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Name : …………………………………….

Index Number: …......…………………….
Class: ………………………………………

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Chemistry
Paper 2
Sept 2007
2 ½ hour

SPM TRIAL EXAMINATION 2007
MARA Junior Science College
For Examiner’s Use

CHEMISTRY
Paper 2

Section

Two hours and thirty minutes
DO NOT OPEN THE QUESTION BOOKLET
UNTIL BEING TOLD TO DO SO
A
1. Write your name, index number and class in
the space provided.
Tuliskan nama , angka giliran dan kelas anda pada
ruang yang disediakan.

2. The question booklet is bilingual
Kertas soalan ini adalah dalam dwibahasa.

3. Candidate is required to read the information
in page 2.
Calon dikehendaki membaca maklumat
di halaman 2 .

B

C

Question

Full
Mark

1

9

2

10

3

9

4

11

5

11

6

10

7

20

8

20

9

20

10

20

Obtained
Mark

TOTAL

This booklet contains 31 printed pages.

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2

INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES
MAKLUMAT UNTUK CALON

1. This question paper consists of three sections: Section A, Section B and Section C.
[Kertas soalan ini mengandungi tiga bahagian: Bahagian A, Bahagian B dan Bahagian C.]

2. Answer all questions in Section A. Write your answers for Section A in the
spaces provided in the question paper.
[Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian A. Tuliskan jawapan bagi Bahagian A dalam ruang yang
disediakan dalam kertas soalan].

3. Answer one question from Section B and one question from Section C. Write your
answers for Section B and Section C on the lined pages at the end of the question
paper. Answer questions in Section B and Section C in detail. You may use
equations, diagrams, tables, graphs and other suitable methods to explain your
answer.
[Jawap satu soalan daripada Bahagian B dan satu soalan daripada Bahagian C. Tuliskan jawapan
bagi Bahagian B dan Bahagian C pada halaman bergaris di bahagian akhir kertas soalan ini.
Jawab Bahagian B dan Bahagian C dengan terperinci. Anda boleh menggunakan persamaan,
gambar rajah, jadual, graf dan cara lain yang sesuai untuk menjelaskan jawapan anda].

4. Show your working, it may help you to get marks.
[Tunjukkan kerja mengira, ini membantu anda mendapatkan markah].

5. If you wish to cancel any answer, neatly cross out the answer.
[Sekiranya anda hendak membatalkan sesuatu jawapan, buat garisan di atas jawapan itu].

6. The diagrams in the questions are not drawn to scale unless stated.
[Rajah yang mengiringi soalan tidak dilukiskan mengikut skala kecuali dinyatakan].

7. Marks allocated for each question or part question are shown in brackets.
[ Markah yang diperuntukkan bagi setiap soalan atau ceraian soalan ditunjukkan dalam kurungan].

8. The time suggested to complete Section A is 90 minutes, Section B is 30 minutes
and Section C is 30 minutes
[Masa yang dicadangkan untuk menjawab Bahagian A ialah 90 minit, Bahagian B ialah 30 minit
dan Bahagian C ialah 30 minit].

9. You may use a non – programmable scientific calculator.
[Anda dibenarkan menggunakan kalkulator saintifik yang tidak boleh diprogramkan].

10. Hand in all your answer sheets at the end of the examination.
[Serahkan semua kertas jawapan anda di akhir peperiksaan].

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For
Examiner’s
Use
[Untuk
Kegunaan
Pemeriksa]

Section A
Bahagian A

[60 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
The time suggested to answer this section is 90 minutes
[Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
Masa yang dicadangkan untuk menjawab bahagian ini ialah 90 minit.]

1

Diagram 1 shows the electronic arrangement of atoms of six elements.
P, Q, R, S, T and U do not represent the actual symbol of the elements.
Use the letters to answer the following questions.
[Rajah 1 menunjukkan susunan elektron atom-atom bagi enam unsur.
P, Q, R, S, T, dan U tidak mewakili simbol sebenar unsur-unsur berkenaan.
Gunakan huruf-huruf yang diberikan untuk menjawab soalan-soalan berikut.]

