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Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67

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Forensic Science International


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/forsciint

The use of full spectrum digital photography for evidence collection and
preservation in cases involving forensic odontology
Franklin D. Wright a,*, Gregory S. Golden b,1
a
Hamilton County, Coroner’s Office, 15 W 4th St., Unit 102, Cincinnati, OH 45202-3636, USA
b
San Bernardino County/Sheriff’s-Coroner Division, Riverside and Los Angeles Counties, 8577 Haven Ave. # 105, Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91730, USA

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: Photography often represents the best method to collect and preserve evidence in forensic cases. This is
Received 13 January 2010 especially true in forensic odontology with cases involving dental identification, human abuse and,
Received in revised form 5 March 2010 perhaps most significantly, bitemark cases. Basic visible light photography is adequate in most dental
Accepted 9 March 2010
identification cases; however, full spectrum digital photography is best utilized to collect all available
Available online 5 May 2010
evidence in cases of human abuse and bitemarks. This paper will discuss the types of photographic
evidence that should be collected with various forensic odontological cases and the specific techniques
Keywords:
utilized in full spectrum forensic digital photography. The use of full spectrum photography captures the
Full spectrum digital photography
forensic injuries using special techniques recording the injuries in each of the four resultant events that
Forensic photography
Human abuse occur when light strikes skin.
Bitemarks ß 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forensic odontology
Ultraviolet photography
Infrared photography
Alternate light imaging photography

In most forensic odontological cases, evidence collection and bitemark cases it may be advantageous to use alternate light
preservation using photography is a crucial aspect of the imaging (ALI) photography to document injuries to the skin that
management of the cases as they move forward to become part are not visible to the naked eye. Infrared (IR) photographs can be
of a future legal proceeding [1]. Therefore, it is imperative that the useful to locate and document bleeding below the surface of the
forensic odontologist or case agent responsible for the evidence skin or to enhance detail of tattoos in decomposing or mummified
collection understands the capabilities of full spectrum digital skin. In all cases, the investigator should take typical visible light
photography and how to properly apply those techniques where photographs, as well as employ special non-visible spectrum
necessary. In presenting this article, the authors will explain photographic techniques, so that the images are captured using the
appropriate instances where full spectrum digital photography is full spectrum of light.
used, and how to create those images using proper techniques.
Full spectrum forensic photography is very important in cases 1. Electromagnetic radiation and skin
involving dental identification, human abuse and bitemarks. By
understanding the individual techniques associated with full The full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation ranges from
spectrum digital photography, complete evidence collection extremely short wavelengths (200–375 nm) which is ultraviolet
becomes routine when a forensic dentist is faced with the light, through the visible spectrum (400–700 nm) to the longer
collection and preservation of the evidence. In dental identifica- infrared wavelengths of 700–900 nm (Fig. 1). Photographic
tion, it may be necessary to take ultraviolet (UV) photographs of techniques utilizing these three zones of the light spectrum
loose teeth found in skeletonized remains to determine whether or provide very different looks into patterned injuries on skin.
not tool marks can be seen on the surface of the loose teeth Since the unaided human eye is incapable of seeing outside the
indicating a non-natural avulsion. Similarly, in human abuse or visible light spectrum, these special photographic techniques
are utilized to create images in the non-visible zones of
electromagnetic radiation such that they can be seen with the
human eye (Figs. 2–11).
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 513 231 5353; fax: +1 513 231 6404.
E-mail addresses: frankwright@msn.com (F.D. Wright), Medich@aol.com
When light strikes skin, there are four simultaneous events that
(G.S. Golden). occur [2]: reflection, absorption, fluorescence, and scattering of the
1
Tel: +1 909 987 5212; fax: +1 909 987 6251. light within the skin (also known as diffusion). Reflection occurs as

0379-0738/$ – see front matter ß 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.03.013
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60 F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67

Fig. 1. Penetration of different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation with skin.


Fig. 3. Black and white image of avulsed breast tissue. (A) UV image of the same
avulsed breast tissue.

