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# 1

## JC 2 H2 Mathematics Preliminary Examination 2010

Paper 1 -- Solutions

1. Let x be the price of high heels, y be the price of facial mask and z be the price of
handbag in dollars.
We have,
5 x + 10 y + 3 z = 1298.20
2 x + 7 y + 8 z = 1158.30
3 x + 15 y + 5 z = 1837.70
Solving, x = 29.9, y = 99.9, z = 49.9
Total cost of gift = 29.90 + 5 × 99.90 + 2 × 49.90 = \$629.20
2. (i)
1+1 2
u 2 = 2 u1 = 2 =
1 (2 − 1)!
2 +1 3 3
u3 = 2 u 2 = =
2 2 (3 − 1)!
3 +1 2 4
u 4 = 2 u3 = =
3 3 (4 − 1)!
4 +1 5 5
u5 = 2 u 4 = =
4 24 (5 − 1)!
n
(ii) Hence, we have the conjecture u n =
(n − 1)!
n
Let Pn be the statement “ u n = for all n ∈ Ν ”.
( n − 1)!

1
Since LHS = u1 = 1 = = RHS , so P1 is true.
(1 − 1)!

k
Assume Pk is true for some k ∈ Ν , i.e. u k =
( k − 1)!

k +1
We want to show that u k +1 = is also true
( k )!

 k + 1
u k +1 =  2 u k
 k 
 k + 1  k 
=  2  
 k   ( k − 1)!
k +1 k +1
= =
k (k − 1)! k!

## So, Pk +1 is true.∴ By mathematical induction, Pn is true for all n ∈ Ν .

2
2
 200 
3. (i) 1st Term, a = π   = 10 000π
 2 
2
3 9
Common ratio, r =   =
 4  16
10 000π
S∞ =
9
1−
16
160 000π
= = 71 808 cm 2 < 72 000 cm 2
7
(ii) Thickness of nth slab, Tn = 50 − (n − 1)d
Last possible slab, Tn = 50 − (n − 1)d > 0
(n − 1)d < 50
50
d<
n −1
50
d< = 3.846
13
Hence, largest integer d = 3.
(iii) Thickness of nth slab, Tn = 50 − 3(n − 1)
 9 
n −1

th

  16  
14 14  9 
n −1

## Total Volume = ∑ Vn = ∑ [53 − 3n]10 000π   

n =1 n =1   16  
3
= 3 313 324 cm
= 3 310 000 cm3 (3 s.f.)

## 4. (i) α = 0.464, β = 5.357

(ii) xn converges ⇒ x n , x n +1 → L so L = ln L2 + 2
so 2 ln L + 2 − L = 0 so L = α or β as above.

2
(iii) x n +1 − x n = ln x n + 2 − x n .
2 2
From graph, if α < x n < β , ln x n + 2 − x n > 0 ⇒ ln x n + 2 > x n ⇒ x n +1 > x n
2 2
Also, if x n < α or x n > β , ln x n + 2 − x n < 0 ⇒ ln x n + 2 < x n ⇒ x n+1 < x n .

## (iv) Since α < 2 < β , x n +1 > x n

hence x n → β = 5.357 .
3
d y ( x − 1)(2ax + 1) − (ax + x)2

5. (i) =
dx (x − 1)2
dy
For stationary points, = 0 ⇒ 2ax 2 + x − 2ax − 1 − ax 2 − x = 0
dx
ax 2 − 2 ax − 1 = 0

## ⇒ (−2a ) 2 − 4(a )(−1) < 0

4 a 2 + 4a < 0

4 a ( a + 1) < 0

−1 < a < 0

ax 2 + x 1+ a
(ii) y= = ax + (1 + a ) +
x −1 x −1
y

Asymptotes: y = ax + (1 + a )
x =1
 1 
 − , 0 Axial Intercepts: (0, 0)
 a  x
(0, 0)  1 
 − , 0
 a 
y = ax + (1 + a)
x =1

## Note: When a = −0.5, the 2 asymptotes will intersect at (1, 0)

[Students will not be penalized if they draw the 2 asymptotes intersecting at (1,0)]
4
2
6. (a)(i) y = f (x) y

x
−2 0 1

− 2

(ii) y = f ′( x ) y

x
−1 0 1

(b) y = 2 x −3
↓ C’

y=
2
2 (
1 x −3
)
= 2 x−4

↓ B’
y = 2 ( x + 4)−4
↓ A’
y = 2−x

7. (i) AB = 2 BP
 5
1 1 
OP = (3 OB – OA ) =  1 
2 2 
 8
5
1 1
   
(ii) Equation of lAB: r =  2  + µ  − 1
1 2
   
0  2 
   
Equation of l: r =  1  + λ  − 1
 2  1 
   
 1 + µ   2λ 
   
If they intersect,  2 − µ  =  1 − λ 
1 + 2 µ   2 + λ 
   
λ = 2, µ = 3
Check by substituting into unused equation, 1 + 6 ≠ 2 + 2
Hence they do not intersect.
 − 2  1 
   
 0  x  − 1
 2  2
    22
(iii) Shortest distance from C to AB = =
6 3
1
1   22
Area of triangle ABC =  − 1 = 11
2  3
2

## 8. (i) (x + 2y)2 + 3(x − y)2 = 27

dy dy
Differentiating wrt x: 2(x + 2y)(1 + 2 ) + 6(x − y)(1 − ) = 0
dx dx
dy dy
⇒ 2(x + 2y) + 4(x + 2y) + 6(x − y) − 6(x − y) =0
dx dx
dy dy
⇒ 2x + 4y + (4x + 8y) + 6x − 6y − (6x − 6y) =0
dx dx
dy
⇒ (− 2x + 14y) + 8x − 2 y = 0
dx
dy − 8x + 2y y − 4x
⇒ = = (shown)
dx − 2x + 14y 7y − x
dy 1 − 4(−2) 9
(ii) At point (−2, 1), gradient of tangent is = = =1
dx 7 − (−2) 9
y−1
Hence, equation of normal at (−2, 1) is =−1
x − (−2)
⇒ y−1=−x−2
⇒ y=−x−1
Plotting y = − x − 1 on a graph,
So P = (− 1, 0) and Q = (0, − 1). P
1 2
Hence, area of triangle OPQ = unit
2 −1 Q
−1
6

dy
(iii) When tangent is parallel to the y-axis, gradient =∝
dx
y − 4x
⇒ =∝
7y − x
⇒ 7y − x =0
⇒ x = 7y
Substituting into equation of the curve,
(7y + 2y)2 + 3(7y − y)2 = 27
⇒ (9y)2 + 3(6y)2 = 27
⇒ 81y2 + 108y2 = 27
27 9 1
⇒ y2 = = =
189 63 7
1
⇒ y =±
7
Substituting into x = 7y, equations of tangents are x = ± 7

## 9. (i) y = ln (1 − sin x) ⇒ ey = 1 − sin x

dy − cos x cos x
Diff wrt x: dx = =− y
1 − sin x e
d y
⇒ ey = − cos x
dx
2
yd y dy dy
Diff wrt x: e dx2 + ey dx dx = sin x
2 2
yd y y dy
⇒ e 2 + e   = 1 − ey
dx dx
2 2
dy dy
⇒ +   = e−y − 1 (shown)
dx2 dx

d3 y dy d2 y −y dy
(ii) Diff wrt x: 3 + 2 2 =−e
dx dx dx dx
When x = 0, y = ln (1 − sin 0) = ln 1 = 0
dy dy
e0 = − cos 0 ⇒ =−1
dx dx
d2 y 2 0 d2 y
+ (−1) = e − 1 ⇒ =−1
dx2 dx2
d3 y 0 d3 y
+ 2 (−1)(−1) = − e (−1) ⇒ 3 = − 1
dx3 dx
−1 2 −1 3
Hence, y = 0 + (−1)x + x + x +…
2! 3!
1 1
= − x − x2 − x3 + …
2 6
7
1 2 1 3
(iii) From part (ii), ln (1 − sin x) = − x −
x − x +…
2 6
− cos x cos x 1
Differentiating wrt x, = = − 1 − x − x2 + …
1 − sin x sin x − 1 2

x2
(iv) If x is small, sin x ≈ x and cos x ≈ 1 −
2
x2
(1 −
)
cos x 2
So, ≈
sin x − 1 x−1
x2
= (1 − )(x − 1)−1
2
x2
= − (1 − )(1 − x)−1
2
x2
= − (1 − )(1 + x + x2 + …)
2
x2
= − (1 − + … + x + … + x2 + …)
2
1
= − 1 − x − x2 + …
2
Expansion valid for |x| < 1

10. 1 2x 1
∫e e sin x − ∫ e 2 x cos x dx
sin x dx =
2x
(a)
2 2
1 1 1 1 
= e 2 x sin x −  e 2 x cos x + ∫ e 2 x sin x dx 
2 2 2 2 
1 2x 1 2x 1 2x
= e sin x − e cos x − ∫ e sin x dx
2 4 4
 1 1  1 
⇒ 1 +  ∫ e 2 x sin x dx = e 2 x  sin x − cos x  + C
 4 2  2 
2  1 
⇒ ∫ e 2 x sin x dx = e 2 x  sin x − cos x  + D
5  2 
10. (b) When t = -π, x = -2π
When t = π, x = 2π

