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Exam 1 Review Questions and Answers
1. The Earth exchanges energy and mass with the rest of the cosmos. 2. The age of the Earth is estimated to be approximately 4.6 billion years old. 3. The Scientific Method includes: a. Refining a question and posing an answer in the form of a hypothesis. b. Gathering data in the field and lab c. Testing Hypothesis d. Forming a Theory based on the conclusion. 4. According to the principle of uniformitarianism, the present is the key to the past (James Hutton) 5. The Earth s magnetic field is generated in the geodynamo system. 6. The Earth s climate system involves interactions between the atmosphere and the cryosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. 7. The Earth has 3 layers based on chemical properties. 8. The Earth has 5 layers based on physical properties. 9. The three major Geosystems are the climate system, geodynamo system, and plate tectonic system. 10. Eratosthenes was the early scientist credited with measuring the size of the Earth based upon its circumference. 11. Oxygen is one of the eight elements that make up 99% of Earth s mass, that decreases with depth into the interior. 12. There have been five mass extinction events in geologic time. 13. Pangaea began to break up approximately 200 million years ago. 14. Alfred Wegener proposed the theory of continental drift. 15. Wegener was not taken seriously because Wegener was unable to provide solid evidence of a mechanism that could move continents. (Mantle Convection). 16. Harry Hess is credited with recognizing seafloor spreading. 17. Convergent plate boundaries have three different types. a. Oceanic Oceanic i. Subduction occurs. Older, Heavier ones are subducted ii. Creates deep ocean trenches and island arc volcanoes. b. Continental Continental i. (Mountain Building c. Oceanic Continental i. Continent overrides ii. Continents rimmed by volcanoes
37. Granite and Rhyolite Igneous Rocks that are light in color and have high silica content are felsic. Agents of Metamorphism include: a. 40. The dominant type of bonding in minerals is ionic bonding The most common rock forming minerals are the silicates. 38. The main difference between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks is where they solidify. The most abundant igneous rock of the crust is basalt. Minerals are: a. 21. Crystalline Structures c. Solid b. 32. 45. 22. Sedimentary Rocks are classified as either siliclastic or chemical. Increased temperature c. Modern seafloor spreading rates average about 5 centimeters per year. Pairs of intrusive and extrusive rocks with the same chemical composition: a. The identity of a rock is dependent on its mineralogy (chemical composition) and texture. 41. The oldest rocks on the ocean floor are about 180 million years old. On the Mohs Hardness Scale. a. Crust is destroyed or recycled at convergent plate boundaries. Calcite and Dolomite are carbonates. 20. Chemically Active Fluids Magma is molten rock below Earth s surface. 19. Talc 1 b. 31. 29. The Andes Mountains were created by oceanic-continental convergent plate boundary. Mantle Convection drives plate tectonics. 39. 30. 34. Naturally Occurring d. 25. 44. 23.18. Gabbro and Basalt b. Color is the least reliable physical property used for identifying a mineral. 28. Mid Ocean Ridges occur at divergent plate boundaries. 35. The presence of water will decrease the melting temperature of a rock. . (Lava is above). 36. 27. 43. Inorganic An Isotope is the name for atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. 42. The strongest type of bonding in minerals is covalent bonding. 26. 33. Diamond 10 Ore deposits that are formed when minerals are concentrated by the mechanical sorting action of river currents are Placer deposits. 24. Quartz has a hardness of 7. Specific Chemical Composition e. New ocean crust is created at divergent plate boundaries. Slow cooling rates result in large crystal sizes. Increased Pressure b. Luster is how the surface of the mineral reflects light. The Hawaiian Islands and Yellowstone were created by hot spot volcanism.