One final event that occurs when light strikes skin is a


molecular-level excitation within the skin that increases the
resting state energy of the molecules within the skin, which is
known as biofluoresence. Almost anything can be made to
Fig. 2. Process of digital image creation in digital camera. fluoresce. However, the laws of physics require objects to maintain
a resting state (neutral) energy level or risk being destroyed.
Therefore, when light energy is applied to skin, the molecules must
the shorter wavelengths of light strike the surface of the skin. get rid of the extra energy. The skin removes the energy of the
Depending on the racial characteristics of an individual, the incident molecular excitation by re-emitting the energy at a lower wave
angle, and concentration of radiation, up to 50% of short wavelengths fluorescent level glow that lasts only 10 9 s. The change from the
(UVA) do not penetrate the surface of the skin and are reflected back molecular excitation to the resting state of the skin via the
[12]. Conversely, the longer wavelengths of light (700–900 nm) can emission of this low level fluorescence is known as the Stokes shift,
penetrate the skin up to 3 mm. Other wavelengths of light strike the named after Professor Stokes [3], the scientist who first described
skin and diffuse throughout the layers of the skin such that they the phenomenon. Skin reaches peak fluorescence at 450 nm
dissipate without being absorbed or reflected. incident light, but it is such a lower energy event that lasts such a

Fig. 4. (A) Black and white image of bitemark on the hand. (B) IR image of the same bitemark on the hand. (C) ALI image of the same bitemark on the hand. (D) UV image of same
bitemark on the hand.
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F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67 61

Fig. 6. (A) Black and white image of the bitemark near the vagina of a child abuse
homicide victim. (B) IR image of the same bitemark near the vagina. Note the
enhanced appearance of the injury.

time, the body begins to deliver cellular agents to initiate healing of


the damaged tissues. The damaged tissues heal either by repair or
scarring. If the tissues heal by repair, new skin is regenerated via
cell replication such that it returns to its pre-injury form. If the
damage is too extensive for repair, the tissue will heal by scarring,
where fibroblasts lay a collagen framework that provides strength
for the healed tissues. Inflammation is the stronger event early
after the injury occurs with repair becoming the prevalent event as
the tissue begins to heal.
As the damaged skin heals, the chemical composition of the
injured skin is very different from the surrounding undamaged
Fig. 5. (A) Bitemark on the back of a child abuse victim. (B) Same bitemark seen in skin. Within the damaged skin are bioluminescent and light-
UV image 5 months after the injury occurred. (C) Same bitemark see in ALI image 5 absorbing agents that will respond differently to electromagnetic
months after the injury occurred. radiation than the adjacent healthy skin [5].
These photoactive agents include hemosiderin, melanin, hemo-
globin, beta-carotine and many others, which will respond to the
short time, it cannot be seen without employing special varying wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation differently than
photographic techniques (ALI). the adjacent undamaged skin. By selecting specific wavelengths of
incident light on the injured skin, it is possible to capture the details
2. Skin physiology and bioluminescent agents in damaged of the injury patterns as they appear in the specific wavelength used
versus healthy skin [4]. This forms the basis for employing full spectrum digital forensic
photography in forensic evidence collection.
To best understand how full spectrum photography can be used
to capture images of the injured skin, it is necessary to describe 3. Full spectrum digital photography
what happens to skin when it is injured. For purposes of this article,
the physiology of skin will be discussed for only living victims with Full spectrum digital photography of patterned injuries in skin
injured skin. utilizes all four reactions of skin when struck by electromagnetic
At the time of injury, a cascade of two simultaneous events radiation. Photography in only the visible spectrum actually
immediately begins: inflammation and repair [4]. Inflammation is captures parts of all four of the events that occur when light strikes
the body’s response to injury where vascular changes at the site of skin. The captured image accurately records the injury as it was
the injury begin to deliver blood-borne components to stabilize the seen by the human eye at the time of the photographic image
tissue damage and mediate the framework for healing. At the same creation.
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62 F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67

Fig. 7. Graph showing the small peak of IR light with the Kodak Wratten 18A filter and no IR peak with the Baader Venus UV filter

