest Service staff using the Timber Product Output database http://www. it would likely be some of the first wood used if bioenergy use is accelerated in the U. Information on black liquor production and use for energy is kept and tracked by the forest products industry but is proprietary. black liquor (which is a byproduct of paper making). In most cases.us/tools-data/tools/. Though a relatively small amount. “Processors” may be factories or animals. Field processes such as harvesting. Specific examples of secondary biomass includes sawdust from sawmills. However. The estimates provided in this databook were generated either by industries using secondary biomass to make a marketable fuel (e.g.S. Vegetable oils used for biodiesel that are derived directly from the processing of oilseeds for various uses are also a secondary biomass resource. the pellet fuel industry). Secondary biomass feedstocks differ from primary biomass feedstocks in that the secondary feedstocks are a by-product of processing of the primary feedstocks. These estimates can be inaccurate because the amount of material that is a byproduct to a given process can change over time as processes become more efficient or new uses are found for some by-product components. TN Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Source: Lynn Wright. This database is based on wood harvest and use inventories conducted every 5 years. wood.g. chipping or pressing do not cause a biomass resource that was produced by photosynthesis (e. It is difficult to find good direct sources of information on secondary biomass resources. and materials processing plants are the main source of secondary biomass. Manures from concentrated animal feeding operations are collectable secondary biomass resources.. fiber.123 Secondary Biomass Feedstocks Residues and byproduct streams from food.fed. bundling. By “processing” it is meant that there is substantial physical or chemical breakdown of the primary biomass and production of by-products.

470 90. see: Appendix C .680 520 942.450 766.940 1.770 3.340 32.920 288.670 3.890 805.640 28.204.944.260 282.470 24.160 16.910 160.190 642. Note: .360 4.064.512.540 2.310 269.830 2.990 217.320 197.960 187.250 18.260 2.940 83.980 1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.990 74.210 334.530 11.140 66. Fuel Treatment Thinnings and Primary Forest Product Mill Residues.430 2.520 193.860 171.831.840 196.602.490 1.950 736.940 836.900 482.340 2.109.230 1.160 43.580 11.937.18 Residues from Primary Forest Product Mills (Dry tons) State Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Total Fiber 2.660 165.180 104.660 3.880 102.300 64.510 1.520 28.537.400.240 97.860 20. Table 5.200 69.340 82.140 2.520 12.960 190.780 7.430 419.810 57.475.124 About 42% of the residues produced at primary mills are used to produce energy.860 108.950 136.610 171.359.620 34.232.557.834.380 35.170 1.367.090 8.090 103.250 18.773.850 47.780 35.200 82.410 695.750 Miscellaneous 594. For information on estimation methods used.130 46.890 25.285.420 2.470 4.600 1.210 170.257.410 254.580 2.190 4.340 106.300 44.440 33.100 1.030 1.400 102.170 5.730 1.590 4.689.310 39.160 35.983.130 4.910 243.760 60 5. typically supplying the power needed to operate the mills.000 77.950 274.156.330 835.275.640 157.420 309.910 180.450 82.Estimation Methods for Logging Residues.737.360 210 21.303.280 Energy 4.485.300 2.865.640 150 2.887.520 505.830 1.580 10.710 910 868.660 6.170 2.050 244.146.590 61.210 106.767.950 166.540 100.950 2.070 24.630 1.629.912.230 312.530 1.826.700 846.140 59.500 403.320 58.440 124.900 713.720 40.120 3.760 396.740 11. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .540 163.823.790 322.040 20.430 9.600 135.360 995.430 386.030 2.610 6.540 2.610 75.790 8.220 290 3.230 2.580 686.190 108.560 11.430 86.770.530 Source: Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Program.970 28.910 351.346.560 291.410 412.050 2.810 1.729.490 13.910 172.040 40.700 13.710 531.600.970 1.010 34.540 633.770 1.100 346.970 841.450 230 49.510 Unused 13.293.470 467.410 350.810 33.860 331.990 Total 7.270 42.728.800 18.080 6.480 37.320 44.570 19.810 967.269.678.362.480 120 343.262.490 164.880 4.060 69.670 2.440 48.850 1.009.767.320 382.040.920 47.053.090 1.380 1.330 4.No data.071.436.510 249.790 12.276.260 47.300 181.790 87.060 198.230 1.090 5.032.510 491.940 415.080 920 1.290 1.399.150 5.680 72.430 635.280 26.530 562.006.530 190 308.710 4.470 23.

see: Appendix C . they represent a source of biomass that could be utilized fairly easily compared with other sources of biomass.125 Although the mill residues shown in the map below are currently unused. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Figure 5.Estimation Methods for Logging Residues. Note: For information on estimation methods used. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Fuel Treatment Thinnings and Primary Forest Product Mill Residues.8 Unused Mill Residues by County Source: Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Program.

000 235.000 2003 48.org/3/industry/marketResearch.100 654.000 43.000 241.000 19.000 76.000 121.500 2002 34.000 27.000 17.000 44.323 120.pelletheat. not annual season.000 41.000 101.000 19.000 62.000 229.000 59.000 31.000 36.000 2001 53.000 123. http://www.19 Pellet Fuel Shipments from Pellet Fuel Manufacturers (tons) Region Pacific Mountain Central Great Lakes Northeast Southeast Total 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003* 2003-2004* 2004-2005* 293.000 236.772 570.126 Table 5.000 35.000 602.pelletheat.000 228.000 131.000 49.000 22.000 154.500 43.000 105.000 727.000 39.000 36.000 58.000 89.000 183.000 107.000 143.000 130.000 241.000 49.20 Pellet Appliance Shipments from Manufacturers 1998 34.500 204.000 56.400 2000 31.000 147.000 Source: Statistics are gathered by Hearth.000 Source: http://www.000 609.176 24.000 63.000 49.000 135.000 262. Table 5.000 43.000 108.000 49.org/3/industry/marketResearch.000 231.000 667. 2nd Quarter July-Sept. Patio & Barbecue Association. 4th Quarter Jan-Mar.html# Note: * Represents heating season.000 761. 3rd Quarter Oct-Dec.656 84.000 816. 1st Quarter April-June.509 15.000 586.000 197.000 254.000 53.000 226.344 34.000 269.000 108.780 570.000 45.000 49.500 2004 67.000 1999 18.html# Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .000 272.000 618.100 26.000 39.000 120.

oils. Oak Ridge. The category “other wood waste from the urban environment” could include trimmings from urban trees. The proper categorization of fats and greases may be debatable since those are byproducts of the reduction of animal biomass into component parts. which technically fits the definition of primary biomass. greases and waste oils. because this material is normally handled as a waste stream along with other post-consumer wastes from urban environments (and included in those statistics). though amounts being used for bioenergy are most likely to be tracked together with fats. However.g. and some oils. such as fats. municipal solid wastes. it seems appropriate for them to be included in the tertiary biomass category. as well as packaging wastes. construction and demolition wood debris. other waste wood from the urban environments. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . soybean oil used in biodiesel) would be a secondary biomass resource. However. Source: Lynn Wright. it makes the most sense to consider it to be part of the tertiary biomass stream. and landfill gases. since we are considering animals to be a type of biomass processing factory and since most fats and greases. Vegetable oils derived from processing of plant components and used directly for bioenergy (e. are not available for bioenergy use until after they become a post-consumer waste stream.127 Tertiary Biomass Feedstocks Tertiary biomass includes post consumer residues and wastes. TN.. greases.

Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .9 Total Construction and Demolition Residues Source: Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. see: Appendix C . recovery and use of those materials pose economic challenges. Figure 5. though. Note: For information on estimation methods used.Estimation Methods for Urban Wood Residues.128 Construction and demolition produce a sizeable amount of biomass material.

