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Group Members:

Mata, John Paulo


Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
TUMOR MARKERS COMMON THERAPY/TREATMENT OTHERS:
MANIFESTATIONS
MALE CANCERS
1. PROSTATE CANCER  Early stage: may or  Surgical removal of the prostate  Most common male cancer
 Circulating tumor cells of epithelial origin may not have (prostatectomy) in UK
(CELLSEARCH®)- To inform clinical decision symptoms  Radiotherapy:  Rises sharply from 50 years
making, and to assess prognosis  Prostate soecific  Post-operative radiotherapy- if there is if age with the highest
 Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)- To help in antigen is raised but it thought to be a risk of recurrence at surgey incidence in those 75-79
diagnosis, assess response to treatment, may be raised by other  External radiotherapy- 66% cure rate years
and look for recurrence factors such as urinary  Intensity modulated radiotherapy- proved to  Higher in men of Afro-
 Cancer Antigen 27.29 or Carbohydrate infections increase the effectiveness of treatment Caribbean descent
Antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29)  Frequent urination,  Image guided radiotherapy- reduces  Risk factors include a first or
 Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) particularly at night potential radiation dose to healthy tissues second degree relative
 Prostate-specific membrane antigen  Urgency to pass urine  Internal radiotherapy (brachytherapy)- may diagnoses with orostate
(PSMA)  Dysuria be the implantation of small radioactive cancer, mother having
 Thymidine kinase  Hematuria seeds into the prostate breast cancer, BRCA2 gene
 Hormone therapy: mutation, diet high in
 Either stop the production of testosterone or calcium, prostatitis and
block the effects of it as prostate cancer having had a vasectomy
 Chemotherapy
 To treat the disease that has spread to other
parts of the body and is not responding to
hormone therapy
2. PENILE CANCER  Change in color and  Surgery:  Very rare
 No specific lab studies or /or thickening of skin  Laser surgery  May be linked in sexually
tumor markers  Non- healing growth or  Cryosurgery transmitted disease
sore on the penis  Circumcision  Rare in thoose under 40
 Bleeding from the  Penectomy years old and most cases are
penis or foreskin  Radiotherapy: in men over 60 years
 Foul smelling discharge  Treatment of choice if the disease has spread  Over 95% of tumors are
 Difficulty in drawing to the lymph nodes in the groin or into the squamous cell carcinomas
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
back the foreskin pelvis  Risk factors:
(phimosis)  Post-operative radiotherapy- to reduce the  exposure to HPV
recurrence  multiple partners before
 Chemotherapy: the age of 20
 Chemotherapy cream  Poor hygiene and possibly
 Intravenous chemotherapy smoking
 Depressed immune system
3. TESTICULAR CANCER  Swelling or lump in a  Surgery:  16th most common male
 Alpha-fetoprotein- elevated (AFP) testicle, usually  Surgical removal of the testicle cancer in the UK
painless but swelling (orchidectomy)  Age related but unusally
 Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin may increase and  Radiotherapy: more common in young
Or Beta-HCG, B-HCG (HCG) cause pain  Post-operative radiotherapy to be advised men
 Dull for semonomas  Higher incidence in
ache/pain/heaviness in  Chemotherapy: Caucasians than other
scrotum  Recommended for akl seminoma tumors that ethnic group
 Pain in the back, groin have spread to local lymph nodes and for all  Risk factors:
or lower abdomen teartoma  Undescenced testicle
 Nipple/breast  Carcinoma in situ
tenderness or swelling  Fertility problems
due to hormones  Previous testicular cancer
being produced by the  Family history of testicular
tumor cancer
 Cough, breatheless,  HIV / AIDS
dysphagia if spread to
the lungs (late stage)
4. Colorectal Cancer  May not manifest  Surgery  the third most common
 BRAF V600 mutations symptoms in early  Radiotherapy cancer in men.
 Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) colorectal cancer  chemotherapy  It strikes about 53 of every
 Circulating tumor cells of epithelial origin  change in bowel 100,000 men.
(CELLSEARCH®) habits,  About 27,000 men died
 KRAS gene mutation analysis  rectal bleeding, from this cancer in 2007.
 CA 19-9  belly pain,
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
 Tumor m2-pk  weakness,
 weight loss.
5. Bladder Cancer  Hematuria   Bladder cancer is the fourth
 Chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and 9p21  Blood clots in the most common cancer in
 Fibrin/fibrinogen urine. men, striking 36 of every
 Nuclear matrix protein 22  frequentl and burning 100,000 men and killing
pain eight out of every 100,000
LUNG CANCER
Lung Cancer tumor markers
 Cytokeratin fragment 21-1- To help in monitoring for recurrence
 CA 15-3
Cancer Antigen 15-3 or Carbohydrate Antigen 15-3- elevated
 Cancer Antigen 125 or Carbohydrate Antigen 125- elevated (CA 125)
 Cancer Antigen 27.29 or Carbohydrate Antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29)
 Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)
 Cytokeratin Fragment 21-1 (Blood Test)
 Prostatic Acid Phosphatase( PAP)
 Vimentin
1. SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER  Cough  Thoracic radiation therapy  10-15% of all lung cancer
 Neuron-specific enolase (NSE)- To help in  Rust-colored sputum  Chemotherapy  Most aggressive major forms of lung
diagnosis and to assess response to  Chest pain  Surgery is not often considered cancer
treatment  Hoarseness  Drugs:
 Chromogranin A  Weight loss - Combination of cisplatin or
 Neuron-specific Enolase (NSE)  Shortness of breath carboplatin plus etoposide or
 Neurofilament  Feeling tired or weak irinotecam
A. Small-cell carcinoma (oat cell - Topotecan- if there is a relapse after
cancer) complete remission
B. Combined small- cell carcinoma
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
2. NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER
Markers:
 ALK gene rearrangements and overexpression- To help determine treatment and prognosis
 EGFR gene mutation analysis- To help determine treatment and prognosis
 KRAS gene mutation analysis- To determine whether treatment with a particular type of targeted therapy is appropriate
 Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)- To determine whether treatment with a particular type of targeted therapy is appropriate