If the patterned injury in the skin shows signs of damage on its allowing the forensic photographer to create images that depict
surface (epidermis), it is best to use electromagnetic radiation in the patterned injury as seen in the excited fluorescent state.
the UV range to photographically depict the surface damage. For In summary, the forensic photographer can utilize any or all of
most organic materials the rule is that the shorter the wavelength the photographic techniques to capture and preserve the evidence
of the incident light (UV), the more the absorption and shallower associated with the patterned injuries in the skin. Visible light
the depth of penetration. Since the part of the injury on the surface photography creates images of the injuries as they appear at the
of the skin can potentially have a different appearance when seen time the photographs are taken and as seen by the unassisted eye.
in UV light, then the photographic technique required to capture UV photography captures the details of the damaged surface of the
the surface disruption employs using UV light’s tendency to scatter skin, while IR photography captures the tissue injury at the deeper
off surface anomalies. This requires utilization of UV photography levels of the dermis and below. ALI photography will record the
and the special armamentarium for taking UV photographs. (Note: difference between the uninjured skin adjacent to the injured skin
the techniques and armamentarium for all full spectrum photo- using fluorescence. It is important to understand that not all
graphic techniques will be described later in this article). techniques will create useful images all the time. For example, if
Should deeper bruising within the dermis be associated with there is a patterned injury on the forehead, which has very thin
the patterned injury and the photographer wishes to view the skin, IR photography may not create an image of the injury since
patterns associated with the bruising, he or she would need to use the skin is not thick enough to show bruising patterns 3 mm below
longer wavelengths of light that could penetrate the skin to the the skin. Similarly, if there is no surface damage to the skin at the
level of the bruising. This would require photography using longer, site of the injury, one would not expect to see an injury pattern
more penetrating wavelengths of light in the IR range. Once again, using UV photography. Thus, failure of an image to appear using
since the IR wavelengths of light cannot be seen by the naked eye, any of the specialized photographic techniques is not a failure of
special IR photographic techniques would be applied. the technique. Rather, it simply illustrates that that particular
Sometimes, it is useful to see the injuries by viewing the injury did not possess qualities necessary for the application of that
difference between the healthy adjacent skin and the injured skin. particular photographic technique.
This can best be accomplished using fluorescent photography
techniques (ALI). The healthy skin will fluoresce, contrasted with 4. Photographic techniques: visible light, UV light, IR light and
the injured skin which usually absorbs the incident light. ALI must ALI
be performed in a totally darkened environment wherein the
specifically tuned ALI light source is the only source of illumina- It is beyond the scope of this article to present the basics of
tion. Using a totally dark room removes all electromagnetic photography. Any aspiring forensic photographer is encouraged to
radiation except that of the 450 nm incident light, thereby obtain formal training in basic and advanced visible light
photography before moving on to any specialized forensic
photography. This type of training can be found by reading books
on photography as well as attending classes that teach basic and
advanced visible light photography. The photography described in
this article will assume the reader possesses some basic knowledge
of photography.
The forensic photographer must develop a Standard Technique
[6] such that a systematic and organized approach to full spectrum
digital photography is utilized each and every time a photographic
session occurs. This Standard Technique should include data
collection regarding the specifics of the case and recording in
writing, the disposition of the injuries associated with the case, the
types of photographs taken, and the number of images created
following each photographic technique utilized for image capture.
The Standard Technique will include applying the camera settings,
photographic band pass filters, specialized light sources and
Fig. 8. Focus shift point on the Nikon Nikkor UV105 quartz lens. appropriate digital camera as required for each photographic
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F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67 63

Fig. 9. (A) Orientation of bitemark on back of homicide victim. (B) UV image of same bitemark on the back of the homicide victim. (C) ALI image with yellow filter of same
bitemark on the back of the homicide victim. (D) ALI image without yellow filter of same bitemark on the back of the homicide victim. (E) Black and white image of bitemark
on back of homicide victim.

technique, including the use of a tripod where applicable. Failing to that the image that is created looks identical to what was seen by
develop and use a standard technique can lead to loss or the naked eye at the time of the image creation. There are a
mismanaged data and/or images, or a failure to capture all plethora of these types of cameras on the market with varying
available images for the case. levels of quality, features and prices.
The Standard Technique in visible light photography should
5. Visible light photography include a series of photos from broad orientation images up to and
including close-up (macro) images, taken with and without a
For the most part, visible light photography requires little more photographic ruler. The ruler is used as a reference so that the
than purchasing a non-modified digital camera and applying the images can be rendered to life-sized proportion at some future
Standard Technique for visible light photography. Off-the-shelf time, if necessary. Additionally, the ruler demonstrates the relative
cameras are manufactured strictly for image creation using visible size of the injury as a perspective in non-life-sized photographs.
light. Special coatings on the lens or filters in front of the digital Visible light photographs should be created in both color and black
capture device of the camera (usually either a CCD or CMOS and white. Many newer digital cameras have settings to capture
formatted device) allow only visible light to pass [7]. This insures the images in native black and white while others can only capture
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64 F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67

