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# Chapter two

## Earthquake loads on buildings based on EBCS provisions

How Earthquakes Affect Buildings
In March 2011, a magnitude-9.0 quake rocked Japan, triggering a tsunami that killed an
estimated 29,000 people and damaged nuclear reactors.

Earthquakes don't kill people; buildings do. This is a gross over simplification, of course,
because tsunamis also take many lives, but not all earthquakes generate tsunamis. They do
however cause buildings, bridges and other structures to experience sudden lateral
accelerations.

## Earthquake Ground Motion

The dynamic response of the building to earthquake ground motion is the
most important cause of earthquake-induced damage to buildings. Failure of
the ground and soil beneath buildings is also a major cause of damage.
However, contrary to popular belief, buildings are rarely, if ever, damaged
because of fault displacement beneath a building.

Fig 1
To briefly review the basics of earthquake generation:
 Most earthquakes result from rapid movement along the plane of faults
within the earth's crust. (see figure 1)
 This sudden movement of the fault releases a great deal of energy,
which then travels through the earth in the form of seismic waves.
 The seismic waves travel for great distances before finally losing most
of their energy. Figure 2 illustrates some of the basic features common
not only to seismic waves but to all forms of wave motion.
At some time after their generation, these seismic waves will reach the
earth's surface, and set it in motion, which we not surprisingly refer to as
earthquake ground motion.

When this earthquake ground motion occurs beneath a building and when it is
strong enough, it sets the building in motion, starting with the building's
foundation, and transfers the motion throughout the rest of the building in a
very complex way. These motions in turn induce forces which can produce
damage.

## See these forces in action and experiment with Make-a-Quake Simulator,

Discovery.com's interactive animation of a building under different earthquake
conditions.
Complexity of Earthquake Ground Motion
Real earthquake ground motion at a particular building site is vastly more
complicated than the simple wave form illustrated in Figure 2. Here it's useful
to compare the surface of the ground under an earthquake to the surface of a
small body of water, like a pond. You can set the surface of a pond in motion-
-by throwing stones into it.

The first few stones create a series of circular waves, which soon begin to
collide with one another. After a while, the collisions, which we term
interference patterns, begin to predominate over the pattern of circular
waves. Soon, the entire surface of the water is covered by ripples, and you
can no longer make out the original wave forms. During an earthquake, the
ground vibrates in a similarly complex manner, as waves of different
frequencies and amplitude interact with one another.

## The complexity of earthquake ground motion is due to three factors:

 The seismic waves generated at the time of earthquake fault
movement were not all of a uniform character.
 As these waves pass through the earth on their way from the fault to
the building site, they are modified by the soil and rock media through
which they pass.
 Once the seismic waves reach the building site they undergo further
modifications that are dependent upon the characteristics of the ground
and soil beneath the building. We refer to these three factors as source
effects, path effects, and local site effects.

## Ground Motion and Building Frequencies.

The characteristics of earthquake ground motions which have the greatest
importance for buildings are the duration, amplitude (of displacement,
velocity and acceleration) and frequency of the ground motion. Frequency is
defined as the number of complete cycles of vibration made by the wave per
second.
Here, we can consider a complete vibration to be the same as the distance
between one crest of the wave and the next, in other words one full
wavelength. (See Figure 2 above.) Frequency is often measured in units
called Hertz. Thus, if two full waves pass in one second, the frequency is 2
hertz (abbreviated as 2 Hz).

## Surface ground motion at the building site is actually a complex superposition

of different vibration frequencies. We should also mention that at any given
site, some frequencies usually predominate. The distribution of frequencies in
a ground motion is referred to as its frequency content.