860 883.210 36.430 179.790 83.300.299.490 8.690 38.860 141.030 518.870 509.000 Total 854.080 311.980 189.380 299.030 469.590 169.840 173.000 Source: Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Program.880 17.710 77.690 61.590 1.980 145.140 31.460 1.000 102.430 133.430 11.680 243.760 77.860 32.610 126.590 710.670 465.010 386.700.920 26.820 175.950 102.670 14.129 Table 5.400 556.860 97.660 33.990 92.660 1.600 103.530 1.050 238.530 424.590 25.590 46.510 470.288.860 122.000 509.940 1.980 21.300 166.300 30.000 183.000 Construction 97.660 340.270 228.160 28.900 322.246.790 303.480 526.720 803.960 35.980 15.150 288.130 161.870 12.100 269.076.410 654.430 509.370 204.290 7.720 12.790 212.990 1.380 17.900 414.580 32.230 32.790 1.Estimation Methods for Urban Wood Residues.720 187.610 113.21 a Residues from Construction and Demolition by State (Dry tons) State Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Total Demolition 756.800 121.600.520 47.470 84.139.980 455.570 507.010 167.930 6.410 254.140 263.520 83.390 204.980 223. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .070 270.570 25.300 610.700 536.150 11.840 89.125.720 64.630 408.420 681.910 20.510 19.200 30.340 262.150 79.100 1.340 152.560 256.330 155.460 102.100 439.860 19.660 63.910 225.620 99.010 6.350 972.700 809.600 1.960 53.729.270 244.290 25.470 15.040 1.620 889.110 14. Note: For information on estimation methods used. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.170 18.110 162.830 179.290 1.600 361.560 166.250 20.110 165.590 370.440 1. see: Appendix C .580 741.970 44.920 50.530 12.819.800 11.

it is important to note that it may not be available at a cost that is economically viable.Estimation Methods for Urban Wood Residues. Note: For information on estimation methods used. see: Appendix C . Oak Ridge National Laboratory.130 Although municipal solid wood waste residues constitute a significant amount of biomass material.10 Total Municipal Solid Waste Wood Residues Source: Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Program. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Figure 5.

180 1.090 10.680 188.120 57.760 905.020 26.134.130 11.220 55.800 17.160 15.340 105.840 257.790 321.840 27.150 50.400 7.870 31.960 8.250 27.830 85.710 6.730 8.790 2.110 99.420 98.140 54.960 400.800 22.600 20.510 258.840 2.340 108.660 7.650 21.060 45.990 11.740 32.Estimation Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .650 94.400 20.850 5.000 7.330 28.020 1.410 21.570 52.000 Yard trimmings 21.000 93.210 252. Note: For information on estimation methods used.100 Total 99.580 217.144.840 86.780 32.900 170.440 35.880 72.680 8.810 3.210 123.250 89.760 1.660 1.780 28.990 117.940 205.240 6.850 54.660 72.453.350 4.900 228.500 23. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.070 65.500 22.310 4.530 17.550 165.960 16.210 97.940 19.750 508.060 74.820 8.890 85.740.090 6.930 7.090 31.510 308.990 23.680 50.650 116.570 150.590 69.200 65.440 13.790 6.490 64.100 Source: Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Program.820 358.210 11.680 19.010 2.280 8.690 83.900 238.840 42.600 17.720 39.360 112.230 6.730 44. see: Methods for Urban Wood Residues.450 10.680 113.900 50.780 43.910 49.340 41.510 17.070 36.800 107.160 6.090 22.22 Residues from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills by State (Dry tons) State Alabama Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Total MSW wood 77.220 50.450 144. Appendix C .300 75.330 25.620 75.890 131.640 191.131 Table 5.360 161.370 14.020 228.970 10.470 474.750 13.740.890 2.330 32.000.160 67.650 17.020 14.150 55.110 41.770 119.530 1.470 200.700 58.110 67.490 159.190 67.

_______________________ a No data available.132 Landfill gas is becoming a more prominent source of energy.S. January 2006 State Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming U. Total Operational Projects 3 0 4 1 73 0 2 1 11 7 0 1 36 17 3 4 4 2 0 4 18 27 4 1 5 0 1 0 6 12 0 16 11 1 18 4 4 23 2 3 0 6 18 1 3 15 6 0 18 0 396 Candidate Landfills 21 1 13 5 40 13 6 3 18 19 8 3 25 16 11 6 18 10 2 12 3 9 8 11 18 5 5 5 a 3 1 21 38 1 28 13 7 19 * 20 2 13 55 5 1 16 8 7 11 1 584 Source: EPA’s Landfill Methane Outreach Program. January 9. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Table 5. 2006. all but nine states are using landfill gas to some extent. There are a number of states that are utilizing the majority of landfill sites available to them.23 Landfill Gas Projects and Candidate Landfills by State.

133 APPENDIX A CONVERSIONS Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

134 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

400 Btu/gal (gross) 1.206 Btu/gal (gross) = 117.800 Btu/gal (net) 21.400 Btu/gal (gross) = 130.700 Btu/gal (net) 143.Consumption Production average Consumption average 125.100 Btu/gal (net) 144.417 Btu/gal (net) 120.800 Btu/gal (net) 3 149.300 Btu/gal (gross) = 83.900 Btu/gal (gross) = 112.800 Btu/gal (gross) = 120.700 Btu/gal (net) 135.500 Btu/gal (net) 103.027 20.1 Heat Content for Various Fuels Automotive gasoline Hydrogen Diesel motor fuel Biodiesel Methanol Ethanol Gasohol Aviation gasoline Propane Butane Jet fuel (naphtha) Jet fuel (kerosene) Lubricants Waxes Asphalt and road oil Petroleum coke Natural gas Wet Dry Compressed Liquid Crude petroleum Fuel Oils Residual Distillate Coal Anthracite .352 x 10 Btu/short ton 6 21.400 Btu/kg(net) 138.700 Btu/gal (net) 126.012 x 10 Btu/short ton 6 21.200 Btu/gal (gross) = 112.093 Btu/gal (net) 64.100 Btu/ft 3 Btu/ft Btu/pound Btu/cubic foot Btu/gal (gross) = 87.900 Btu/gal (net) 131.600 Btu/gal (gross) = 56.700 Btu/gal (gross) = 131.600 Btu/gal (gross) = 75.000 Btu/gal (gross) = 93.600 Btu/gal (net) Btu/gal (gross) = 131.711 x 10 Btu/short ton 6 21.000 Btu/gal(gross) = 115.200 Btu/kg(gross) = 113.551 960 90.000 Btu/gal (gross) = 128.015 x 10 Btu/short ton 6 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .400 Btu/gal(net) 134.400 Btu/gal (net) 138.Consumption Bituminous and lignite .560 Btu/gal (net) 84.135 Table A.109 1.200 Btu/gal (net) 158.000 Btu/gal (net) 91.670 Btu/gal (net) 120.000 Btu/gal (gross) = 157.000 Btu/gal (net) 127.700 Btu/gal (gross) = 138.700 Btu/gal (gross) = 128.500 Btu/gal (gross) = 118.800 138.

a Table A. VA. Annual Energy Outlook 2006.6667 pounds carbon dioxide. measured in carbon units (CH4) 1 pound carbon dioxide.187 6. DOE/EIA-0383 (2006) (Washington.333 pounds methane.799 1. Electrotek Concepts. June 2001. February 2006).000-8.136 Table A.287 5. measured in carbon units (CO-C) 1 pound nitrous oxide.2 Approximate Heat Content of Selected Fuels for Electric Power Generation Fossil Fuelsa Residual Oil (million Btu per barrel) Distillate Oil (million Btu per barrel) Natural Gas (Btu per million cubic ft) Coal (million Btu per Short Ton) Biomass Materialsb Switchgrass Btu per pound Bagasse. b Animal Waste Screening Study.575 6. Btu per pound Rice Hulls. Btu per pound Solid wood waste. Arlington. Inc.333 pounds carbon monoxide.3 Alternative Measures of Greenhouse Gases 1 pound methane. measured at full molecular weight (CO2) 2.. measured at full molecular weight (N2O) = = = Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Btu per pound 6. measured in carbon units (CO2-C) 1 pound carbon monoxide. measured at full molecular weight (CO) 1.571 pounds nitrous oxide.027 20. Table G1. measured in nitrogen units (N2O-N) = 1. DC. measured at full molecular weight (CH4) 3.065 6.000 _______________________ EIA.411 7.341 6. Btu per pound Poultry Litter.

104 acres. 258.451 6 square centimeters (exactly). 0. 6. 100 square feet. http://ts. or even rectangular.gov/ts/htdocs/230/235/owmhome.764 square feet. General Tables of Units and Measurements. 929.htm _______________________ An acre is a unit of area containing 43.71 feet.4 Area Conversions 1 acrea 1 are 1 hectare [1 square (building)] 1 square centimeter (cm2) 2 1 square decimeter (dm ) 1 square foot (ft2) 1 square inch (in2) 1 square kilometer (km 2) 2 1 square meter (m ) 1 square mile (mi2) 1 square millimeter (mm2) 1 square rod (rd2). 15.836 square meter.386 square mile. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .002 square inch.405 hectare.560 square feet. 0.155 square inch. 0.nist. 10. 2.471 acres.599 square yards. But.030 square centimeters. then the length of a side is equal to the square root of 43. sq pole.500 square inches. 247.560 or about 208. 0.137 Table A.293 square meters.025 acre.196 square yards. 25. Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology. 0. 1. 119. It is not necessarily square.999 hectares. if it is square. or sq perch 2 1 square yard (yd ) = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 0.