Fig. 10. (A) Black and white image of bitemark on hip of assault victim bitten more than 35 different times. (B) IR image of same bitemark on the hip taken the day of the
assault. (C) UV image of the same bitemark on the hip taken the day of the assault. (D) UV image of the same bitemark in the hip taken 8 days after the assault. (E) UV image of
the bitemark on the back of same victim taken the day of the assault. (F) UV image of the same bitemark on the back taken 8 days after the assault.

the images in color. If the camera only captures images in color, the re-sale at popular Internet web auction sites. Securing a full
photographer will need to use a digital image management spectrum digital camera can be a challenge, but several
software program, such as Adobe Photoshop1, to render the companies now offer conversions to full spectrum from the
original color image as a duplicate monochrome (black and white) factory settings of most large commercially available SLR digital
image. cameras.
Beyond the full spectrum digital camera, it is also recom-
6. UV photography mended to secure a non-flourite coated or quartz lens so that the
UV wavelengths can pass through to the sensor. Even though
UV photography requires special equipment and techniques quartz lenses do have a distinct advantage over conventional glass
for image capture. Levels of ultraviolet light range from the lenses, some glass-based color video lenses can capture about a
near-ultraviolet to deep-ultraviolet, and the armamentaria will 50% transmission in the near UV band. However for UV imaging in
depend upon which area of the UV band you wish to capture. the 360–400 nm band, the originally preferred quartz optics lens
This discussion will cover the basic requirements for capturing was the Nikon Nikkor UV 105 macro-lens. This lens is not
images in the 360–400 nm range. First, and most importantly, manufactured at this time but is also sometimes available for re-
the digital camera’s sensor must be able to ‘‘see’’ in the UV band. sale at popular Internet web auction sites. However, there are
Fuji1 Corporation sold full spectrum ‘UV/IR’ 35 mm cameras for several other lens manufacturers that do make full spectrum
a couple of years and these cameras are sometimes available for silicon fused (quartz) lenses.
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alloys have become popular and have several advantages over gas
discharge lamps, especially in their spectral purity.
UV photography can sometimes be utilized to capture details of
bitemarks in skin long after the injuries appeared to be healed in
visible light. One author (FW) has recaptured a bitemark in skin
that was not seen visibly 22 months after the injury occurred.
While the injury would not be visible to the unaided human eye,
the UV light can sometimes still ‘‘see’’ it.

7. UV photography technique

The full spectrum (UV/IR) digital camera with the proper lens
mounted should be placed on a tripod. The camera settings
typically include an ISO equivalence setting of 400, and bracketing
the image exposures from f5.6 to f8 with exposure times from 1/
60th s to 1 s. Bracketing parameters are dependent upon the speed
of the lens, the power output of the illumination, and the
pigmentation of the skin being photographed. The advantage of
using a digital system is that the captured image can be visualized
immediately after the exposure, thereby allowing the photogra-
pher to dial in the correct exposure settings.
Camera distance from the injury will vary according to the
length of the lens. The injury and ruler should be included in the
viewfinder and focused at the visible focus point. The ruler must be
positioned adjacent to the injury in the same plane (parallel) to the
front surface of the lens. The lens screw is then tightened to
maintain that focus point. Once focus is established, the Baader
Venus 2 UV band pass filter is placed in front of the lens. A UV light
source is activated and at that point the images are captured
through the entire bracketing range. Paralleling the ruler to the
sensor plane or front surface of the filter, and positioning the
camera angle at 908 to the surface of the injury reduces angular
distortion in the captured images.
Ultraviolet photography using a strobe-type flash can be
accomplished in ambient room light illumination. If using a gas
tube or LED source, the room should be totally darkened except for
the illuminating light source. Under these conditions protective
eyewear should also be worn by the photographer and any
observers.Summary of UV technique

Type Aperture Exposure time Filter Focus shift Wavelength

UV f5.6 to f8 1/60th–1 s Baader No 330–400 nm


ISO 100-400 Venus
Fig. 11. (A) Color digital photo of a bitemark on the arm. (B) Near UV digital image of
2 UV filter
same bitemark-unfiltered. Note surface disruption of tissue. (C) Same bitemark in
monochrome, unfiltered near UV light.

