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INDUSTRIAL X-RAY & ALLIED RADIOGRAPHERS

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

Procedure For
Manual & Phased Array Ultrasonic Weld
Examination

Rev. Reviewed & Approved By


Date Prepared By Reviewed & Approved By
No. Approved By

00 25/02/2019
Dibyendu Bera S.K.Roy L&T CFCL
ASNT Level-II ASNT Level-III

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

Contents

1. Scope ................................................................................................................................................. 3
2. Reference Documents ....................................................................................................................... 3
3. Definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 3
4. Personnel Qualifications .................................................................................................................... 3
5. Equipment ..................................................................................................................... 3
6. Genearl Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………. 5
7. Basic Calibration block/Scanner block/Demonstration block ........................................................... 6
8. Calibration Block ........................................................................................................................ 6
9. Scanner block ........................................................................................................................ 6
10. Demonstration Block & Procedure Qualification................................................................................6
11. Encoder Calibration & Confirmation ……………………………………….. .................................. 6
12. Examination Area .......................................................................................................................... 6
13. Calibration Procedure ......................................................................................................................... 6
14. Scanning ............................................................................................................................. 7
15. Identification of weld …………………………………………………………………………… 10
16. Data Recording ............................................................................................................................. 10
17. Flaw Category ................................................................................. 10
18. Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………. 10
19. Acceptance Criteria .......................................................................................................................... 12
20. Data Interpretation ……………………………………………………………………………… 13
21. Examination Record& Report ................................................................................ 14
22. Post Cleaning ................................................................................................................................... 14
Table-1 ........................................................................................................................................................... 13
Table-2............................................................................................................................................................ 15
Table-2A.......................................................................................................................................................... 16
Annexure-I ................................................................................................................................................ 17
Annexure-II ................................................................................................................................................. 21
Annexure –III ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 22
Annexure –IV ………………………………………………………………………………………………..23

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

1. SCOPE:

1.1. This procedure describes the method of Ultrasonic examination of Butt welds of Outlet Nozzle
to Reducer joint using Phased array S scan & Manual Ultrasonic Examination by RTD Probe in
CFCL, Gadepan, Kota
1.2. Material grade : SA508 GR. 3 Class I & SB564 UNS NG08899
1.3. Weld Material : NiCr3 GTAW, NiCrFe2 - SMAW
1.4. Dia and Thickness : 22” and 42mm & 52mm of Nozzle & Reducer respectively.

2. REFERENCE DOCUMENTS:

2.1. ASME Sec VIII Div-2, 2017 Edition


2.2. ASME Sec. V – 2017 Edition
2.3. ASNT SNT TC 1A.-2006 Edition.
2.4. IXAR Written Practice IXAR-NDE-WP- Rev.10

3. DEFINITIONS:
3.1. PAUT Phased array Ultrasonic Examination
3.2. A Scan Amplitude based Scan
3.3. FSH Full Screen Height

4. PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS:

4.1. All personnel performing ultrasonic examination, final evaluation and reporting of test results
in accordance with this procedure shall meet the following minimum qualification requirements:
Personnel certified in Ultrasonic Examination as Level II or III in accordance with the IXAR
Written Practice IXAR-NDE-WP-10 which is prepared as per the guidelines of SNT-TC-1A-
2006 Edition.
4.2 Personnel performing scanning and acquire data shall be trained in the use of the equipment.
They shall demonstrate their ability to acquire examination data.
4.3 Personnel who analyze and interpret the acquired data shall be trained in the use of the equipment
and software used.
4.4 The training records of all the persons performing scanning, data acquisition, analyze and
interpretation shall be documented.
4.5 All the persons performing the scanning, data acquisition, analyze and interpretation shall
participate in the procedure qualification demonstration using demonstration block and
calibration block which shall be demonstrated to inspector/client. Test result shall be evaluated
independently by Level II or Level III.
4.6 Personnel performing scanning, acquiring data analyze and interpreting the collected data may
be trained by the manufacturer of the equipment or by a NDE Level III who already trained in
the use of equipment to acquire data, analyze and interpret the collected data using the software.
5. Equipment