π
Area bounded by C and the x-axis = ∫ π 2(1 − cos t )[2(1 − cos t )] dt

= 4 ∫ (1 − 2 cos t + cos t ) dt
π
2
−π
π  cos 2t + 1 
= 4 ∫ 1 − 2 cos t +  dt
−π
 2 
π
 11 
= 4 t − 2 sin t +  sin 2t + t 
 22   −π
 1  1 
= 4 π + π −  − π − π 
 2  2 
8
= 12π

= 4π sq units

## (c) Point of intersection : (-1.15995, 3.84005)

Volume of solid
3.84005 1
=π∫ ln y dy + π (1.15995) (5 − 3.84005)
2
1 3
= 8.94 cubic units

11. (a)(i)

[k=0]
[k=1]
[k= –1]
[k=2]
[k= –2]
[k= –3]
(ii)
Im(z)

z2
z4

z1
Re(z)
z6
z3

z5

Equation of circle:

11. (b)(i) z − 3 + 2i ≤ − 2 3 + i
z − (3 − 2i ) ≤ 12 + 1
z − (3 − 2i ) ≤ 13
9

(3, -2)

(6, -5)

## Area of shaded region = = =

Catholic Junior College
H2 Mathematics Preliminary Examination 2010
Paper 2 -- Solutions

Section A
1. 2
2 x + 4 x − 70
−1 ≥ 0
x 2 + 4 x − 77
2 x 2 + 4 x − 70 − x 2 − 4 x + 77
≥0
x 2 + 4 x − 77
x2 + 7
≥0
x 2 + 4 x − 77
x2 + 7
≥0
( x + 11)( x − 7)
Since numerator is always positive, we can consider
( x + 11)( x − 7) > 0
x > 7 or x < −11

Substitute x with e x ,
∴ e x > 7 or e x < −11 (N.A.)
∴ x > ln 7 or 1.95 (3 s.f.)

2.  1  2   2 
     
(a)(i) Normal of p1 = 1 x  − 1 =  1 
 1  1   − 3 
     
 − 1
 
Direction of l1 =  1 
1
 
  2   − 1 
    
  1 . 1  
  − 3  1  
Angle between l1 and normal of p1 = cos −1    
 = 128.1
o

 (4 + 1 + 9)(1 + 1 + 1) 
 
 
 
o o o
Hence angle between l1 and p1 = 128.1 – 90 = 38.1

 3.75   4 
    4 x − 15 5
(ii)  0  and  − 0.5  are two points on the line = y; z=
 2 .5   2 .5  − 2 2
   
Substituting each point into equation of plane,
3.75α + 2.5β = 1 …. (1)

1
3.25α + 2.5β = 0 …. (2)
α = 2, β = – 2.6

 2
 
Normal of p 3 =  b 
1
 
 − 0 .5 
 
Direction vector of l 2 =  1 
 0 
 
 2   − 0 .5 
  
 b . 1  = 0; b = 1
1  0 
  
Eqn of plane p 4 containing line l 2 is
 2   3.75   2 
    
r.  1  =  0 . 1  = 10
 1   2 .5   1 
    
10 1 3 6
Distance between l 2 and p3 = − =
6 6 2

## 3. (i) Since Rg = ℜ ⊆ Df , fg does not exist.

(ii) fh exists if Rg ⊆ (0, ∞) . Hence ln( x − 3) > 0 ⇒ x > 4 hence least a = 4.
2
fh : x a ln( x − 3) + , for x > 4
ln( x − 3)

(iii)
y
2 y=x
y = x+
x

( 2, 2 2 )

(− 2 , − 2 2 )

Rf = (−∞, − 2 2 ] ∪ [2 2 , ∞)

2
Since the line y = c (candidates should indicate a horizontal line where c > 2 2 or
c < −2 2 ) cuts the graph twice, f is not 1-1 and hence f-1 does not exist.

## Since f-1 exists, for x > k, and f is 1-1 for x > 2 ,

the least value of k = 2 .

dy
4. (a) Since y = x and =1,
dx
x2 + x2
LHS = 1 = = RHS
2 x2
(b) y = ux
dy du
=u+x
dx dx
du x 2 + u 2 x 2
u+x =
dx 2 x (ux )
du 1 + u 2
u+x =
dx 2u
2
du 1 + u
x = −u
dx 2u
du 1 + u 2 − 2u 2
x =
dx 2u
du 1 − u 2
x = ( shown)
dx 2u
2u 1
∫ 1 − u 2 du = ∫ x dx
− 2u 1
∫ 1 − u 2 du = −∫ x dx
ln(1 − u 2 ) = − ln x + C
A
1 − u2 =
x
A
u2 = 1−
x
2
y A
2
=1−
x x
2 2
y = x − Ax
(c)
d 2x
= 4ae − 2t
dt 2
dx
= −2ae − 2t + C
dt
x = ae − 2t + Ct + D

3
Since entire population is wiped out by the disease eventually, as
Hence, C = 0, D = 0.
∴ x = ae −2t
a represents the initial population of the fish (in thousands).

x = 2e −2 t

x = e −2t

Section B
5. (a)(i) No. of ways = 6! = 720
(ii) No. of ways = 26 = 64
(iii) No. of ways = 6 C1 + 6 C 2 + 6 C 3 + 6 C 4 + 6 C 5 + 6 C 6 = 63

## (b) Case 1: Daen and Vera not in the group

No. of ways = 8 C 5 = 56
Case 2: Daen and Vera in the group
No. of ways = 8 C 3 = 56
Case 3: Vera in the group without Daen
No. of ways = 8C 4 = 70
Total no. of ways = 56 + 56 + 70 = 182

4
6. (i)
0.02 Deformed

Supplier A
p
0.98 Not deformed

0.03 Deformed
1–p
Supplier B

## 0.97 Not deformed

1
(ii) p =
3
P(fish-ball is deformed) = 0.02 p + 0.03(1 − p )
0.02 0.03(2)
= +
3 3
0.08
=
3
2
=
75
(iii)
f( p ) = P(supplied by B | it is deformed)
P(supplied by B and is deformed)
=
P(it is deformed)
(1 − p )(0.03)
=
(1 − p )(0.03) + ( p )(0.02)
(1 − p )(3)
=
(1 − p )(3) + ( p )(2)
3(1 − p )
=
3− p
 (−1)(3 − p ) − (−1)(1 − p ) 
f ' ( p ) = 3 
 (3 − p ) 2 
−6
=
(3 − p ) 2
−6
∴ f ' ( p) = 2
< 0 ∀p ∈ [0,1] since (3 − p ) 2 > 0 ∀p ∈ [0,1]
(3 − p )
This means that as a larger proportion of fish-balls are supplied by A, it is less likely
that a randomly chosen deformed fish-ball is supplied by B.

5
7. (i) Let X be the no. of times the particular residential area is flooded in 4 months.
4
∴ X ~ Po  
3
P(X ≥ 2) = 0.3849400 = 0.385

(ii) Let Y be the no. of 4-month periods, out of 12, in which the particular residential
area is flooded at least twice.
P(X ≥ 2) = 0.3849400

∴ Y ~ B(12, 0.3849400)
P(Y ≤ 5) = 0.704

(iii) Let X be the no. of times the particular residential area is flooded in 5 years.
∴ X ~ Po (20 )

## Since λ = 20 > 10,

∴ X ~ N (20,20) approximately

## P(X ≥ 11) = P(X ≥ 10.5)

= 0.983

(iv) Let Y be the no. of years, out of 40, in which there are at most 3 floodings.
∴ Y ~ B(40, 0.433470)

## Since n = 40 > 30, np = 17.3388 > 5, nq = 22.6612 > 5,

Y ~ N(17.3388, 9.82295) approximately

## P(Y ≥ n) < 0.8

⇒ P(Y ≥ n – 0.5) < 0.8
⇒ P(Y ≤ n – 0.5) > 0.2
⇒ n – 0.5 > 14.7010
⇒ n > 15.2010

Least n = 16

8. Let r.v. A be the mass of a snapper fish and r.v. B be the mass of a pomfret fish.
A ~ N(1, 0.12); B ~ N(0.6, 0.052)
(a)(i) A1 + A2 + A3 + B1 +B2 ~ N(4.2, 0.035)
P[A1 + A2 + A3 + B1 +B2 > 4.5] = 0.0544

## (ii) A1 + A2 + A3 – 2B ~ N(1.8, 0.04)

P[A1 + A2 + A3 – 2B > 1.85] = 0.401

## (iii) 12A + 7( B1 +B2) ~ N(20.4, 1.685)

P[12A + 7( B1 +B2) > 21] = 0.322

12(A1 + A2 + …+ An) + 7(B1 +B2 + ….+ B15 – n) ~ N(63 + 7.8n, 1.8375 + 1.3175n)

6
P[12(A1 + A2 + …+ An) + 7(B1 +B2 + ….+ B15 – n) > 150 ] < 0.7.
Largest n = 11

9. (a)
Arts Science Total
Boys 75 320 15
× 30 = 2.81 ≈ 3 × 30 = 12
800 800
Girls 145 260 15
× 30 = 5.4375 ≈ 5 × 30 = 9.75 ≈ 10
800 800
Total 8 22 30

## Alternative strata: by CCA/gender or by class/gender or any other sensible suggestion

(b) ∑ x = 4537, ∑ ( x − x ) 2
= 4825.62
4537 1
µˆ =
50
= 90.74, σˆ 2 =
49
∑ ( x − x ) 2 = 98.48204
98.48204
X ~ N (90.74, ) approx by CLT.
60
P(90 < X < 100) = 0.718
10. (i) Let X be the random variable the length of one random metal rod.
Since sample size n = 8 is small and population variance is unknown,
we assume X is normal and use t-test.