ranging in depths of about 40 km to 2900 km. At Convergent Boundaries. 13. 12. 50. Plutons are large igneous bodies that form at depth in the Earth s crust. 14. The Mantle is the region that forms the main bulk of the solid Earth. between the crust and the core. 48. 4. biosphere. This Topography is measure with respect to the sea level. The smooth curvature of the Earth s surface is disturbed by changes in the ground elevation. and lithosphere. 10. Seismic Waves illuminate the interior and can be recorded on seismometers. 8. The Asthenosphere is the weak layer of soft but solid rock comprising the lower part of the upper mantle (below the lithosphere) and over which the plates slide. . 15. James Hutton advanced a historic principle of geology that can be summarized as the present is the key to the past. plates move apart and new lithosphere is created (plate area increases).46. is a general plan based on methodical observations and experiments. Sheet like. Boundaries where plates slide past each other. 9. taken together constitute the Earth System. Alfred Wegener postulated a supercontinent. Magmatic Differentiation is a process by which rocks of varying composition can arise from uniform parent magma due to the face that different minerals crystallize at different temperatures. The Scientific Method. All parts of our planet and their interactions. The Lithosphere includes the crust and the top part of the mantle down to an average depth of about 100 km. cryosphere. 5. 7. sensitive instruments that allow geologists to make pictures of the Earth. 2. 6. on which all scientists rely. 3. 49. plates come together and one is recycled back into the mantle (plate area decreases). Batholiths are the largest forms of igneous intrusions. Hutton s concept became known as Uniformitarianism. a. The Climate System includes all the Earth system components that determine the climate on a global scale and how climate changes with time and is influenced by the hydrosphere. Quiz #1 Questions and Answers 1. At Divergent boundaries. which he called Pangaea. Based on the name Gods of the Underworld 47. lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed are called transform fault boundaries. Obsidian is the quickest cooling igneous rock. The global geosystem that involves interactions that produce a magnetic field deep inside the Earth in its fluid outer core is the Geodynamo. The theory of Plate Tectonics describes the movement of plates and the forces acting between them. 11. concordant igneous bodies formed by the injection of magma between parallel layers of preexisting bedded rocks are Sills. that broke up into the continents as we know them today.
The predominant rock found around the UTSA campus is the chemical sedimentary rock limestone. Convection is a mechanism of heat transfer in which a heated fluid expands and rises because it has become less dense than the surrounding material. The three basic sedimentary rock types are a. The three major types of sedimentary environments are a. Ripples b. The study of sedimentary rocks help geoscientists determine a. Bioturbation d. 2. A type of narrow. it itself heated. Conglomerate Sandstone Shale 8. In decreasing particle size a. 4. Chemical c. Sedimentary processes take place at or near the surface of the Earth. 11. Colder material flows in to take the place of the hot rising fluid. Exam 2 Review Questions and Answers 1. 19. Ancient ocean environments b. and oceanic-continental.16. continental continental. Coal is a biological rock. Biological 3. Sedimentary Structures include a. Shoreline c. Siliciclastic b. where huge volcanoes are forming in the middle of plates. Graded Bedding 6. 17. and then rises to continue the cycle. 10. The Velocity at which one plate moves relative to another is called Relative Plate Velocity. such as Hawaii. Convergent plate boundaries consist of three types: oceanic-oceanic. Geodesy is the ancient science of measuring the shape of the Earth and locating points in its surface. Cross bedding c. localized volcanism (hotspots). 12. The general processes by which rocks are broken down at Earth s surface to produce sediment particles is called Weathering. Former plate tectonic activity . jet-like upwelling of magma is called a Mantle Plume. Siliciclastic rocks are classified according to grain size. 20. Marine 5. 9. The best evidence for these comes from regions of intense. Limestone can be both of chemical and biological origin. Continental b. 18. Siltstone is an example of a fine grained Siliciclastic sedimentary rock 7.
Granoblastic rock is composed mainly of crystals that grow in equant shapes sucks as cues and spheres. 21. Metamorphic Grades (HIGH TO LOW) a. Phyllite d. Measuring strike and dip c. 23. Migmatite b. Foliated is the most prominent textural feature of regionally metamorphosed rock. 17. 22. Regional c. Different types of metamorphism are likely to occur in all boundaries and plate interiors. Schist d. Chemically Active Fluids Types of metamorphism include a. 24. 14. Limestone Marble c. Schist e. Examine outcrop formations b. Shale Slate Migmatite is a rock that is gradational between igneous and metamorphic rock. Shock b. History of climate change Agents of Metamorphism include a. Slate c. Slate f. 20. Contact Contact Metamorphism affects a thin band of country rock around magma and molten rock occurring at high temperatures. Gneiss f. Shale Regional Metamorphism results from continental plate collision and mountain building. 26. c. Sandstone Quartzite b.13. Techniques for mapping geologic structures a. 18. 25. Metamorphic grades of Shale with increasing metamorphic grade a. Garnet is the mineral most commonly used to determine a metamorphic P-T path. Pressure c. 19. Shock Metamorphism is what you would expect to see in the rocks at a meteorite impact site. 16. 15. Heat b. Shale b. Migmatite Metamorphic Parent rock pairings a. a set of flat or wavy parallel planes produced by deformation. Phyllite e. Creating geologic maps and cross sections . Gneiss c.