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

5.1. The instrument shall provide a linear ‘A’ scan presentation for both setting up scan parameters
and for signal analysis. Instrument linearity shall be such that accuracy of the indicated
amplitude and time is within ±5% of the actual full scale amplitude and time. The ultrasonic
pulser may provide excitation voltage by tone burst, unipolar or bipolar square wave. Receiver
gain control shall be available to adjust the signal amplitude in increments of 1dB or less.
Preamplifiers may be used in the system. Analog to digital conversion of waveforms shall have
sampling rates at least four times the nominal frequency of the probe. When digital processing
is to be carried out on the raw data, this shall be increased to eight times the nominal frequency
of the probe. Instrument linearity checks shall be performed at intervals not to exceed one year.

5.2 Calibrated Ultrasonic system “OMNI SCAN MX2 32: 128 PR Digital flaw detector with single
axis encoded automated / semi automated scanner shall be used for the testing. Data Analysis
software OMNIPC/ TOMOVIEW shall be used for and post processing of data.
5.3 Equipment Linearity Checks:
PAUT & Manual ultrasonic equipment linearity shall be verified at intervals of 1year or prior to first
use thereafter. The instrument linearity verification shall be recorded on the ultrasonic instrument
linearity verification record.
5.3.1 Screen Height Linearity:
Couple a straight beam probe to the IIW V1 block and get multiple echoes from 25mm back
wall. Select any two echoes whose amplitudes are in the ratio of 2:1 with larger echo set at
80% of full screen height. Without moving the search unit, adjust the gain to successively set
the larger indication from 100% to 20% of full screen height, in 10% increments or 2 dB steps
if a fine control is not available, and read the smallest indication at each setting. The reading
must be 50% of the larger amplitude, within 5% of full screen height. The setting and reading
must be estimated to the nearest 1% of full screen height.
5.3.2 Amplitude Control linearity:
Couple a straight beam probe to the IIW V1 block and get multiple echoes from 25mm back
wall. Select any echo and note its amplitude. Reduce the gain by 6dB and read the amplitude
of the same indication. It must be 50% of the initial amplitude within 20% of the nominal
amplitude ratio. Perform this exercise for full range of the gain. The setting and reading must
be nearest 1% of full screen and the readings should be as follows
Table-1
Indication Set at % of Decibel control Indication Limits % of Full
Full Screen Change Screen
80 -6dB 32 to 48
80 -12dB 16 to 24
40 +6dB 64 to 96
20 +12dB 64 to 96

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

5.4 Transducers:
Phased Array – Olympus make A27 4MHz DMA ( Longitudinal Mode) 2(2X16) 1,3 mm pitch
Manual - Modsonics make or Equivalent RTD Make Probe 2(10-15 dia.) 2 MHz
45°,60°,70° FD 10 ,45°FD 30, 60°FD54 & Creep Wave
5.5 PA Wedges:
Phased array wedges should be of a design to accommodate the aforementioned phase array probes.
Nominal refracted wedge angles shall be such that to ensure coverage of the weld and heat
affected zone. Wedges shall have provision of irrigation holes and carbides for couplant
flow. The wave mode of propagation shall be longitudinal wave in the material.
Table- 3
Wedge Specifications

Part No. Probe Type Recommend Sweep(degree) Probe orientation

SA27-DNCR-IHC-AOD24 A27 30-85 NORMAL

SA27-DN55L-FD15-IHC-AOD24 A27 30-85 NORMAL

5.6 A couplant shall be used which provides optimum wetting, transmission of ultrasound, resistance to
corrosion, viscosity and removal characteristics. For this inspection couplant shall be water/sonotec
ultragel -II. The same couplant shall be used for both calibration and examination. Water
conditioner may be added to improve wettability and corrosive resistance property and the halides
shall be less than 250ppm.

