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A.3.7. The Chemical Synapse

Purpose: A chemical synapse transmits electrical signals (= action potentials) from

one nerve cell to the next.

Structural and physiological components required:

1. A pre-synaptic membrane in the first nerve cell
2. This pre-synaptic membrane contains Na+, K+ and Ca2+ ion channels.
3. Vesicles in the pre-synaptic cell that contains the (neuro-) transmitter
4. A post-synaptic membrane in the second nerve cell
5. The post-synaptic membrane contains receptor operated channels (=ROC)

A. Function of a chemical synapse:

A nerve action potential
propagates down the axon
of the first nerve cell
towards the pre-synaptic
membrane (thereby
opening and closing the
relevant Na+ and K+

When the action potential
arrives in the pre-synaptic
membrane, it also opens
the Ca2+ channels.

3. 4. 5.
Because of the This intracellular calcium Once at the pre-synaptic membrane,
concentration gradient for will induce one of the the vesicles will fuse with the
calcium, calcium ions vesicles to move towards membrane and release its content
will then flow into the cell the pre-synaptic (the neurotransmitter) into the
membrane synaptic cleft. This process is called
exocytosis (link; A.2.4. Active
Transport Systems).
6. 7. 8.
The transmitter diffuses The transmitter can then These receptors are linked to ion
into the synaptic cleft and couple to the receptors channels (= receptor operated
some of it will reach the located in the post- channels = ROC).
post-synaptic membrane synaptic membrane

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9. 10. 11.
The linkage of the As more and more Opening the channels will cause a
transmitter to the receptor transmitters attach to the flow of ions in or out of the post-
will open that channel. receptors, more and more synaptic cell (influx or efflux)
channels will open.

12. 13. 14.

These ions will cause If the membrane If the membrane hyperpolarizes,
either a depolarization or depolarizes, then this then this potential is called an IPSP
a hyperpolarization potential is called an (=Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential).
around that membrane EPSP (= Excitatory Post
Synaptic Potential).

B. IPSP’s or EPSP’s?
1. 2. 3.
Usually, a single pre-synaptic Whether or not the potential In the case of an IPSP, the
action potential will only is an EPSP or an IPSP membrane potential moves
cause a small change in depends on the transmitter, further away from the
potential in the postsynaptic the receptor and the attached threshold potential. This is
membrane, either a ion channel. Some synapses inhibition as it makes it
depolarization or a are excitatory (EPSP) while more difficult for the next
hyperpolarisation. others are inhibitory (IPSP) action potentials to reach
in nature. threshold (= inhibition).

4. 5. 6.
In the case of an EPSP, the It must be realized that Therefore, an EPSP or an
membrane potential moves EPSP’s and IPSP’s are local IPSP, by itself, has no effect
closer to the threshold and temporary potential at all. They will only have
potential but usually does not changes. They, for example, an effect if something else
reach the threshold. do not propagate to the rest of happens, and that is
Therefore, an action potential the nerve cell. summation.
is not (yet) generated.

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7. 8. 9.
Meanwhile, the transmitters They cannot stay there Fortunately, there are
in the synaptic cleft and those because this would keep the enzymes in the synapse
coupled to the receptors must channels open and the cleft that break down the
be removed and inactivated. membrane in a permanent de- neurotransmitters. Often,
or hyper-polarized state and these broken down
the whole transmission would components are recycled
be stopped. into the pre-synapse for
making new transmitter
molecules in new vesicles.

B. Summation of EPSP and/or IPSP’s

1. 2. 3.
In contrast to action Because the duration of the Therefore, the second EPSP
potentials, EPSP’s and EPSP’s is much longer than starts at a more depolarized
IPSP’s can summate on ‘top’ the action potential, the level and achieves a more
of each other (figure). second EPSP is initiated depolarized value, which is
while the depolarization of closer to the threshold.
the first EPSP is still present.

4. 5. 6.
A third EPSP will again start Please notice in this example, In general, this ratio is about
at a higher level and, as that three pre-synaptic 10: 1 (10 pres-synaptic
shown in the figure, reaches potentials were required to potentials are required to
threshold, thereby (finally!) generate a single action make 1 post-synaptic action
inducing an action potential. potential in the post-synaptic potential).
That action potential will membrane.
then propagate to the rest of
this nerve cell.

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D. Important comparisons with the electrical synapse (previous page):

1. 2.
This process of action potential That is because in an electrical synapse,
transmission is much slower than the the speed depends on the flow of ions
propagation along a nerve membrane and through the connexons. In a chemical
also much slower than transmission in an synapse, the speed is mostly determined
electrical synapse. by the diffusion of the transmitter through
the synaptic cleft. This is very much

3. 4.
In contrast to the electrical synapse, the In other words, the whole structure of
direction of propagation in a chemical pre- and post-synaptic membranes, of the
synapse is one-directional. If the nerve vesicles and the ROC’s dictates the
of the post-synaptic membrane had been direction of propagation.
first activated, then there are no vesicles
in that part of the structure to diffuse back
to the pre-synaptic membrane, nor are
there ROC’s in the presynaptic
membrane for the transmitter to couple

5. 6.
Also, in contrast to the electrical synapse, This is not the case in an electrical
the ratio of propagation is not 1:1. In synapse. In an electrical synapse, the
general, there are many (approx. ten) ratio is always 1:1.
action potentials necessary to depolarize
the post-synaptic membrane to reach
threshold and to generate 1 action
potential in the next cell.

7. 8.
In the brain, chemical synapses are more So the important differences between
common than electrical synapses but in the electrical and the chemical synapse
other tissues, especially in the heart and are:
in smooth muscles, electrical synapses 1. fast vs. slow propagation
are very common. 2. bi- vs. one-directional
3. 1:1 vs. 10:1 ratio

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