DIAGRAM 1
[RAJAH 1]

(a) Determine and fill the position of P and T in the Periodic Table of Elements given
below.
[Tentukan dan isikan kedudukan P dan T dalam Jadual Berkala Unsur di bawah]

Q
S

R
U
1(a)

[2 marks]

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Examiner’s
Use
[Untuk
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Pemeriksa]

(b)

State one element which:
[Nyatakan satu unsur yang merupakan]:

1(b)(i)

(i)

is a metal: ..........................................................................................................
[suatu logam]

[1 mark]
1(b)(ii)
(ii)

forms an ion with +2 charge: ...........................................................................
[membentuk ion bercas +2]

[1 mark]
1(b)(iii)

(iii)

is used in advertising light: ...............................................................................
[digunakan dalam lampu iklan]

[1 mark ]
(c)

Name the products formed when S reacts with water.
[Namakan hasil-hasil yang terbentuk apabila S bertindak balas dengan air.]

1(c)

........................................................................................................................................
[2 marks]
(d)

State one usage of U in water treatment plant.
[Nyatakan satu kegunaan U dalam loji rawatan air.]

1(d)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(e)
1(e)

The atomic radius of T is smaller than S. Explain why.
[Jejari atom T lebih kecil dari S. Terangkan mengapa.]
........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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5

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Diagram 2 shows the electrolysis of 1.0 mol dm-3 sodium chloride solution which is
still in progress.

2

[Rajah 2 menunjukkan elektrolisis larutan natrium klorida 1.0 mol dm-3 yang sedang dijalankan]

For
Examiner’s
Use
[Untuk
Kegunaan
Pemeriksa]

DIAGRAM 2
[RAJAH 2]

(a)

Write the formulae of all ions present in the electrolyte.
[Tuliskan formula semua ion yang wujud dalam elektrolit]

2(a)
(b)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
Name the gas produced at:
[Namakan gas yang terhasil di]:

(i)

burette X : ......................................................................................................
[buret X]

(ii)

(c)

burette Y : ......................................................................................................
[buret Y]
[2 marks]

2(b)

State how you would verify the gas named at b(i).
[Nyatakan bagaimana anda mengesahkah gas yang dinamakan di b(i)]

........................................................................................................................................
2(c)
........................................................................................................................................

(d)

........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
(i)
Write the half-equation for the process that occurs in burette X.
[Tuliskan setengah persamaan bagi proses yang berlaku di buret X.]

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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2(d)(i)

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(ii)

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At the end of the experiment, 30.00 cm3 of gas was collected at room
temperature in burette X.
Calculate the number of moles of gas collected in burette X.
[1 mol of gas occupies a volume of 24.0 dm3 at room temperature]
[Di akhir eksperimen, 30.00 cm3 gas dikumpulkan pada suhu bilik dalam buret X.
Hitungkan bilangan mol gas yang dikumpulkan dalam buret X]
[1 mol gas menempati 24.0 dm3 pada suhu bilik]

2(d)(ii)
[1 mark]
(e)

Name a substance that can be used to replace carbon electrodes for the experiment
to get the same result?
[Namakan satu bahan yang boleh digunakan untuk menggantikan elektrod karbon bagi eksperimen
menghasilkan keputusan yang sama.]

2(e)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(f)

State one usage of the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution in industry.
[Nyatakan satu kegunaan elektrolisis larutan natrium klorida dalam industri.]

2(f)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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3

(a)

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Diagram 3 shows a series of tests performed on a colourless solution which
contains one cation and two anions..
[Rajah 3. menunjukkan satu siri ujian yang dijalankan ke atas larutan tanpa warna yang
mengandungi satu kation dan dua anion.]

For
Examiner’s
Use
[Untuk
Kegunaan
Pemeriksa]

Colourless solution
[Larutan tanpa warna]

Test 1

Test 3

(Ujian 1)

(Ujian 3)

+ NaOH (aq), then heated
(+ NaOH (ak), dan dipanaskan)

+ HNO3(aq) , AgNO3 (aq)
White precipitate formed.