42. 32. Examples of Principal Stratigraphy include a. Thrust faults A Normal Fault is characterized by rocks above the fault plane moving downward. Eons b. Epochs Periods of time (Smallest to Largest) a. 33. Faunal Succession The rate of radioactive decay is measured by the isotopes half-life. A low angle reverse fault is known as a thrust fault. 36. Dip slip faults include a. 47. . Original horizontality b. 46. A diagram representing a vertical slice through the Earth s crust is called a geologic cross section. 28. Reverse faults c. Eons The study of layers in sedimentary rock is known as stratigraphy. Periods d. 44.27. The most typical types of folds are anticlines and synclines. 39. 40. 45. 41. A Joint is a term for a crack along which no appreciable movement has ovvured. Fossils c. Normal faults b. Shearing forces dominate transform fault boundaries. 38. Compressive forces dominate convergent boundaries. 35. 37. 34. Stratigraphy Fossils are common in sedimentary rocks. Eras c. An unconformity is a gap in the geological record The geologic time scale represents approximately 12% of Earth s history. Periods d. 31. Cross Cutting Relationships b. Oil is commonly trapped in structural domes. relative to the rocks below the fault plane. 30. An undeformed sedimentary layer is older than the layer above and younger than the layer below. Things used to determine relative ages in a rock sequence a. the time required for one half of the life of the original number of parent atoms to transform into daughter atoms. 29. Tensional forces dominate divergent boundaries. 43. Superposition c. The oldest rocks on a dome are exposed in the center. Periods of time (Largest to Smallest) a. Epochs b. Eras c.
After sediments are deposited and buried. called Contact Metamorphism. Chemical Weathering occurs when the minerals in a rock are chemically altered or dissolved. Includes deep sea. which determines the kinds of currents present. deserts. 8. The most prominent textural feature of regionally metamorphosed rocks is Foliation. and glacial environments. is often associated with mid ocean ridges. tides.48. Sequence Stratigraphy is the geologic correlation of sedimentary rock bounded by unconformities. Biological Sediments also form neat their place of deposition but are the result of mineral precipitation within organisms as they grow. 7. and river currents on sandy shores. 4. Continental Environments are diverse sedimentary environments owing to the wide range of temperature and rainfall on the surface of the land. 9. Includes lakes. Examples include bedding. . Seafloor Metamorphism. beach. they are subject to Diagenesis the many physical and chemical changes that continue until the sediment or sedimentary rock is either exposed to weathering or metamorphosed by heat and pressure. ripples. and tidal flat environments. continental shelf. 13. Marine Environments are usually classified on the basis of water depth. The Largest mass extinction took place at the end of the Permian Period. Regional Metamorphism. alluvial. the most widespread type. Quiz #2 Questions and Answers 1. Physical Weathering takes place when solid rock is fragmented by mechanical processes that do not change its chemical composition. and the history of these changes is called the Metamorphic P-T path. 14. Orogeny means mountain making . or metasomatism. 2. Radiometric Dating is useful for dating all types of rocks. This type of localized transformation. Metamorphism generally is characterized by changing conditions of pressure and temperature. often with accompanying magmatic activities. Chemical Sediments form at or near their place of deposition. 49. Includes delta. 12. 16. particularly by the folding and thrusting of rock layers. The great majorities of clastic sediments are produced by the weathering of rocks composed largely of silicate minerals and is called Siliclastic Sediments. The heat from igneous intrusions metamorphoses the immediately surrounding rock. 15. a set of flat or wavy parallel planes produced by deformation. normally affects only a thin region of country rock along the contact. usually from seawater. takes place where both high temperature and high pressure are imposed over large parts of the crust. 6. 5. cross-bedding. 10. and bioturbation structures. 50. organic reefs and continental margins/slope environments. 3. Sedimentary Structures include all kinds of features formed at the time of deposition. 11. Shoreline Environments are dominated y the dynamics of waves.
