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500 common business verbs

by Andrew D. Miles
Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007
500
Business
Verbs
Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, Barcelona, 2007.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication


may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form without
written authorization from the author.

Cover photograph by Andrew D. Miles

www.barcelonaenglish.com
www.madridenglish.com
www.englishphone.biz

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


amortize or amortise amortizar,
A depreciar
amount sumar
abandon abandonar analyse analizar

abate 1. suprimir 2. rebajar announce anunciar


appeal apelar
abrogate revocar, rescindir
appoint designar, nombrar
absorb absorber apportion asignar, repartir,
prorratear
accelerate acelerar, adelantar
appraise 1. tasar, valorar, valuar
accept aceptar 2. evaluar 3. peritar

accrue 1. acumular 2. devengar, appreciate apreciar, valorizar


periodificar approve aprobar
accumulate acumular arrange compaginar, organizar,
acquire adquirir ordenar
add 1. sumar 2. agregar assign asignar, adjudicar, traspasar
adjourn retrasar, aplazar attach 1. adjuntar, anexar
2. embargar, incautar, decomisar
adjust 1. ajustar 2. liquidar
attend asistir, atender
administer administrar, gestionar,
dirigir attest certificar, atestar
administrate administrar, gestionar, authenticate autentificar,
dirigir autenticar, refrendar
advertise anunciar, publicitar authorize or authorise autorizar,
habilitar, acreditar
advise 1. asesorar, aconsejar
2. avisar automate automatizar, sistematizar
affiliate afiliar award 1. adjudicar 2. conceder,
otorgar
age clasificar según antigüedad,
anticuar
agree acordar, pactar, convenir
B
aid ayudar, subvencionar
allocate asignar, afectar, distribuir back respaldar
allot asignar, dotar back up 1. hacer copias de
allow 1. permitir 2. reservar seguridad 2. respaldar
3. descontar balance balancear, cuadrar,
alter alterar saldar

amalgamate fusionar, amalgamar bargain 1. regatear 2. pactar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


barter permutar, canjear catalogue or catalog catalogar
bear devengar, rendir, producir, centralize or centralise centralizar
redituar certify certificar
benefit beneficiar change cambiar
bequeath legar cheapen abaratar
berth atracar amarrar claim reclamar, demandar
bid ofrecer, pujar (en una classify clasificar
licitación, concurso, subasta, etc.)
close cerrar, cesar, clausurar
bill facturar
coadministrate coadministrar
block bloquear, congelar,
code codificar
inmovilizar
codify codificar
board embarcar
coin acuñar
bond caucionar
coinsure coasegurar
book 1. reservar 2. asentar
collect cobrar, recaudar
bottle embotellar
collocate colocar
boycott boicotear
comanage coadministrar, codirigir
break even 1. llegar al punto de
equilibrio 2. estar en una situación combine combinar, consolidar,
en que los gastos son iguales que mancomunar
los ingresos commercialize or commercialise
break up 1. separar, dividir comercializar
2. desguazar
commission comisionar, dar en
bribe sobornar comisión, encargar
budget presupuestar communicate comunicar
buy comprar compensate 1. compensar
2. indemnizar

compete competir
C complain quejarse, reclamar
compound combinar
calculate calcular
compute computar, calcular
call llamar, convocar
conceal ocultar
cancel cancelar, anular, rescindir
condone condonar
cannibalize or cannibalise
canibalizar confiscate confiscar, decomisar,
comisar, incautar
capitalize or capitalise capitalizar
conform conformar, aprobar,
carry transportar autorizar
cast 1. fundir 2. colar, vaciar consign consignar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


