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LAW ON OBLIGATIONS NEGLIGENCE/”CULPA”

CIRCUMSTANCES AFFECTING OBLIGATIONS • Art. 1173 vis-à-vis Delsan case


• Fraud/Dolo • Kinds
A) NEGLIGENCE INDEPENDENT OF CONTRACT-Culpa Aquiliana/Tort/Quasi-delict
• Legal Delay/Mora
(Art. 2176/2180)
• Negligence/Culpa
REMEDY – Action for damages
• Contravention of the tenor of the obligation B) NEGLIGENCE IN THE PERFOMANCE OF AN OBLIGATION/NEGLIGENCE ARISING FROM
• Fortuitous event/Caso Fortuito vs Force Majeure CONTRACT -Culpa contractual/Contractual Negligence (Art. 1159)
REMEDY – Breach of contract with damages (Art. 1170)
FRAUD C) Culpa Criminal/Reckless Imprudence (Art. 365 RPC)
• Kinds REMEDY – Criminal case against the malefactor (Reckless Imprudence resulting to
1) Art. 1338 - Dolo causanti (fraud in obtaining consent –false representation or misrepresentation- Homicide/PI/D2Prop. with attached civil liability for damages) and/or civil action based
Art. 1342/deliberate intent to deceive) on Art. 2180 (vicarious liability)
EFFECT – Art. 1390/1344 1st part –contract is voidable NOTE: “Nullum Crimen, Nulla Poena Sine Lege”
REMEDY – Annulment
2) Art. 1344 2nd sent – Dolo incidenti (willful/fraud in performing the obligation/contract CONTRAVENTION OF THE TENOR OF THE OBLIGATION
EFFECT/REMEDY – BREACH OF CONTRACT WITH DAMAGES • Art. 1170
EXAMPLE – Angel Locsin obliged himself to deliver to Luis Manzano 100 cavans of • “Tenor”-terms and conditions
“sinandomeng” rice. Angel Locsin delivered 100 cavans of “sinandomeng” variety but • “Contravention” – derogation/violation/non- compliance with/non-performance of the
mixed with “NFA” variety. terms and/or conditions
NOTE: to be discussed further in the Law on Contracts • POSITIVE PERSONAL OBLIGATION - O2D-to follow/comply or conform with the tenor
REMEDY –O2D – Art. 1167 plus Art. 1170
LEGAL DELAY/MORA • NEGATIVE PERSONAL OBLIGATION -ON2D – not to contravene the tenor
• Art. 1169 REMEDY – ON2D – Art. 1168 plus 1170
• O2D – to do DS on time/not tardy or late Example – refer to SAF-LM – Breach of Contract with Damages
• ON2D – not to incur legal delay/mora • NEGATIVE PERSONAL OBLIGATION – ON2G-Anti Mendicancy Law
• KINDS OF LEGAL DELAY
1) MORA SOLVENDI – delay on DR’s part FORTUITOUS EVENT (FE) vs FORCE MAJEURE (FM)
- mora solvendi ex re- O2G
• Involuntary on the part of the debtor
- mora solvendi ex persona – O2D
• Art. 1174
2) MORA ACCIPIENDI – delay on CR’s part (refusal of CR to accept without just cause)
• Act of “GOD” vs Act of “Man”
3) COMPENSATIO MORAE – both parties defaulted (applied in reciprocal obligations-contract of
• FE – caso fortuito -event that cannot be foreseen or although foreseeable, it is inevitable (e.g.
sale)
typhoons, eartquakes,tsunamis,volcanic eruptions)
Rules
• FM – wars, strikes, riots, acts of marauders/pirates/brigands
• GR – D(delay) plus D (demand) = M (mora), thus,
• Rules on liability
NO DEMAND – NO MORA
1) GR - FE is the ONLY proximate cause of loss –NO LIABILITY/NO O2G or O2D
• KINDS OF DEMAND- Judicial and Extra-Judicial
2) Exceptions – YES LIABILITY –obliged to give/do
• EXCEPTIONS – L aw – Art. 1788
SLN (Stipulation/Law-Arts. 1979/1942/Nature of obligation requires the assumption of
U seless – before expiration
risk-insurance contract
S tipulated – “without need of demand”
- FE plus Fraud/Negligence/Delay/Contravention of tenor
T ime is of the essence – must be expressed in the contract
of obligation - YES LIABILITY
- Thing to be delivered is generic – genus nunquam peruit-Art. 1165 2nd par
• EFFECT/REMEDY
1) DR is liable/bears the loss – even if loss is due to FE
2) CR to apply Art. 1170 – file Civil Action - Breach of Contract with damages