6.0 . General Requirements

6.1 Surface preparation – The scanning surface finishes on the component to be examined is
required such that it will maintain acoustical contact of the search unit. The finish on the
scanning surfaces of the block shall be representative of the scanning surface finishes on the
component to be examined. The base metal on each side of the weld shall be free of weld
spatters, surface irregularities or foreign matters that might interfere with the examination.

6.2 Weld surface shall have uniform & weld reinforcement shall be ground smooth flush to the
base metal height.

6.3 Temperature – The maximum surface temperature to be scanned should not exceed 50 ͦ C.
Surface temperature shall be within ±14 ͦ C of the reference block temperature when the
Calibration was performed.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

7. Basic Calibration Block/Scanner Block/Demonstration block:


7.1 Basic calibration block: Basic calibration block shall be made as per clause 8 of this procedure
which is used to calibrate and to set the sensitivity settings of the system.

7.2 Scanner Block: Scanner block is used to check the system confirmation at regular intervals as
described in clause 8 of this procedure. Either this block may be made separately or the basic
calibration block may be used for this.

7.3 Demonstration block: Demonstration block is a block containing artificial flaws and used to qualify
the procedure as described in Annexure-III of this procedure.

8. Basic Calibration Block:

8.1 Block Material, Reflectors and their position:


The basic calibration block thickness shall be 25% of the nominal thickness of piece to be examined
8.2 Heat Treatment of the calibration block shall receive the same heat treatment as of the production
weld.
8.3 Surface Finish of the scanning surfaces of the block shall be representative of the scanning
Surface finishes on the component to be examined.
8.4 PAUT shall be performed in accordance with this written procedure. This written procedure is
based on the essential and non essential variables mentioned in Table2 and Table2a.
8.5 The change of a requirement in Table 2 & Table 2A, identified as an essential variable from the
specified value or range of values shall require re-qualification of the written procedure.
8.6 The change of a requirement in Table 2 & 2A, identified as non-essential variable from the
specified value or range of values do not require re-qualification of the written procedures.
8.7 All the changes of essential or non-essential variable from the value or range of values specified
by this written procedure shall require revision.

9. Encoder Calibration and Confirmation

9.1 Calibration
The positional encoder which is placed on scanner shall be calibrated by moving
a minimum distance of 20 inch(500mm) and displayed distance being ±1% of the actual
distance moved.
9.2 Confirmation
A calibration check shall be performed at intervals not to exceed one month or prior to first use
thereafter.

10. Examination Area to be covered

10.1 The PAUT examination area shall cover the full volume of weld, plus the HAZ area. Each weld
shall be designated a unique identification numbers and this numbers shall be documented and
recorded.
10.2 A scan plan for each thickness and bevel angle shall be made to ensure weld coverage and
additional area as per clause 12.1. The scan plan shall contain all the beam angles used in virtual

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

probe aperture (VPA) in PAUT examination to cover weld examination area. All the scan plans
shall be documented as addenda to this procedure.

10.3 Requirements for re-examination.

10.3.1 Re-examination of the weld shall be done under the following conditions.
- Any changes which exceeds the limits in calibration set ups.
- When missing data lines in the display shall not exceed two scan lines per 25mm
length scanned and no adjacent lines shall be missed
- When scan length is less than the actual length of weld seam.
- Loss of couplant .

10.4. Base Metal & Surface Inspection


10.4.1 Base Metal – Visual inspection of the base metal shall be done to ensure so
that the area is smooth to avoid false or misleading indications. The base metal on each
side of the weld may be as rolled, machined or ground condition and be free from weld
spatter, surface irregularities or foreign matter that might interfere with the examination
and movement of probes.
10.4.1.1 Straight beam Examination: The initial straight beam examination for the
reflectors that could interfere with the PAUT examination shall be performed
a) Manually
b) As part of the previous manufacturing process
c) During the automatic PAUT examination provided detection of these
reflectors if present is to be demonstrated.
10.4.1.2. Evaluation of laminar reflectors: Reflectors evaluated as laminar reflectors in the
base material which interfere with scanning of the examination volume shall require the scan
plan to be modified such that the maximum feasible volume is examined and these shall be
noted in the record of the examination.