H0 : µ = 14 cm
H1 : µ > 14 cm
At 4% level of significance, reject H0 if p-value < 0.04
− Σx 113.40
x = = = 14.175
n 8
2
2 1 2 (Σ x) 1 113.402 11
s = [Σx − ] = [1607.72 − ]= = 0.0392857143
n−1 n 7 8 280

x − µ0 14.175 − 14
Test-statistic, t = = = 2.497271238
s 0.0392857143
n 8
From GC, t = 2.497271238
p = 0.020578114
Since p-value < 0.04, we reject H0
and conclude that at 4% significance level there is sufficient evidence that the mean
length of the metal rods is more than 14 cm i.e. complaint is valid.
Assume X is normal.

It means that there is a 0.04 probability of wrongly concluding that the mean length of
the metal rods is larger than 14 cm when in fact it is 14 cm.

7
n 9 9
(ii) In this case, s2 = [sample variance] = [0.2002] = 0.045 or
n−1 9-1 200
− −
x − µ0 x − 14
test-statistic, T = =
s 0.045
n 9
Since complaint not valid, do not reject H0, p-value > 0.04

x − 14
⇒ < invT(1 − 0.04,8)
0.045
9

x − 14
⇒ < 2.004151525
0.045
9

⇒ x < 14.14171491

⇒ x < 14.14 (to 2 d.p.)

(ii)

\$5000, y

## (iii) x increases as y increases, but by decreasing amounts. This is consistent with a

model of the form y = a + b ln x .

## (iv) a = -35.4, b = 22.3

8
(v) y = −35.4 + (22.3) ln 84 = 63.4

(vi) Since x does not lie within the data range, extrapolation will make the estimate
unreliable.

9
Dunman High School
2010 Year 6 H2 Mathematics (9740) Preliminary Examination Paper 1
Suggested Solutions

Qn Suggested Solution
1 1− x 1 x
−1

= (1 − x) ×  1 + 
2+ x 2 2
 1 x  x  x  
2

=  −   1 − +   + ... 
 2 2   2  2  

1 1 1 1 1
= − x − x + x 2 + x 2 + ...
2 2 4 4 8
1 3 3 2
= − x + x + ...
2 4 8

x
Valid values of x: < 1 ⇒ −2 < x < 2
2

2 n

## ∑ (2r + 1)(2r + 3) = 3(2n + 3) for n ∈

1 n +
Let Pn be the proposition .
r =1

When n = 1:
1

1 1 1 1 1
LHS =
r =1

## Since LHS = RHS, ∴ P1 is true.

+
Assume Pk is true for some k ∈ ,
k

## ∑ (2r + 1)(2r + 3) = 3(2k + 3) ,

1 k
i.e.
r =1

to prove Pk +1 is true,
k +1

## ∑ (2r + 1)(2r + 3) = 3(2k + 5) .

1 k +1
i.e.
r =1

k +1

∑ (2r + 1)(2r + 3)
1
LHS =
r =1
k

## ∑ (2r + 1)(2r + 3) + (2k + 3)(2k + 5)

1 1
=
r =1

1
k 1
= +
3(2k + 3) (2k + 3)(2k + 5)
k (2k + 5) + 3
=
3(2k + 3)(2k + 5)
2 k 2 + 5k + 3
=
3(2k + 3)(2k + 5)
(2k + 3)(k + 1)
=
3(2k + 3)(2k + 5)
k +1
= = RHS (shown)
3(2k + 5)

∴ Pk is true ⇒ Pk +1 is true

## Since P1 is true, Pk is true ⇒ Pk +1 is true , by mathematical induction, Pn is true

for n ∈ + .
n 1
=
3(2n + 3)  3
3 2 + 
 n
1 1
∴ as n → ∞, →
 3 6
3 2 + 
 n

2
3(i) n2 − 4n + 5 = (n − 2)2 − 4 + 5
= (n − 2)2 + 1
3(ii) N
 2 
∑ n + 1 − n 2 − 4n + 5 
n =3  
N
 2 2 
= ∑  n + 1 − ( n − 2) + 1 
n =3  

= 32 + 1 − 12 + 1

+ 42 + 1 − 22 + 1

+ 52 + 1 − 32 + 1
M M
M M

+ ( N − 2) 2 + 1 − ( N − 4) 2 + 1

+ ( N − 1) 2 + 1 − ( N − 3) 2 + 1

+ N 2 +1 − ( N − 2) 2 + 1

= N 2 + 1 + ( N − 1) 2 + 1 − 5 − 2
3(iii)
N 2 + 1 + ( N − 1) 2 + 1 − 5 − 3

## < N 2 + 2 N + 1 + ( N − 1) 2 + 2( N − 1) + 1 (since N >1)

= ( N + 1) 2 + ( N − 1 + 1) 2
= N +1+ N (since N >0)
= 2N +1
4(i) 0 0 3
Area of R = ∫ y dx = ∫  x 3 + 1 dx =
−1 −1 4
1
y = 1 + x3 ⇒ x = ( y − 1) 3
1 b
b b3 4

Area of S = ∫ x dy = ∫ (y -1) dy = ( y − 1) 3 
3
2 2 4 2
3 4

=  ( b − 1) 3 −1

4 
Equating and solve for b:
3 4
 3
 ( b − 1) 3 −1
 =
4  4
3
⇒ b = 1 + 2 4 = 2. 68 (3 s.f.)
4(ii) 1
For y =b , x = ( b − 1) 3 = 1. 1892 = k (say)

3
Volume required
 2 k

= π b k − 2 (1) − ∫1 ( x + 1) dx 
2 3 2
 
= 3. 53π (or 11.1) (unit cube)

## 5(i) If A, B and C are collinear, then


→ 

AB = λ BC
b − 2  3−b 
   
7 −3  = λ 5− 7
2−a 1 − 2 
   
i.e. λ = −2, a = 0, b = 4
5(ii) 
→ 

If OA is perpendicular to OB , then

→ 

OA OB = 0
 2 b
  
3  7 = 0
 a   2
  
i.e. 2b + 21 + 2a = 0

 2  3
3  5
  
 a  1 
    = cos 60ο
13 + a 2 35
2(6 + 15 + a ) = 13 + a 2 35
31a 2 − 168a − 1309 = 0
a = 10 (nearest int.) or a = −4 (nearest int.)
b = −20 (nearest int.) b = −6 (nearest int.)

His claim is not necessarily true since points O, A, B and C may not be coplanar.

6(a) et 1
∫ ∫ 3e (1 + 3e )
t t −2
t 2
dt = dt
(1 + 3e ) 3

(1 + 3et ) −1 1
= +c = − +c
−3 3(1 + 3et )

4
6(b) 1 2
∫ x3 sec2 ( x 2 ) dx =
2 ∫
x  2 x sec2 ( x 2 )  dx

1 2
x tan ( x 2 ) − 2 x tan ( x 2 ) dx 

d
dx
( )
tan ( x 2 ) = 2 x sec 2 ( x 2 ) =
2 
1
=  x 2 tan ( x 2 ) − ln sec ( x 2 )  + c
2 
6(c) 4

∫ 0
x 2 x − 3 dx
3 4
=−
∫ 0
x 2 ( x − 3) dx +
∫ 3
x 2 ( x − 3) dx
3 4
 x4   x4 
= −  − x3  +  − x3 
4 0  4 3

27
= or 13.5
2
7(i) No. The statement is not always true. It applies only for (polynomial) equation in z
with real coefficients.
7(ii) z 4 + 3+ i = 0 ⇒ z 4 = − 3 − i

 5π 
− i 
4  6 
⇒ z = 2e
1 1 5π 1 (12k −5)π
i ( − + 2 kπ ) i
z=2 4
e4 6 =2 e 4 24
, k = 0,1, 2,3

1 5π 1 7π 1 19π 1 17 π
-i i i -i
∴z = 2 e 4 24 4
or 2 e 24 or 2 e 4 24 or 2 e4 24

7(iii) Im
Z2
Z3
L
Re
O
Z1
Z4 L

## Let the length of each side be L

1
2 2 4 2
Pythagoras Theorem: L = 2|z| =2(2 ) = 2 2

5
8(i) ON = 36 − x 2
1 
A = 2 ×  × (12 + 2 x ) 36 − x 2 
 2 
= 2 ( 6 + x ) 36 − x 2 Q 2x R
N
6 6

P 6 • 6 S
O

U 2x T

8(ii) dA  1  2x 
= 2 36 − x 2 + 2 ( 6 + x )    − 
dx  2  36 − x 2 
72 − 2 x 2 − 12 x − 2 x 2
=
36 − x 2
4 (18 − 3x − x 2 )
=
36 − x 2
4 ( 6 + x )( 3 − x )
=
36 − x 2
dA
For maximum A , = 0 : x > 0 ⇒ x = 3 cm
dx
d d d 1 dx 1
( QR ) = ( 2 x ) = 2 ( x ) = − ⇒ =−
dt dt dt 10 dt 20
dA 4 ( 8 )(1)
When x = 2, = = 32 = 4 2
dx 32
dA dA dx
= ×
dt dx dt
 1 
= 4 2 ×− 
 20 
2
=− cm 2 s −1
5
2
A is decreasing at the rate of cm s −1.
5