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FRAUD
ARTICLE/ VIOLATOR/ LEGAL ELEMENTS/ CONSEQUENCE/SANCTIO 1345 ANY PERSON SIMULATION OF CONTRACT
SECTION OFFENDER/ ACTS PUNISHED/ N/ ABSOLUTE/RELATIVE
TORTFEASOR BREACH/CONTRAVENTION PENALTY
RA 386
1338 ANY MA -MATERIAL- • Kinds 1346 ANY PERSON ABSOLUTELY SIMULATED CONTRACT
PERSON EMPLOYMENT OF INSIDIOUS WORDS 1) Art. 1338 - Dolo RELATIVELY SIMULATED CONTRACT
NATURAL-Art. /MACHINATIONS/FALSE causanti (fraud in
obtaining consent –false
40-44 RA 386 REPRESENTATION/MISREPRESENTAT RA 7394
representation or
ION misrepresentation-Art. CONSUME
JUVENILE/MIN SE-SERIOUS- 1342/deliberate intent to R ACT OF
OR ONE- deceive) THE
AGE OF EMPLOYED BY 1 OF THE EFFECT – Art. 1390/1344 PHILIPPINE
MAJORITY CONTRACTING PARTIES 1st part –contract is
S
voidable
IN2DE-
REMEDY - Annulment
JURIDICAL-Art. INTENTION TO DECEIVE EO 209
40-44 RA RE- 2) Art. 1344 2nd sent – FAMILY
386/BP 68 OTHER PARTY RELIED ON SUCH Dolo incidenti CODE OF
MISREPRESENTATION (willful/fraud in THE
CORPORATION performing the
PHILIPPINE
obligation/contract
S S
EFFECT/REMEDY –
BREACH OF CONTRACT 45-54
PARTNERSHIPS WITH DAMAGES

ASSOCIATIONS EXAMPLE – Angel Locsin


obliged himself to deliver

CONSORTIUM/
to Luis Manzano 100 DUTIES OF OBLIGOR
cavans of
A “sinandomeng” rice.
JOINT Angel Locsin delivered • 1163
VENTURES 100 cavans of
“sinandomeng” variety
• 1164
COOPERATIVES but mixed with “NFA” • 1165
variety.
• 1166
1339 ANY PERSON SAME AS ABOVE
• 1167/1168
CONCEALMENT/FAILURE TO DISCLOSE
FACTS
PARTIES ARE BOUND BY CONFIDENTIAL ART. 1163
RELATIONS
• PERSON-PaDOr
1340 ANY PERSON NOT FRAUDULENT
• OBLIGED-02D/02G
• O2G-SOMETHING-DETERMINATE-1459
1341 ANY PERSON NOT FRAUDULENT
• 02D-GR-DOGFFF/ORDINARY DILIGENCE/CARE/CARE AND CAUTION/ORDINARY STANDARD OF
CARE
1342 ANY PERSON MISREPRESENTATION EX-ANOTHER STANDARD OF CARE
THIRD PERSON S-STIPULATION-AGREED UPON BY THE PARTIES
SUBSTANTIAL MISTAKE L-ART. 1733/1755-EXTRA-ORDINARY DILIGENCE/UTMOST DILIGENCE/HIGHEST
MUTUAL
STANDARD OF CARE
1343 ANY PERSON NOT FRAUDULENT-ERROR
N-EXTRA CHALLENGE-WHAT OBLIGATIONS IN THE PHILIPPINES REQUIRE UTMOST
DILIGENCE?
1344 ANY PERSON MASE ONE IN2DE RE

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ART. 1164
• CREDITOR-ACrOe
• RIGHT VS OWNERSHIP/REAL RIGHT
• FRUITS-ART. 441/442
ART. 1165
• REAL OBLIGATION-02G
• DETERMINATE THING-1459
• CREDITOR-ACrOe
• RIGHTS-COMPEL DELIVERY
1170-ACTION FOR DAMAGES

ART. 1166
• ACCESSORIA CEDIT PRINCIPALII-ACCESSORY FOLLOWS THE PRINCIPAL
• PRINCIPAL THING VS ACCESSORY THING
• 467/468
ART. 1167/1168
• PERSON-PaDOr
• O2D
• FAILURE TO DO/POORLY DONE
• CONSTITUTES CONTRAVENTION/BREACH/VIOLATION
• REMEDY-EXACT FULFILLMENT/SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE PLUS DAMAGES-1170
• POORLY DONE-DECREED TO BE UNDONE

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Article 1338. There is fraud when, through insidious words or machinations of one of the Guardians are liable for damages caused by the minors or incapacitated persons who are under
contracting parties, the other is induced to enter into a contract which, without them, he would their authority and live in their company.
not have agreed to. (1269)
The owners and managers of an establishment or enterprise are likewise responsible for damages
Article 1390. The following contracts are voidable or annullable, even though there may have caused by their employees in the service of the branches in which the latter are employed or on
been no damage to the contracting parties: the occasion of their functions.