10.4.1.3 S.S Weld Scanning.: As the grain structure is coarse it is difficult with normal shear
wave angle beam , so for this dual matrix longitudinal shear wave angle beam shall be used for
weld scanning. Apart from this 80⁰ creep wave also shall be used to cover the entire weld
volume scanning from OD/ outside.

11. Calibration Procedure


11.1 PAUT Calibration
Calibration shall be performed from the surface of the calibration block which corresponds to the
component surface to be examined. System calibration shall include the complete ultrasonic
examination system. During scanning, only the gain may be adjusted from the calibrated reference
dB. Adjustment of other controls requires recalibration.
11.1.1 Focal Law:
Focal law is a computer controlled program of firing sequence of the probe elements used in
Virtual probe aperture selected for scan plan. The focal law shall be the same for calibration and
examination

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

11.1.2 Wedge Delay Calibration


The wedge delay calibration shall be carried out in true depth mode or sound path mode and done
with a known reflector depth or radius. Peak up this signal from the calibration reflector and scan
the phased array probe backwards through all the different angles or focal laws. Scan forward
over the calibration reflector through all the refracted angles of focal laws. When the signal for all
angles and focal laws lies within the threshold, the Omni scan system shall adjust all the focal
laws/angles to display the reflector’s true depth.

11.1.3 Sensitivity Calibration:


The Omni scan® shall be calibrated for wedge delay and sensitivity. The sensitivity
calibration shall provide the required gain adjustments for each refracted angle and sound path
used. Select a calibration reflector, which is approximately one-half the thickness of the
component to be examined, or Ø 1.5mm SDH on IIW V1 block. Peak up this
signal from the calibration reflector or radius and scan the phased array probe backwards
through all the different angles of focal laws. The Omni scan system shall calculate the required
gain needed at each focal law to adjust the amount of gain required to obtain
the sensitivity.

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NDE PROCEDURE
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DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

11.1.4 Time Corrected Gain (TCG) by PA & DAC by Manual UT Calibration:


Time corrected gain calibration shall be used to compensate for attenuation in the material at the sound
paths used during calibration and examination. To obtain the TCG calibration peak the signal from
3mm dia SDH hole at T/4, T/2, ¾T of the calibration block & adjust the gain to obtain 80%
of amplitude from the reflectors.
Similar in the case of RTD Probes in manual UT to draw DAC.
Once all the points are picked the TCG can be accepted. TCG calibration has to be carried out for
all scan plans in a multi group option while using phased array probe.
The examination system calibration shall be stored in the Omni Scan System with electronic
memory, on an external chip or data storage device. This calibration may be used at a later date
provided that date provided that the system calibration is verified prior to the examination.

12. PAUT SCANNING


12.1 Angle Beam Examination (PAUT Technique): Scanning For Reflectors Parallel to the Weld Seam:
The specifics of the examination volume, weld definition and location shall be identified in the scan
plan. The examination volume shall cover the weld metal and 25mm from both sides of the weld. This
area includes the heat affected zone (HAZ).
The scan plan shall demonstrated by plotting or with using a simulator the appropriate
examination angles for the weld preparation bevel angles that will be used during the
examination. This scan plan shall be documented to show that the examination volume was examined.
This scan plan shall be a part of the final examination.
Omni Scan system has the capability of using multiple-group settings to establish sector scans
and E-scans for the appropriate angles to ensure complete coverage of the weld and heat affected
zone. Scanning shall be performed using a line scan technique.
Line (or Linear) scanning is defined as a single pass scan of the search unit parallel to the weld axis at
a fixed standoff distance. Each line scan shall be parallel to the weld using a Sectorial scan (S-scan).
Appropriate refracted angle as accepted by ASME will define the position of the arrays and hence
angles. These should be detailed in the ultrasonic scan plan. Angular sweep incremental change shall
be a maximum of 1º or sufficient to assure 50% beam overlap. A minimum of two (2) line scans shall
be performed at two (2) different index points from the centre of the weld from both sides of the weld
where practical to ensure coverage of the weld and heat affected zone (HAZ). Scans shall be parallel
to the weld at 90º /270º scan axes and the multiple groups scanning shall involve both the above
directions for complete coverage of the weld from OD as shown in attached scan plan. Minimum
scanning overlap of 50mm shall be done between successive scanning’s. Scanning sensitivity level for
examination shall not be less than that qualified for TCG.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

