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Monday, May 12, 2014

Biology 7 Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition

An adequate diet must satisfy three needs:

Fuel for cellular work
ATP synthesizes
Cell maintenance
Making hormones and structural proteins
Essential nutrients, substances that the animal cannot make itself
Essential amino acids, lipids, vitamins, and minerals

Caloric Imbalance
Undernourishment occurs in animals when their diets are chronically deficient in calories
When an animal is undernourished, a series of events unfold:
The body uses up stored carbohydrates and fat and then begins breaking down its own proteins
for fuel;
muscles begin to decrease in size; and
the brain may become protein-deficient.
Even if a seriously undernourished animal survives, some of the damage may be irreversible.
Over-nourishment, or obesity, results from excess intake, with excess stored as fat
When adipose cels are full they divide, therefore increasing the potential for fat storage

Obesity is bad, why? You know why.

What Should We Eat
The specifics vary between individuals, but in general nutrition should contain:

Main energy source for cell to make ATP
One gram of sugar 4.2 kilocalories
Complex carbohydrates is better than simple sugar (empty calories)
Good carbs can be assess by the G.I.V. Glycemic index Value,
High GIV= faster breakdown
Low GIV= slow breakdown

Monday, May 12, 2014

Amino Acids
Needed for:
Structural growth and repair
Bones, skin, hair, etc.
Enzyme and hormone Synthesis
Lipase, protease
Blood cells
RBC, WBC, platelets
1g=4.2 kcal

• The proteins in animal products such as meat, eggs, and cheese are “complete,” which means that they
provide all the essential amino acids in their proper proportions.
• In contrast, most plant proteins are “incomplete,” being deficient in one or more essential amino acids.
Corn (maize), for example, is deficient in tryptophan
and lysine, whereas beans are lacking in methionine.
• Animals require 20 amino acids and can synthesizes
about 12 from molecules in the diet
• The remaining 8 amino acids, the essential amino
acids, must be obtained from food
• diet provides insufficient essential amino acids
causes protein deficiency
• FYI: study by nutritionist W.C. Rose found that
deficiency causes nervousness, dizziness, exhaustion.

Essential amino acids

"Standard" list For weight gain in protein For positive nitrogen balance in
starved adult rats adult humans

Phenylalanine Phenylalanine Phenylalanine

Valine Valine Valine

Threonine Threonine Threonine

Tryptophan Tryptophan Tryptophan

Isoleucine Isoleucine Isoleucine

Methionine Methionine Methionine

Histidine Histidine


Leucine Leucine Leucine

Lysine Lysine Lysine

Monday, May 12, 2014

Function as:
Energy reserves
Cell membranes
Steroid and hormone production
1gram= 9.3 kilocalories

Essential fatty acids

-Animals can synthesize most of the fatty acids they need
-The essential fatty acids are certain unsaturated fatty acids
-Deficiencies in fatty acids are rare
- Must be obtained from food
- Linolenic acid acid and linoleic (omega-3 and 6fatty acid) are found in fish oil
- Use to make hormones and hormone-like substance
- Imbalance associated with depression, inflammation, mood, cell communication
- Excess saturated and trans fats (butter and crisco respectively)
- Excess leads to:
• Heart disease
• Stroke
• Certain cancers

Vitamins are organic molecules required in the diet in small amount
13 vitamins essential to humans have been identified
Vitamins are grouped into two categories:
• fat soluble (A.D.E.K.): Among the fat-soluble vitamins are
- vitamin A, which is incorporated into visual pigments of the eye, and
- vitamin K, which functions in blood clotting.
- Another is vitamin D, which aids in calcium absorption and bone formation.
• -Excesses of fat-soluble vitamins are deposited in body fat, so overconsumption may result in accumulating
toxic levels of these compounds.
• and water soluble:The water-soluble vitamins include the
- B vitamins, which are compounds that generally function as coenzymes, and
- vitamin C, which is required for the production of connective tissue.
• -Moderate overdoses of water-soluble vitamins are probably harmless because excesses of these vitamins
are excreted in urine.

Function primarily as:
• Co-enzymes
• Antioxidant

Functions of some common vitamins
• Vit A needed for vision and immunity
• Vit E is an antioxidant and needed for collagen building
• Folic acid prevents anemia and cleft lips
• Vit C needed for normal collagen formation and lack of it causes scurvy
• Vit D is needed for calcium uptake in bones and lack of causes rickets

Monday, May 12, 2014

Simple and inorganic nutrients, usually needed in small amounts
Essential inorganic substances
• Calcium needed for blood clot, bone, muscle contraction
• Potassium needed for neuron depolarization (extinction), RBC formation, serve as electrolytes
• Sodium needed for water regulation (electrolytes), sodium channels
• Iodine needed for thyroid hormones(3 of them) and lack of it results in goiter.

Water soluble vs. non-soluable
• Non-soluble makes you feel fuller and go to the bathroom
• Water soluble fiber collects the toxins in the intestines

Food processing

Primary functions of digestion
Digestion- break food down into molecules small enough to absorb
Polysaccharides >>> monosaccharides
Protein >>> amino acids
Lipids >>> fatty acids and glycerol
Absorption- the uptake of nutrients by body cells
Monosaccharide, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol
Vitamins and minerals
Elimination- the movement of undigested and unabsorbed material out of the digestive tract.