6
9(a) y = ln(1 + e x )
(i)
⇒ e y = 1 + ex
d dy
: ey = ex
dx dx
dy
⇒ = e x− y
dx
d d2 y  dy 
: 2
= e x − y 1 − 
dx dx  dx 
2
d y dy  dy 
⇒ 2 =  1 −  (shown)
dx dx  dx 
9(a) dy 1 d 2 y 1
(ii) When x = 0, y = ln 2, = , =
dx 2 dx 2 4
1 2
x
1
y = ln 2 + x + 4 + ...
2 2
1 1
= ln 2 + x + x 2 + ...
2 8
9(a) x
  x2 
(iii) ln(1 + e ) = ln 1 +  1 + x + + ...  
  2 
 x2 
= ln  2 + x + + ... 
 2 
 x x2 
= ln 2 + ln  1 + + + ... 
 2 4 
2
 x x2 
 + 
 x x2   2 4 
= ln 2 +  +  − + ...
2 4  2
x x2  1   x2 
= ln 2 + + −     + ...
2 4  2  4 
1 1
= ln 2 + x − x 2 + ... (verified)
2 8
9(b) 10 tan x − 3 = cos 2 x
2

10 x − 3 = 1 −
( 2x)
2
⇒ x + 5x − 2 = 0
2

−5 ± 52 − 4(−2)
∴x =
2
−5 + 33
= (rej -ve as x is small)
2

7
10(a) π
(i) x = eθ cos θ , y = sin θ + cos θ , 0 ≤θ ≤
4
dx dy
= eθ (cos θ − sin θ ), = cos θ − sin θ ,
dθ dθ
dy dy dx
= / = e-θ
dx dθ dθ
At (eθ cos θ ,sin θ + cos θ ), the equation of the tangent is
( y − sin θ − cos θ ) = e-θ ( x − eθ cos θ ),

π
Set θ = ,
6
π π
π
3e 6 3 + 1 3 1 - 3e 6
at ( , ) , the equation of the tangent is ( y − − ) = e 6 (x − ),
2 2 2 2 2
π
- 1
y=e 6x+
2

## 10(a) Area under the curve C is

(ii) π
A = ∫ 4 (sin θ + cos θ ) eθ (cos θ − sin θ ) dθ
0
π
= ∫ 4 eθ (cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ ) dθ
0
π
= ∫ 4 eθ cos 2θ dθ ( shown)
0

= 0.68 (2 d.p.)
10(b)
(i)
y

y = f '( x)

x
-2 O

x=2

8
10(b)
(ii)
y
1
y=
f(x)

A’(-2, 0.5)

2 x
O

11(a) a 1
=
1− r 2
2a = 1 − r
r = 1 − 2a
⇒ 1 − 2a < 1
−1 < 1 − 2a < 1
1
0 < a < 1, a ≠ (since r ≠ 0)
2
11(b) r
N N1 N
∑ Tr = ∑  2  + ∑ 2r ln 3
r =1 r =1  3  r =1

N
1
1−  
= ×   + N ( N + 1) ln 3
1 9
9 1
1−
9
1 1 
N

=  1 −    + N ( N + 1) ln 3
8   9  
11(c) Volume of whole cake
(i) = a 2 h + (0.9a ) 2 h + (0.9 2 a ) 2 h + (0.93 a ) 2 h + (0.94 a ) 2 h
= (1 + 0.92 + 0.94 + 0.96 + 0.98 ) a 2 h
[1 − (0.92 )5 ] 2
= a h
1 − 0.92
= 3.4280a 2 h

9
Cost of whole cake
= \$3.4280 × 200
= \$686 (nearest dollar)
11(c) 5
 2(d 2 ) + (5 − 1)(−d )  = 75
(ii) 2
d 2 − 2d = 15
(d − 5)(d + 3) = 0
d =5 or d = −3 (rej. since d >0)

## No. of candles at top layer = 52 + (5 − 1)(−5) = 5

10
Dunman High School
2010 Year 6 H2 Mathematics (9740)
Preliminary Examination Paper 2 Suggested Solutions

SECTION A

1 ( z − 1 + i)( z * − 1 − i) = 2
2
z −1+ i = 2
z −1+ i = 2
i.e. A circle with centre (1,–1) and radius 2. (shown)
Im

A
O Re
2
D
C(1,-1)

x=1.5

2
2 1
=2 ( 2) − 
2
= 7
(ii) Complex numbers represented are
3  7  3  7 
+  − 1 i and −  + 1 i.
2  2  2  2 
Cartesian equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining A and B is y = − 1.

Since any two distinct points on the circumference of the circle are equidistance from the
centre C, hence perpendicular bisector of the line segment joining these points must pass
through C.

1
2(i)
y

y=a

O x
2
x = −a

Recommended
(1)From the graph above, any horizontal line y = b, b ∈ cuts the graph of f at most once,
therefore f is one-one and the inverse of f exists.

OR

(2)From the graph above, any horizontal line y = b, b ≠ a , cuts the graph of f exactly once,
therefore f is one-one and the inverse of f exists.
(ii) ax
y= 2
, x ≠ −a 2 ,
x+a
xy + a 2 y = ax
a2 y
x= , y ≠ a,
a− y
a2 x a3
f −1 : x a , x ≠ a, or f −1 : x a − a 2 , x ≠ a,
a−x a−x
(iii) Rg = [− a 2 , ∞), Df = \{−a 2 },
∴ Rg ⊄ Df ,
thus fg does not exist

2
(iv) Method 1(Recommended)
f( x) = f −1( x)
⇒ f( x) = x
ax
⇒ =x
x + a2
⇒ x 2 + a 2 x − ax = 0
⇒ x( x + a 2 − a ) = 0
⇒ x = 0 or x = a − a 2 .

## Method 2 (not preferred)

f( x) = f −1( x)
ax a2 x
⇒ =
x + a2 a − x
⇒ ax( a − x ) = a 2 x( x + a 2 )
⇒ ax[( a + 1) x + ( a 3 − a )] = 0
⇒ ax[( a + 1) x + ( a 3 − a )] = 0
a − a 3 −a ( a 2 − 1)
⇒ x = 0 or x = = = −a ( a − 1) = a − a 2 .
a +1 a +1

3(i) dV 1 8 1 V3 −8
= (V − 2 ) = ( 2 )
dt 60 V 60 V
2
V dV 1
⇒ 3
=
V − 8 dt 60
1 1
⇒ ln | V 3 − 8 |= t + C '
3 60
t
+ C ''
⇒ | V 3 − 8 |= e 20 , C '' = 3C '
t
⇒ V 3 − 8 = Ae , 20
A = ±eC ''

When t = 0, V = 1,
⇒ A = −7,
t
3
⇒ V = 8 − 7e 20
V
1

8 t
20ln( ) or 2.67
7

3
(ii) d 2V
2
= 12t 2 − 2
dt
dV
⇒ = 4t 3 − 2t + C1
dt
dV
When t = 0, = 0, ∴ C1 = 0
dt
dV
⇒ = 4t 3 − 2t
dt
⇒ V = t 4 − t 2 + C , C is a constant.

V = t4 − t2 + C
1 1
= (t 2 − ) 2 + (C − )
2 4
V 1
(I)C >
4
C
C (II)C ≤
1
4
t

(iii)
1
When t = 0, V = 1, then C2 = 1 > .
4
Therefore given the above initial condition, Bob’s model corresponds to solution curve type
(I) in part (ii).

Therefore in Bob’s model, the volume of water approaches infinity in the long run (not
realistic) whereas in Andy’s model, the volume of water reasonably diminishes to zero in the
long run/after some time.

## Thus, Andy’s model is more appropriate than Bob’s model.

4(i)  2  1 
  
 4   3
1   1 
n1 n1    15
cos θ = = =
| n1 || n 2 | 21 11 21 11
∴θ = 9.3o.

4
(ii) 1 
 
d = n1 × n 2 =  −1
2 
 
Set z=0,
2 x + 4 y = 10
x + 3y = 8

⇒ x = −1, y = 3

 −1 1 
   
∴ l1: r = a1 +α d1 =  3  + α  −1 , α ∈ .
0  2 
   
Alternative

2 x + 4 y + z = 10
x + 3y + z = 8
Let z = t ∈ ,
⇒ 2 x + 4 y = 10 − t
x + 3y = 8 − t
t t
⇒ x = −1 + , y = 3− ,
2 2
 
−1  
1
    t
∴ l1: r =  3  + α  −1 , α= ∈
0  2  2
   
(iii) Since the point with co-ordinates (6,m.5) lies on the first plane,
a d1 = D1
6  2
  
⇒  m   4  = 10
 5  1 
  
⇒ 12 + 4m + 5 = 10
7
⇒m=− .
4

(iv) 2  2 
   
l2 : r = a 2 +β d 2 =  m  + β  0  , β∈ .
7   −1
   
1   2 
  
d1 d 2 =  −1  0  = 2 − 2 = 0 (independent of the value of m)
 2   −1
  

5
SECTION B

## 5(i) To obtain a quota sample of size 80:

Identify and categorise the parents into mutually exclusive sub-groups according to
education levels. Set a quota, i.e. a target number of respondents for each group where the
Poll respondents on a first-come-first-serve basis, say, when the parents arrive at school in the
morning with their children, until the number for each category is filled.