A. Adenocarcinoma of lung  Cough  Surgery  Most common NSCLC in US


 Hoarseness  Radiotherapy  Compromise of 40% of lung cancer
 HER2/neu gene amplification or protein  Weight loss  Chemotherapy  Assiciated with smoking
overexpression  SOB  Also seen in non-smokers, especially
women
a. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma
- Look like pneumonia on a chest X-ray  Subtype of adenocarcinoma
 Frequently develops at multiple
sites in the lungs and spreads along
preexisting alveolar walls
 More common in women
 Better prognosis
B. Squamous cell carcinoma  Begins as dome-  Excision: cutting out the cancer spot  More common than
 Cacinoembryonic antigen shaped bump or a and some healthy skin around it adenocarcinoma
 Squamous cell carcinoma antigen red,scaly patch of skin  Mohs surgery: excision and then  25-30% of all lung cancer
 Immunosuppressive acidic protein  Usually rough and inspecting the excised skin using  Also known as epidermoid
 Alpha-fetoprotein ferritin crusty microscope carcinoma
 Carbohydrate antigen 19-9  Can bleed easily when  Dermabrasion: “sanding” the  Arise most in the central chest area
scraped affected area of skin with a tool to in the bronchi
 Large growths may make way for new layer  Spreads to lymph nodes and grows
itch/ hurt  Topical chemotherapy: a gel/cream quite large
applied to the skin
C. Large cell carcinoma  Coughing  Lobectomy  Also reffered to as undifferentiated
 Carcinoembryonic antigen  Weight loss  Radiotherapy carcinomas
 SCCA  Shortness of breath  Chemotherapy  Least common type of NSCLC
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
 Neuro-specific enolase  Chest pain  10-15% of all lung cancer
 Cytokeratin 1a fragment pro-gastrin-  Hemoptysis  Has high tendency to spread to the
releasing peptide  Fever lymph nodes and distant sites
 Weakness
 lethargy
D. Large cell neuroendocrine tumors  Asymptomatic  Chemotherapy  Fastest growing type of NSCLC
 Carcinoembryonic antigen  Nodule/chest pain  Makes up about 2% of lung cancer
 SCCA  Non-specific flu-like diagnoses
 Neuro-specific enolase symptoms
 Cytokeratin 1a fragment pro-gastrin-  Dyspnea
releasing peptide  Night sweats
 Carcinoid syndrome
3. Other types of lung cancer  Less than NSCLC and SCLC
 5-10% of lung cancer
A. Bronchial carcinoids  Cough  Chemotherapy  5% of lung cancers
 Chromogranin A  Wheezing  Radiotherapy  Common in persons under age 40
 5-HIAA  SOB  Unrelated to cigarette smoking
5-Hydroxy-Indol Acetic Acid  Chest pain  Grow and spread more slowly than
(24 hour urine collection) bronchogenic cancer

B. Pleural Mesothelioma  Shortness of breath,  Surgery  A cancer of the lining of organs and
 Calretinin  Chest pain,  Radiation therapy not only can originate in the lungs
 Fluid in the Chest  Chemotherapy but also the abdomen, heart, and
Cavity,  Targeted therapy chest.
 Fever,  immunotherapy  It is associated with exposure to
 Hoarseness, asbestos.
 Difficulty Swallowing,
 Weight Loss,
 Hemoptysis …
C. Adenoid cystic carcinomas  Lump on the palate  Surgery: removal of the tumor  Spread along nerves
 Kearatin  Numbness of the  External-beam radiation therapy  Spreads to the lymph nodes in only
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
 Cytokeratin upper jaw  Neutron and proton radiation about 5-10%
 Epithelial membrane antigen  Difficulty swallowing therapy
 Inhibin  Hoarseness  Chemotherapy
 Dull pain
 Paralysis of a facial
nerve
D. Bronchogenic Carcinoma  Persistent, prolonged  Surgery  Leading cause of cancer death in
 Keratin cough  Radiation therapy men and women in the United
 Cytokeratin  Coughing up blood  Chemotherapy States
 Epithelial membrane antigen  Wheezing and  Targeted therapy  Associated with smoking, air
 Inhibin shortness of breath  Immunotherapy pollution
 Chest pain  The majority who develop these
 Loss of appetite cancer are non-smokers (either
 Hoarseness never smokers or former smokers)
 Unexplained weight
loss
 Fatigue or weakness
 Repeated lung
infections

