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This project is integrated with the guidelines of


Course AEI eLearning Sp14 ESP

Student: Beatriz A. Romero Noyola

Universidad Autonoma de Baja California

Mexicali, B. C. México

Teacher: Sherie L. Henderson

June, 2014

Project: English for Specific Purposes course designed for Hospitality in Tourism students in
Preparatoria CONALEP, fourth semester. This course was prepared in an online course with
Linguistics Department of University of Oregon.

Contact with the educational authority, led to a presentation in the line of having a population of
students who would benefit with an ESP course in their area of study, Technical Preparatory
(Junior College) students, making an appointment to present the project based in the recognition
of students already existing motivation to the specific area, a more focused training of the second
language with occupational purposes that is related to the actual institutional programming and
the agreement that there is no need to change the actual teachers since they do not need to be
experts in the field but in second language teaching.

At the institution there was interest and collaboration, from all, principal, supervisor, teacher and
students. The procedure followed to integrate an ESP course is based on Kay Westerfield

Key words: Target Situation Analysis, Present Situation Analysis, Context Analysis
English for Specific Purposes course designed for Hospitality in Tourism students
in Preparatoria CONALEP, fourth semester.


This project presents advantages of an English language course based in

occupational competences that students will develop for their work at a technical
level in the area of hospitality in tourism. English for Specific Purposes (ESP)
courses have some characteristics as:

a) Use of authentic materials

b) Purpose related orientation (simulates real area activities)

c) Self-direction (teachers give strategies. Students decide when, what and

how to learn.

First one must consider the motivation already present in the students that will
take ESP courses since they have chosen the area themselves based on the
preference for an occupation they will develop in a near future. It therefore solves
specific needs of participants (Fiorito, 2002).

Self-direction requires some freedom in the choice of what and how to study
(Gatehouse, 2001), enhancing autonomy in an ever changing world that calls for
knowledge of learning strategies, which the teacher can provide.

The contents of the course are related to the subjects students are studying in
their native language in preparation for work on a specific area and within the
communicative competence required on the second language (English) to
complete their instruction, but also based in real situations they have identified and
clearly defined from the area of study chosen following a needs analysis

Students who opt for studying a technical career in this level (Technical
Preparatory) have plans to work as soon as they complete the three year program.
At this time of their life they may not have the means or plans to continue their
education to University level.
The institution offers 38 different technical professions and students receive
both a college certificate and a technical professional certificate after three years of
this middle Higher Education program. Technical careers offered will depend of
the geographic area where the centers are. They aim to construct work
competencies, with knowledge and experience, training students both in theory
and practice (with small labs for each profession) and providing social service
programs in the community. They will also acquire competences to communicate
in English at the job. They already have a general program for English where
teachers in each campus have gathered to agree on the specific structural

Therefore the aim of the ESP course project is to integrate a course that
considers the institution´s general program, the teachers planning from general
everyday situational and structural perspectives, adding the specific situations and
real materials that will give a focus to the second language learning in this

The project presents a syllabus, materials and activities as well as evaluation

suggested to avail students´ construction of competencies. It is designed to be
taught in the Mexicali 2 campus to fourth semester of Hospitality in Tourism

The Institution

CONALEP is Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica, a middle

higher level education institution inscribed in the Technological National System of
Education that began in 1978. It keeps an updated context related competences
model and seeks to prepare technical professionals that can also continue to
higher education. There are almost 300 different campi nationwide offering 20
different areas, some with more than one profession.

The Mission of this institution is to train and certify students following general
rules of systems for work certification. It aims to assist the communities where
campi are located through social training and social service programs in different
areas, thus supporting their development.

The Procedure.

After a meeting with the State vice director for the middle higher level education
system presenting the project as advantages for technical school students:

1. Visit the institution to present the project, working with a pilot group.
2. Identify the competencies students must build in English as a second
language in this level and program.
3. Analyze the contents of the subjects in the technical professional program.
4. Apply a needs analysis questionnaire to students.
5. Evaluate previous knowledge of English.
6. Design a syllabus (Annex A)
7. Gather authentic material

A visit to the institution´s director and technical supervisor to present the project
of a pilot course made it possible to approach both students and teachers. The
program and the curriculum are found in Internet, where one can see both the
technical subjects and regular subjects besides the general goals of the English
courses per semester. Fourth semester was the group available in the morning
shift to apply the needs analysis questionnaire to students.

The interview to the teacher of this classroom allowed the researcher to have
an assessment of students´ previous knowledge of English, to talk with him about
the convenience of shifting to ESP courses of English and to discuss the
possibilities of using what equipment is available in the school. He also presented
the semester´s plan as collaboratively agreed by the English teachers in the
beginning of the semester.