## The response of the building to ground motion is as complex as the ground

motion itself, yet typically quite different. It also begins to vibrate in a
complex manner, and because it is now a vibratory system, it also possesses
a frequency content. However, the building's vibrations tend to center around
one particular frequency that is known as its natural or fundamental
frequency. Generally, the shorter a building is the higher its natural
frequency, and the taller the building is, the lower its natural frequency.
Building Frequency and Period
Another way to understand this is to think of the building's response in terms
of another important quantity, the building's natural period. The building
period is simply the inverse of the frequency: Whereas the frequency is the
number of times per second that the building will vibrate back and forth, the
period is the time it takes for the building to make one complete vibration.
The relationship between frequency f and period T is thus very simple math:

## Building Height Typical Natural Period

2 story .2 seconds

5 story .5 seconds

## 10 story 1.0 second

20 story 2.0 second

## 50 story 5.0 seconds

Resonant Frequencies
When the frequency contents of the ground motion are centered on the
building's natural frequency, we say that the building and the ground motion
are in resonance with one another. Resonance tends to increase or amplify
the building's response. Because of this, buildings suffer the greatest damage
from ground motion at a frequency close or equal to their own natural
frequency.

## The Mexico City earthquake of September 19, 1985 provides a striking

illustration of this. A majority of the many buildings which collapsed during
this earthquake were around 20 stories tall--i.e., they had a natural period of
around 2.0 seconds. These 20 story buildings were in resonance with the
frequency contents of the 1985 earthquake. Other buildings, of different
heights and with different vibration characteristics, were often found
undamaged even though they were located right next to the damaged 20
story buildings.
Response Spectra
As we've just seen, different buildings can respond in widely differing manners
to the same earthquake ground motion. Conversely, any given building will act
differently during different earthquakes, which gives rise to the need of
concisely representing the building's range of responses to ground motion of
different frequency contents. Such a representation is known as a response
spectrum. A response spectrum is a kind of graph which plots the maximum
response values of acceleration, velocity and displacement against period and
frequency. Response spectra are very important "tools" in earthquake
engineering.
As the page How Buildings Respond to Earthquakes describes in more detail,
the amount of acceleration which a building undergoes during an earthquake
is a critical factor in determining how much damage it will suffer. The spectra
in figure 4 provides some indication of how accelerations are related to
frequency characteristics— which shows one way in which response spectra
can be useful, since identifying the resonant frequencies at which a building
will undergo peak accelerations is one very important step in designing the
building to resist earthquakes.
Earthquake effect on the structure
Earthquake effect on the asphalt and bridge

## Earthquake or seismic load on a building depends upon its geographical

location, lateral stiffness and mass, and is reversible. Its effect should be
considered along both axes of a building taken one at a time. A force is defined
as the product of mass and acceleration. During an earthquake, the mass is
imparted by the building whereas the acceleration is imparted by the ground
disturbance. In order to have a minimum force, the mass of the building should
be as low as possible. There can be no control on the ground acceleration being
an act of the Nature! The point of application of this internal force is the center
of gravity of the mass on each floor of the building. Once there is a force, there
has to be an equal and opposite reaction to balance this force. The internal force
is resisted by the building and the resisting force acts at the center of rigidity at
each floor of the building or shear center of the building at each story.

## The return period of earthquake in a given region depends up on its seismicity.

Depending upon the probability of occurrence of an earthquake in a given
region, it is desirable to design the building for a specified force (as specified in
the design codes). As per EBCS 8, there are two methods of analysis to
determine earthquake forces acting over buildings:
(a) Static analysis (or Seismic coefficient method): This type of analysis can
be applied to buildings whose response is not significantly affected by
contributions from higher modes of vibration. These requirements are
deemed to be satisfied by buildings which meet the criteria for regularity
in plan and/or elevation as given in EBCS 8, and have fundamental
period of vibration T1 in the two main directions less than 2 sec.
(b) Dynamic analysis (or Response spectrum method): This method of
analysis can be conducted for all types of buildings.
(The static method is generally applicable to buildings up to 40 m in height)

## Classification of subsoil conditions (Page 8, Art. 1.3.2 – EBCS 8)

The influence of local ground conditions on the seismic action shall be
accounted for by considering the three subsoil classes.
Subsoil class A: Rock or other geological formation characterized by a shear
wave velocity vs of at least 800m/s, including at most 5 m of weaker material at
the surface.
Stiff deposits of sand, gravel or over consolidated clay, at least several tens of
meters thick, characterized by a gradual increase of the mechanical properties
with depth and by vs values of at least 400 m/s at a depth of 10m.
Subsoil class B: Deep deposits of medium dense sand, gravel or medium stiff
clays with thickness from several tens to many hundreds of meter, characterized
by vs values of at least 200 m/s at a depth of 10m; increasing to at least 350 m/s
at a depth of 50 m.
Subsoil class C: Loose cohesion less soil deposits with or without some soft
cohesive layers, characterized by vs values below 200 m/s in the upper most 20
m.
Deposits with predominant soft-to-medium stiff cohesive soils, characterized by
vs values below 200 m/s in the upper most 20m.