12.2 Rate of Search unit movement:


The scanning speed shall be such that data drop out is less than 2 data lines per inch (25mm) of the
linear scan length and that there is no adjacent data line skips or shall not exceed that qualified.
12.3 Pulse repetition rate:
The pulse repetition rate is small enough to assure that a signal from a reflector located at the
maximum distance in the examination volume will arrive back at the search unit before the next pulse
is placed on transducer.
12.4 Reflectors transverse to the weld seam:
A manual angle beam examination shall be performed for the reflectors transverse to the weld axis
as described below.
Scanning without weld reinforcement: If the weld cap is machined or ground flat, the examination
shall be performed on the weld .While scanning the angle beam 45°FD30 shall be directed essentially
parallel to the weld axis in both axial direction. The search unit shall be manipulated so that the angle
beam passes through the required examination volume.
12.5 Restricted Access Welds:
The welds that cannot be fully examined from two directions using angle beam technique shall also
be examined if possible with straight beam technique up to the full extent without recording.
Restricted / inaccessible Area length on the job shall be noted in the PAUT final report

13. Identification of Weld Examination area:

13.1 Weld Location: Weld location and identification such as part number, seam number shall be
recorded.
13.2 Marking: If welds are to be permanently marked, hard number punch/ vibro etching can be
used. Marking after final stress relief of the component shall not be deeper than 1.2mm.

14. Data Recording

14.1 PAUT Recording


A-Scan data shall be recorded for the area of interest in an unprocessed form with no
thresholding and recording increments of a maximum of 1mm for material thickness upto75mm
and 2mm for material thickness above 75mm.
14.2 Data Recording Media
All production test scans will be stored in the PAUT computer hard drive; the same shall be
copied to CDs at the end of the shift and then data from CD transferred to in QC computer.

15. Evaluation

15.1 The operator shall determine whether the indication is originated from a flaw or is a
geometric indication. The a/t ratio shall be verified for the acceptance for the indication,
which is originated from the flaw. If it is from the flaw it shall be recorded.
15.2 To acquire additional information of the flaw inspection with manual angle beam
examinations/ method may be performed.
15.3 Geometric Indication - Recordable ultrasonic indications, of geometric or metallurgical
origin, shall be classified as such. Weld reinforcement, root geometry or variations in

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metallurgical structure of materials (such as cladding to base metal interface) may be


classified as geometric indications.

15.3.1 Geometric Indication need not be characterized or sized.


15.3.2 Geometric Indication need not be compared to allowable flaw acceptance
criteria.
15.4 The following steps shall be taken to classify an indication as geometric:
15.4.1 Interpret the area containing the reflector in accordance with the applicable
examination Procedure.
15.4.2 Plot and verify the reflector coordinates, provide a cross-sectional display
showing the Reflector position and surface discontinuity such as root or counter
bore. Review fabrication or weld preparation drawings.
15.5 Alternatively, other NDE methods or techniques may be applied to classify an
indication as Geometric (e.g. alternative UT beam angle, radiography, ID and/or OD
profiling).
15.6 For material greater than 1.5 in thick but less than 4 in. thk at the weld, image
with indicated length greater than 0.200 in (5 mm) shall be investigated. For 4
in and above thick at weld, image with indicated lengths greater than 0.05t or
0.75 in., whichever is smaller shall be investigated.

15.7 The defect sizing & characterization is analyzed by OMNIPC/TOMOVIEW


Data Analysis Software which supports data acquired by Omniscan MX or
MX2. Phased Array Equipment .
When the indication is determined to be a flaw, the acceptance criteria as given
in Table 1 shall apply.