(ii) Stratified sampling is more representative in terms of the proportion of parents’ educational
qualifications in each category.

(iii) 420
× 80 = 14
2400

6(i)
x

## From GC, r = −0.860

(ii) 260.56
From GC, regression line x = −37.612 +
t
ie, a = −37.6 , b = 261 ( 3 sig fig )
1
Suggested model between x and is a better fit with |r |= 0.930 > |r|= 0.860 for the linear
t
model between x and t.

(iii)
260.56
x = −37.612 + = 78.9
5.0

t = 5 lies outside the data range of t , thus model may not be valid and estimate not likely to be
reliable.

6
7(i) Let J be the event where Mylo wears a jacket and T be the event where Mylo wears a tie.

P(T J ) = 0.6
P(T ∩ J )
= 0.6
P( J )
P(T ∩ J )
= 0.6
0.2
P(T ∩ J ) = 0.6 × 0.2 = 0.12
(ii) P(T ∪ J ) '
= 1 − P(T ∪ J )
= 1 − [ P (T ) + P( J ) − P(T ∩ J )]
= 1 − ( 0.4 + 0.2 − 0.12 )
= 1 − 0.48
= 0.52
(iii)
0.8 J
J
0.4 0.2 J'

J 0.4 J
0.2 0.6
J'
0.6 J'
0.4 J
0.8 0.2 J
J' 0.6 J'
0.2 J
0.8
J'
0.8 J'
Mon Tue Wed

## Let J n be the nth day where Mylo wears a jacket.

Required Probability
P ( J 3 ∩ J1 ) + P ( J 3 ∩ J 2 )
=
P ( J 3 ∩ J 1 ) + P ( J 3 ∩ J 2 ) + P ( J1 ∩ J 2 )
(0.2)(0.6)(0.4) + (0.8)(0.2)(0.4)
=
(0.2)(0.6)(0.4) + (0.8)(0.2)(0.4) + (0.2)(0.4)(0.2)
0.048 + 0.064
=
0.048 + 0.064 + 0.016
0.112
=
0.128
= 0.875

7
8(i) Number of ways = 10!(5) = 18144000
(a)
(b)
S S S S S S

Number of ways or
= ( 6!)( 5!)( 3) = 259200 =(5!)6 ⋅ 5 ⋅ 4 ⋅ 3 ⋅ (3!) = 259200

## (ii) Number of ways

(a) = ( 4!)( 5!) = 2880
(ii) Case One: 8 Questions (4M and 4S) between B and K
(b) B K

4! 5
  ( 4!)
 4

B K
 4 5!
  ( 3!)
 3

B K

4! 5!

## Pure Mathematics Questions Statistics Questions

Number of ways
 4 5
=   ( 3!)( 5!) +   ( 4!)( 4!) + ( 5!)( 4!)
 3  4
= 2880 + 2880 + 2880
= 8640

8
9(i) Let u = x − 100
∴ ∑ u = 50 , ∑ u 2
= 4008

## Unbiased estimate of population mean:

x = u + 100 = 4.16667 + 100 = 104.17 104 (3 s.f .)

## Unbiased estimate of population variance:

1 50 2 
s2 =  4008 −  = 345.42 345 (3 s.f .)
11  12 
(ii) To test H0: µ = 115
against H1: µ < 115

## One-tail test at 5% level (α = 0.05)

Use t-test since σ2 is unknown and sample size of 12 is small
X − 115
under H0, T = ~ t (11).
345.42/12
From GC, p-value = 0.0342

Since p-value =0.0342< 0.05, there is sufficient evidence to reject H0 at the 5% level of
significance and conclude that the mean IQ score is less than 115, hence the manufacturer’s
claim is disputable.

## (iii) (a) The IQ score of customers is normally distributed.

(b) For 2-tailed test, p-value =2(0.0324) =0.0684 > 0.05. H0 will not be rejected. The
conclusion would be different.
10 Let X be the number of unsolicited text messages received in a day.
(i) X Po 5 ( )
7
P( X = 2) = 0.125 (3 s.f.)
(ii) Let Y be the number of unsolicited text messages or phone calls received in a week.
Y Po ( 8 )
P(Y ≤ 10) = 0.816 (3 s.f.) (shown)
(iii) Let W be the number of weeks where receives more than 10 unsolicited text messages or
phone calls in a week out of 10 weeks.
W B (10, 0.184 )
P(W > 3) = 1 − P(W ≤ 3)
= 0.0944 (3 s.f.)
(iv) Let T be the total number of unsolicited text messages or phone calls received in the next 2
weeks.

9
T Po (16 )
Since λ =16>10, ∴ T N(16,16) approximately.

## P(T ≥ 20) = P(T > 19.5) (apply c.c.)

= 0.191 (3 s.f.)
11 Y−X N(2, 2σ 2 )
(a)
P(Y − X > 3) = 0.4
3− 2
P( Z > ) = 0.4

From GC,
1
= 0.25335

σ = 2.7910

## Var( X1 + X 2 ) = 2 × 2.79102 = 3.94712

X1 + X 2 N (8,3.94712 )
P(8 < X1 + X 2 < 12) = 0.345 (3 s.f.)
b(i) Let X min be the amount of time spent by a student online each day.

E( X1 + X 2 L + X 60 ) = 60 ×120 = 7200
2
(
Var( X1 + X 2 L + X 60 ) = 60 × 452 = 90 15 )
Since n=60 is large, by Central Limit Theorem,
 2
( )
X1 + X 2 L + X 60 N  7200, 90 15  approximately.
 

P(X1 + X 2 L + X 60 ≥ 7000)
= 0.717 (3 s.f.)
(ii) Since n=60 is large, by Central Limit Theorem,
 452 
X N  120,  approximately.
 60 
 
P( X − 120 < 5)
= P( −5 < X − 120 < 5)
= P(115 < X < 125)
= 0.611 (3 s.f.)
We do not need to assume that the amount of time spent online follows a normal distribution
since by the Central Limit Theorem, the sample mean follows a normal distribution
approximately when n is large.

10
1 Solve the inequality
x 4
≤ ,
x − 2 ( x − 2)2

ex 4
Hence solve ≤ x . [2]
e + 2 (e + 2) 2
x

(n + 2)un −1
un = .
2un −1 + n + 1

n+2
un = . [5]
2n − 1

## 3 The functions f and g are defined as follows:

f : x a (2 x − 1) − 2, x < −1 ,
2

g : x a ln ( x + a ) , x > −1 .

## (a) Define f −1 in a similar form. [3]

(b) State the value of a such that the range of g is (0, ∞) . [1]

(c) Show that the composite function gf exists, and find the range of gf, giving

## 4 A curve is defined by the parametric equations

t t
x= 2
, y= , where t ≠ −1, 1.
1+ t 1− t2

(i) Show that the tangent to the curve at any point with parameter t has equation
2 3 3
(1 − t ) y = (1 + t 2 ) x − 4t 3 . [3]

1
(ii) Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve at t = . Hence determine the
2
acute angle between this tangent and the line y = x + 3 . [3]

2 [Turn Over
5 Robert took a study loan of \$100 000 from a bank on 1st January 2010. The bank
charges an annual interest rate of 10% on the outstanding loan at the end of each
year. After his graduation, Robert pays the bank \$x at the beginning of each month.
The first payment is made on 1st January 2014. Let un denote the amount owed by
Robert at the end of nth year after 2013, where n ∈ +
0 .

## (ii) Show that un = 1.1n u0 − kx(1.1n − 1) , where k is a constant to be determined. [4]

(iii) Given that Robert owes the bank less than \$1000 at the end of 2020, find the
minimum value of x, giving your answer to the nearest dollar. [3]

1
6 (a) Find dt . [3]
3 − 4t 2
(b) Use the substitution u = 5 x to find ∫ 5 x cos 2 ( 5 x ) dx . [5]

7 It is given that the function y = f ( x ) has the Maclaurin’s series 1 + 4 x + ax 2 + ... and

(
satisfies 1 + x 2 ) ddyx = b (1 + y ) , where a and b are real constants.
2

## (i) Show that b = 2 and find the value of a. [4]

f( x)
(ii) Find the series expansion of in ascending powers of x, up to and
4+ x
including the term in x 2 . [3]

f( x)
(iii) State the equation of the normal to the curve y = at x = 0. [1]
4+ x

3 [Turn Over
4−r A B C
8 (i) Express in the form + + . [2]
(r − 1)r (r + 2) r −1 r r + 2

n
4−r
(ii) Hence find ∑ (r − 1)r (r + 2)
r =2
. [3]

Give a reason why the series is convergent, and state its limit. [2]

n
3− r
(iii) Use your answer to part (ii) to find ∑ r (r + 1)(r + 3) .
r =2
[2]

## 9 On a single Argand diagram, sketch the loci given by

2
(i) z −1− i ≥ 2 ,
 z +1  π
(ii) arg  ≥ ,
 3 + i  12
(iii) z > z − 1 . [7]

Hence, or otherwise, find the range of values of z − i and arg ( z − i). [3]

connection. The rate of change of r is proportional to the difference between r and a
constant. The initial value of r is 348. If r is 43, it remains at this constant value.
dr
(i) Show that = k (r − 43) . [2]
dt

## The total amount of data downloaded, I kilobytes, in time t seconds, is given by

dI
=r .
dt
(iii) Given that there is no data downloaded initially, find I in terms of k and t. [2]

(iv) It is given that a file with a size of 5700 kilobytes takes 90 seconds to

(v) Explain what happens to the value of r in the long run. [1]

4 [Turn Over
D
11
C

j
k
i A
O

B
The diagram above shows part of the structure of a modern art museum designed by
Marcus, with a horizontal base OAB and vertical wall OADC. Perpendicular unit
vectors i, j, k are such that i and k are parallel to OA and OC respectively.