Seismic Action
For structural design, the intensity of earthquake is usually described in terms of
the ground acceleration as a fraction of the acceleration due to gravity, i.e. 0.1g,
0.2g, 0.3g etc. The static analysis procedure provides for the calculation of
the total lateral force, defined as the design base shear which is then
distributed over height of the building.

## The earthquake motion at a given point of the surface is generally represented

by an elastic ground acceleration spectrum, called “elastic response spectrum”.
Normalized elastic response spectra are shown in annex A – Figure A.1 of
EBCS 8.

## Design spectrum (Page 10, Art.1.4.2.2 (4) to (7) – EBCS 8)

For linear analysis, the design spectrum Sd(T), normalized by the acceleration of
gravity g, is defined by,
Sd(T) = αβγ
Where α = the ratio of design bedrock acceleration to the acceleration
of gravity g and is given by α = α0I
Where α0 = the bedrock acceleration ratio for the site and depends on
the seismic zone.
Bedrock acceleration ratio α0
Zone 4 3 2 1
α0 0.10 0.07 0.05 0.03
I = Importance factor

Importance categories and importance factors for buildings (Table 2.4 Chapter 2 – EBCS 8)
Importance Importance
Buildings
category factor I
Buildings whose integrity during
earthquakes is of vital importance for
I 1.4
civil protection, e.g. hospitals, fire
stations, power plants etc.
Buildings whose seismic resistance is
of importance in view of the
II consequences associated with a 1.2
collapse, e.g. schools, assembly halls,
cultural, institutions, etc.
Ordinary buildings, not belonging to
III 1.0
the other categories
Buildings of minor importance for
IV public safety, e.g. agricultural 0.8
buildings, etc

## β = design response factor for the site = 1.2 S/T2/3 ≤ 2.5

Where S is the site coefficient for soil characteristics

Site coefficient S
Subsoil class A B C
S 1.0 1.2 1.5
T = Fundamental vibration period
γ = Behavior factor to account for energy dissipation capacity
γ = γ0 kD kR kW ≤ 0.70
γ0 = Basic value of the behavior factor
= 0.2 for frame system and dual system
= 0.3 for core system
= 0.5 for inverted pendulum system
kD = Factor reflecting the ductility class
= 1.00 for DC “H”
= 1.50 for DC “M”
= 2.00 for DC “L”
kR = Factor reflecting the regularity in elevation
= 1.00 for regular structures
= 1.25 for non-regular structures
kW = Factor reflecting the prevailing failure mode in structural systems
= 1.00 for frame and frame equivalent dual systems
= (2.5 – 0.5 α0) for wall and wall equivalent systems
≥ 1 for core systems
Here, α0 = aspect ratio of the walls = (Height of wall / Length of wall)

## Base shear force (Page 21, Art.2.3.3.2.2 – EBCS 8)

Seismic base shear force Fb = Sd(T1)W
Where Sd(T1) = the design spectrum
T1 = Fundamental period of vibration in sec = C1 H3/4
H = Height of the building above the base in meter
C1 = 0.085 for steel moment resisting frames
= 0.075 for reinforced concrete moment resisting
frames and eccentrically braced steel frames
= 0.050 for all other buildings
= Total permanent load plus 25% of the floor variable (live) load for
storage and warehouse occupancies.
= Total permanent load only for other occupancies.

Vertical distribution of base shear along the height of the structure: (Storey shear) (Page 22,
Art.2.3.3.2.3 – EBCS 8)
Portion of the base shear distributed over the height of the structure

Fi = (Fb – Ft) Wi hi
Σ Wj hj

Ft = 0.07 T1 Fb
Example 1: A twenty storey RC framed building has plan dimensions 15 m X 30 m. Height
of the building is 70 m. Estimate its fundamental period of vibration.

