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CONCEPT Titrations have wide applications in food industry, medical

field as well as in automotive industry. In medical, it is used to
Technological development for extraction of metals from
low grade ores is an emerging and important area due to
MAP determine proper concentration of anaesthetics and to
measure glucose level in the blood. In automotive, it is used
during production of biodiesel fuel.
depletion of high grade ore resources. Hydrometallurgy, in
principle, can provide viable technical options for
processing lean ores.
Furnace Double
Weak Strong charge cup
(ore + coke) and cone
acid-Weak base acid-Strong base Iron (Fe) + Limestone arrangement
In the titration of CH3COOH In the titration of HCl with (Pig iron) Furnace gases
with NH4OH the pH at the equivalence NaOH , the equivalence point lies in Ore loses containing 25% CO
· Concentration : The crushed ore is moisture and
point lies between 6.5-7.5 but no sharp the pH range of 4-10. Thus, methyl orange used to heat
concentrated by gravity separation and becomes more 500 K incoming air blast
change in pH is observed in these titrations. (pH range 3.2-4.5), methyl red (pH range porous
Fire bricks Reduction begins
froth floatation process (for sulphide ores). Slag formation 523 K
Thus, no simple indicator can be used for the 4.2-6.3) and phenolphthalein (pH range 3Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) ® 2Fe3O4(s) + CO2(g)
detection of the equivalence point. 8.3-10) will be the suitable indicators. · Calcination : Ore is heated strongly in the CaCO3(s) ® CaO(s) + CO2(g) Steel shell
Fe3O4(s) + 4CO(g) ® 3Fe(s) + 4CO2(g)
12 12
presence of a limited supply of air in a CaO(s) + SiO2(s) ® CaSiO3 900 K Fe2O3(s) + CO(g) ® 2FeO(s) + CO2(g)
reverberatory furnace. Sulphide ores are 1123 K Reduction completed
10 Titration 11
10 Melting of slag FeO(s) + C(s) ® Fe(s) + CO(g)
pH value ®

pH value ®
9 9 roasted to their oxides. and iron 1423 K
8 Curves 8 1500 K Fe2O3(s) + 3C(s) >1073 K 2Fe(s/l) + 3CO(g)
7 7 · Smelting : Calcined ore is Fluid slag and
6 6 1673 K Coke burns to form CO2,
5 5
smelted in a blast furnace. liquid Fe trickle 2170 K which on passing up the
4 4 down into hearth furnace through more
3 3
2 2
hot coke, is reduced to CO
22.5 25 27.5 30 22.5 25 27.5 30 C(s) + O2(g) ® CO2(g)
Volume of base (mL) ® Volume of base (mL) ® Tuyeres Hot air blast CO2(g) + C(s) ® 2CO(g)
Weak FeO(s) + C(s) ® Fe(l) + CO(g)
Strong Molten pig iron
acid-Strong base acid-Weak base Blast Furnace Slag
In the titration of CH3COOH In the titration of HCl with
with NaOH, the equivalence point NH4OH, the pH at equivalence point
lies between the pH range 7.5-10. Hence, Sodium chloride
lies between the pH range 4-6.5.Thus, Sodium (Na)
phenolphthalein (pH range 8.3-10) will be methyl orange (pH range 3.1-4.4) or methyl
the suitable indicator. (Down's process)
red (pH range 4.2-6.3) will be the suitable Chlorine
· The oxides of highly electropositive
indicators. Important metals like Na, K, Mg, Al requires very high
10 10
pH value ®

9 9 Molten
temperature for reduction.
pH value ®

8 8
7 7 sodium
6 6 · These metals are extracted by the electrolysis of their
5 5 oxides, hydroxides or chlorides in fused state.
4 4
3 3 · A small amount of some other salt is added to lower
2 2
22.5 25 27.5 30 22.5 25 27.5 30 the fusion temperature or to increase the conductivity Ring-shaped
Volume of base (mL) ® Volume of base (mL) ®
steel cathode
or both.
· Electrolysis of fused mixture of NaCl and
· Titration is the measurement of the volume of a solution of one reactant that is required to react completely with a measured amount of another Graphite anode
CaCl2 : Grid
reactant. Molten NaCl and CaCl2
· The solution which is to be titrated is called titrate. Cathode : Na+ + e– ® Na(l)
· The solution with which the titration is to be done is called the titrant. Anode : Cl– ® Cl2(g) + e–
· The substance usually added into the solution taken in the titration flask to detect the equivalence point is called an indicator. The equivalence point 2
is the ideal point for the completion of titration, i.e., it is the exact point in a titration when moles of one titrant becomes equal to the moles of the Aluminium (Al)
substance being titrated. (Hall – Heroult process)
· The end point is the point at which the indicator just changes its colour. End point indicates that equivalence point has been reached. Carbon Anode · Process of obtaining aluminium by
· The point at which there is a sudden change in pH when a very small amount of the titrant is added to the titrate is called point of inflection. Copper electrolysis of a mixture of purified
· The curve between pH values of the solution and the volume of titrant added as the titration proceeds is called a titration curve. Clamp
Iron Tank + Powdered
alumina, cryolite and fluorspar.
· The determination of concentration of bases by titration with a standard acid is called acidimetry.
Coke Purified alumina is obtained by calcination of
· The determination of concentration of acids by titration with a standard base is called alkalimetry.
Carbon lining bauxite ore (Al2O3.xH2O).
Types of Indicators
· Self indicator : A substance is said to be self indicator if it itself acts as an indicator in titration e.g., potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and oxalic (Cathode) Electrolytic reactions involved :
Cathode : Al3+(melt) + 3e ® Al(l)

acid (COOH)2. Molten Al2O3 + Na3AlF6
· External indicator : In some redox titrations, the end point is detected with the help of a substance which is not added to the solution being titrated Outlet for
Anode : C(s) + O(melt) ® CO(g) + 2e–
but used outside the titrating system, e.g., potassium ferricyanide. aluminium 2–
C(s) + 2O(melt) ® CO2(g) +
· Internal indicator : The substance or reagents which are added to the solution in the conical flask or beaker during the titration to find out the end –
point, e.g., phenolphthalein, methyl orange, starch solution, etc.
Molten aluminium