Vapour produced turns damp
red litmus paper to blue
[Wap terhasil menukarkan kertas
litmus merah lembab kepada biru]

[Mendakan putih terbentuk]

Test 2
(Ujian 2)

Brown ring formed
[Cincin perang terbentuk]

DIAGRAM 3
[RAJAH 3]

(i)

Based on the observations in Diagram 3, complete the table below with
appropriate inferences.
[Berdasarkan pemerhatian dalam Rajah 3, lengkapkan jadual di bawah dengan inferens
yang sesuai]

Test [ujian]

Inference [inferens]

1
2
3(a)(i)

3
[3 marks]
(ii) Write an ionic equation for the reaction in Test 3.
[Tuliskan persamaan ion bagi tindak balas dalam Ujian 3]

3(a)(ii)

...........................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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(b)

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A student wants to prepare a pure sample of crystalline zinc sulphate by reacting
dilute sulphuric acid with substance X.
[Seorang pelajar ingin menyediakan suatu sampel tulen hablur zink sulfat melalui tindak balas
antara asid sulfurik dengan bahan X]

(i)

Name the substance X.
[Namakan bahan X]

3(b)(i)
............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii)

Write an equation for the above reaction.
[Tuliskan satu persamaan kimia bagi tindak balas di atas]

3(b)(ii)

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(iii)

Calculate the maximum mass of zinc sulphate that can be prepared if 50.0
cm3 of 0.2 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid is reacted with excess X.
[The relative formula mass of zinc sulphate = 161]
[Hitungkan jisim maksima zink sulfat yang dapat disediakan jika 50.0 cm3 larutan asid
sulfurik 0.2 mol dm-3 ditindak balaskan dengan X berlebihan]
[Jisim formula relatif zink sulfat = 161 ]

3(b)(iii)

[3 marks]

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An experiment is carried out to study the effect of concentration on rate of reaction.
50.0 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid and excess granulated calcium carbonate
is put into a conical flask and is placed on an electronic balance as shown in
Diagram 4.
The mass of the conical flask and its contents is recorded at 60 seconds intervals.

For
Examiner’s
Use
[Untuk
Kegunaan
Pemeriksa]

[Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan ke atas kadar tindak balas.
50.0 cm3 asid hidroklorik 0.5 mol dm-3 dan ketulan kalsium karbonat berlebihan dimasukkan ke
dalam kelalang kun diletakkan di atas neraca elektronik seperti dalam Rajah 4.
Jisim kelalang kun dan kandungannya direkodkan pada sela masa 60 saat].

DIAGRAM 4
RAJAH 4

Table 4 shows the results.
[Jadual 4 menunjukkan keputusan]

Time/sec.
[Masa/saat]

Balance readings /g
[Bacaan neraca/g]

0

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

140.64 140.48 140.37 140.31 140.26 140.22 140.20 140.20 140.20

TABLE 4
[JADUAL 4]

(a)

Give the definition of rate of reaction.
[Berikan maksud kadar tindak balas]

4(a)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b)

Explain why the mass of the conical flask and its content decreases with time.
[Terangkan mengapa jisim kelalang kun dan kandungannya berkurang dengan masa]

........................................................................................................................................
4(b)
........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(c)

Based on Table 4, plot a graph of the mass of the conical flask and its content versus
time on the graph paper below.
[Berdasarkan Jadual 4, plotkan graf jisim kelalang kun dan kandungannya melawan masa pada
kertas graf di bawah].

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Graph of mass of the conical flask and its content versus time
Graf jisim kelalang kun dan kandungannya melawan masa

[3 marks]

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4(c)

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(d)

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Based on the graph, calculate the instantaneous rate of reaction at 120 seconds.
[Berdasarkan graf, hitungkan kadar tindak balas pada saat ke 120]

For
Examiner’s
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[Untuk
Kegunaan
Pemeriksa]

4(d)
[3 marks]
(e)

(i)

Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide gas produced.
[Hitungkan jisim gas karbon dioksida yang dihasilkan]

4(e)(i)
[1 mark]
(ii)