The Mammalian digestive system

• The mammalian digestive system involves the:
- Mouth,
- Pharynx,
- Esophagus,
- Stomach,
- Small intestine,
- Large intestine,
- Rectum,
- Anus, and
- accessory glands.

• In the oral cavity food is mechanically broken into small pieces by teeth
• There are 4 types of teeth
1. Incisors- Cutting/ slicing
2. Canine- tearing and shredding
3. Premolars - chewing and grinding
4. Molars- chewing and grinding

• It is composed of the following:

Monday, May 12, 2014
-water and electrolytes,
-mucus, etc.
• it is secreted by three salivary glands
1. Submandibular
2. Parotid
3. Sublingual
• Functions of saliva:
- big ins starch and lipids digestion
- provide anti microbial protection
- lubricate ,
- moisten, and
- binds food together into a bolus.

• FYI: he saliva of swifts are used to build nest, that are then picked up or scavenged to make bird's nest soup

• Bolus moves from the mouth to the pharynx, a junction in the throat that opens to both the esophagus and
the windpipe
• The esophagus conducts food from the pharynx down the stomach while the trachea transport into the lungs
• Swallowing causes the epiglottis to close over the glottis , preventing food from entering the airway
• Bolus in the esophagus is transported to the stomach through a series of muscular contraction called

• Cells in the stomach secrete gastric juices which is comprise the following:
1. Pepsinogen: secreted by chief cells
- In it's active form called pepsin, it breaks protein into peptides
2. HCL: secreted by the parietal cells
- Converts pepsinogen into pepsin
3. Mucus: secreted by goblet cells
- Protects the lining of the stomach from HCL

Monday, May 12, 2014

The human body produces around 2 (Liters) of HCL and other gastric secretions everyday
• The gastric juices has a ph of 2
• It kills most of the bacteria ingested in food
• It also denatures food proteins.
• The mixture of partially digestive food and gastric juices is termed the chyme
• The chyme leaves the stomach to the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter

• Stomach (gastric) ulcer: A bleeding sore in the stomach which can lead to large loss of blood, perforation and
- Most cases are associated with H. Pylori
• Acid Reflux (heart burn)
• Due to gastric juices entering the esophagus because the esophageal sphincter did not close
• Can lead to esophagitis and cancer
• FYI : most cases of gastrointestinal ulcers are duodenal ulcers whose causes are similar to the gastric
• Gastric Bypassed Lapland surgery reduces he size of the stomach

Monday, May 12, 2014
• The longest section of the alimentary canal (6meters)
• It is the major organ of digestion and absorption.
• Complete digestion of food into absorbable subunits ( amino acids, glucose, fatty acids ) occurs in the small

• The small intestine is divided into three sections:
1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum

Duodenum: comprises the first 25cm of the small intestine... ~ 4%
• It the actual site of digestion, where all macromolecules are broken down into their absorbable units
• It receives the digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder
-Both bile and bicarbonate raises pH of chime to 7.1 to 7.5, why?
-Bile also emulsifies fat
• The remaining 96% of the small intestine is the jejunum and ileum which function in absorption

• The jejunum and ileum have huge surface areas, due to villi and microvilli that are exposed to the intestinal
• The enormous microvillar surface greatly increase the rate of nutrient absorption
• Each villus contains a network of blood vessels and a small lymphatic Vessel called a lacteal
• Amino acids and sugars pass directly from the small intestine into the blood vessels

• Monosaccharides and amino acids are actively transported across plasma membrane of epithelial cells, then
from cell into internal environment.
• Fatty acids and glycerol requires a different way of getting into the bloodstream
• In the duodenum lumen they are coated with bile salt, forming structures called micelles
• The micelles then enter the intestinal cells
• In the intestinal cells, the micelles release glycerol and fatty acids and they recombine to form triglycerides
• These fats are then mixed with cholesterol and coated with protein, forming molecules called chylomicrons
which are then transported into the lacteals
• The lacteals transport the the chylomicrons to the lymphatic ducts which drains into the blood vessels

Monday, May 12, 2014

• It's major function is to
- Recover water that has entered the alimentary canal
- Store waste
• Feces pass through the rectum and exit via the anus

- Gallbladder
• Gallstone
- Liver
• Cirrhosis commonly due to excessive drinking
• Hepatitis due to hep a, hep b, Hep C virus
- Large Intestine
• Appendicitis
• Cancer


• Adaptations related to diet
- Types of dentition ( teeth)
• Herbivore vs carnivore vs omnivores
- Length of alimentary canal
• Herbivore vs carnivore
• Symbiotic adaptations
- Many herbivores have fermentation chambers , where symbiotic
microorganism digest cellulose
- The most elaborate adaptations for an herbivorous diet have evolved in
the animals called ruminants
- Feeding ruminants grains promotes acidification and bacterial growth in
the stomach thus cows are given antibiotics

Lepton reduces under (induces satiety)
Grehlin stimulates hunger
Gastrin stimulates gastric acid release
Secretin controls gastrin and bicarbonate secretion
CCK (cholecystokinin) stimulates fat and protein digestion via
secretion enzymes