(1) Those where one of the parties is incapable of giving consent to a contract; Employers shall be liable for the damages caused by their employees and household helpers
(2) Those where the consent is vitiated by mistake, violence, intimidation, undue acting within the scope of their assigned tasks, even though the former are not engaged in any
influence or fraud. business or industry.

These contracts are binding, unless they are annulled by a proper action in court. They The State is responsible in like manner when it acts through a special agent; but not when the
are susceptible of ratification. (n) damage has been caused by the official to whom the task done properly pertains, in which case
what is provided in article 2176 shall be applicable.
Article 1344. In order that fraud may make a contract voidable, it should be serious and should
not have been employed by both contracting parties. Lastly, teachers or heads of establishments of arts and trades shall be liable for damages caused
by their pupils and students or apprentices, so long as they remain in their custody.
Incidental fraud only obliges the person employing it to pay damages. (1270)
The responsibility treated of in this article shall cease when the persons herein mentioned prove
Article 1169. Those obliged to deliver or to do something incur in delay from the time the that they observed all the diligence of a good father of a family to prevent damage. (1903a)
obligee judicially or extrajudicially demands from them the fulfillment of their obligation.
Article 1159. Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting
However, the demand by the creditor shall not be necessary in order that delay may exist: parties and should be complied with in good faith. (1091a)

(1) When the obligation or the law expressly so declare; or Article 1170. Those who in the performance of their obligations are guilty of fraud, negligence,
(2) When from the nature and the circumstances of the obligation it appears that the or delay, and those who in any manner contravene the tenor thereof, are liable for damages.
designation of the time when the thing is to be delivered or the service is to be rendered (1101)
was a controlling motive for the establishment of the contract; or
(3) When demand would be useless, as when the obligor has rendered it beyond his Article 1167. If a person obliged to do something fails to do it, the same shall be executed at his
power to perform. cost.

In reciprocal obligations, neither party incurs in delay if the other does not comply or is not ready This same rule shall be observed if he does it in contravention of the tenor of the obligation.
to comply in a proper manner with what is incumbent upon him. From the moment one of the Furthermore, it may be decreed that what has been poorly done be undone. (1098)
parties fulfills his obligation, delay by the other begins. (1100a)

Article 1788. A partner who has undertaken to contribute a sum of money and fails to do so Article 1168. When the obligation consists in not doing, and the obligor does what has been
becomes a debtor for the interest and damages from the time he should have complied with his forbidden him, it shall also be undone at his expense. (1099a)
obligation.
Article 1174. Except in cases expressly specified by the law, or when it is otherwise declared by
The same rule applies to any amount he may have taken from the partnership coffers, and his stipulation, or when the nature of the obligation requires the assumption of risk, no person shall
liability shall begin from the time he converted the amount to his own use. (1682) be responsible for those events which could not be foreseen, or which, though foreseen, were
inevitable. (1105a)
Article 1173. The fault or negligence of the obligor consists in the omission of that diligence
which is required by the nature of the obligation and corresponds with the circumstances of the Article 1979. The depositary is liable for the loss of the thing through a fortuitous event:
persons, of the time and of the place. When negligence shows bad faith, the provisions of articles (1) If it is so stipulated;
1171 and 2201, paragraph 2, shall apply. (2) If he uses the thing without the depositor's permission;
(3) If he delays its return;
If the law or contract does not state the diligence which is to be observed in the performance, that (4) If he allows others to use it, even though he himself may have been authorized to use
which is expected of a good father of a family shall be required. (1104a) the same. (n)

Article 2176. Whoever by act or omission causes damage to another, there being fault or
negligence, is obliged to pay for the damage done. Such fault or negligence, if there is no preexisting contractual relation
between the parties, is called a quasi-delict and is governed by the
provisions of this Chapter. (1902a)

Article 2180. The obligation imposed by article 2176 is demandable not only for one's own acts
or omissions, but also for those of persons for whom one is responsible.