15.8 Initial data evaluation shall be carried out using the unprocessed data only.
A flaw shall be considered a surface flaw if the separation of the flaw from the
nearest surface of the component is equal to or less than half of the through
dimensional height of the flaw.

15.9 The dimension of the flaw shall be determined by the rectangle that fully contains
the area of the flaw.
Discontinuous flaws shall be considered a singular planar flaw if the distance between adjacent
flaws is equal to or less than S.

Discontinuous flaws that are oriented primarily in parallel planes shall be considered a singular
planar flaw if the distance between adjacent planes is equal to or less than 12.7mm.

Discontinuous flaws that are coplanar and nonaligned in the through wall thickness direction of
the component shall be considered a singular planar flaw if the distance between adjacent flaws
is equal to or less than S. .(S is the distance from the nearest surface.)

Discontinuous flaws that are coplanar in the through wall thickness direction within two parallel
planes 12.7mm apart (i.e., normal to the pressure retaining surface of the component) are
unacceptable if the additive flaw depth dimension of the flaws exceeds the limit.

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Notes :
1) “l ” is length of the defect
2) “a “ is the height of the surface defect
3) “2a” is the height of the sub-surface defect
4) “S” separation of indication from nearest surface.
5) “t” thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement.

16. Acceptance / Rejection standards :

16.1 For Phased Array

16.1.1 Surface flaws - Unless the UT data confirms that a flaw is not surface connected it shall not be
considered a surface connected flaw and it is unacceptable unless a surface examination is
performed any one of the following examination techniques.
a) Magnetic Particle examination (MT) in accordance with paragraph 7.5.6 of ASME
Sec.VIII Div.2
b) Liquid penetrant examination (PT) in accordance with paragraph 7.5.7 of ASME Sec.VIII
Div.2
16.1.2 Multiple flaws –

16.1.3 Discontinuous flaws shall be considered a singular planar flaw if the distance
between adjacent flaws is equal to or less than S as shown in Figure in Annexure-I.
16.1.4 Discontinuous flaws that are oriented primarily in parallel planes shall be Considered
a singular planar flaw if the distance between the adjacent planes is equal to or
less than ½ inch. Refer to Figure in Annexure -I.
16.1.5 Discontinuous flaws that is coplanar and non-aligned in the through-wall Thickness
direction of the component shall be considered a singular planar flaw if the
distance between adjacent flaws is equal to or less than S as shown in Figure in
Annexure-I
16.1.6 Discontinuous flaws that is coplanar in the through-wall direction within two
Parallel planes ½ inch apart (i.e., normal to the pressure-retaining surface of the
component) are unacceptable if the additive flaw depth dimension of other flaws
exceeds those shown in Figure in Annexure –I.
16.1.7 Subsurface flaws - Flaw length (l) shall not exceed 4t.

16.2 Acceptance shall be as per ASME Sec. VIII Div.2. Indications shall be measured as aspect
ratio (a/l) and acceptance / rejection shall be as per Table-1 given below. For definitions of
surface and subsurface flaws and their separation follow as per ANNEXURE-I Flaw size shall
not be larger than the flaws in the table mentioned below.

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Table 1: Flaw acceptance criteria for 1 in. to 12 in. thick weld


1 in. < t < 21/2 in. 4 in. < t < 12 in.
Aspect ratio Surface Subsurface Flaw Surface Subsurface
Flaw Flaw Flaw
a/l a/t a/t a/t a/t
0.00 0.031 0.034 0.019 0.020
0.05 0.033 0.038 0.020 0.022
0.10 0.036 0.043 0.022 0.025
0.15 0.041 0.049 0.025 0.029
0.20 0.047 0.057 0.028 0.033
0.25 0.055 0.066 0.033 0.038
0.30 0.064 0.078 0.038 0.044
0.35 0.074 0.090 0.044 0.051
0.40 0.083 0.105 0.050 0.058
0.45 0.085 0.123 0.051 0.067
0.50 0.087 0.143 0.052 0.076

(a) t is the thickness of the weld excluding any allowable reinforcement. For a butt weld joining
two members having different thickness at the weld, t is the thinner of these two thicknesses.
(b) For intermediate flaw aspect ratio a/l and thickness t (21/2 in< t < 4 in.) linear interpolation is
permissible.
16.3 For Manual UT
16.3.1 For Butt Welds/ Nozzle Welds .