Calculate the expected volume of gas produced at room condition.
[1 mol of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room condition; relative molecular mass of
CO2 is 44 ]
[Hitungkan isipadu gas yang dijangka akan terhasil pada keadaan bilik.
1 mol gas menempati 24 dm3 pada suhu bilik ; jisim molekul relatif CO2 ialah 44]

4(e)(ii)
[2 marks]

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5

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Diagram 5 shows a series of chemical reactions starting from compound Y.
[Rajah 5 menunjukkan satu siri tindak balas kimia bermula daripada sebatian Y]

CH3CH2CH2OH
Compound Y

Process I
(Proses I)
C3H6

[Sebatian Y]

Process III

Process II

+ solution of bromine in CCl4

(Proses II)

[+ larutan bromin dalam CCl4]

(Proses III)

CH3CH2COOH
Compound R

Compound P
[Sebatian P]

[Sebatian R]

DIAGRAM 5
RAJAH 5

(a)
5(a)

Name compound Y
[Namakan sebatian Y]

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b)

Draw a diagram to show the set-up of apparatus if Process I is to be carried out in a
laboratory.
[Lukiskan satu rajah untuk menunjukkan susunan radas jika Proses I dilakukan dalam makmal]

5(b)
[2 marks]
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(c)

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Examiner’s
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[Untuk
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Draw and name the structural formula of compound P
[Lukis dan namakan formula struktur sebatian P]

Name of compound P : ...............................................................................
(Namakan sebatian P)

5(c)

[2 marks]
(d)

Describe how Process III could be done in a laboratory.
[Perihalkan bagaimana Proses III dapat dijalankan dalam makmal]

........................................................................................................................................
5(d)
........................................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
(e)

Compound Y reacts with glacial ethanoic acid to form a sweet smelling liquid.
[Sebatian Y bertindak balas dengan asid etanoik glacial membentuk larutan berbau manis]

(i)

Name the process that occured.
[Namakan proses yang berlaku]

5(e)(i)

…………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(ii)

Write a chemical equation for the above reaction.
[Tuliskan persamaan kimia untuk tindak balas di atas]

5(e)(ii)

............................................................................................................................
[2 marks]

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6

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In an experiment to study the heat of neutralization, 25.0 cm3 of a 1.0 mol dm-3
sodium hydroxide solution was added to 25.0 cm3 of a 1.0 mol dm-3 aqueous
hydrochloric acid. The mixture was then stirred and the maximum temperature was
recorded.
Diagram 6 shows the set up of the apparatus used in the experiment.
[Dalam satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji haba peneutralan, 25.0 cm3 larutan natrium hidroksida 1.0
mol dm-3 telah ditambahkan ke dalam 25.0 cm3 larutan akueus asid hidroklorik 1.0 mol dm-3.
Campuran dikacau, dan suhu maksima direkodkan.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan susunan radas yang digunakan dalam eksperimen ini]

DIAGRAM 6
RAJAH 6

The following data was obtained.
[Data berikut diperoleh]

Initial temperature of sodium hydroxide solution = 28.5oC
(Suhu awal larutan natrium hidroksida)

Initial temperature of hydrochloric acid solution = 28.5oC
(Suhu awal larutan asid hidroklorik)

Maximum temperature of the mixture

= 34.5oC

(Suhu maksima campuran)

(a)

What is meant by heat of neutralization?
[Apakah yang dimaksudkan haba peneutralan?]

6(a)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(b)

Write an ionic equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide.
[Tulis persamaan ion bagi tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik dan natrium hidroksida]

6(b)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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(c)

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Based on the data obtained from the experiment, calculate
[Berdasarkan data yang diperolehi daripada eksperimen, hitung]

(i)

the number of moles of hydrochloric acid used
[ bilangan mol asid hidroklorik yang digunakan]

6(c)(i)

[1 mark]
(ii)

the amount of heat released
[kuantiti haba yang dibebaskan]

6(c)(ii)

[1 mark]
(iii)

the heat of neutralization
[haba peneutralan]

6(c)(iii)

[1 mark]

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(d)