The syllabus resulting from all the above information is designed considering
plans from the institution, teachers and curriculum, besides regarding students´
wants and needs.

Authentic material to be included according to the resources available and the

students equipment (for this group) which needs to be surveyed for each other
group. It can be presented by teachers or students.

1. Needs Analysis questionnaire to students

Answers to a questionnaire adapted from Westerfield, K. best practices in ESP,

in Table No. 1.

Table No. 1 Needs Analysis Questionnaire

NEEDS ANALYSIS ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE QUESTIONNAIRE 14 women, 6 men from 16 to 19 years of age.

1. Previous experience learning English. Elementary Secondary TechCollege External NoAnswer

Men 1 5 3 1 0
Women 2 7 7 0 5

2. Has a computer home laptop no Internet

Women 3 7 4 10
Men 2 4 0 4

3. Needs English for the Profession What for?

Women 14 Communication (5), Service (5), information (3), work (1)
Men 6 Communication (0), Service (3), information (1), work (1), socialization (1)

4. Knows people in this profession

Women yes (11) No (3)
Men yes (5) No (1)

5. Do they need English at work? yes (19 no (1) What for?

Women Communication (6), service (8), work (1)
Men communication (1), service (2), work (3)

6. In which tasks or situations is English used in this area?

Women Speak (3), Reception (9), Telephone (2), Guide (2), Aswer Q´s (7), inform (4), greet (5)
Men Speak (2), Reception (4), Telephone (1), Guide (0), Aswer Q´s (1), inform (1), greet (1)

7. Which skills do you use in those situations? Speaking (29) Listening (19) Reading (18) Wrting (18)

8. What skills are more useful to you? Speaking (16) Listening (16) Reading (12) Writing (15)

9. Why would you like to learn English for your profession?

Work (9) Communication (7) Reception (3) Knowledge (2) Reservations (1)
10. Name 3 things you would like to know after the course:
Answer Q´s (10) Give information (8) Communicate (7) Speak (5) Greet customers (4) Write, service (3) Give d
Write, give service (3) Give directions, work in reception, read, know (2)

Most students inform they studied English in secondary (grades 7-9) and only
one has taken additional courses, external to the schooling system. They report so
even though English is mandatory in secondary school.

An 80% of the students has a computer at home, only 55% have a laptop. This
question was included since the school has no computer lab available for English

All of them consider they need English in their profession, especially to give
service and information. The skills they need are for reception, telephone calls, to
guide de customers, answer questions, give information, greet, and in general,
speak (communication).

The answers are very related to the questions included, and when compared to
the subjects they take this semester, Hospitality Services Management,
Reservation system administration, Groups and Conventions, there is a clear
awareness of what their needs are.

Needs Assessment:

This information is gathered following Westerfield, K. 2010, Best practices in

ESP E-teacher course.

A. Target Situation Analysis (TSA)

Target learners are fourth semester students attending Hospitality in

Tourism technical school in the city of Mexicali.
It is a new course that considers planned level of communication and
structure formerly done by the institution.

What do learners need to do in English in this area?

1. By the end of the course students will master English for the reservation
system, for the hospitality services, and to handle group and
These are the three subjects taught in this semester for the career as
presented in the Internet page from the State Government for
Preparatory level, through CONALEP who offers technical careers.

2. What are key aspects of the authentic texts genre.

Students need to fill format which will be either procedural (giving
instructions) or descriptive (filling requirements) both at reservations and
services desks, but also to plan for a group and conventions. This will in
turn guide their verbal or oral communication.

3. Information needed to improve TSA?

Interview employees and former students already working. They can be
identified in school. However, it could mean also an evaluation of their
professional skills which is not the competence of this course. It has to
be done very informally.
A. Present Situation Analysis

1. Current level of English

Students are beginners and low intermediate except one. The
information given by the teacher is for this pilot group, once the course is
tried information from the corresponding group of students must be
gathered starting the semester.

2. Knowledge about the content area?

They know in Spanish only, three technical subjects in third semester
and one in second semester. Information from the career program or

3. Their desires about learning English are related to the technical subjects
they are learning in fourth semester according to questionnaire answers:
To give service and information, for reception, telephone calls, to guide
de customers, answer questions, greet, and in general, speak

4. Information needed to improve PSA?

I would find out the learning styles of students in the real course when it
is applied. It may be obtained applying an Inventory of Multiple
Intelligences designed by Ligeia Lamberty in Tesol and adapted by
Beatriz Romero.

B. Context Analysis
1. Who are the stakeholders in the proposed course?
It directly interests managers of hotels, travel agency, restaurants,
casinos, bars, convention center.

Why do they want the course to be developed? It is a job requirement in

order to service the customers, since Mexicali is border city with US.