consolidate consolidar, fusionar defalcate desfalcar
consume consumir defer diferir, aplazar
contract contratar deflate deflactar
deforest deforestar
contribute contribuir, aportar
defraud defraudar, estafar
control controlar
delay retrasar, atrasar
convey 1. transportar 2. transferir,
traspasar delegate delegar
coordinate coordinar delete borrar
copy copiar deliver remitir, enviar, expedir,
despachar
corner monopolizar, acaparar
demonetize or demonetise
cost costar, valer
desmonetizar
counsel asesorar, aconsejar
demote degradar
count contar, arquear
denationalize or denationalise
counterbid contraofertar desnacionalizar
counteroffer contraofertar deplete agotar
credit abonar, acreditar, imputar, deregulate liberalizar, desregular
registrar en el haber
derive derivar
cumulate acumular
design diseñar
customize or customise personalizar
devaluate devaluar
cut cortar, rebajar
devalue devaluar, desvalorizar
deviate desviar
D digitalize or digitalise digitalizar
digitize or digitise digitalizar
damage dañar, averiar dilute diluir
date 1. fechar, poner fecha, datar diminish disminuir, mermar,
2. citar decrecer
deal traficar, tratar, comerciar direct dirigir, administrar
decapitalize or decapitalise disburse desembolsar
descapitalizar
disconnect desconectar
decentralize or desentralise
descentralizar dismiss despedir

decide decidir display exhibir, mostrar

declare declarar dispossess desahuciar, desalojar

decode descifrar, descodificar dissolve disolver, liquidar

decree decretar distribute distribuir, repartir


divest desinvertir

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


dock atracar exchange cambiar, intercambiar
document documentar execute ejecutar
draft 1. realizar en borrador, hacer exhibit exhibir, exponer
un esquema 2. delinear, dibujar
expand expandir
draw 1. dibujar 2. girar, librar 3. retirar
expire 1. caducar 2. vencer,
4. devengar, producir
prescribir
exploit explotar
E expose exponer
expropriate expropiar
earn 1. ganar, percibir 2. devengar, extend 1. extender, ampliar
producir 2. conceder

economize or economise extract extraer, resumir


economizar, ahorrar
extrapolate extrapolar
edit corregir un texto, redactar
embargo embargar
employ emplear F
empower delegar poder,
conceder poder, facultar, fabricate fabricar
capacitar, potenciar, habilitar fail 1. fracasar, fallar 2. quebrar
enclose adjuntar fall bajar, caer
encode cifrar, codificar fall behind atrasarse.
encumber gravar, afectar fall due vencer
endorse endosar, avalar, respaldar file archivar
enlarge ampliar finance financiar
enrol or enroll 1. v.t. inscribir, fine multar
matricular, registrar 2. v.i. inscribirse,
matricularse, registrarse. fire despedir

enter registrar, asentar, apuntar, flop fallar, fracasar


inscribir flow fluir
erase borrar fluctuate fluctuar, variar
erode erosionar fold 1. cerrar o cesar operaciones
establish establecer 2. plegar, doblar

estimate presupuestar, tasar, foreclose ejecutar


valorar, estimar forge falsificar
evade evadir found 1. fundar 2. fundir
evaluate evaluar fragment fragmentar
examine examinar, revisar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


franchise dar en concesión o
indemnify indemnizar, compensar
franquicia, franquiciar
index indexar
free liberar
indorse endosar.
freeze bloquear, inmovilizar,
congelar industrialize or industrialise
industrializar
function funcionar
inflate inflar
inform informar
G inherit heredar
inject inyectar
gain 1. incrementar, aumentar
2. beneficiarse
input ingresar

graduate 1. v.t. graduar


2. v.t. escalonar 3. v.i. graduarse,
recibirse, licenciarse, obtener el
J
título universitario
join 1. v.i. incorporarse, asociarse,
grant 1. otorgar, conceder 2. donar
unirse, hacerse socio, afiliarse
grow crecer 2. v.t. unir, juntar

guarantee garantizar, avalar


guard custodiar, cuidar, vigilar
K
key teclear
H
harvest cosechar
L
hedge proteger, cubrir
label etiquetar, rotular
help ayudar
labour or labor 1. trabajar, laborar
highlight resaltar, destacar
land 1. aterrizar 2. desembarcar
hoard acaparar, acopiar
lapse prescribir, vencer, caducar
hold tener, poseer
launch lanzar
hypothecate hipotecar, pignorar
launder blanquear, lavar, hacer
aflorar