97 UK bushel = 56 lb.600 Btu/lb) Energy content of wood fuel (air dry. http://bioenergy. http://bioenergy. Table A.138 Table A.446 ton/acre 100 g/m^2 = 1. i.400 Btu/lb) Energy content of agricultural residues (range due to moisture content) = 10-17 GJ/t (4.300 Btu/lb) Metric tonne charcoal = 30 GJ (= 12.e. tons (oven-dry) = 2400 pounds = 1089 kg 1. bone dry) = 18-22 GJ/t (7.405 hectares 1.700 Btu/gallon = 26.000 lb/acre) = 11.1 MJ/liter Ethanol HHV = 84.0 US ton/acre = 2.0 US tons/acre (10. One cord contains approx. 18 kg (barley) A "target" bioenergy crop yield might be: 5.300-7.000 Btu/gallon = 89 MJ/gallon = 23.0 hectare = 10.47 acres 1.7 GJ/t = 21.600-9.6 Biomass Energy Conversions Cord: a stack of wood comprising 128 cubic feet (3.0 metric tonne/hectare = 0.gov/ Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .0352 m^3 = 0. 90-180 GJ original energy content) Metric tonne ethanol = 7.4 cubic meters (solid wood.ornl.500 Btu/lb = 75.79 g/ml (= metric tonnes/m^3) Metric tonne biodiesel = 37.2 U.gov/.0 metric tonne wood = 1.0 acre = 0. including air space and bark. 27 kg (wheat or soybeans) = 40 lb.000 m^2 (an area 100 m x 100 m. or 328 x 328 ft) = 2.94 petroleum barrels = 1262 liters Ethanol energy content = 11.S.88 g/ml (= metric tonnes/m^3) Source: Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network.7 MJ/liter) biodiesel density (average) = 0.2 tonnes/hectare (1120 g/m^2) Source: Bioenergy Feedstock Information Network.62 m^3). not stacked) Energy content of wood fuel (HHV. 1.ornl.4 MJ/liter Ethanol Density (average) = 0.8 GJ (33.24 t/ha 1. standard dimensions are 4 x 4 x 8 feet.35.0 tonne/hectare = 892 lb/acre US bushel = 0.0 km^2 = 100 hectares = 247 acres 1. 20% moisture) = about 15 GJ/t (6. 25 kg (corn or sorghum) = 60 lb.5 Areas and Crop Yields 1.800 Btu/lb) (but usually derived from 6-12 t air-dry wood.3 .

= = = = = 83.6818 mph = 1.2 ft-lb 107.467 ft/s = 0.765 Btu.6 yd 0.609 km/h Table A.95 x 10-4 Btu 7.33 x 10-3 ft 27.685 x 106 J 1. 1 kWhr = 11.77 x 10-8 metric hp27. 3281 ft 1093.600 km/h 1 km/h = 0.671 x 105 kg-m 3.2540 x 10-6 km 1 ft = = = = = 12.04 x 10-7 metric hp-h 27.3048 m/s = 0.98 x 106 ft-lb 2.53 x 10-7 hp-h 37.8 Energy Unit Conversions 1 Btu = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 778. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 a .6214 mph 1 mph = 1.78 x 10-5 Btu 0.30 x 10-5 hp-h 39.0 in.738 x 106 kgm 2.341 hp-h 1.40 x 10-3 m 0. 0.953 x 106 ft-lb 27.4 x 10-3 mile 0.233 ft-lb 9.78 x 10-8 kWhr 2510 Btu 1.25 x 10-8 hp-h 37.7475 kWhr 1 kWhr = = = = = = = = = = = = 3412 Btua 2.4469 m/s = 1.600 x 106 J 1.2778 m/s = 0.609 km 1 km = = = = = 39370 in.24 x 10-7 kWhr 2544 Btu 1.6 kg-m 1055 J 39. 5280 ft 1760 yd 1609 m 1. If generation and distribution efficiency are taken into account.78 x 10-6 mile 25.33 yd 189.85 x 10-5 metric hp-h 29.9114 ft/s = 0.806 J 36.9863 hp-h 0.00 x 104 kg-m 2.360 metric hp-h 94.281 ft/s = 2.237 mph = 3.655 x 106 ft-lb 3.31 x 10-5 kWhr 92.7376 ft-lb 0.7 Distance and Velocity Conversions 1 in.3048 m 0.139 Table A.7355 kWhr 1 kg-m 1 Joule 1 hp-h 1 metric hp-h = = = = = = __________ This figure does not take into account the fact that electricity generation and distribution efficiency is approximately 29%.78 x 10-3 yd 15.3048 x 10-3 km 1 mile = = = = = 63360 in.014 metric hp-h 0.648 x 106 J 0.1020 kg-m 37.0972 km/h 1 m/sec = 3.6214 mile 1000 m 1 ft/sec = 0.

50 10.609] Table A.39 59.28 3.96 1.92 9.88 5.9842 Metric ton 4.10 Mass Conversions TO Short ton 5.9 Fuel Efficiency Conversions MPG 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 Formula Miles/liter 2.140 Table A.48 2.62 1.09 26.41 7.14 2.36 3.88 17.9072 1.785/1.84 6.35 2.45 23.76 9.016 1 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .102 L/100 kilometers 23.25 6.76 MPG/[3.88 34.14 2.70 4.63 12.70 33.30 39.89 13.2 1016 1000 Long ton 4.01 36.76 31.98 38.23 4.8425 x 10-4 0.64 46.51 44.85 17.42 27.17 18.62 3.57 11.14 55.52 15.0 x 10-4 1.34 35.77 25.74 1.96 5.64 3.21 14.24 2.89 51.205 2000 2240 2205 Kilogram 0.81 1.68 11.25 23.72 5.49 19.53 15.25 10.0 x 10-3 0.77 2.68 1.02 34.38 25.63 29.76 48.64 63.51 61.26 40.13 21.88 1.01 53.12 1.24/MPG FROM Pound Kilogram Short ton Long ton Metric ton Pound 1 2.62 MPG/3.57 235.92 3.60 7.66 36.28 6.8929 1 0.75 14.00 19.1023 x 10-3 1 1.61 2.26 57.5362 x 10-4 1.38 42.05 1.94 2.13 38.81 21.74 29.785 Kilometers/L 4.38 8.4643 x 10-4 9.4536 1 907.51 27.06 30.38 31.13 22.

9478 0.184 1.7068 0.014 1.36 x 10 -3 0.2 1 0.1781 0.341 0.6971 1.415 4.5 1 0.7457 1 1.285 x 10 -3 5.239 0.3238 x 10 -3 0.692 1.055 5.9863 1.356 x 10 -3 1 1.968 1 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .434 3088 778.2520 3.6 0.84 x 10 -3 542.1757 0.11 Power Conversions TO FROM Horsepower Kilowatts Metric horsepower Ft-lb per sec Kilocalories per sec Btu per sec Horsepower Kilowatts Metric horsepower Ft-lb per sec Kilocalories per sec Btu per sec 1 1.7355 1.141 Table A.615 1.360 550 737.

S. gal/year 1927 imperial gal/year 55.1606 ft3 4.785 liters = 0.679 x 105 U.S.2200 imperial gal -3 0.063 x 105 imperial gal/year 1.5712 bbl/day = 207.S. gal/hr 277.S.8474 ft3/day 6. gal = = = = = = 3 231 in.10 bbl/year 49187 ft3 /year 3.001 m A U.S.S.97 imperial gal 0. gal 0.S.8 ft3/year 1008 U. gal/day 839.8321 imperial gal = 0. gal 0. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .0286 bbl 0.S.003785 m3 = 0.3 1 liter = 61.02 in. gal 34. -2 3 0.15897 m3 3 3 = 1171 ft /year = 3.209 ft /day = 90.545 liters 1.12 a Volume and Flow Rate Conversions 1 U. if the time units are identical.531 x 10 ft 3.201 1 liter/hr = = = = = = = = 0.004546 m3 1 bbl = = = = = = 9702 in.2624 U.28 imperial gal/day 0. gallon of gasoline weighs 6.3 0. gal/year 3.92 bbl/year For Imperial gallons.2 pounds 1 imperial gal = = = = = = 1 U.201 U. multiply above values by 1.1337 ft3 = 3.142 Table A.97 liters 42 U.S.298 U.615 ft3 158.4 in.0238 bbl = 6.S. gal/day 5.29 x 10 bbl 3 0.3 imperial gal/day 3815 liter/day = = = = = = = = 309.3 ft3/year 2299 U.84 liter/day = 33157 liter/year = 19.97 imperial gal/day = 7289 imperial gal/year = 0.393 x 106 liter/day 1 bbl/hr _______________________ The conversions for flow rates are identical to those for volume measures.1510 bbl/day 137.3 5.