2. To improve CA what information do you still need from stakeholders?

Interview to employers. They can be identified in school. However, it
could mean also an evaluation of their professional skills which is not the
competence of this course. It has to be done very specifically.

C. Physical setting of the course

1. Modality of training is face to face at the institution.
2. It will be held in school facilities. However, there will be a
recommendation to allow the use of equipment (computers and
projectors) for the language classes.
3. No information is missing.

D. Nature of course
1. How many learners? 20 in the pilot group for design purposes.
No aspects to improve or adjust.
2. Enrollment and attendance is mandatory.
3. Total hours in a semester are 50-60 hrs., the language courses are
taught 3 hrs. per week in this institution. First semester of the year in
Mexico has many holidays.
4. They apply tests developed the institution, based on structures. This will
require adjustment later.
5. All the information needed has been gathered.

E. Teaching Resources
1. Potential materials available to use or adapt are both authentic and non-
authentic. There are videos and script, exercises on grammar and
dialogues specific to the course.
The teaching resources needed are access to computers existing in the
school, projector and laptop for the teacher.
2. There is a blackboard, photocopy machine available. The laboratory is
for accounting students only and some teachers have a cassette player.
3. To improve the CA I need to find out what resources teachers can
supply, also negotiate access to the computer laboratory, once the
course is ready to be taught.


Gather materials, present to the teachers in a meeting and then make

arrangements to apply as a pilot course.

The biggest challenge is the lack of equipment or access to it. It needs to be

discussed with the school, and agree on solutions once the course is ready. A
second challenge is once the course is tried, to start designing for other semesters
and technical careers in the same institution.
Syllabus: Attention to Customers

Teachers can use the materials suggested, print and hand in, show videos or have
students see it for homework, they will design their own lesson plans. Materials
cover foreseen grammar in their planning and the communicative competence
planned by the institution.

Unit Topic Goal Vocabulary Grammar Materials Eval

U1 Greeting Listening, Verbs * Tenses ESL Podcast 110. Chart
Guests Asking/giving Location Questions Quiz
12 a. Live information Rates, Book Imperative Front Desk Supervisor Corpu
hrs b.Tel Directions Kinds rooms Nouns s
Questions Expiration Phrases Search Bibliography:
Politeness Confirm Directions Welcome pp. 28-31 CUP
Date Dates

U2 Kinds of Learn Services Nouns Video on Careers in hospitality (at Chart

Services departments. Providers Description Sheraton) Quiz
12 Services, Agenda Adverb _ly Write
hrs Give prices Down Modals A page to see hotel services, and flyer
dates, payment Conditional vocabulary.
providers Menu How many
Calendar To+verb A page telling customers how to plan the
events event
Verify 2 word
Verbs A page to read what kind of events are

Be my Guest pp. 24-31 CUP
U3 Information Listen, take Adjectives Negative A video on ways of handling customer Chart
and notes, ask Nouns sentences complaints. Quiz
12 Complaint clarification, Would like List of
hrs Handling handle (Dismissal, to Page on common complaints and compl
complaints Employee Compariso resolutions to read and roleplay. aints
turnover, ns and
Harass) Infinitive Six ways to deal with customer polite
Hospitality Gerund complaints by answs
services, Present Entrepreneurs´Organization ers,
Training perfect Collag
Past Slideshow: Complaint Handling Keeping e
Perfect Guests Happy. By Vasantkumar Role-
Parakhiya, 2009. Akshar telecom. Play

Jill Poulston, (2008) "Hospitality

workplace problems and poor training: a
close relationship", International Journal
of Contemporary Hospitality
Management, Vol. 20 Iss: 4, pp.412 - 427

Welcome Ss book pp. 32-35 CUP

U4 Telephone Answer Weather Past, used ESL resources: Quiz

telephone calls. Hobbies to quizzes
6 Out Outside and Departmnts Adverbs Table
hrs In hotel in the hotel Preposition Hotelmule, 2013, Answering the Examp
Extension s Telephone for Reservations. les
numbers Polite (Who
Health phrases, English as 2nd. Language. to
Common Telephone English Important Phrases. conne
items ct with) Telephone English Practice

Be my guest pp. 32-39 CUP

U5 e-mail Read and Reading Future, 2013, Learn Quiz

Answer e-mails abbrev. Would +_ English Grammar Online. Writing-an List
3 Documments Giving email to a hotel manager to make a Examp
hrs needed instruction reservation. les
Credit C. Imperative Survey
U6 Events and Gather Services Personal Event Planning Quiz
customers information Menus information Table
9 needed, Schedules Payment Video and script on event with a
hrs. suggest kinds Hotel information planning hotel´s
of service, Premises Contracts event
Prepare & sign Events Bibliography: inform
a contract Be my guest pp. 58-59 CUP ation
Examples of Lesson Plans.