I lead liderar, dirigir


legalize or legalise legalizar

import importar lend prestar

impose imponer let arrendar, alquilar

increase aumentar, incrementar limit limitar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


navigate navegar
link enlazar, vincular
negotiate negociar
liquidate liquidar
nominate nominar, nombrar,
load cargar
designar
loan prestar
note anotar, apuntar
log registrar
notice avisar, notificar
lose perder
notify notificar
nullify anular, invalidar
M
maintain mantener
O
make hacer
object oponerse, objetar
manage gestionar, administrar,
occupy ocupar
dirigir
offer ofrecer, ofertar
manufacture fabricar,
manufacturar offset balancear, compensar
mark 1. marcar 2. poner nota, offshore| deslocalizar
calificar
open abrir
mature vencer, caducar
operate operar
measure. medir
optimize or optimise optimizar
merchandise comercializar
organize or organise organizar
merge fusionar, consolidar,
outlay desembolsar
amalgamar
overcapitalize or overcapitalise
mint acuñar
sobrecapitalizar
misappropriate malversar
overdraw girar en descubierto,
mix mezclar sobregirar
monopolize or monopolise overload sobrecargar
monopolizar
overproduce sobreproducir
mortgage hipotecar
overstate sobretasar, sobrevalorar
multiply multiplicar
overtrade comprar o vender en
demasía, comprometerse a
comprar o vender más de lo que
N se puede afrontar
overvaluate sobrevaluar
name nombrar, nominar, designar overvalue sobrevalorar,
nationalize or nationalise sobrevaluar, sobretasar
nacionalizar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


2. preestrenar, avanzar
P print imprimir
private privado, particular
pack 1. empaquetar, embalar
2. envasar
privatize or privatise privatizar

participate participar process procesar

pass 1. v.i. aprobar 2. v.t. transferir, procure comprar, adquirir, obtener


pasar produce 1. producir 2. redituar,
pawn empeñar rendir, devengar

pay back devolver, reembolsar profit ganar, beneficiarse.

pay in 1. pagar, desembolsar 2. program or programme programar


depositar, ingresar promote 1. promover, fomentar,
pay out pagar, desembolsar promocionar 2. ascender,
promocionar
pay up pagar una deuda, pagar
por completo, cancelar prorate prorratear

pension jubilar protest protestar

perform rendir, desempeñarse, publish publicar


funcionar, actuar purchase comprar
place colocar, posicionar purvey suministrar, proveer
plan planificar
plough back or plow back reinvertir
plough into or plow into invertir
Q
polish pulir quote 1. cotizar 2. ofertar,
poll sondear, encuestar presupuestar
pollute contaminar
position posicionar, colocar
R
possess poseer
post 1. enviar por correo 2. asentar, raise 1. aumentar, incrementar
registrar 3. anunciar, publicar 2. recaudar

postpone posponer, prorrogar, rate 1. calificar, evaluar 2. tasar,


aplazar valorar
power propulsar rationalize or rationalise racionalizar
prefabricate prefabricar reacquire readquirir, recomprar
prefinance prefinanciar readjust reajustar
preliminary preliminar recapitalize or recapitalise
prescribe prescribir recapitalizar

preview 1. ver previamente reconcile conciliar, reconciliar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


record 1. registrar, asentar 2. grabar restate 1. redefinir 2. tasar o valorar
de nuevo, actualizar
recover recuperar, rescatar
restrict restringir
recruit reclutar, contratar
restructure reestructurar, reconvertir
recycle reciclar
result resultar
redeploy reubicar, recolocar
retain retener
rediscount redescontar
revaluate revaluar
reduce reducir, rebajar
revalue revaluar
reexport reexportar
reverse invertir, revertir
refinance refinanciar
revise revisar
reimburse reintegrar, reembolsar
revoke revocar
reimport reimportar
rise aumentar, incrementar, alzar
reinsure reasegurar
risk arriesgar
release 1. liberar 2. estrenar, lanzar
robotize or robotise instalar robots,
relocate reubicar, recolocar robotizar
remit remitir, remesar rotate rotar, girar
remunerate remunerar round off redondear
render rendir, presentar, exponer rule dictaminar, fallar
renegotiate renegociar run 1. v.t. dirigir, administrar,
gestionar, manejar 2. v.t. poner en
renew renovar funcionamiento, hacer funcionar 3.
reorganize or reorganise reorganizar v.t. ejecutar 4. v.i. funcionar