HEART CANCER
1. Angiosarcoma  Raised, purplish area of skin that  Surgery  Most often occurs in the skin on the
looks lika a bruise that grows - to remove the cancer and head and neck
larger over time preserve functioning of the  Approximately 25% of
 Lesion that may bleed when heart. angiosarcomas are found in deep
scratched/bumped - Complete resection is tissue, and around 8% are found in
 Swelling in the surrounding skin usually not possible for breast tissue
 breathlessness, primary heart cancers.  Occurs in men and women of all
 chest pain, or - Heart transplantation may races and they are in children
 fluid on the lung (pleural effusion) be an option in selected  Also known as lymphedema
cases  usually located in the right upper
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
 Radiation therapy chamber of the heart
2. Rhabdomyosarcoma  Headache  Chemotherapy  the second most common type of
 Myo D1  Bulging/swelling of the eyes primary cardiac cancer in adults and
 Muscle specific actin (MSA)  Bleeding in the nose, throat or  Dietary advice to the most common heart cancer in
ears maintain nutritional children.
status of patient
 Trouble urinating and
haematuria
 Palliative care to
 Difficulty with bowel improve symptoms in
movements serious conditions
 A mass or bleeding in the vagina
or rectum  Physical therapy to
 Swelling/ lump in the arm/leg improve strength,
stamina and functional
ability
3. Fibrosarcoma of the heart  Hemoptysis  open heart surgery  can occur as soft tissue mass or as a
 Vimentin  HR problems  heart transplant primary or secondary bone tumors
 Upper facial congestion  autotransplantaion  rare tumor with an incidence of only
 Fever around 3% within the group of
 Weight loss malignant cardiac tumors
 Night sweats
 malaise
4. Cardiac Liposarcoma  New lump anywhere on the  Surgical removal of the  Often, no symptoms occur
 Vimentin body tumor  Develops in fatty tissue
 Painful swelling or numbness in  Radiation therapy  More common in males
the area around the lump  Chemotherapy  Found in only 1% of primary
 Blood in the stool malignant tumors
 Blood in vomitus  Progresses very slowly and there is
little evidence of metastasis
5. Leiomyosarcoma  Lump or swelling  Radiotherapy after surgery  Develop in muscle, fat, blood vessel
 Vimentin  Abdominal discomfort  Chemotherapy  Most common in adults and women
 Swelling/pain to any part of the  Surgery  Common place: uterus, trunk, arms
Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
body and legs
 Bleeding in the vagina that had  Rare type of connective tissue
menopause cancer, accounting for 5-10% of all
 Chest pain sort tissue sarcoma
 Lung congestion  Mostly observed to form in the left
 Breathing difficulties atrium
6. Cardiac myxosarcoma  Lump/swelling  Surgery  Very rare, high-grade malignancy of
 Vimentin  Abdominal bloating  Chemotherapy the heart
 Swelling in the limbs  Radiation therapy  Seen in individuals between 20-80
 Lung congestion years of age
 Blockage of pulmonary vein  Both males and females are affected
 Chest pain
 Breathing difficulty
 Blood in cough
 Dizziness
 fainting
7. Cardiac Osteosarcoma  Pain in the affected limb  Radiation therapy  Rare aggressive neoplasm that can
 Vimentin  Muscle soreness  Chemotherapy be difficult to diagnose
 “growing pains”  Removal of tumor  No known cause
 Chet pain
 Cough
 Dyspnea
 Right ventricular outflow tract
obstruction

References:

Sozzi G, Conte D, Leon M, et al. Quantification of free circulating DNA as a diagnostic marker in lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21:3902-3908.
Tumor Markers. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/diagnosis/tumor-markers-fact-sheet#q4

Patient Guide to Tumor Markers | OncoLink. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.oncolink.org/cancer-treatment/procedures-diagnostic-tests/blood-tests-


Group Members:
Mata, John Paulo
Dagdag, Erica
Libron, Kirsten Gweneth
Nisperos, Gemma
Palod, Christine
Wooden, June Virlin
tumor-diagnostic-tests/patient-guide-to-tumor-markers

Types of lung cancer. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/lung-cancer/stages-types-grades/types

Mesothelioma. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.curemeso.org/understanding-mesothelioma/mesothelioma-diagnosis/

Iliades, C. (2018). 5 Most Common Cancers in Men. Retrieved from https://www.everydayhealth.com/mens-health/most-common-cancers-in-men.aspx

Webmd.(2018). Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Retrieved from webmd.com

MYMC.(2018).Lung cancer: Large cell carcinoma of the lung. Retrieved from www.myvmc.com

Wu, R. (2018). Lung tumor. Retrieved from www.pathologyoutlines.com