Genre Analysis

This information is prior to students course in fourth semester as stated in the

lesson plan for Reservation System Administration. It can be used in preparation
for the lesson, a link to previous course.

Page of Siesta Real Hotel.

This is the page of a small and well-located hotel in Mexicali. The information is
also displayed in a brochure in the different rooms of the hotel.

a. Genre. Descriptive text. Promotional for the hotel services.

Website and brochures. (in order of generalization)
b. Target learners: Hospitality in Tourism students of English will
analyze and contents, vocabulary, grammar, genre and compare
to other brochures.

1. Linguistic Competence

a. Specifically important vocabulary is: facts, equipment, nouns,

prices, facilities.
b. Genre grammatical features: We + verb to describe and inform,
Hypothetical/Conditional for promotion.

2. Sociolinguistic Competence

a. Specific audiences are possible customers speaking Spanish or

English who will be informed of services, location, promotions in
order to make a decision. They inform to gain customers choice.
b. It is formal since it states all the information needed to make a
decision about the stay in this hotel.

3. Discourse competence

a. General Appearance is the hotel Logo displayed together with the

words Bienvenido/Welcome (for you to choose the language). It
has an introduction then subtitles for each piece of information.
b. Move 1. Creates a slogan to be identified/promote

Move 2. Describes in General what services the hotel offers

Move 3. Gives the location stating landmarks and distance from

important sites.
Move 4. Describes each of the services and facilities in detail.

Move 5. Access to reservation form and promotion.

4. Strategic Competence

a. Students’ misunderstandings in this kind of text would be handled

by the Subtitles that conceptualize the information in each
b. The fact that the promotion can only be printed/accessed if the
reservation is made.
c. Prices are set in a table for reference and quick access from
students or the person giving information.
d. A table with "fares" and photos are helpful to communicate the

Example Lesson Plan: Reservations System Administration

Lesson Plan Format: (Based on example by Dr. Bob Kizlik)

Teacher_______________________________________ Date:_________

Subject: Independent communication in English.

Grade Level: lower intermediate students in fourth semester of Hospitality in


I. Reservation calls. Students practice listening to a conversation for

comprehension purposes. Use of polite phrases. Specifically they will
follow the sequence and identify the information needed when making a
hotel reservation.
II. Prior knowledge: Students know how to ask questions and the present
and future tenses, also they know how to make a description based on
the information about the hotel.
III. Instructional Objective: Students design a reservation form that contains
the information in the conversation they hear.
IV. Instructional Procedures: Teacher shows students some reservation
forms from different hotels. States that in order to administrate the
reservation system they need to experience with telephone reservations.
They listen to a telephone reservation and complete the tasks.

Play the Hotel Reservations ESLPodcast 110:

Linguistic competence:
a. Review phrases used in the conversation. Then play again.
b. Students write (note down) the conversations in pairs, each is a

Sociolinguistic competence:

c. Students stress the intonation by underlining the phrase (a second

time listening may be needed).
d. List separately: What questions did the agent ask? What questions
can customers ask? Write at least three.

Discourse competence:

e. What other questions can agents ask? Write the questions.

f. Write the answers to the customer questions you wrote.
g. Place yourself in a hotel location in town. Create a telephone
reservation conversation. Write a form to give the pair.

Strategic competence.

h. Evaluate: did you include all the information needed by the hotel? Is it
in the best sequence?
i. Role Play, use intonation.

V. Materials and Equipment.

A recorder or laptop and proyector. Hotel reservation forms. Paper and pencil.

VI. Assessment
A chart containing columns for students names, attendance, pair writing,
underlining, Id questions, possible Qs, Qs-Ans, New conversation, a
reservation form design. Corpus.

VII. Follow-up
Teacher talks about polite phrases used and how questions are different
(instead of the colloquial when are you coming? What date do you plan
to check in?).

This course will apply to a pilot group and will be tuned with the teachers at the

D. Healey & K. Westerfield, 2010. Internet Resources. University of Oregon

Fiorito, L. (2002). How is English for Specific Purposes (ESP) different from
English as a Second Language (ESL) also known as General English?

Gatehouse, K. (2001) Key Issues in English for Specific Purposes (ESPO)

Curriculum Development. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII. No. 10 .

Kizlik, B. (2006). Lesson Planning, Lesson Plan Formats, and Lesson Plan Ideas.
Retrieved- May 17, 2006 from

Westerfield, F. et al., 2003. Effective Practices in Workplace Language Training.

Virginia. TESOL, Inc.

Westerfield, K. (2010) “An Overview of Needs Assessment in English for Specific

Purposes.” Best Practices in ESP ETeacher Course. University of Oregon.