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SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND

ROTATIONAL MOTION

Centre of Mass

Centre of mass of a system is the point that behaves as whole mass of the system is

concentrated at it and all external forces are acting on it.

For rigid bodies, centre of mass is independent of the state of the body i.e., whether it is in rest

or in accelerated motion centre of mass will rermain same.

If a system consists of n particles of masses m1, m2, m3 ,… mn having position vectors rl, r2,

r3,… rn. then position vector of centre of mass of

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iii) If position vectors of particles of masses m1 and m2 are r1 and r2respectively, then

(iv) If in a two particle system, particles of masses m1 and m2 moving with velocities v1 and

v2respectively, then velocity the centre of mass

(v) If accelerations of the particles are a1, and a1respectively, then acceleration of the centre of

mass

(vii) It means isolated system will remain at rest if it is initially rest or will move with a same

velocity if it is in motion initially.

(viii) The position of centre of mass depends upon the shape, size and distribution of the mass

of the body.

(ix) The centre of mass of an object need not to lie with in the object.

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(x) In symmetrical bodies having homogeneous distribution mass the centre of mass coincides

with the geometrical centre the body.

(xi) The position of centre of mass of an object changes translatory motion but remains

unchanged in rotatory motion,

Translational Motion

A rigid body performs a pure translational motion, if each particle the body undergoes the same

displacement in the same direction in given interval of time.

Rotational Motion

A rigid body performs a pure rotational motion, if each particle of the body moves in a circle,

and the centre of all the circles lie on a straight line called the axes of rotation.

Rigid Body

If the relative distance between the particles of a system do not changes on applying force, then

it called a rigtd body. General motion of a rigid body consists of both the translational motion

and the rotational motion.

Moment of Inertia

Moment of inertia is the property of an object by virtue of which it opposes any change in its

state of rotation about an axis.

The moment of inertia of a body about a given axis is equal to the sum of the products of the

masses of its constituent particles and the square of their respective distances from the axis of

rotation.

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orientation of the axis of rotation

shape and size of the body

distribution of mass of the body about the axis of rotation.

The physical significance of the moment of inertia is same in rotational motion as the mass in

linear motion.

The root mean square distance of its constituent particles from the axis of rotation is called the

radius of gyration of a body.

It is denoted by K.

Radius of gyration

The product of the mass of the body (M) and square of its radius gyration (K) gives the same

moment of inertia of the body about rotational axis.

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The moment of inertia of any object about any arbitrary axes is equal to the sum of moment of

inertia about a parallel axis passing through the centre of mass and the product of mass of the

body and the square of the perpendicular distance between

the two axes.

where I is the moment of inertia about the arbitrary axis, IcM is moment of inertia about the

parallel axis through the centre of mass, M is the total mass of the object and r is the

perpendicular distance between the axis.

The moment of inertia of any two dimensional body about an axis perpendicular to its plane

(Iz) is equal to the sum of moments of inertia of the body about two mutually perpendicular

axes lying in its own plane and intersecting

each other at a point, where the perpendicular axis passes through it.

Mathematically Iz = Ix + Iy

where Ix and Iy are the moments of inertia of plane lamina about perpendicular axes X and Y

respectively which lie in the plane lamina an intersect each other.

Theorem of parallel axes is applicable for any type of rigid body whether it is a two

dimensional or three dimensional, while the theorem of perpendicular is applicable for

laminar type or two I dimensional bodies only.

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10 | P a g e

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(i) ω = ω0 + αt

(ii) θ = ω0t + 1/2 αt2

(iii) ω2 = ω02 + 2αθ

where θ is displacement in rotational motion, ω0 is initial velocity, omega; is final velocity and

a is acceleration.

Torque

τ = r x F = rF sinθ n

It is a vector quantity.

If the nature of the force is to rotate the object clockwise, then torque is called negative and if

rotate the object anticlockwise, then it is called positive.

Angular Momentum

The moment of linear momentum is called angular momentum.

It is denoted by L.

Angular momentum, L = I ω = mvr

12 | P a g e

In vector form, L = I ω = r x mv

Its unit is ‘joule-second’ and its dimensional formula is [ML2T-1].

Torque, τ = dL/dt

If the external torque acting on a system is zero, then its angular momentum remains

conserved.

If τext 0, then L = I(ω) = constant ⇒ I1ω1== I2ω2

Angular Impulse

Total effect of a torque applied on a rotating body in a given time is called angular impulse.

Angular impulse is equal to total change in angular momentum of the system in given time.

Thus, angular impulse

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