388 x 10 10 -7 947.52 X 10 8.931 x 10 1 -4 1.252 860 -5 Table A.968 7 0.630 2.163 x 10 -3 4. a Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . especially in foreign correspondence.0551 x 10 3.6 0. signifies a value of 10 in most other countries." for example. as it is either unknown or carries a different value 12 in other countries.1868 x 10 -3 Million Btu Gigawatthours 238.2778 1.968 x 10 1 3412 11.143 Table A.8 3. A "billion.13 International Energy Conversions Gigacalories Million tonnes of oil equivalent -5 To: From: Terajoules Gigacalories Million tonnes of oil equivalent Million Btu Gigawatthours Terajoules multiply by: 1 4.6 x 10 -8 3.1868 x 10 4 107 -3 1 2.14 SI Prefixes and Their Values Value 10-18 10-15 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018 Prefix atto femto pico nano micro milli centi deci deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa Symbol a f p n m c d da h k M G T P E One million million millionth One thousand million millionth One million millionth One thousand millionth One millionth One thousandth One hundredth One tenth One Ten One hundred One thousand One million One billiona One trilliona One quadrilliona One quintilliona _______________________ Care should be exercised in the use of this nomenclature.8 1 2.

144 Table A. width Brake specific fuel consumption Fuel economy (heat engine) Unit name joule joule/kilogram joule/kilogram•kilometer joule/kilometer kilometer/kilojoule kilowatt watt/kilogram watt/meter3 kilometer/hour meter/second2 kilometer kilogram newton•meter meter3 kilogram meter kilogram/joule liters/100 km Symbol J J/kg J/(kg•km) J/km km/kJ Kw W/kg W/m3 km/h m/s2 km kg N•m m3 kg m kg/J L/100 km Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .15 Metric Units and Abbreviations Quantity Energy Specific energy Specific energy consumption Energy consumption Energy economy Power Specific power Power density Speed Acceleration Range (distance) Weight Torque Volume Mass. payload Length.

145 APPENDIX B BIOMASS CHARACTERISTICS Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

146 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

compared with competing feedstocks such as coal or petroleum. processing and combustion equipment.300 Btu/lb). However. However. nearly all kinds of biomass feedstocks destined for combustion fall in the range 15-19 GJ/tonne (6.750-8. chemical. Biomass and Bioenergy 6.g. Liquid biofuels have comparable bulk densities to fossil fuels. whereas the moisture content for oven-dried biomass is around 0%. biomass feedstocks are remarkably uniform in many of their fuel properties. 339-347. the heating values are even more uniform – about 15-17 GJ/tonne (6. about 10 and 40% of the bulk density of most fossil fuels. there are many kinds of coals whose gross heating value ranges from 20 to 30 GJ/tonne (gigajoules per metric tonne. chemical and physical properties of biomass feedstocks and liquid biofuels. 8.600-12. biomass fuels are rather heterogeneous with respect to their chemical elemental composition. the bulk density (and hence energy density) of most biomass feedstocks is generally low.147 APPENDIX B BIOMASS CHARACTERISTICS Biomass feedstocks and fuels exhibit a wide range of physical. Moisture content is probably the most important determinant of heating value. Among the liquid biomass fuels. (1994) Chemical elemental characteristics of biomass fuels. use in confined spaces such as mines) but a disadvantage in others (e. varying in the range of 2-30%. For most agricultural residues.200 Btu/lb). Despite their wide range of possible sources. engine starting at cold temperatures). The following pages contain three tables that show some "typical" values or range of values for selected compositional. A few biomass feedstocks stand out for their peculiar properties.. A. Ash content is typically lower than for most coals.450-8. P. biomass ash may be used as a soil amendment to help replenish nutrients removed by harvest. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs.g. In contrast to their fairly uniform physical properties. Oak Ridge. Moisture content is also an important characteristic of coals. Bioethanol has only about 70% the heating value of petroleum distillates such as gasoline. which may contain toxic metals and other trace contaminants. but its sulfur and ash contents are also very low.900 Btu/lb). biodiesel (vegetable oil ester) is noteworthy for its similarity to petroleumderived diesel fuel.database on composition of biomass and waste Nordin. Both of these liquid fuels have lower vapor pressure and flammability than their petroleum-based competitors – an advantage in some cases (e. pp. Most biomass materials are easier to gasify than coal because they are more reactive with higher ignition stability. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Unlike coal ash. such as high silicon or alkali metal contents – these may require special precautions for harvesting. Air-dried biomass typically has about 15-20% moisture. References for further information: US DOE Biomass Feedstock Composition and Property Database PHYLLIS . apart from its negligible sulfur and ash content. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . the values for most woody materials are 18-19 GJ/tonne (7. even after densification.. TN 37831-6407. This characteristic also makes them easier to process thermochemically into higher-value fuels such as methanol or hydrogen. For example. Box 2008. Note also that mineral content can vary as a function of soil type and the timing of feedstock harvest.O. and sulphur content is much lower than for many fossil fuels. and agricultural/process engineering properties.200 Btu/lb). Figures for fossil fuels are provided for comparison.450-7. Source: Information in Appendix B is from a fact sheet by Jonathan Scurlock.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge.1 Composition of Selected Feedstocks Cellulose (%) Bioenergy Feedstocks corn stover sweet sorghum sugarcane bagasse sugarcane leaves hardwood softwood hybrid poplar bamboo switchgrass miscanthus Arundo donax bioethanol biodiesel Coal (low rank. P. TN 37831-6407 Note: N/A = ** = Not Applicable.O. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs. Data not available.148 Table B. lignite/subbituminous) Coal (high rank bituminous/anthracite) Oil (typical distillate) 35 27 Hemi-cellulose (%) Lignin (%) 28 25 16-21 11 ** 32-48 ** 19-24 ** 23-32 ** ** ** 45 42 42-56 ** ** ** 30 21 18-25 ** ** ** 20 26 21-23 ** 41-49 44-51 44 31 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A ** 24-28 42-50? 24 30 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A ** 24-26 13-20 17 21 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Liquid Biofuels Fossil Fuels Source: Jonathan Scurlock. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . Box 2008.

0-3.4 ** 7. Box 2008.4 ** 18.5 19.5 sulfur (%) potassium (%) Bioenergy Feedstocks corn stover sweet sorghum sugarcane bagasse sugarcane leaves hardwood softwood hybrid poplar bamboo switchgrass miscanthus Arundo donax 17.5-5.2 ** 0.5 ** ** ** 0.07 <0.02-0. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.6 5. Data not available.8-2.3 0.5-1.45 0.0 0.0001 0.149 Table B.1-19.O.2-1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .100.97 ** 17.50 ** ** 1016 1090 [600] ** 0.1 ** 3.15 ** ** ** 0.3 17.4 18. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs. Oak Ridge.5 ** ** 0.8 1.15 ** N/A N/A ~1300 ~1300 N/A ** Source: Jonathan Scurlock.02 5-20 1-10 0.6 19.12 Liquid Biofuels Fossil Fuels bioethanol biodiesel Coal (low rank.3 ** 1350 ** 18.1 0.5 5-6 ** 0.15-0.05 1.06-0.03 ** ** ** 0.5-1.04 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** [900] ** 0.5-4.1 28 40 15-19 27-30 42-45 ** 0.2 Chemical Characteristics of Selected Feedstocks Ash melting temperature [some ash sintering observed] (C) Heating value (gross.05 0.01 <0.5 ** ** <0.01 0.03-0.12 0.009 0.6 15.0 ** 0.73-0.5 4.5-1.3 0. unless specified.5 0.4 17. TN 37831-6407 Note: N/A = ** = Not Applicable.5-19. GJ/t) ash (%) 5.37-1. lignite/subbituminous) Coal (high rank bituminous/anthracite) Oil (typical distillate) ** <0.2-5. P.7 ** 20.