## The fundamental period of vibration T1 = C1 H3/4

C1 = 0.075; H = 70 m

## T1 = C1 H3/4 = 0.075 (70) 3/4 = 1.82 sec.

Example 2: A four storeyed building has an elevation shown in figure and is located in Awassa.
Determine the lateral forces and storey shears on an inner frame due to earthquake using the
following data.

Finishes = 15 cm

## Live load = 3 kN/m2

There is no wall in this frame. Consider that the second floor is utilized fully for storage
purposes.
Solution:

## Weight at ground floor

At any floor, half of the weight of walls and columns below it and half of that above it are lumped
at this level along with the weight of the floor and girder.

## Weight of inner columns = 0.25 * 0.4 * {(4 + 3.5)/2}* 25 * 6= 56.25 kN

Total = 676.34 kN

## Weight of inner columns = 0.25 * 0.4 * 3.5 * 25 * 6= 52.5 kN

Total = 670.89 kN

Weight at roof

## Weight of inner columns = 0.25 * 0.4 * 3.5/2 * 25 * 6= 26.25 kN

Total = 630.34 kN

## Base shear: Fb = Sd(T1)W

Sd(T) = αβγ
α = α0I
α0 for zone 4 (Awassa) = 0.1
I from table2.4 = 1.0 (ordinary buildings)
α = 0.1 * 1.0 = 0.1
β = 1.2 S/T2/3

T1 = C1 H3/4

H = 14.5 m

## β = 1.2 (1.2)/(0.56)2/3 = 2.12 < 2.5 Hence OK

Take β = 2.12

γ = γ0 kD kR kW ≤ 0.70
γ0 for frame system = 0.2

## kW = 1 (for frame structure)

γ = 0.2 * 1.5 * 1 * 1 = 0.3

## Distribution of base shear to storey

Ft = 0.07 T1 Fb = 0.07 * 0.56 * 177.78 = 6.97 kN
Fi = (Fb – Ft) Wi hi
Σ Wj h j
Example 3 A one storey residential building has an elevation shown in figure and is located in
Hawassa. Determine the lateral forces and story shears. Using the following data.
Floor and top RC roof thickness including finish = 15cm
Dimensions of column = 25x25cm
The dimensions of beams on the first floor and at the ground = 25x30cm
The dimensions of beams at the roof level = 25x25cm
There are walls supported by all the beams in ground and first storey’s in the frame.
Parapet walls are provided for the roof
The building is constructed on deep deposit of medium dense sand.

## Front View End View

Center of mass calculation
W
i
Unit *
DESIGN Lngth Width Depth Wi Xi Yi Wi*Xi
wt. Y
ATION
TOP i
ROOF
Slab as 1053.6
9.25 6.75 0.15 25 234.1 4.5 3.25 760.957
SLAB a whole 3

## 3BC 2.750 0.250 0.250 25 4.297 9 1.5 38.67 6.44531

11.718
3.750 0.250 0.250 25 5.859 2 6.5 38.0859
A12 8
11.718
3.750 0.250 0.250 25 5.859 2 3 17.5781
B12 8
11.718
3.750 0.250 0.250 25 5.859 2 0 0
C12 8
48.242
4.750 0.250 0.250 25 7.422 6.5 6.5 48.2422
A23 2
48.242
4.750 0.250 0.250 25 7.422 6.5 3 22.2656
B23 2
48.242
4.750 0.250 0.250 25 7.422 6.5 0 0
C23 2
PARAP
6.500 0.250 0.900 14 20.48 0 3.25 0 66.5438
ETS 1
184.27
6.500 0.250 0.900 14 20.48 9 3.25 66.5438
3 5
127.57
9.000 0.250 0.900 14 28.35 4.5 6.5 184.275
A 5
127.57
9.000 0.250 0.900 14 28.35 4.5 0 0
C 5
1794.8
399.8 1296.19
TOTAL 2

## Calculation center of mass Xm and Ym

For top roof
Xm = ΣWi Xi / ΣWi = 1794.82 / 399.8= 4.49m
Ym = ΣWi Yi / ΣWi = 1296.19 / 399.8= 3.24m