The walls of the museum BCD and ABD can be described respectively by the
equations
 −1  14  5  −1 
       
r ⋅  −5  = 36 and r =  0  + λ  4  + µ  0  , where λ , µ ∈ .
6 0 0  
      4

## (i) Write down the distance of A from O. [1]

(ii) Find the vector equation of the intersection line of the two walls BCD and
ABD. [3]

(iii) Marcus wishes to repaint the inner wall ABD. Find the area of this wall. [3]

Suppose Marcus wishes to divide the structure into two by adding a partition such
that it intersects with the walls BCD and ABD at a line. This partition can be
described by the equation 2 x − 7 y + α z = β , where α , β ∈ .

## (v) Another designer, Jenny, wishes to construct another partition which is

described by the equation 2 x − 7 y + α z = γ , where γ ≠ β . State the
relationship between Jenny’s and Marcus’ partitions. [1]

Deduce the number of intersection point(s) between the walls BCD, ABD, and
Jenny’s partition. [1]

5 [Turn Over
x2 − 4
12 The curves C1 and C2 have equations ( x − 2)2 = a 2 (1 − y 2 ) and y = , where
x +1
1 < a < 2, respectively. Describe the geometrical shape of C1. [1]

## (a) State a sequence of transformations which transforms the graph of x 2 + y 2 = 1

to the graph of C1 . [3]

(b) (i) Sketch C1 and C2 on the same diagram, stating the coordinates of any
points of intersection with the axes and the equations of any
asymptotes. [6]

## (ii) Show algebraically that the x-coordinates of the points of intersection

of C1 and C2 satisfy the equation
2 2
( x + 1) ( x − 2 ) = a 2 ( x + 1) 2 − a 2 ( x 2 − 4) 2 . [2]

(iii) Deduce the number of real roots of the equation in part (ii). [1]

6 [Turn Over
Qtn Solutions
1. x 4
− ≤0
x − 2 ( x − 2) 2
2

x2 − 2x − 4
≤0⇒
( x − 1) − 5 ≤ 0
( x − 2) 2
( x − 2) 2
⇒ ( x − 1) 2 − 5 ≤ 0, , ( x − 2)2 is always positive for all real values of x.
⇒ 1− 5 ≤ x ≤ 1+ 5 , x ≠ 2
ex 4
For ≤ x
e + 2 (e + 2) 2
x

Replace x by −e x ,

⇒ 1 − 5 ≤ −e x ≤ 1 + 5
⇒ x ≤ ln ( 5 −1 )
2. n+2
Let P(n) be the proposition un = .
2n − 1
When n = 0,
LHS of P(0) = u0 = −2 (given)
2
RHS of P(0) = = −2
−1
∴ P(0) is true.
Assume P(k) is true for some k ∈ +
∪ {0}
k+2
i.e. uk = .
2k − 1

## Show that P(k+1) is true

k +3
i.e. uk +1 = .
2k + 1
When n = k + 1,
(k + 3)uk
LHS of P(k+1) = uk +1 =
2uk + k + 2
( k + 3)( k + 2 )
= 2k − 1
 k +2 
2 +k +2
 2k − 1 
 (k + 3)(k + 2) 
=  
 (2k + 1)(k + 2) 
k +3
= = RHS of P(k+1)
2k + 1

7 [Turn Over
Since P(0) is true & P(k) is true ⇒ P(k + 1) is also true, hence by mathematical
induction P(n) is true for all n ∈ + ∪ {0} .
3

y = f ( x)

7
-1
x = −a y = g ( x)

1− a

y = (2 x − 1) − 2
2
(a)
± y + 2 = 2x − 1
1 1
x= − y + 2 Q x < −1
2 2
1 1
∴ f −1 : x a − x + 2, x>7
2 2
(b) a=2

(c) Rf = (7, ∞ ) , Dg = (− 1, ∞ ) .
Since Rf ⊆ Dg , gf exists.

( −∞, −1) 
f
→ ( 7, ∞ ) 
g
→ ( ln ( 7 + a ) , ∞ )
Df Rf Rgf

4(i) dx 1− t2
=
dt (1 + t 2 )2

dy 1+ t2
=
dt (1 − t 2 )2

8 [Turn Over
3
dy  1 + t 2 
= 
dx  1 − t 2 
Equation of tangent:
3
t  1+ t2   t 
y− 2
=  2  
x− 2 
1− t  1− t   1+ t 
2 3 3 2 2
(1 − t ) y = (1 + t 2 ) x − t (1 + t 2 ) + t (1 − t 2 )
3
= (1 + t 2 ) x − 4t 3
(ii)
1 dy
When t = , = 27
2 dx

## Let α be the acute angle between the two lines.

α
B A

Note: α = A - B
tan A = 27 , tan B = 1

A = tan −1 27 = 87.879°
B = tan −1 (1) = 45°
α = A − B = 42.9°

Alternative Solution

27 − 1 26
tan α = =
1 + ( 27 )(1) 28
26
α = tan −1 = 42.9°
28

## 5(i) u0 = \$1.14 (100 000) = \$146 410

(ii) u1 = 1.1(u0 − 12 x)
u2 = 1.1[1.1(u0 − 12 x) − 12 x ]
= 1.12 u0 − 1.12 (12 x) − 1.1(12 x)

9 [Turn Over
u3 = 1.1 1.12 u0 − 1.12 (12 x) − 1.1(12 x) − 12 x 
= 1.13 u0 − 1.13 (12 x) − 1.12 (12 x) − 1.1(12 x)
:
:
n n n −1
un = 1.1 u0 − 1.1 (12 x) − 1.1 (12 x) − ... − 1.1(12 x)
= 1.1n u0 − 12 x (1.1n + 1.1n −1 + ... + 1.1)
 1.1(1.1n − 1) 
= 1.1 u0 − 12 x 
n

 0.1 
 
= 1.1n u0 − 132 x (1.1n − 1)
(iii) n = 7 at end of 2020
1.17 u0 − 132 x(1.17 − 1) < 1000
x > \$2270.30
Least x to the nearest dollar = \$2271

6(a) 1
∫ 3 − 4t 2
dt

1 1
=− ∫
4 t2 − 3
dt

4
1 1
=−
4 ∫  3 
2
dt
t2 −  
 2 
 3 

1 1
t− 
=−  ln 2  +C
4 3 3 
 t+ 
2
3 2t − 3
=− ln + C
12 2t + 3
(b) u = 5x
du
= 5 x ln 5
dx
dx 1 1
∴ = x =
du 5 ln 5 u ln 5

10 [Turn Over
∫ 5 x cos 2 (5 x ) dx
1
= ∫ u cos 2 u ⋅ du
u ln 5
1
=
ln 5 ∫ cos 2 u du

1
2 ln 5 ∫
= (1 + cos 2u ) du

1  sin 2u 
=  u+ +C
2 ln 5  2 
1  x sin 2(5 x ) 
= 5 + +C
2 ln 5  2 
7i dy
When x = 0, y = 1, = 4.
dx

(1 + x ) ddyx = b (1 + y )
2 2

dy
⇒ = b(2) = 4
dx
⇒ b = 2 (Shown)
d2 y dy  dy 
(1 + x )2

dx 2
+ 2x
dx
= 2 2y 
 dx 
d2 y
= 16
dx 2
16
a= =8
2!

ii −
1
f( x)(4 + x) 2

1 x −1
= (1 + 4 x + 8 x 2 + ...)(1 + ) 2
2 4
1 3
(− )(− )
1 1 x 2 ( x )2 + ...)
= (1 + 4 x + 8 x + ...)(1 + (− )( ) + 2
2

2 2 4 2! 4
1 x 3 2
= (1 + 4 x + 8 x 2 + ...)(1 − + x + ...)
2 8 128
1 31 963 2
= (1 + x + x + ...)
2 8 128
iii 16
31
Equation of normal:

11 [Turn Over
1 16
y= − x
2 31

8(i) 4−r A B C
= + +
(r − 1)r (r + 2) r − 1 r r + 2
4 − r = Ar (r + 2) + B (r − 1)(r + 2) + C (r − 1)r
A = 1, B = −2, C = 1
(ii) n
4−r

r = 2 ( r − 1) r ( r + 2)
n
1 2 1
=∑ − +
r =2 r − 1 r r+2
1
= 1 −1 +
4
1 2 1
+ − +
2 3 5
1 2 1
+ − +
3 4 6
1 2 1
+ − +
4 5 7
+ M
1 2 1
+ − +
n − 4 n − 3 n −1
1 2 1
+ − +
n−3 n−2 n
1 2 1
+ − +
n − 2 n −1 n + 1
1 2 1
+ − +
n −1 n n + 2
1 2 1 1 1 2 1
= − + + + − +
2 3 3 n n +1 n n + 2
1 1 1 1
= − + +
6 n n +1 n + 2
(iii)  1 1 1 
lim  − + +  = 0 , hence the series in (ii) converges.
n →∞
 n n +1 n + 2 