8. IR photography
A band pass filter placed in front of the lens must also be used.
The traditional Kodak Wratten 18A glass UV filter [10] cannot be As previously described in the Section 6, IR photography also
used in digital UV photography because it allows just enough IR requires the use of a full spectrum digital camera and lens.
radiation to leak through and contaminate the image. The full Additional armamentarium necessary includes an IR band pass
spectrum digital sensor cannot differentiate between UV and IR filter. There are numerous filters available for IR photography. One
radiation so the 18A filter, which was the gold standard for film- company, PECA, has a series of glass filters that is sold as a kit. The
based photography, is useless for digital protocol. The Baader transmission curves are included so that one can determine what
Venus UV filter [8] is the appropriate filter of choice for UV digital specific zone of IR radiation will be captured. Short of that, there is
photography as it has a peak transmission at 360 nm and <0.1% IR a Kodak Wratten #87 gel filter [10] available in most camera stores,
leakage. or the Baader IR glass band pass filter8 that can be purchased
Finally, there must be a UV light source illuminating the directly from the manufacturer over the Internet. All of these filters
patterned injury. Direct sunlight, gas discharge lamps, YAG lasers, allow only IR light to pass to the camera’s sensor and are the filters
and ultraviolet-tuned LEDs are the most common sources of of choice for IR photography.
illumination. Unfortunately sunlight does not produce the level of Finally, there must be an IR light source illuminating the
intensity required for capturing images indoors or in the macro- patterned injury. There are several types of IR light sources on the
photographic application. Fortunately there are several types of UV market, ranging from typical flash units modified to emit IR light to
light sources on the market, ranging from typical flash units specialized IR LED light sources. Most overhead fluorescent and
modified to emit UV light to specially designed UV LED light tungsten room lights create adequate illumination for IR photog-
sources. Recently, UV LEDs based on gallium nitride semiconductor raphy.
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66 F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67

IR photography captures images of the patterned injury up to completed through the #15 filter as the injury is illuminated. If the
3 mm below the surface of the skin, capturing the bleeding pattern light source is too weak to visualize correct focusing through the
deeper in the tissue. Because the injured skin begins healing filter, the yellow band pass filter is placed in front of the lens after
shortly after the injury, IR photography for purposes of capturing focusing and the 450 nm light is shined on the injury in the
and preserving the injury pattern as evidence is usually not darkened room. The ruler is placed adjacent to the injury in the
beneficial beyond the first day or so in a living victim. same plane as the front of the lens and the injury is photographed.
If the camera has an internal light metering system that is viewable
9. IR photography technique through the viewfinder, the correct exposure time and f-stop can
be determined prior to image capture. If no metering system is
The full spectrum digital camera with the proper lens is available, the images are bracketed from f4–f16 with times ranging
typically mounted again on a tripod. Some UV/IR digital cameras from 1/2 s to 2 or more seconds. With ALI, the authors have found
have enough light gathering power from ambient light to preview that one to two stops underexposure produces better images, due
the image through the IR filter on the LED screen on the back of the to the apparent inability of most digital cameras’ metering systems
camera. The camera exposure settings are determined by ISO to incorrectly measure 450 nm light.
equivalence, amount of illumination, and speed of the lens. The There are many 450 nm light sources commercially available
injury is focused at the visible focus point and a focus shift is made ranging from laser generated monochromatic lights to blue LED
to the IR focus point of the lens. The focus shift moves the lens lights. The stronger the intensity of the light source (i.e. laser
slightly away from the object being photographed to correct for the generated 450 nm light versus a more portable but weaker alkaline
focus point approximately 3 mm below the surface of the skin [9]. battery generated 450 nm light), the more predictable exposure
With ruler in place, after making the focus shift, the lens screw is times will become with greater experience.
then tightened to keep the lens at the correct focus point, the IR Summary of ALI technique:
filter is placed in front of the lens, and an IR light source is used to
illuminate the injury. A good starting point for basic exposure Type Aperture Exposure time Filter Focus Wavelength
settings is depicted in the graphic below. shift

Summary of IR technique: ALI F4–f16 1/2–2 s, using # 15 yellow No 450 nm


the light filter
Type Aperture Exposure time Filter Focus shift Wavelength meter in the
camera
IR F8–f16, 1/125th–1 s PECA, Baader Yes 700–900 nm
ISO IR, or Kodak
100-1600 Wrattan 12. Uses of full spectrum digital photography in forensic
87 gel filter
odontology