O. P. Oak Ridge. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.2 ** N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A ** (typical bulk densities or range given below) 790 875 700 850 700-900 Liquid Biofuels bioethanol biodiesel Coal (low rank.4 ** ** ** 150 (chips) ** 1. Bioenergy Feedstock Development Programs. lignite/subbituminous) Coal (high rank bituminous/anthracite) Oil (typical distillate) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Fossil Fuels Source: Jonathan Scurlock.5 ** ** 1.5-3.150 Table B. Data not available. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . TN 37831-6407 Note: N/A = ** = Not Applicable.7 Chopped density at harvest (kg/m3) ** ** ** 50-75 ** ** ** 1.2 ** 25-40 ** 1-1.3 Physical Characteristics of Selected Feedstocks Cellulose fiber length (mm) Bioenergy Feedstocks corn stover sweet sorghum sugarcane bagasse sugarcane leaves hardwood softwood hybrid poplar bamboo switchgrass miscanthus Arundo donax 1. Box 2008.2 ** ** 108 70-100 Baled density [compacted bales] (kg/m3) ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 105-133 130-150 [300] ** ** 1.

151 APPENDIX C ASSUMPTIONS Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

152 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

concentrated. The other component of the MSW stream — yard and tree trimmings — is estimated at 9. pallets. The U. most of these materials are already used for products or boiler fuel at the mills. etc.us/tools-data/tools/). ESTIMATION METHODS FOR URBAN WOOD RESIDUES The state-level estimates provided for urban wood residues are consistent with the estimates found in the DOE/USDA publication entitled “Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion Ton Annual Supply. In total about 6 million dry tons of MSW wood is potentially available for energy. However. The mill residue data were downloaded by state and county from the U. only 1. Primary Mill Residues Primary mill residues include bark." Residues for MSW Landfills MSW consists of a variety of items ranging from organic food scraps to discarded furniture and appliances.S. Forest Service. Wood and yard and tree trimmings are the two sources within this residue stream that are potentially recoverable for energy use.fs. Residues are also generated at secondary processing mills (e.fed.S. and fine residues (shavings and sawdust) generated at sawmills that process harvested wood. furniture. coarse residues (chunks and slabs). lumber scraps (other than new construction and demolition).5 million dry tons is considered potentially available for recovery after accounting for what is currently used and what is unusable. Because primary mill residues tend to be clean. burned for power production. uniform.. and wood residuals from manufacturing. About 55% of this material is either recycled as compost. Secondary mill residue data are not collected by the U. packaging materials. Forest Service’s Timber Product Output database (http://www.). flooring. millwork. containers. and of a low moisture content. McKeever (2004) estimates the total wood component of the MSW stream at slightly more than 13 million dry tons.8 million dry tons. The wood component includes discarded furniture. or unavailable for recovery because of excessive contamination.g.fia.S Forest Service estimates current usage by type as follows: • • • Bark – 80% used as fuel and 13% used in products Coarse residues – 85% used in products and 13% used as fuel Fine residues – 55% used as fuel and 42% used in products This leaves a very small amount (~2%) of unused primary mill material available for energy.” The resource estimates contained in the following tables have been disaggregated to states. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .153 APPENDIX C ASSUMPTIONS ESTIMATION METHODS FOR PRIMARY MILL RESIDUES The forestry residue data included in this book are the same as that used in the DOE/USDA publication entitled “Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion Ton Annual Supply. containers.

Vancouver. Reference: McKeever. and the extent of recycling and reuse programs. “Inventories of Woody Residues and Solid Wood Waste in the United States.. Unlike construction residue. housing starts).6 and 27. making recovery much more difficult and expensive.” Ninth International Conference. respectively. McKeever (2004) estimates annual generation of construction and demolition debris at 11. British Columbia. October 10-13. demolition debris is often contaminated. which tends to be relatively clean and can be more easily source-separated.6 million dry tons of construction debris and 11.154 Residues from Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills The amount of available construction and demolition residue is correlated with economic activity (e.g. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . About 8.7 million dry tons of demolition debris are considered potentially available for energy. 2002. D. 2004.7 million dry tons. population. Inorganic-Bonded Composite Materials. demolition activity.

155 GLOSSARY Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

156 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .

This ensures the seeds will produce plants identical to the mother plant. Asexual reproduction . Alcohol includes methanol and ethanol. processed into liquids and gasses.The net volume of growing stock trees removed from the inventory during a specified year by harvesting. Processing. Storage. Conversion and Utilization.The naturally occurring ability of some plant species to reproduce asexually through seeds.1 GJ (5.2 barrels are equivalent to one tonne of oil (metric). Organic matter may either be used directly as a fuel. The terminologies were reviewed by many experts from all of the different fields of biomass and bioenergy before being accepted as part of the standard. collecting. members and institutions holding a site license can access the online version. approximately 6. or by mail at: ASABE.” The purpose of the standard is to provide uniform terminology and definitions in the general area of biomass production and utilization. storage. It is produced when a vegetable oil or animal fat is chemically reacted with an alcohol. Harvesting and Collection.8 million Btu). meaning the embryos develop without a male gamete. in whole or in significant part.Useful. 2950 Niles Rd. Biochemical conversion . e-mailing martin@asabe. i. animal. Biobased product .157 GLOSSARY Alcohol .Ethanol produced from biomass feedstocks. ASABE Standard X593 .Decomposition of biological wastes by micro-organisms.(boe) The amount of energy contained in a barrel of crude oil. usually under wet conditions. Secretary of Agriculture to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed. The full-text is included on the online Technical Library of ASABE (http://asae. bioenergy. This standard includes many terminologies that are used in biomass feedstock production. Print copies may be ordered for a fee by calling 269-429-0300.org. A "petroleum barrel" is a liquid measure equal to 42 U. Biodiesel . Anaerobic digestion . equivalent to 1. to produce a gas comprising mostly methane and carbon dioxide.. in the absence of air (oxygen). pre-processing and conversion.S.' as defined by Farm Security and Rural Investment Act (FSRIA). Barrel of oil equivalent . such as corn. hydrogen. This includes ethanol produced from the fermentation of crops.e. or land clearing.frymulti.Fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Joseph.S.com). as well as cellulosic ethanol produced from woody plants or grasses. or be a residual of processing and conversion. Bioethanol . Annual removals . MI 49085. The molecules in the series vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group.700 kWh. gallons (35 Imperial gallons or 159 liters). renewable energy produced from organic matter . St.The family name of a group of organic chemical compounds composed of carbon. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . handling.The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) in 2005 produced a new standard (Standard X593) entitled “Terminology and Definitions for Biomass Production.The use of fermentation or anaerobic digestion to produce fuels and chemicals from organic sources. harvesting.The term 'biobased product.the conversion of the complex carbohydrates in organic matter to energy. and marine materials) or forestry materials. cultural operations such as timber stand improvement. biopower and bioproducts. about 7. of biological products or renewable domestic agricultural materials (including plant. means a product determined by the U. and oxygen. Bioenergy .

fuel cells.A facility that processes and converts biomass into value-added products. municipal residues.Having zero percent moisture content. One Btu is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of one pound of water from 60°F to 61°F at one atmosphere pressure. through gasification and then combustion of the resultant gas. biodiesel. See also landfill gas. or other equipment. Power is generated with engines.Solution of lignin-residue and the pulping chemicals used to extract lignin during the manufacture of paper. chemical. odorless. non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of the ambient air. thermal. and biochemical processes. and grasses such as switchgrass.Wood residues suitable for chipping.Tree species suitable for industrial wood products. wood and wood residues. These products can range from biomaterials to fuels such as ethanol or important feedstocks for the production of chemicals and other materials. Biomass energy . There are three main categories of biomass . secondary. or their processing and conversion derivatives. Biopower . shrubs. animal manure. chemical.A colorless.See Bioenergy.A cogeneration system in which steam is used first for process heat and then for electric power production. grasses. and trimmings.Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis.Crops grown. Biomass is generally produced in a sustainable manner from water and carbon dioxide by photosynthesis. Closed-loop biomass . Commercial species . Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil fuel combustion. including agricultural crops and trees. for the purpose of optimizing their value for bioenergy and bioproduct uses.Fuels made from biomass resources. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . 1 Btu = 1055 joules (1. Bone dry . Biogas normally consists of 50 to 60 percent methane. Bunker . Coarse materials . Biorefineries can be based on a number of processing platforms using mechanical. still widely used by engineers. Wood heated in an oven at a constant temperature of 100°C (212°F) or above until its weight stabilizes is considered bone dry or oven dry. plants (including aquatic plants). Biofuels .primary. Biofuels include ethanol.A storage tank.(Btu) A non-metric unit of heat. Carbon dioxide (CO2) . These products can range from biomaterials to fuels such as ethanol or important feedstocks for the production of chemicals and other materials. and tertiary. such as slabs. Biomass . Biorefinery . Biogas .The use of biomass feedstock to produce electric power or heat through direct combustion of the feedstock. edgings. or through other thermal conversion processes. Biorefineries can be based on a number of processing platforms using mechanical. in a sustainable manner.A combustible gas derived from decomposing biological waste under anaerobic conditions. This includes annual crops such as maize and wheat. thermal. Black liquor . and perennial crops such as trees.A facility that processes and converts biomass into value-added products.158 Biorefinery . Bottoming cycle . and other residue materials. British thermal unit . turbines. and methanol.055 kJ). and biochemical processes.