4−r 1
∑ (r − 1)r (r + 2) = 6
r =2

12 [Turn Over
(iv) n
3− r
∑ r (r + 1)(r + 3)
r =2

1 3 − (n − 1) 3− n
= + ... + +
(2)(3)(5) (n − 1)(n)(n + 2) n(n + 1)(n + 3)
n +1
4−r 2
=∑ −
r = 2 ( r − 1) r ( r + 2) (1)(2)(4)
1 1 1 1 1
= − + + −
6 n + 1 n + 2 n + 3 12
1 1 1 1
=− − + +
12 n + 1 n + 2 n + 3
9.
y Q

P (1,1)
1 R

x
-1 O 1

z −1 − i 2 ≥ 2
⇒ z − (1 + i) ≥ 2

 z +1  π
arg  ≥
 3 + i  12
π π π
⇒ arg( z + 1) ≥ + =
12 6 4

1 7 7 1
Method 1: QR = 2 − = ; PQ = + = 2
4 2 4 4
Method 2: QR is the perpendicular bisector, so PQ = 2 (radius)
⇒ z −i > 2
π π
≤ arg ( z − i ) <
4 2
10(i) Let the constant be a.
dr
∴ = k (r − a ) , where k is a constant.
dt

13 [Turn Over
dr
Given r = 43 when =0,
dt
∴ 0 = k (43 − a )
Since k ≠ 0, then a = 43
dr
∴ = k (r − 43) (shown)
dt
(ii) 1
∫ r − 43 dr = k ∫ dt
ln r − 43 = kt + C1
r − 43 = ekt + C1
r = 43 + Ae kt where A = eC1
When t = 0 , r = 348 .
∴ A = 305 .
∴ r = 43 + 305e kt
(iii) I = ∫ r dt

= ∫ (43 + 305e kt ) dt
305 kt
= 43t + e + C2
k
When t = 0 , I = 0 .
305
∴ C2 = −
k
305 kt
∴ I = 43t + (e − 1)
k
(iv) Given I = 5700 and t = 90 ,
305 90 k
∴ 5700 = 43(90) + (e − 1)
k
305 90 k
1830 = (e − 1)
k
6k = e90 k − 1

## Solving using GC,

k = − 0.167 or k = 0 (NA)

(v) 1
− t
r = 43 + 305e 6

1
− t
If t becomes larger, 305e 6 → 0 , r → 43
Hence r would be reduced to a steady 43 kilobytes per second in the long run.

11i OA = 14

14 [Turn Over
ii Plane ABD
 5   −1  16 
     
 4  ×  0  =  −20 
0  4   4 
     
 4  14   4 
    
r.  −5  =  0  .  −5  = 56
%    
1 01
 4 x − 5 y + z = 56
⇒
− x − 5 y + 6 z = 36
Using GC to solve:
4 1
   
∴ r =  −8  + γ  1  , γ ∈
%    
0 1
OR
14 + 5λ − µ   −1 
  
 4λ  .  −5  = 36
 4µ 6
  
−14 − 5λ + µ − 20λ + 24 µ = 36
25µ = 25λ + 50
µ =λ+2
 14  5  −1 
     
r =  0  + λ  4  + (λ + 2)  0 
0 0  
    4
12   4
   
=  0  + λ  4
8  4
   
12   1
   
=  0  + γ  1 , γ ∈
8  1
   

15 [Turn Over
iii  4+γ  12 
uuuv   uuuv  
OD =  −8 + γ  ⇒ γ = 8 ⇒ OD =  0 
 γ  8
   
(Reason: j is zero.)
%
4
uuuv  
OB =  −8 
0
 
12  14   −2 
uuuv      
AD =  0  −  0  =  0 
8 0  8
     
12   4   8 
uuuv      
BD =  0  −  −8  =  8 
 8   0  8
     

1 uuuv uuuv
Area ABD = BD × AD
2
 8   −2  1   −1  4
1         
=  8  ×  0  = 8  1  ×  0  = 8  −5 
2    1  4   
8  8      1
= 8 42 = 51.8 (3 s.f.)
iv 2(4) − 7(−8) + α (0) = β
2(12) − 7(0) + 8α = β
⇒ β = 64, α = 5

OR

## The 3 planes intersect at the line

 4  1
   
r =  −8  + γ  1  , γ ∈
%    1
0  
 2  1
  
 −7  .  1  = 0
 α  1
  
2 − 7 +α = 0
α =5

16 [Turn Over
 4 2
  
 −8  .  −7  = 8 + 56 = 64
0 5
  
β = 64

## There is no intersection point.

12 Ellipse

(a) ( x − 2)2 = a 2 (1 − y 2 )
( x − 2) 2
⇒ 2
+ y2 = 1
a

Method 1:
Sequence of transformations:
1) Scale // to x-axis by factor a.
2) Translate in the positive x-direction by 2 units.

Method 2:
Sequence of transformations:
2
1) Translate in the positive x-direction by units.
a
2) Scale // to x-axis by factor a.

17 [Turn Over
(bi) x −1
2
x +1 x −4
−( x 2 + x)
−x−4
− (− x − 1)
−3
x = −1 y y = x −1

−2 2−a 2 2+a
−4 ( x − 2) 2
+ y2 = 1
a2

x2 − 4
y=
x +1

(bii) x2 − 4
Sub y = into ( x − 2)2 = a 2 (1 − y 2 ) :
x +1
  x 2 − 4 2 
( x − 2) = a 1 − 
2 2

  x + 1  
 
2
⇒ ( x + 1) ( x − 2) 2 = a 2 ( x + 1) − a 2 ( x 2 − 4 ) --- (*)
2 2

(shown)

## Hence the x-coordinate of the points of intersection of

C1 and C2 satisfy equation (*).
(b) From (ii), number of intersection points between C1 and C2 gives the number of
(iii) real roots of the equation (*).

From the graphs, there are 2 points of intersection between C1 and C2 . Hence 2
real roots.

18 [Turn Over
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

## 2010 HCI H2 Mathematics Preliminary Examination Paper 2 Solution

Qn Solutions
1 Surface area of the tin and lid
= 2π x 2 + 2π xy + 10π x = 400π

200 − x 2 − 5 x
y=
x

## Volume of the container

 200 − x 2 − 5 x 
= π x2  
 x 
= π ( 200 x − x3 − 5 x 2 )

dV
= π ( 200 − 3 x 2 − 10 x )
dx
dV 20
=0⇒ x= or x = −10 (rejected)
dx 3

d 2V 20
2
= π ( −6 x − 10 ) < 0 when x =
dx 3
20
V is maximum when x = .
3
20 55
When x = , y=
3 3
(or x = 6.67, y = 18.3).
2(i) z 5 − 32 = 0 ⇒ z 5 = 32 ei0 = 32ei2k π
2 kπ i
⇒ z = 2e 5
where k = 0, ± 1, ± 2.
(ii)  2w + 1 
5
5
The highest power in the equation   = 32 is four since the terms with w are
 w 
canceled out. Hence the equation has only four roots.

5
 1
 2 +  = 32
 w
1 2 kπ i
⇒ 2 + = z = 2e 5
w
1 2 kπ i
⇒ = 2e 5 − 2 = 2 e 5 − 1
w
2 kπ i
( )
1 1 1 1
⇒ + + +
w1 w2 w3 w4

(
= 2 e
2π i
5
−1 + e )( −2 π i
5
)(
−1 + e
4π i
5
)(
−1 + e
−4π i
5
)
−1 


1
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

 2π 4π 
= 2  2 cos + 2 cos − 4
 5 5 
 2 π 4π 
= 4 cos + cos − 2 ∈ .
 5 5 

1 1 1 1
Or use GC, + + + = −10.
w1 w2 w3 w4
3 S n = an 2 + bn + c
U1 = S1 = a + b + c = 100
S 2 = 4a + 2b + c = 190
S10 = 100a + 10b + c = 360 + 100 + 90 = 550
Using GC,
a = −5 , b = 105 , c = 0
Thus S n = −5n 2 + 105n

U n = Sn − Sn−1
( 2
= −5n 2 + 105n − −5 ( n − 1) + 105 ( n − 1) )
= 110 − 10n
U n − U n −1
= 110 − 10n − (110 − 10n + 10 )
= −10 (a constant)
Hence sequence is an AP.
4i 0  1  1 − µ 
uuuv
OX = µ  2  + (1 − µ )  0  =  2 µ 
 
 −t   0   −t µ 
     
0 0  0 
uuuv      
OY = µ  0  + (1 − µ )  2  =  2 − 2 µ 
t     
   −t   −t + 2t µ 
 0  1 − µ   µ − 1 
uuuv      
XY =  2 − 2 µ  −  2 µ  =  2 − 4 µ 
 −t + 2t µ   −t µ   −t + 3t µ 
     

OR
 −1   0
uuur   uuur  
AB =  2  BC =  −2 
 −t   2t 
   

2
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

 −1   µ − 1 
uuur    
XB = (1 − µ )  2  =  2 − 2 µ 
 −t   t µ − t 
   
 0  0 
uuur    
BY = µ  −2  =  −2 µ 
 2t   2t µ 
   
 µ −1   0   µ −1 
uuur uuur uuur      
XY = XB + BY =  2 − 2 µ  +  −2 µ  =  2 − 4 µ 
 t µ − t   2t µ   3t µ − t 
     
ii Suppose O, X, Y are collinear.
Then
uuuv uuuv
OX = kOY
1 − µ   0 
 2µ  = k  2 − 2µ 
   
 −t µ   −t + 2t µ 
   
1 − µ = 0 ⇒ µ = 1 (Out of range)
Thus O, X, Y are not collinear.

iii 1 − µ   0 
uuuv uuuv   
OX OY =  2 µ   2 − 2 µ 
 −t µ   −t + 2t µ 
  
2 2
= µ(4 – 4µ + t – 2µt )
=0
4 + t2 1 1
⇒ µ = 0 (reject) or µ = 2
= + 2
4 + 2t 2 t + 2
For all t ∈»\{0}, 0 < µ < 1.
Thus ∠XOY can be 90° when t ≠ 0 .