Volcanic Domes have a rounded. but through large. Exam 3 Review Questions and Answers 1. 3. 6. The epicenter is the geographic point on Earth s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake. 4. To classify a caldera the crater of the volcano must be at least 1 km in diameter. Andesitic f. High temperature lavas are less viscous than low temperature laves c. The primary gas emitted by volcanoes is water vapor. 20. nearly vertical cracks in the Earth s surface called fissure eruptions. steep sided mass of Rhyoletic rock and has lava so thick that it is squeezed out of the volcano like toothpaste from the tube. Volcanic Hazards include a. 18. Basaltic Highest Temp Lowest Silica/Viscosity e. the more violent the eruption d. such as cubes and spheres. b. Granoblastic Rocks are composed mainly of crystals that grow in equant shapes. The Elastic Rebound Theory describes the build up and release of stress during an earthquake. Lava a. 12. 11. high pressure and ultra high pressure metamorphism. The largest eruptions do not come from a central volcano. Flank collapse c. Seafloor metamorphism and contact metamorphism around intruding plutons are found at Divergent plate margins. The more gas a lava contains. is an example of hot spot volcanism. Metamorphic Facies are grouping of rocks of various mineral compositions formed under different grades of metamorphism from different parent rocks. in Wyoming. Most of the world s active volcanoes are located around the edge of the Pacific Ocean.Lowest Temp Highest Silica/Viscosity 2. Lahars b. and contact metamorphism around intruding plutons is found at Convergent plate margins. 15. Regional metamorphism. Eruption Clouds 14. Pyroclasts are solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air. 9. . Shield Volcanoes are the largest of the volcanoes. 10. Yellowstone. 7. 13. Caldera Collapse d. Rhyoletic . 19.17. Volcanism is associated with all boundaries EXCEPT Transform Faults. 8. Stratovolcanoes emit alternating layers of pyroclastic materials and lava flows 5. The eruption of vast quantities of super heated steam is a phreatic explosion. The viscosity of lava decreases as the silica content decreases.
Earthquakes can be caused by normal. 25. (Subjective). Order of arriving seismic waves a. The most recent ice age occurred during the Pleistocene Epoch. 22. 35. Magnitude 8 earthquake has (32 x 32 = 1024) about 1000 times more energy released than a magnitude 6 earthquake on the Richter. Atmosphere d. the surface would be approximately 33o C cooler 30. reverse. and strike slip faulting. 36. The intensity of the groundshaking c. The Richter Scale measures the amount of energy released by multiplying 32 with each number going up 1-10. El Nino events occur every 5 years. Residence times of chemical elements in the Atmosphere are usually shorter than in the oceans. 32. 23. When tensional forces act on a fault plane they produce normal faulting. 19. 33. The Engineering of the building b. The burning of fossil fuels has dramatically changed the carbon cycle over the past 150 years. P Waves b. The Climate Systems Main Components a. Whether a building will withstand ground shaking during an earthquake depends on a. 26. 20.16. 21. 24. Cryosphere c. Fires that break out following an earthquake event are considered secondary hazards. The worlds largest earthquakes occur at Convergent Boundaries. Carbon Dioxide concentrations have increased since the start of the Industrial Revolution. 29. Three seismic stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. S Waves c. 18. Hydrosphere b. Photosynthesis and Respiration in the terrestrial biosphere removes the most carbon from the atmosphere. 27. A real time earthquake warning system could provide about 1 minutes of warning before destructive seismic waves arrive. 37. Lithosphere and Biosphere 28. . The lowermost layer of the Earth s Atmosphere is called the Troposphere. 34. It takes about a month for a parcel of air to circle the globe. Surface Waves cause the most building damage. a. The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale is a type of earthquake intensity scale divided into Roman Numerals I-XII and is based on the damaged observed. Surface Waves 17. The material the building was built on. The process by whereby warm water from equatorial regions is moved to more polar regions in the ocean basins Is called Thermohaline circulation. The Earth s albedo is the fraction of solar energy reflected by the Surface 31. 38. If the Earth s surface did not contain green house gases.
39. 49. 45. Telephone poles that lean slightly downhill are a likely result of creep. 46. 42. The Steepness and stability of slopes Damp Sand would be the best type of sand to build a sand castle Mass movements are classified by a. Limestone would be most affected by chemical weathering Physical Weathering example is the splitting of a rock by a tree root. Time Influences in mass movements a. Organisms d. In hot and humid climates. Occur when the force of gravity exceeds the strength of the slope material b. Nature of slope material b. 47. The accumulation of rocks at the base of a cliff is called Talus. chemical weathering will be most rapid. Bedrock Composition b. Climate and Topography c. 40. 48. Can be triggered by earthquakes and floods c. 41. Can move down a slope very slowly or as a sudden catastrophic large movement. Amount of water in the materials c. . Important Factors in Soil Formation a. Nature of the movement Rock falls (free falling rocks) have the fastest velocity Rock avalanches are typically cause by earthquake activity. Nature of the material b. Velocity of the movement c. 43. Mass Movements a. 50. 44.
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