Acceptance / Rejection standard shall be as per ASME Section VIII Div –2, as stated
below:
i. Discontinuities are unacceptable if the amplitude exceeds reference level
and discontinuities have length which exceeds 1/3 rd of weld thickness or 19 mm
whichever is smaller.

ii. Where discontinuities are interpreted to be cracks, lack of fusion or incomplete


penetration they are unacceptable regardless of discontinuity length or signal
amplitude.
17. Data interpretations:
17.1 Final data interpretation shall be done by a trained Level II or III, only after all display
parameter adjustment (i.e. contrast, brightness, etc.) have been completed.
17.2 Data view may be performed by another Level II or Level III from the same organization.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

18. Examination Record and Report


For each ultrasonic examination the following data shall be recorded and reported.
18.1 Procedure identification and revision
18.2 Ultrasonic equipment identification with manufacturer’s serial number
18.3 couplant used, brand name or type
18.4 Equipment software version
18.5 Scanner and adhering mechanism model, type and serial number if any.
18.6 Calibration block identification
18.7 Calibration data (including reference reflectors, indication amplitude, and distance reading)
18.8 Instrument reference level gain
18.9 Weld identification and location
18.10 Surface from which examination conducted and surface condition.
18.11 Indication data for both non-rejectable and rejectable indications(including position in weld length,
height, and characterization)
18.12 Areas of restricted access or inaccessible welds.
18.13 The final display processing levels.
18.14 Examination personnel identity and qualification level.
18.15Date of examination
18.16 Search unit element size, number and pitch and gap dimensions.
18.17focal law parameters, including angular range , angular incremental change, element numbers used,
18.18Wedge natural refracted angle.
18.19 Scan Plan (This can in a separate document and the document number shall be mentioned in the
report)

19. Post Examination cleaning


When post examination cleaning is required by the procedure, it should be conducted as practical after
evaluation and documentation using a process that does not adversely affect the part.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

Table-2
PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS OF AN ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
NON- PROEDURE
ESSENTIAL
Sr. No. REQUIREMENTS ESSENTIAL REFERENCE
VARIABLE
VARIABLES CLAUSE NO:
Weld Configuration to be examined, including
1 thickness dimensions and base material product form X CL 1.1.1
(pipe, plate etc)
The surface from which the examination shall be
2 X CL 10.4.1.3
performed
3 Instrument setting and scanning data X CL 11 & 14
Technique(s) ( Straight beam, angle beam, contact,
4 X CL1.1
and / or immersion )
Angle (s) and mode(s) of wave propagation in the
5 X CL 5.4
material
Search unit type (s), frequency (ies), and element size
6 X CL 5.4
(s) / shape (s)
Special unit search units, wedges, shoes or saddles,
7 X NA
when used
8 Ultrasonic instrument (s) X Cl. 5.4
9 Instrument Software X Cl. 5.4
10 Calibration ( Calibration block (s) and technique (s) X Annexure II
11 Direction, Selection and extent of scanning X Cl. 12
12 Scanning (manual vs. automatic) X Cl. 12
13 Scanning Speed X Cl.12.2
Method for discriminating geometric from flaw
14 X Cl.15
indications
15 Method for sizing indications ( length & Height ) X Cl. 15
16 Computer enhanced data acquisition, when used X Cl. 15
17 Scan overlap (decrease only) X Cl. 12
18 Personnel Qualification Requirements X Cl. 4
Surface Condition (Examination surface, Calibration
19 X
block)
20 Couplant : Brand name or type X
Automatic alarm and or recording equipment, when
21 X
applicable
Records, including minimum calibration data to be
21 X
recorded (eg.Instrument setting)
22 Personnel Performance requirements (when required) X X
Search unit mechanical fixturing device(manufacturer
23 X X
and model)
24 Scanner and adhering and guiding mechanism X