Dutch oven furnace . hay and silage crops. 1. Cropland pasture . having a large. cultivated summer fallow. cropland used only for pasture. but it is a requirement for crop production in the drier cropland areas of the West. but includes some land not harvested due to lack of labor.CRP provides farm owners or operators with an annual per-acre rental payment and half the cost of establishing a permanent land cover in exchange for retiring environmentally sensitive cropland from production for 10 to 15 years. Downdraft gasifier .One of the earliest types of furnaces. roughness. However. Cropland used for crops . Cultivated summer fallow refers to cropland in sub-humid regions of the West cultivated for one or more seasons to control weeds and accumulate moisture before small grains are planted. Producers can offer land for competitive bidding based on an Environmental Benefits Index (EBI) during periodic signups.4 million acres at any time.A rate used to convert future costs or benefits to their present value. 5. farmers have double-cropped about 4 percent of this acreage. This category also includes land that was used for pasture before crops reached maturity and some land used for pasture that could have been cropped without additional improvement. and cultivated summer fallow.) d. Commonly used for burning wood.0 inches in diameter at breast height (d. limiting enrollment to 36. Other types of fallow.The diameter measured at approximately breast high from the ground. crop failure.An airtight vessel or enclosure in which bacteria decomposes biomass in water to produce biogas. or other factors. tons (oven-dry) = 2400 pounds = 1089 kg. insects. and miscellaneous other minor crops.b.Total cropland includes five components: cropland harvested.S.b.Cropland used for crops includes cropland harvested. One cord contains approx.A stack of wood comprising 128 cubic feet (3. crop failure. (See definitions for rotten and rough trees. The acreage planted to cover and soil improvement crops not intended for harvest is excluded from crop failure and is considered idle. Heat is stored in the refractory and radiated to a conical fuel pile in the center of the furnace.2 U. Discount rate . vegetables and melons. low market prices. Cull tree . field windbreaks. In recent years. or can automatically enroll more limited acreages in practices such as riparian buffers. Crop failure consists mainly of the acreage on which crops failed because of weather. This practice is optional in some areas. some cropland pasture is marginal for crop uses and may remain in pasture indefinitely.h. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . and tree nuts. .Land used for long-term crop rotation. CRP is funded through the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). berries.h. The 2002 Farm Act increased the enrollment limit to 39 million acres.159 Conservation reserve program .) or larger that is non-merchantable for saw logs now or prospectively because of rot. and diseases.62 m^3). such as cropland planted with soil improvement crops but not harvested and cropland left idle all year. and grass strips on a continuous basis. tree fruits. Cropland harvested includes row crops and closely sown crops. Cord . Digester . Congress reauthorized CRP for an additional round of contracts.A live tree. rectangular box lined with firebrick (refractory) on the sides and top.A gasifier in which the product gases pass through a combustion zone at the bottom of the gasifier. small fruits. including air space and bark. and idle cropland. In 1996. or species. Cropland . standard dimensions are 4 x 4 x 8 feet. are not included in cultivated summer fallow but are included as idle cropland.

In transportation. Currently. and herbaceous energy crops. Fluidized-bed boiler . a hot gas outlet in or near the top. and shelterbelt strips of trees must have a crown width of at least 120 feet to qualify as forest land. Fly ash . and wood chips for export. such as planer shavings and sawdust. These include food crops such as corn and sugarcane.Products derived from fibers of herbaceous and woody plant materials.A large. Fiber products . The fluidized bed is formed by blowing air up through a layer of inert particles (such as sand or limestone) at a rate that causes the particles to go into suspension and continuous motion. blended with gasoline (E85 – 85% ethanol by volume). streamside. which are fast-growing hardwood trees harvested in 5 to 8 years. Unimproved roads and trails. Feller-buncher . usually containing residues from that process.Waste substances released into the air or water. or as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (10% by volume). and some provisions for introducing fuel. such as areas between heavily forested and nonforested lands that are at least 10 percent stocked with forest trees and forest areas adjacent to urban and built-up lands. Feedstock .Conversion of carbon-containing compounds by micro-organisms for production of fuels and chemicals such as alcohols. Examples include pulp.Land at least 10 percent stocked by forest trees of any size. refractory-lined vessel with an air distribution member or plate in the bottom. including land that formerly had such tree cover and that will be naturally or artificially regenerated.The liquid or gas discharged from a process or chemical reactor. flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 78. Fine materials . short-rotation woody crops.160 Effluent . Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . The minimum area for classification of forest land is 1 acre. and nonfood crops such as poplar trees and switchgrass. such as perennial grasses. The super-hot bed material increased combustion efficiency by its direct contact with the fuel.Otherwise known as ethyl alcohol. Roadside. Emissions . composition board products. Energy crops .Wood residues not suitable for chipping. A clear.(firm energy) Power which is guaranteed by the supplier to be available at all times during a period covered by a commitment. Also included are pinyon-juniper and chaparral areas in the West and afforested areas. streams. Firm power . or grain-spirit. That portion of a customer's energy load for which service is assured by the utility provider.5 degrees Celsius in the anhydrous state.Crops grown specifically for their fuel value. Forest land includes transition zones. See also Effluent.A product used as the basis for manufacture of another product.A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services. acids or energy-rich gases. and clearings in forest areas are classified as forest if less than 120 feet wide. alcohol. ethanol is used as a vehicle fuel by itself (E100 – 100% ethanol by volume).Small ash particles carried in suspension in combustion products. colorless. Externality . Ethanol . Fermentation . two energy crops are under development. Forest land . which are harvested annually after taking 2 to 3 years to reach full productivity.A self-propelled machine that cuts trees with giant shears near ground level and then stacks the trees into piles to await skidding. Often "externality" refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.

Forest health . and all tame and native grasses. Fuel cycle . Gigawatt . electricity generation. Usually considered to include green trees. or gaseous fuels formed in the ground after millions of years by chemical and physical changes in plant and animal residues under high temperature and pressure. through selective breeding. resilient stands growing at a moderate rate.A device for converting solid fuel into gaseous fuel.A device that converts the energy of a fuel directly to electricity and heat.Solid. See Pyrolysis. Fuel cell .000 kW).An enclosed chamber or container used to burn biomass in a controlled manner to produce heat for space or process heating. transport.Material not harvested or removed from logging sites in commercial hardwood and softwood stands as well as material resulting from forest management operations such as precommercial thinnings and removal of dead and dying trees. primarily for residential use. Gasifier . and endemic levels of insects and disease.(combustion turbine) A turbine that converts the energy of hot compressed gases (produced by burning fuel in compressed air) into mechanical power. e. Greenhouse effect . and prioritization of fuel treatment opportunities. Genetic selection . Because of the diversity in vegetative composition. grassland pasture and range are not always clearly distinguishable from other types of pasture and range. Furnace . evaluation. liquid.5% anhydrous ethanol and 94.000. or 5. the process is referred to as pyrolitic distillation. including shrub and brush land types of pasture. or grassland may often be found in transitional areas with forested grazing land. and coal are fossil fuels. Fuelwood . Natural processes still function or are duplicated through management intervention.The effect of certain gases in the Earth’s atmosphere in trapping heat from the sun. Gasification .A condition of ecosystem sustainability and attainment of management objectives for a given forest area. Gasohol .5% gasoline by volume. grazing land with sagebrush and scattered mesquite.A chemical or heat process to convert a solid fuel to a gaseous form. Fuel treatment evaluator (FTE) . natural gas.Wood used for conversion to some form of energy. snags. but these fuels are not referred to as gasohol. There are other fuels that contain methanol and gasoline. A large coal or nuclear power station typically has a capacity of about 1 GW.A strategic assessment tool capable of aiding the identification.A mixture of 10% anhydrous ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume. Grassland pasture and range . Gas turbine .5% gasoline by volume. 7.161 Forest residues . processing and cleaning the fuel. and other forage used for pasture or grazing. In biomass systems.The series of steps required to produce electricity.All open land used primarily for pasture and grazing.Application of science to systematic improvement of a population. Fossil fuel . The fuel cycle includes mining or otherwise acquiring the raw fuel source. without combustion. Often fired by natural gas or fuel oil. waste management and plant decommissioning.g.(GW) A measure of electrical power equal to one billion watts (1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . legumes. permanent grassland may merge with cropland pasture.5% anhydrous ethanol and 92. At one extreme. Oil.