The father and, in case of his death or incapacity, the mother, are responsible for the damages
caused by the minor children who live in their company.
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Article 1942. The bailee is liable for the loss of the thing, even if it should be through a Such extraordinary diligence in the vigilance over the goods is further expressed in articles 1734,
fortuitous event: 1735, and 1745, Nos. 5, 6, and 7, while the extraordinary diligence for the safety of the
(1) If he devotes the thing to any purpose different from that for which it has been loaned; passengers is further set forth in articles 1755 and 1756.
(2) If he keeps it longer than the period stipulated, or after the accomplishment of the use
for which the commodatum has been constituted; Article 1755. A common carrier is bound to carry the passengers safely as far as human care and
(3) If the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value, unless there is a foresight can provide, using the utmost diligence of very cautious persons, with a due regard for
stipulation exempting the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event; all the circumstances.
(4) If he lends or leases the thing to a third person, who is not a member of his household;
(5) If, being able to save either the thing borrowed or his own thing, he chose to save the Article 1164. The creditor has a right to the fruits of the thing from the time the obligation to
latter. (1744a and 1745) deliver it arises. However, he shall acquire no real right over it until the same has been delivered
to him. (1095)
Article 1165. When what is to be delivered is a determinate thing, the creditor, in addition to the
right granted him by article 1170, may compel the debtor to make the delivery. Article 441. To the owner belongs:
If the thing is indeterminate or generic, he may ask that the obligation be complied with at the (1) The natural fruits;
expense of the debtor. (2) The industrial fruits;
(3) The civil fruits. (354)
If the obligor delays, or has promised to deliver the same thing to two or more persons who do
not have the same interest, he shall be responsible for any fortuitous event until he has effected Article 442. Natural fruits are the spontaneous products of the soil, and the young and other
the delivery. (1096) products of animals.

Article 1338. There is fraud when, through insidious words or machinations of one of the Industrial fruits are those produced by lands of any kind through cultivation or labor.
contracting parties, the other is induced to enter into a contract which, without them, he would
not have agreed to. (1269) Civil fruits are the rents of buildings, the price of leases of lands and other property and the
amount of perpetual or life annuities or other similar income. (355a)
Article 1339. Failure to disclose facts, when there is a duty to reveal them, as when the parties
are bound by confidential relations, constitutes fraud. (n) Article 1166. The obligation to give a determinate thing includes that of delivering all its
accessions and accessories, even though they may not have been mentioned. (1097a)
Article 1340. The usual exaggerations in trade, when the other party had an opportunity to know
the facts, are not in themselves fraudulent. (n) Article 467. The principal thing, as between two things incorporated, is deemed to be that to
which the other has been united as an ornament, or for its use or perfection. (376)
Article 1341. A mere expression of an opinion does not signify fraud, unless made by an expert
and the other party has relied on the former's special knowledge. (n) Article 468. If it cannot be determined by the rule given in the preceding article which of the two
things incorporated is the principal one, the thing of the greater value shall be so considered, and
Article 1342. Misrepresentation by a third person does not vitiate consent, unless such as between two things of equal value, that of the greater volume.
misrepresentation has created substantial mistake and the same is mutual. (n)
In painting and sculpture, writings, printed matter, engraving and lithographs, the board, metal,
Article 1343. Misrepresentation made in good faith is not fraudulent but may constitute error. (n) stone, canvas, paper or parchment shall be deemed the accessory thing. (377)

Article 1344. In order that fraud may make a contract voidable, it should be serious and should
not have been employed by both contracting parties.
Incidental fraud only obliges the person employing it to pay damages. (1270)

Article 1345. Simulation of a contract may be absolute or relative. The former takes place when
the parties do not intend to be bound at all; the latter, when the parties conceal their true
agreement. (n)

Article 1346. An absolutely simulated or fictitious contract is void. A relative simulation, when
it does not prejudice a third person and is not intended for any purpose contrary to law, morals,
good customs, public order or public policy binds the parties to their real agreement. (n)

Article 1163. Every person obliged to give something is also obliged to take care of it with the
proper diligence of a good father of a family, unless the law or the stipulation of the parties
requires another standard of care. (1094a)

Article 1459. The thing must be licit and the vendor must have a right to transfer the ownership
thereof at the time it is delivered. (n)

Article 1733. Common carriers, from the nature of their business and for reasons of public
policy, are bound to observe extraordinary diligence in the vigilance over the goods and for the
safety of the passengers transported by them, according to all the circumstances of each case.

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