FIRST
FLOOR
Unit
and DESIGNA Lngth Width Depth Wi Xi Yi Wi*Xi Wi*Yi
wt.
Groun TION
d floor

Slab as a 1053.6
9.25 6.75 0.15 25 234.1 4.5 3.25 760.957
SLAB whole 3

## 3BC 2.750 0.250 0.300 25 5.156 9 1.5 46.41 7.73438

14.062
3.750 0.250 0.300 25 7.031 2 6.5 45.7031
A12 5

14.062
3.750 0.250 0.300 25 7.031 2 3 21.0938
B12 5

14.062
3.750 0.250 0.300 25 7.031 2 0 0
C12 5

57.890
4.750 0.250 0.300 25 8.906 6.5 6.5 57.8906
A23 6
57.890
4.750 0.250 0.300 25 8.906 6.5 3 26.7188
B23 6

57.890
4.750 0.250 0.300 25 8.906 6.5 0 0
C23 6

COLUM
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 0 6.5 0 28.9453
NS A1

17.812
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 4 6.5 28.9453
A2 5

40.078
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 9 6.5 28.9453
A3 1

## B1 2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 0 3 0 13.3594

17.812
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 4 3 13.3594
B2 5

40.078
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 9 3 13.3594
B3 1

## C1 2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 0 0 0 0

17.812
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 4 0 0
C2 5

40.078
2.850 0.250 0.250 25 4.453 9 0 0
C3 1

## WALLS 1ABC 6.75 0.250 2.75 14 64.97 0 3.25 0 211.148

259.87
6.75 0.250 2.75 14 64.97 4 3.25 211.148
2ABC 5

584.71
6.75 0.250 2.75 14 64.97 9 3.25 211.148
3ABC 9

72.187
3.75 0.250 2.75 14 36.09 2 6.5 234.609
A12 5
297.17
4.75 0.250 2.75 14 45.72 6.5 6.5 297.172
A23 2

72.187
3.75 0.250 2.75 14 36.09 2 3 108.281
B12 5

297.17
4.75 0.250 2.75 14 45.72 6.5 3 137.156
B23 2

72.187
3.75 0.250 2.75 14 36.09 2 0 0
C12 5

297.17
4.75 0.250 2.75 14 45.72 6.5 0 0
C23 2

3542.0
796.1 2559.98
TOTAL 9

BELOW THE
GROUND FLOOR

## A2 1.5 0.25 0.25 25 2.344 4 6.5 9.375 15.2344

21.093
1.5 0.25 0.25 25 2.344 9 6.5 15.2344
A3 8

## B2 1.5 0.25 0.25 25 2.344 4 3 9.375 7.03125

21.093
1.5 0.25 0.25 25 2.344 9 3 7.03125
B3 8

## C2 1.5 0.25 0.25 25 2.344 4 0 9.375 0

21.093
1.5 0.25 0.25 25 2.344 9 0 0
C3 8
91.40
21.09 66.7969
TOTAL 63

## For First floor

Xm = ΣWi Xi / ΣWi

## = 3542.09/ 796.1 = 4.45m

Ym = ΣWi Yi / ΣWi

## For Ground floor

Xm = ΣWi Xi / ΣWi

## = 3542.09 + (91.4/2) / 796.1+ (21.09/2) = 4.45m

Ym = ΣWi Yi / ΣWi

Sd(T) = αβγ

## of gravity g and is given by α = α0I

Where α0 = the bedrock acceleration ratio for the site and depends on the seismic zone

Zone 4 3 2 1

## α0 for zone 4 (Awassa) = 0.1

I from table 2.4 = 1.0 (ordinary buildings)

β = 1.2 S/T2/3

T1 = C1 H3/4

## C1 = 0.075 for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames

H = 3 + 3 + 1.5 = 7.5 m

## β = 1.2 (1.2)/(0.3399)2/3 = 2.956 But should be < 2.5

Take β = 2.5

γ = γ0 kD kR kW ≤ 0.70

## Ft = 0.07 T1 Fb = 0.07 * 0.3399 * 150.2

= 3.57 kN

Fi = (Fb – Ft) Wi hi

Σ Wi hi

## First 796.1 4.5 3582.45 67.42

Roof 399.8 7.5 2998.5 56.43

7791