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

TABLE-2A

PROCEDURE REQUIREMENTS OF S SCAN PHASED ARRAY LINEAR SCANNING

NON- PROEDURE
ESSENTIAL
Sr. No. REQUIREMENTS ESSENTIAL REFERENCE
VARIABLE
VARIABLES CLAUSE NO:

Search unit(s)
1 X
(element pitch, size, number, gap dimensions)

Focal range(s)
2 X Scan Plan
(identify plane, depth, or sound path as applicable)
Virtual aperture size (s)
3 (number of elements, element width, and effective X Scan Plan
height) (Note (1))
4 Wedge natural refracted angle X Scan Plan
5 Scan Plan X Attached
Data sampling spacing X Cl 14
6 Additional E-scan requirements:
Rastering angle(s) X N.A
Aperture start and stop element numbers X N.A
Aperture incremental change(s)
7 X N.A
(number of elements stepped)
8 Additional S-scan requirements:
Sweep angular range(s) X Scan Plan
Angular sweep increment (incremental angle change,
X Scan Plan
deg)
9 Aperture element number (first and last) X Scan Plan

Note(1): Effective height is the distance measured from the outside edge of the first element to last element
used in focal law.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

ANNEXURE-I

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

ANNEXURE-I Contd.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

ANNEXURE I Contd.

Page 19 of 23
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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

ANNEXURE-I Contd.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

ANNEXURE -II

CALIBRATION BLOCK

1
2
52MM
P22 3 S.S.
4

Remark:- 1. All Side drilled holes are in Inconel weld.


2. SDH no.1,2 & 3 are 3mm dia. SDH.
3. SDH no. 4 is 2 mm dia. SDH.

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

ANNEXURE-III

DEMONSTRATION BLOCK

500 mm

50 mm v 50 mm
100 mm 200 mm 100 mm

400 mm

1 2 3 4

THICKNESS OF THE DEMO BLOCK = 52mm

DIMENSION OF FLAWS

Defect No Height Length Depth from Top Representation


1 3.8mm 15mm 0 Surface Flaw

2 8 mm 15mm 15mm Sub- Surface


Flaw
3 8 mm 15mm 40mm Sub- Surface
Flaw
4 3.8mm 15mm 48mm Surface Flaw

ANNEXURE - IV

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NDE PROCEDURE
PROCEDURE FOR MANUAL & PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION
DOCUMENT NO.: IXAR/CFCL/2019/PAUT-02 REV.0 DATE: 25.02.2019

PHASED ARRAY(PA) INSPECTION REPORT


Report No: Date:
Project: Location:
Client: DRG No:
Description: Material:-
Joint No: Welding Process:
Test Specification: Weld Configuration: Thickness:
Procedure/Rev No:
Scan Plan:
Scanning: Type of scan: EQUIPMENT DETAILS
Scanning Surface/Surface Condition: Outside/As welded & T joint – Instrument Serial No:
Flush Grounded:- Instrument Model:
Stage of Test: Welder No: Inspection Method:
Basic Calibration ID /Thickness: Instrument Manufacturer:
Reference Reflector(mm)/ Amplitude: Software version:
Index Offset: Scanning overlap: Probe Frequency:
Data Sampling spacing: Scanning Speed:< 1meter/minute Probe angle(s):
Flaw sizing Technique Instrument reference level dB:
Area of restricted access or inaccessible welds:_ Couplant:
RECORDABLE INDICATIONS
Ref Start End Length Depth Height a/t a/l Criteria Type of File Name Scan Length
Result
Point Location Location (mm) (mm) (mm) Indication (mm)

Legends: S-Surface, E-Embedded


IXAR NDT LEVEL III CLIENT NAME:

NAME: NAME: NAME:

SIGNATURE: SIGNATURE: SIGNATURE:

DATE: DATE: DATE:

Page 23 of 23