repay reintegrar, devolver,


reembolsar
replace 1. reemplazar, sustituir
S
2. reponer
save 1. ahorrar, economizar 2. salvar
reply responder
3. guardar
represent representar
schedule planificar, programar,
reproduce reproducir proyectar
reprogram reprogramar seal sellar
repurchase recomprar second secundar

request solicitar, pedir segment segmentar

rescind rescindir segregate segregar, separar

rescue rescatar seize secuestrar, confiscar,


decomisar, embargar, incautar
reserve reservar
sell off liquidar
resign renunciar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


send enviar, remitir subcontract subcontratar
sublease subalquilar, subarrendar
settle 1. acordar, fijar 2. saldar,
liquidar, cancelar sublet subalquilar, subarrendar
settle up saldar cuentas, pagar subscribe suscribir
share participar, compartir subtract restar, deducir
ship remitir, despachar sue demandar
shop comprar sum sumar, totalizar
shorthand taquigrafiar summon convocar, citar, emplazar
show mostrar, exponer, exhibir supervise supervisar
smuggle contrabandear supply abastecer, aprovisionar,
suministrar
sort clasificar
support 1. apoyar, respaldar 2.
specialize or specialise
mantener
especializarse.
surcharge recargar, sobrecargar
speculate especular
survey 1. encuestar 2. relevar,
spend gastar
peritar, reconocer, estudiar
spin hilar
suspend suspender
split dividir
sustain mantener, sostener
sponsor auspiciar, patrocinar,
swap intercambiar
promover
systematize or systematise
square 1. cuadrar 2. elevar al
sistematizar
cuadrado 3. cancelar, saldar
squeeze restringir
stamp 1. sellar, timbrar 2. estampar,
imprimir
T
standardize or standardise tag 1. etiquetar 2. codificar
estandarizar, normalizar
take on contratar
staple grapar, engrapar
tally hacer que algo cuadre, hacer
stock almacenar, tener en que algo concuerde, cuadrar
existencias
tax gravar
stockpile acopiar
telecommute teletrabajar
store almacenar
telephone telefonear
streamline racionalizar
tend tender
strike declararse en huelga, ir a la
huelga, parar terminate terminar, rescindir

structure estructurar test 1. examinar 2. ensayar, probar

study estudiar total totalizar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


totalize or totalise totalizar
trader traficante, comerciante,
W
mercader
traffic traficar
warrant 1. justificar 2. garantizar,
train 1. entrenar, adiestrar 2. instruir, asegurar
formar, capacitar
waste malgastar, desperdiciar
transcribe transcribir
translate 1. traducir 2. convertir 3. watch vigilar, custodiar
trasladar
water diluir
travel viajar
wear 1. v.t. usar 2. v.t. y v.i. desgastar
treat tratar
turn over rotar, girar weigh pesar

type mecanografiar will legar

wind up cerrar, cesar operaciones,


liquidar
U wire telegrafiar

withhold 1. retener 2. denegar


underestimate 1. subvalorar,
infravalorar, calcular por debajo write escribir
del importe real 2. subestimar
underuse infrautilizar write down 1. reducir el valor,
devaluar 2. apuntar, anotar
undervalue subvaluar, subvalorar
write in agregar, incluir
unionize or unionise sindicalizar,
agremiar
unload descargar
update actualizar Y
upload cargar
utilize or utilise usar, usufructuar yield 1. redituar, rendir 2. producir

V Z
validate legalizar, validar
valuate valuar, tasar zone dividir en zonas, zonificar,
calificar
vary variar
veto vetar

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007


Andrew D. Miles is the director of
English for Business Barcelona,
English for Business Madrid
and English Phone

English for Business Barcelona


teaches English lessons to
companies in the
Barcelona area.

English for Business Madrid


teaches English lessons to
companies in the
Madrid area.

English Phone provides lessons


by telephone to students who
want to improve their oral
communication skills

www.barcelonaenglish.com
www.madridenglish.net
www.englishphone.biz

Copyright by Andrew D. Miles, 2007

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