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Draw the energy level diagram for the reaction.
[Lukiskan gambar rajah aras tenaga bagi tindak balas]

6(d)

[2 marks]
(e)

(i)

The heat of neutralization obtained from the experiment is less than the
theoretical value. Give a reason.
[Haba peneutralan yang diperoleh dari eksperimen kurang dari nilai teori. Berikan sebab]

............................................................................................................................
6(e)(i)

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(ii)

Suggest one step that should be taken to modify the apparatus in order to get
a more accurate result.
[Cadangkan satu langkah pengubahsuaian yang boleh dibuat ke atas radas untuk mendapat
keputusan yang lebih tepat]

............................................................................................................................

6(e)(ii)

............................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
(f)

The experiment is repeated by doubling the volume of both hydrochloric acid and
sodium hydroxide.
Assuming the initial temperature is maintained, what would be the maximum
temperature of the mixture?
[Eksperimen diulang dengan menggandakan isipadu kedua-dua asid hidroklorik dan natrium
hidroksida.
Dengan anggapan bahawa suhu awal tindak balas adalah sama, apakah suhu maksima campuran
yang dijangkakan?]

6(f)

........................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]

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Section B [Bahagian B]
[20 marks]
Answer any one question.
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan.

7

(a)

Table 7.1 shows information on the atomic structure and the relative atomic mass
of three elements: aluminium, carbon and oxygen.
[Jadual 7.1 menunjukkan maklumat mengenai struktur atom dan jisim atom relatif bagi tiga
unsur:, aluminium, karbon dan oksigen]

Element

Number of proton

Number of neutron

[Unsur]

[bilangan proton]

[Bilangan neutron]

6

6

12

8

8

16

13

14

27

Carbon
(Karbon)

Oxygen
(Oksigen)

Aluminium
(Aluminium)

Relative atomic mass
[Jisim atom relatif]

TABLE 7.1
[JADUAL 7.1]
(i)

Based on Table 7.1, state the relationship between the relative atomic
mass of an element with the number of proton and neutron of its atom.
[Berdasarkan Jadual 7.1, nyatakan perkaitan antara jisim atom relatif dengan bilangan
proton dan bilangan neutron yang dipunyai oleh suatu atom]

[1 mark]
(ii)

Draw the electronic arrangement diagram for an ion of oxygen.
[ Lukiskan rajah susunan electron bagi suatu ion yang terbentuk dari unsur oksigen]

[2 marks]
(iii)

Aluminium and carbon react with oxygen to form aluminium oxide and
carbon dioxide respectively. The reactions are represented by the
following equations.
[Aluminium dan karbon bertindak balas dengan oksigen membentuk aluminium oksida
dan karbon dioksida.Tindak balas ditunjukkan dalam persamaan di bawah ]

I.

4 Al + 3O2 → 2 Al2O3

II. C + O2 → CO2
Describe how chemical bonds in aluminium oxide and carbon dioxide are
formed.
[Perihalkan bagaimana ikatan-ikatan kimia dalam aluminium oksida dan karbon
dioksida dibentuk]

[8 marks]

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(b)

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Naphthalene and sodium chloride are white crystals at room temperature. Table
7.2 shows two physical properties of the compounds.
[Naftalena dan natrium klorida adalah hablur berwarna putih pada suhu bilik. Jadual 7.2
menunjukkan dua sifat fizik bagi kedua-dua sebatian]

Compound

Melting point / 0C

Electrical conductivity

(Sebatian)

(Takat lebur)

(Kekonduksian elektrik)

Naphthalene
(Naftalena)

80

Sodium chloride
(Natrium klorida)

801

Non electrolyte
(Bukan elektrolit)

Electrolyte
(Elektrolit)

TABLE 7.2
JADUAL 7.2

Explain the differences in the melting points and the electrical conductivity of
naphthalene and sodium chloride.
Your answer should be based on the
[Terangkan perbezaan takat lebur dan kekonduksian elektrik bagi naftalena dan natrium
klorida. Jawapan anda hendaklah berdasarkan kepada]

types of particles present in both compounds
[ jenis zarah yang hadir dalam kedua-dua sebatian]

types of bonds and
[jenis ikatan]

forces of attraction
[daya tarikan antara zarah]