12.1. Dental identification


10. ALI photography
Photographic documentation of dental identification cases will
ALI photography can be done with most programmable digital utilize visible light color photography as well as UV photography.
cameras and lenses on the market. It utilizes the 450 nm Most often, visible light photography suffices for routine cases but
wavelength of visible light [11]. Special photographic armamen- UV photography can be beneficial in some cases. Examples where
tarium include the use of a #15 gel or glass (yellow) band pass filter UV photography is utilized usually involving the removal of the
and a light source that emits only 450 nm (blue) monochromatic teeth in attempts to hide the identity of unknown human remains.
light. ALI photography must be completed in total darkness with The UV photography will show tool marks on the teeth or the
no other contaminating ambient light. As was discussed previous- alveolar bone adjacent to the removed dentition.
ly, ALI photography involves the capture of an extremely low
energy fluorescence remitted from the skin adjacent to the injury. 12.2. Human abuse
When the monochromatic light strikes the skin, the longer wave
fluorescing energy is observable. Image capture typically involves The outcomes of cases involving human abuse often hinge on
longer exposure times, most often necessitating the use of a tripod. photographic evidence of the injuries. Full spectrum digital
In living victims who are awake and oriented, it can be difficult to photography is invaluable in the collection and preservation of
photograph the injury if the victim cannot remain motionless long the evidence of the injuries and may employ all of the previously
enough for the image to be created by the camera. This is especially mentioned techniques, depending on the type and age of the
true if the injury is on the chest or upper back area as normal injury.
breathing will cause enough movement that crisply focused
images may not be created. 12.3. Bitemarks
The authors also recommend that with very dark pigmented
skin, it can be beneficial to photograph the injuries using just the The most significant use of full spectrum digital photography in
450 nm light without the yellow blocking filter. This format will forensic odontology is in bitemark cases. Bitemark analysis is often
allow the photographer to capture near UV images that depict the predicated on the life-sized photographic images of the bitemark
surface disruption on the skin. In cases such as this, it is which are used to compare to populations of suspected biters.
recommended that the injuries be photographed both with and Critical details of the bitemark injuries often appear subtly
without the Kodak 15 gel yellow filter in the otherwise dark room. different when captured in visible, UV, IR and ALI photographic
protocols. Creating photographic images in all four protocols
11. ALI photography technique increases the volume of evidence to analyze and can contribute to
the strength of the opinion rendered in the bitemark analysis.
The camera is mounted on a tripod and the visible focus is With the passing of film-based photography to the modern
established. The lens screw is tightened to maintain the focus. If digital era, the ability of the photographer to render full spectrum
the light source is of sufficient intensity this focusing stage may be images in forensic odontology greatly increases the value and
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F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden / Forensic Science International 201 (2010) 59–67 67

strength of the evidence, which can later be used as the individual [5] F.D. Wright, Photography in bite mark and patterned injury documentation. Part
1, J. Forensic Sci. 43 (4 (July)) (1988) 877.
cases move toward their legal resolution. [6] F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden, in: P.G. Stimson, C.A. Mertz (Eds.), Forensic Dentistry,
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997, p. 105.
[7] G.S. Golden, F.D. Wright, in: R.B.J. Dorion (Ed.), Bitemark Evidence, Marcel Decker,
References New York, 2005, p. 101.
[8] Baader Venus UV and IR band pass filter, www.alpineastro.com, Alpine Astro-
[1] F.D. Wright, J.C. Dailey, Human bitemarks in forensic dentistry, Dental Clin. North nomical, Eagle, Idaho, USA.
Am. 45 (2) (2001) 365. [9] F.D. Wright, Photography in bite mark and patterned injury documentation. Part
[2] G.S. Golden, F.D. Wright, in: R.B.J. Dorion (Ed.), Bitemark Evidence, Marcel Decker, 1, J. Forensic. Sci. 43 (4 (July)) (1988) 888.
New York, 2005, p. 883. [10] Wratten 18A and 87 filters, Eastman Kodak Co, Rochester, New York.
[3] G.G. Stokes, On the change of the refrangibility of light, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. [11] G.S. Golden, F.D. Wright, in: R.B.J. Dorion (Ed.), Bitemark Evidence, Marcel Decker,
London (1853) 385–396. New York, 2005, p. 123.
[4] F.D. Wright, G.S. Golden, in: P.G. Stimson, C.A. Mertz (Eds.), Forensic Dentistry, [12] R.R. Anderson, J.A. Parrish, Optical Properties of Human Skin, in: The Science of
CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1997, p. 104. Photomedicine, Plenum Press, 1982.