and larger. With greater molecular weights they are liquid. includes only trees 5. In some incinerators.Non-woody type of vegetation.Land in cover and soil improvement crops. ozone. Grid . the range is from 7. Other greenhouse gases include methane. Ash is removed at the lower part of the grate. Herbaceous .Any device used to burn solid or liquid residues or wastes as a method of disposal. Cropland enrolled in the Federal Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is included in idle cropland. chlorofluorocarbons. Hectare . passes over the upper drying section where moisture is removed.Gases that trap the heat of the sun in the Earth’s atmosphere.600 to 9.h.545 Btu per hour = 745. HFCS . such as grasses. The simplest and lightest forms of hydrocarbon are gaseous. while the heaviest are solids. producing the greenhouse effect. Idle cropland .useful heat output released / actual heat produced in the firebox.162 Greenhouse gases . For wood. Inclined grate. equal to 2. Hardwoods .The maximum amount of energy that is available from burning a substance. and nitrous oxide. Heating value . 1 hp = 550 footpounds per second = 2.0 inches in d. Incinerator .A compound containing only hydrogen and carbon. generally expressed in Btu per net kWh.A type of furnace in which fuel enters at the top part of a grate in a continuous ribbon. Higher heating value . Habitat includes living and non-living attributes and provides all requirements for food and shelter. The two major greenhouse gases are water vapor and carbon dioxide.An electric utility company’s system for distributing power. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .(electrical horsepower. and descends into the lower burning section.A classification of timber inventory that includes live trees of commercial species meeting specified standards of quality or vigor.746 kW Hydrocarbon .The area where a plant or animal lives and grows under natural conditions.(HHV) The maximum potential energy in dry fuel. It is computed by dividing the total Btu content of fuel burned for electric generation by the resulting net kWh generation.Common metric unit of area. Habitat . 100 hectares = 1 square kilometer.The amount of fuel energy required by a power plant to produce one kilowatt-hour of electrical output. Acreage diverted from crops to soil-conserving uses (if not eligible for and used as cropland pasture) under federal farm programs is included in this component. Horsepower . Heat transfer efficiency . hp) A unit for measuring the rate of mechanical energy output.7 watts = 0. Heat rate .Usually broad-leaved and deciduous trees. When associated with volume.3 GJ/t).7 to 22. Some cropland is idle each year for various physical and economic reasons.47 acres.b. and cropland on which no crops were planted. usually lacking permanent strong stems. provisions are made for recovering the heat produced. Growing stock . cereals and canola (rape).High fructose corn syrup. Cull trees are excluded. usually used to describe the maximum output of engines or electric motors.600 Btu/lb (17. A measure of generating station thermal efficiency.

1 kWh will light a 100-watt light bulb for 10 hours.b. Live cull .341 horsepower. financing and operating costs. Kilowatt .Moisture content expressed as a percentage of the weight of oven-dry wood.(MW) A measure of electrical power equal to one million watts (1. When associated with volume. See also biogas. Moisture content. either oven-dry or as received.163 Incremental energy costs .S.A classification that includes live cull trees. Moisture content . Lignin . dry basis .Moisture content expressed as a percentage of the weight of wood asreceived.(kW) A measure of electrical power equal to 1. For example. Landfill gas . Joule . This stream of payments can be converted to a unit cost of energy by dividing the annual payment amount by the annual kilowatt-hours produced or saved.A common method of pricing electricity in the United States.0 inches in d.(kWh) A measure of energy equivalent to the expenditure of one kilowatt for one hour.Wood and bark residues produced in processing logs into lumber. See also watt. Megawatt . 1 kWh = 3412 Btu.h. 1 kW = 3412 Btu/hr = 1. and paper.000 kW).Conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel through a synthesis gas intermediate step. including capital. One joule (J) = 0. Levelized life-cycle cost . Independent power producer . Industrial wood . resources with different lifetimes and generating capabilities can be compared.weight of dry sample) / weight of dry sample] x 100 Moisture content.: [(weight of wet sample .Metric unit of energy. Mill residue . usually expressed as a percentage of weight.All commercial roundwood products except fuelwood. Landfill gas is approximately 50 percent methane. wet basis .000 watts. By levelizing costs.e.: [(weight of wet sample . Tenths of a U.One million British thermal units.weight of dry sample) / weight of wet sample] x 100 Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .187 J). expressed as a stream of equal annual payments. MMBtu .The unused portions of growing-stock and non-growing-stock trees cut or killed by logging and left in the woods. which encrusts the cell walls and cements the cells together. and larger. Long run incremental costs (LRIC) include the capital cost of new resources or capital equipment. equivalent to the work done by a force of one Newton applied over a distance of one meter (= 1 kg m2/s2). Short run incremental costs (SRIC) include only incremental operating costs. Mill/kWh .e.Structural constituent of wood and (to a lesser extent) other plant tissues.239 calories (1 calorie = 4. it is the net volume in live cull trees that are 5.The present value of the cost of a resource.A type of biogas that is generated by decomposition of organic material at landfill disposal sites. Logging residues . cent per kilowatt hour. Indirect liquefaction .A power production facility that is not part of a regulated utility. plywood.(MC) The weight of the water contained in wood. i. Kilowatt hour .The cost of producing and transporting the next available unit of electrical energy. i. See also watt.

The transformation of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds that can be used by growing plants. Other removals . If intermingled in forest areas. and clearings. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) . residues from forest harvesting operations and crop harvesting. Nonindustrial private .Chemical compounds based on carbon chains or rings and also containing hydrogen. controlled extraction turbine . Other forest land . high elevation. residential areas. large mature and over-mature trees in the overstory. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .. which is incapable of annually producing 20 cubic feet per acre of industrial wood under natural conditions because of adverse site conditions such as sterile soils. Other sources . or from timberland clearing.Biomass that can be used to produce energy and bioproducts even though it was not grown specifically for this purpose. trees less than 5.b. etc.Any area that does not meet the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard established by the Environmental Protection Agency for designated pollutants.The cultivation of a single species crop.The sum of the costs and benefits of a project or activity. dry climate. Nonforest land .) Nonattainment area . Future benefits and costs are discounted to account for interest costs.164 Monoculture .0 inches d.A turbine that bleeds part of the main steam flow at one (single extraction) or two (double extraction) points.A product of combustion of fossil fuels whose production increases with the temperature of the process. with or without oxygen. powerline clearings of any width.Sources of roundwood products that are not growing stock.An ownership class of private lands where the owner does not operate woodusing processing plants.. These include salvable dead. unimproved roads and nonforest strips must be more than 120 feet wide.Unutilized wood volume from cut or otherwise killed growing stock. steepness. improved pasture. fence rows). It can become an air pollutant if concentrations are excessive. such as carbon monoxide and ozone. Does not include volume removed from inventory through reclassification of timberland to productive reserved forest land. dead and decaying logs on the ground.Forest land other than timberland and reserved forest land. poor drainage. improved roads of any width and adjoining clearings. Organic compounds. and a multi-layered canopy with trees of several age classes. from cultural operations such as precommercial thinnings. and 1. Open-loop biomass . snags. rough and rotten trees. and other elements.to 4. city parks. (Note: Includes area used for crops.Timber stands with the following characteristics. Noncondensing. Net present value .h. or rockiness. tops. must be more than 1 acre in area to qualify as nonforest land. It includes available forest land.Land that has never supported forests and lands formerly forested where use of timber management is precluded by development for other uses. Examples of open-loop biomass include agricultural livestock waste. trees of noncommercial species. and roundwood harvested from non-forest land (for example. Nitrogen fixation . Old growth.5-acre areas of water classified by the Bureau of the Census as land. nitrogen.