[5 marks]
(c)

Diagram 7 shows the symbol of two atoms of oxygen.
[Rajah 7 menunjukkan simbol bagi dua atom oksigen]

16
8

O

18
8

O

DIAGRAM 7
RAJAH 7

Compare and contrast the two atoms of oxygen.
[Banding dan bezakan kedua-dua atom oksigen ini]

[4 marks]

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8

(a)

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19
Table 8 shows the pH of two solutions.
[Jadual 8 menunjukkan pH bagi dua larutan]

Solution
0.1 mol dm of potassium hydroxide solution

pH

-3

(Larutan kalium hidroksida 0.1 mol dm-3 )

0.1 mol dm-3 of aqueous ammonia
(Larutan ammonia 0.1 mol dm-3)

13
11

TABLE 8
[JADUAL 8]

Explain why the two solutions have different pH.
[Terangkan mengapa kedua-dua larutan mempunyai nilai pH yang berbeza.].

[4 marks]
(b)

An unlabeled reagent bottle is said to contain sulphuric acid solution.
Describe how you would confirm the solution.
[Satu botol reagen yang tidak berlabel dikatakan mengandungi larutan asid sulfurik.
Perihalkan bagaimana anda mengesahkan larutan itu]

[4 marks]
(c)

The structural formula of ethanoic acid is shown in Diagram 8.
[Formula struktur bagi asid etanoik ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 8]

DIAGRAM 8
[RAJAH 8]

(i)

Explain why ethanoic acid is a monoprotic acid.
[ Terangkan mengapa asid etanoik adalah asid monobes]
[2 marks]

(ii)

Glacial ethanoic acid does not conduct electricity but the aqueous solution
of ethanoic acid does. Explain why.
[Asid etanoik glasial tidak mengkonduksikan elektrik tetapi larutan akueus asid
etanoik mengkonduksikan elektrik. Terangkan mengapa]

[3 marks]
(iii)

When zinc powder is added into an aqueous ethanoic acid, bubbles of
colourless gas are evolved.
Write a chemical equation for the reaction.
[Bila serbuk zink ditambahkan ke dalam larutan akueus asid etanoik, gelembunggelembung gas tidak berwarna dibebaskan.
Tuliskan persaman kimia bagi tindak balas ini]

[2 marks]

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(d)

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The equation below shows the reaction between hydrochloric acid and
magnesium.
[Persamaan di bawah menunjukkan tindak balas antara asid hidroklorik dan magnesium]

Mg + 2HCl Æ MgCl2 + H2
50.0 cm3 of hydrochloric acid solution reacts with excess magnesium to produce
48 cm3 of hydrogen gas.
Calculate the concentration of the hydrochloric acid used.
[Molar volume of gas = 24.0 dm3 mol-1]
[Satu larutan 50.0 cm3 asid hidroklorik bertindak balas dengan magnesium yang berlebihan
menghasilkan 48 cm3 gas hydrogen.
Hitungkan kepekatan asid hidroklorik]

[3 marks]
(e)

Emission of gaseous pollutant from vehicles and industries leads to the
formation of acid rain.
Explain the effect of acid rain to the structure of buildings.
[Pelepasan gas-gas pencemar dari kenderaan dan industri boleh menghasilkan hujan asid.
Terangkan kesan hujan asid terhadap struktur bangunan.]

[2 marks]

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21

Section C ( Bahagian C)
[20 marks]
Answer any one question.
Jawab mana-mana satu soalan.

9

(a)

The following equations represent two chemical reactions,
[Berikut adalah persamaan-persamaan bagi dua tindak balas kimia.]

I.
II.

AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) Æ AgCl(s) + NaNO3 (aq)
Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) Æ ZnSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)

Based on the equations, determine whether the reaction is a redox reaction.
Explain your answer.
[Berdasarkan kepada persamaan kimia ini tentukan sama ada setiap tindak balas adalah
tindak balas redoks atau bukan.
Terangkan jawapan anda ]

[4 marks]
(b)

Diagram 9 shows a cross section of two iron bars, P and Q which are plated by
zinc and tin layers respectively.
[Rajah 9 menunjukkan keratan rentas bagi dua batang besi, P dan Q yang masing-masing disadur
dengan lapisan zink dan stanum]

DIAGRAM 9
RAJAH 9

Explain how zinc and tin layers in P and Q protect the iron bars from corrosion.
Determine which iron bar is more protected from corrosion.
[Terangkan bagaimana lapisan-lapisan zink dan stanum dalam P dan Q melindungi besi dari
kakisan.
Tentukan batang besi yang manakah lebih dilindungi dari kakisan]

[ 6 marks]

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(c)

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Fe2+ ion can be oxidized to Fe3+ ion while Fe3+ ion can be reduced to Fe2+ ion
as shown in the following half-equations.
[Ion Fe2+ boleh dioksidakan kepada ion Fe3+ manakala ion Fe3+ boleh diturunkan kepada
ion Fe2+ seperti ditunjukkan dalam setengah persamaan berikut.

Fe2+ → Fe3+ + e
Fe3+ + e → Fe2+
Design an experiment to show how these two changes can be carried out.
Your answer should consist of the following:
[Reka bentuk satu eksperimen bagi menunjukkan bagaimana dua perubahan ini dapat
dijalankan. Jawapan anda harus mengandungi perkara berikut]:

ƒ Chemicals required
[Bahan kimia yang diperlukan]

ƒ Procedure of the experiment
[Prosedur eksperimen]

ƒ Observation
[Pemerhatian]

ƒ Overall chemical equation involved in the reaction
[Persamaan tindak balas keseluruhan]

[10 marks]

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Sodium stearate and sodium dodecyl sulphate are cleaning agents. Their molecular formulae
are shown in Diagram 10.1.
[Natrium stearat dan natrium dodekil sulfat adalah agen pembersihan. Formula molekul mereka ditunjukkan
dalam Rajah 10.1].

Sodium stearate :

CH3(CH2)16COONa

(Natrium stearat)

Sodium dodecyl sulphate : CH3(CH2)11OSO3Na
(Natrium dodekil sulfat)

DIAGRAM 10.1
RAJAH 10.1

(a)

(i)

Sodium stearate dissolves in water to form ions. Write an equation to show
the ionization of sodium stearate.
[Natrium stearat larut dalam air membentuk ion. Tuliskan persamaan untuk
menunjukkan pengionan natrium stearat]

[1 mark]
(ii)

Determine which of the two cleaning agents is more effective in their
cleansing action in hard water. Give reasons.
[Tentukan agen pembersihan yang mana satukah lebih berkesan dalam tindakan pencucian
dalam air liat. Berikan alasan]

[4 marks]

(iii)

Fat reacts with an alkali to form soap.
Describe an experiment to prepare a sample of soap. Your answer should
include:
[Lemak bertindak balas dengan alkali membentuk sabun.
Perihalkan satu eksperimen untuk menyediakan satu sampel sabun. Jawapan
mengandungi]

anda harus

Chemicals used
[Bahan kimia yang diperlukan]

Procedure
[Prosedur]

A test to verify the soap sample that you have prepared has
a cleansing effect.
[Satu ujian untuk mengesahkan sampel sabun yang anda sediakan
mempunyai kesan pembersihan]

[8 marks]

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(b)

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Diagram 10.2 shows the arrangement of atoms of two substances, X and Y in solid
state.
[Rajah 10.2 menunjukkan susunan atom-atom dalam dua bahan X dan Y pada keadaan pepejal]

X

Y
Tin atom
[Atom stanum]

Copper atom
[Atom kuprum]

DIAGRAM 10.2
RAJAH 10.2

Based on Diagram 10.2, differentiate the arrangement of atoms and the
properties of substance X and Y.
[Berdasarkan Rrajah 10.2, bezakan susunan atom dan sifat-sifat bagi bahan X dan Y]

[7 marks]
END OF QUESTION PAPER
KERTAS SOALAN TAMAT

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