and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). or wood residues that are used for the production of wood pulp. Public utility commissions .055 exajoules (EJ). and carbon dioxide) with proportions determined by operating temperature.Process by which chlorophyll-containing cells in green plants concert incident light to chemical energy. or spray. Producer gas . fume. To obtain present value.b. Photosynthesis . Refuse-derived fuel .A substance which. and the remaining combustible portion of the solid waste is chopped or shredded. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 . mist.000 tons of MSW per day. when added to gasoline. dust. an interest rate is used to discount future receipts or costs. and other conditions.State agencies that regulate investor-owned utilities operating in the state. Each of these forms has different properties. liquids (oxygenated oils). pressure. Refractory lining . Noncombustible materials such as rocks. Particulates take the form of aerosol.Roundwood.A small.A lining. whole-tree chips. Particulate . discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions. capturing carbon dioxide in the form of carbohydrates. and gases (methane. Process heat .A mill that converts roundwood products into other wood products. Primary wood-using mill . or 200° C) in the absence of air. Includes fuel ethanol.(PURPA) A federal law requiring a utility to buy the power produced by a qualifying facility at a price equal to that which the utility would otherwise pay if it were to build its own power plant or buy power from another source. methanol.(RDF) Fuel prepared from municipal solid waste. usually of ceramic. smoke.Heat used in an industrial process rather than for space heating or other housekeeping purposes.A pulp mill boiler in which lignin and spent cooking liquor (black liquor) is burned to generate steam. increases the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Pulpwood . RDF facilities process typically between 100 and 3. and metals are removed. Pilot scale . glass.The thermal decomposition of biomass at high temperatures (greater than 400° F. oxygen content.Live trees at least 5. carbon monoxide. Quad: One quadrillion Btu (10^15 Btu) = 1. Present value .The size of a system between the small laboratory model size (bench scale) and a full-size system.Fuel gas high in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2).The worth of future receipts or costs expressed in current value. produced by burning a solid fuel with insufficient air or by passing a mixture of air and steam through a burning bed of solid fuel. The end product of pyrolysis is a mixture of solids (char). or approximately 172 million barrels of oil equivalent. Poletimber trees . but smaller than sawtimber trees.165 Oxygenate . Pyrolysis . Recovery boiler .0 inches in d.h. Common examples are sawmills that convert saw logs into lumber and pulp mills that convert pulpwood roundwood into wood pulp. Public utility regulatory policies act . capable of resisting and maintaining high temperatures.

The amount by which the utility’s total electric power capacity exceeds maximum electric demand. shavings. Rotation .Logs and other round timber generated from harvesting trees for industrial or consumer use. Rough tree .(a) A live tree of commercial species that does not contain a saw log now or prospectively primarily because of roughness (that is.Live trees 1. Steam turbine. trimmings.Steam at boiling temperature for a given pressure.9 inches in d. See also horsepower.The net volume in salvable dead trees. spatial arrangement. or cracks.(ROI) The interest rate at which the net present value of a project is zero. Superheated steam . Saplings . Roundwood products . structure and growth of forests and woodlands.Short rotation intensive culture . and pulp screenings. Multiple values are possible. Return on investment.Steam which is hotter than boiling temperature for a given pressure. edgings.A mill that uses primary wood products in the manufacture of finished wood products. when sound cull.A live tree of commercial species that does not contain a saw log now or prospectively primarily because of rot (that is.A downed or standing dead tree that is considered currently or potentially merchantable by regional standards. splits.166 Reserve margin . Salvable dead tree . constitution.h. such as cabinets. usually less than 10 years between harvests. Shaft horsepower .A device for converting energy of high-pressure steam (produced in a boiler) into mechanical power which can then be used to generate electricity. age. SRIC . Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .(of trees) A tree community that possesses sufficient uniformity in composition. accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cull volume) or (b) a live tree of noncommercial species.Period of years between establishment of a stand of timber and the time when it is considered ready for final harvest and regeneration. composition. moldings. Sound dead . due to such factors as poor form.b. Includes bark residues and wood residues (both coarse and fine materials) but excludes logging residues. Saturated steam. and possibly irrigation). when rot accounts for more than 50 percent of the total cull volume). Examples are slabs.Theory and practice of controlling the establishment. Residues . veneer cores and clippings.0 inch through 4. characterized by detailed site preparation. weed and pest control. or condition to be distinguishable from adjacent communities. and furniture. Silviculture . Stand . sawdust.Bark and woody materials that are generated in primary wood-using mills when roundwood products are converted to other products.the growing of tree crops for bioenergy or fiber.A measure of the actual mechanical energy per unit time delivered to a turning shaft. Secondary wood processing mills . usually fast-growing hybrid trees and intensive management (some fertilization. Rotten tree .

205 pounds). Sustainable.A machine for converting the heat energy in steam or high temperature gas into mechanical energy. These turbines are often multistage types with relatively high efficiency. In a turbine. Turn down ratio.000 Btus (= 105. renewability.An ecosystem condition in which biodiversity.Forest land that is producing or is capable of producing crops of industrial wood.A cogeneration system in which electric power is produced first.Ethanol produced from ethylene. the logging residues left behind. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .A fee for disposal of waste. Turbine . e.One U.The lowest load at which a boiler will operate efficiently as compared to the boiler’s maximum design load.5 MJ). Ton. Traveling grate. this system acts as an interface to a standard set of consistently coded TPO data for each state and county in the country. One oven-dry ton or tonne (ODT. Transmission. Waste streams . The reject heat from power production is then used to produce useful process heat.167 Surplus electricity.g.000 kilograms (2. and that is not withdrawn from timber utilization by statute or administrative regulation. to make useful energy products. This set of national TPO data consists of 11 data variables that describe for each county the roundwood products harvested. Tipping fee . ton (short ton) = 2. Timberland .The process of long-distance transport of electrical energy.Turbines which operate at exhaust pressure considerably higher than atmospheric (noncondensing turbines). Timber Product Output Database Retrieval System (TPO) .000 pounds. and the wood and bark residues generated by its primary wood-using mills.Use of heat to chemically change substances from one state to another. Areas qualifying as timberland are capable of producing more than 20 cubic feet per acre per year of industrial wood in natural stands. Fuel is fed in at one end and ash is discharged at the other. Thermochemical conversion . sometimes termed bone-dry ton/tonne) is the amount of wood that weighs one ton/tonne at 0% moisture content. a petroleum by-product. a high velocity flow of steam or gas passes through successive rows of radial blades fastened to a central shaft. Topping and back pressure turbines .S. generally accomplished by raising the electric current to high voltages. One green ton/tonne refers to the weight of undried (fresh) biomass material . Therm . and resource productivity are maintained over time.A unit of energy equal to 100.Developed in support of the 1997 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment. Tonne . Currently inaccessible and inoperable areas are included. Topping cycle . Synthetic ethanol . One Imperial ton (long ton or shipping ton) = 2.moisture content must be specified if green weight is used as a fuel measure. the timber otherwise removed. used primarily for natural gas. One metric tonne(tonne) = 1.240 pounds.A type of furnace in which assembled links of grates are joined together in a perpetual belt arrangement.Electricity produced by cogeneration equipment in excess of the needs of an associated factory or business.Unused solid or liquid by-products of a process.

168 Water-cooled vibrating grate . or the power developed in a circuit by a current of one ampere flowing through a potential difference of one volt. Watershed . Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1 .The initial movement of logs from the point of felling to a central loading area or landing. The structure is supported by flexing plates allowing the grid and grate to move in a vibrating action. See also kilowatt. organic matter. Watt . Whole-tree harvesting .The drainage basin contributing water.The process of transferring electrical energy between buyer and seller by way of an intermediate utility or utilities.A boiler grate made up of a tuyere grate surface mounted on a grid of water tubes interconnected with the boiler circulation system for positive cooling. Yarding . dissolved nutrients. and sediments to a stream or lake. One Watt = 3. One watt equals one joule per second.412 Btu/hr.A harvesting method in which the whole tree (above the stump) is removed.The common base unit of power in the metric system. Wheeling . Ashes are automatically discharged.

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