3
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

iv  µ −1 
uuuv 
XY =  2 − 4 µ 
 −t + 3t µ 
 
projection vector
 µ −1   4   4 
 2 − 4µ  .  1  .  1 
   
 −t + 3t µ   0   0 
=   
17
 4
4µ − 4 + 2 − 4µ  
= 1
17 0
 
4
2 
= − 1
17  
0
5(i) 2 2
( x − 6) + ( y + 2) = x+3

2 2 2
( y + 2) = ( x + 3) − ( x − 6 )
= 9 ( 2 x − 3)

(ii)

(iii)

2
For the equation ( y + 2 ) = 9 ( 2 x − 3) ,
When x = 2 , y = 1 .

4
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

When y = 7 , x = 6 .

Method 1: Using ∫ x dy
2
( y + 2) = 9 ( 2 x − 3)

1 y + 2) 
2 2
3 ( y + 2) (
x= + = 3+ 
2 18 2  9 

1 7  
( y + 2)
2

R=
2 ∫ 1
3+

 d y − 2(6)

9

 1  ( y + 2)3 
7

=  3 y +  − 12 
 2  27  1 
1 
=  ( 21 + 27 ) − ( 3 + 1)  − 12
2 
2
= 10 units

Method 2: Using ∫ y dx
2
( y + 2) = 9 ( 2 x − 3)
y = −2 + 3 2 x − 3 [ y = −2 − 3 2 x − 3 N.A.]
6
R = 4(7) −
∫ ( −2 + 3
2
)
2 x − 3 dx

  3 6
 
=  28 −  −2 x + (2 x − 3) 2  
   2 
= { 28 – [(–12 + 27) – (–4 + 1)]}
= 10 units2

## (iv) Volume required

= vol. of cylinder – (vol. generated by curve from y = –2 to y = 1)
 6

∫(
2
= π (7) 2 (4) − π
 2
−2 + 3 2 x − 3 dx 

)
= 196π – 92π
= 327 unit3 (3 s.f.)
6 Use random sampling method to select a sample from each class. The number of seats from
each class would be proportional to the size of each stratum.
First Class Business Class Economy Class
Any 1 of the answers below:
4 16 60
Some passengers have
booked a flight ticket but did not turn up or changed flight so some of the seats in the sample
may not have a passenger.

OR

5
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

The flight is not fully booked so the chosen seat could be empty.

## OR The passenger may ignore the questionnaire.

It is not appropriate to use simple random sampling as passengers from different classes may
have different opinions on the service. The number of passengers in the first class is very
small, so the passengers from the first class may not be chosen at all using the simple random
sampling method.

7(i) 10!
No. of ways = = 12600
4!3!2!

7(ii) Case 1: The 2 blue tiles and 1 yellow tile are in the 4th row with the 4th tile being red or
green.
No. of ways
= no. of ways with B, B, Y, G in 4th row + no. of ways with B, B, Y, R in 4th row
4! 6! 4! 6!
= × + × = 3240
2! 2!2! 2! 2!2!2!
Case 2: The 2 blue tiles and 1 yellow tile are in the third row.
3! 7!
No. of ways = × = 1890
2 2!2!2!
3! 3! 4! 3! 4!
Total no. of ways = 3240 + 1890 – – 3!
2! 2! 2! 2! 2!
= 5130 – 108 – 216 = 4806

7(iii) No. of ways such that less than 3 yellow tiles are in the fourth row
7!
= 12600 − 4C3 =12600 − 420 =12180
4!2!
7 last No. of ways
part 6!
= × 7C4 = 2100
3!2!
8(i) 2010 + 10(9000)
x= = 9201,
10
  507147

2
1
s 2 =  ∑ ( x − 9000 ) −
2 ( ( x − 9000 ) ) =
9 10  9
 
H0 : µ = 9000
H1 : µ > 9000
x − 9000
Test Stat: = ~ t (9)
507147
9 × 10
p–value = 0.01265 < 0.05

Since the p –value = 0.01265 < 0.05, we reject H 0 and conclude that there is sufficient
evidence, at 5% level of significance, that the mean life span of the electronic component has
increased.

6
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

## 8(ii) H0: µ = 9000 vs H1: µ > 9000

252
Under H0, X ~ N(9000, ) = N(9000, 62.5).
10
X – 9000
Test Statistic = ~ N(0, 1).
62.5
Level of significance = 1%
P(Z > 2.326347877) = 0.01
At the 1% significance level, reject H 0 if z ≥ 2.326347877.
x – 9000
z= ≥ 2.326347877
62.5
x ≥ 9018.391395 = 9020.

Assumptions: The standard deviation of the life span remains unchanged after the change in
process.
9
First X ~ N(190, 576)
part T = 0.001( X1 + ... + X20 ) − 0.001(2)( X21 + ... + X30 ) ~ N(0, 0.03456)

= 0.580

OR

## A = X1 +... + X20 – 2(X21 +... + X30) ~ N(0, 34560)

0.15
P( | A |≤ ) = P( − 150 ≤ A ≤ 150)
0.001
= 0.580
9(i) Let Y be the r.v. denoting the mass of a randomly chosen apple from Mark's orchard.
Y ~ N(µ , 302 )

Since the shaded area is the same, using the symmetric property of the normal curve,
µ = 110

9(ii) Probability that Mark will get an apple graded as 'large' chosen at random = P (Y > 150) =

7
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

0.09121128

Let A be the r.v. denoting the number of apples graded as large out of 65 randomly chosen
apples.
A ~ B(65, 0.09121128)

P ( A ≥ 5) = 1 − P ( A ≤ 4)
= 0.718
10(a) 200 1
(i) P(A M ) = =
400 2
250 + 300 11
(ii) P(M ' ∩ C ') = =
1000 20

9 1
P ( A) = , P ( A M ) = ≠ P ( A)
20 2
A and M are not independent.
10(b) (i) No. of immigrants in the sample
= 0.2 ( 200 + 250 ) + 0.3 (130 + 300 ) + 0.05 (120 ) = 225
0.2 × 450
P(voter supports Party A given voter is an immigrant) = = 0.4
225

## (ii) Number of immigrants supporting Party C = 0.05 (120 ) =6

P(exactly one immigrant voter supporting Party C or
exactly one female voter supporting Party A (or both))
= P ( exactly 1 immigrant voted for C )
+ P ( exactly 1 female voted for A ) − P ( both )
6
C1 994C2 + 250C1 750C2 − 250C1 6C1 744C1
= 1000
= 0.434
C3

Alternative method:
6 994 993 250 750 749 6 250 744
Required Probability = ×3+ ×3− × 3!
1000 999 998 1000 999 998 1000 999 998
= 0.434

8
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

11(i) λ 
Let X be the r.v. denoting the number of call–ins in a week. Hence X ~ Po   .
4

P( X ≤ 9)

## From graph, the value of λ = 32.5 (to 3 sig.fig).

The condition is that the rate of call–ins received by the centre is constant throughout a
month / the call–in occurs randomly / The call–ins occur in a month are independent of one
another

## 11(ii) Let Y be the r.v. denoting the number of call–ins in a week.

Y ~ Po(32.5)
Since the mean is bigger than 10, hence
Y ~ N (32.5, 32.5) approximately.

c.c
P (25 < Y ≤ 40)  → P (25.5 < Y < 40.5) = 0.810

11(iii Let S be the r.v. denoting the number of successful cases out of the n people in a support
) group.
3
S ~ B ( n, )
20

Since the number of groups concerned, which is 70, is large, therefore by applying CLT,
 3  3 
n   1 − 
S ~ N ( n,   
3 20 20 
) approximately.
20 70

EITHER
n P( S ≥ 4)
27 0.589
28 0.812
Hence minimum value of n is 28.

OR

P ( S ≥ 4) > 0.7

9
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

## P ( S < 4) < 0.3

4 − 0.15n
P(Z < ) < 0.3
0.1275n
70
4 − 0.15n
< −0.5244
0.1275n
70
0.1275
4 − 0.15n < (−0.5244 ) n
70
0.1275
0.15n − (0.5244 ) n −4>0
70
n > 5.23912 or n < −5.0899(reject)
n > 27.45
Least n = 28.

12(i) Location F should be omitted as the road distance cannot be smaller than the straight line
distance, indicating that it is an incorrect data entry.

From the scatter diagram, another location that should be omitted is location H, as it is an
outlier based on the scatter diagram.

## 12(ii) The suitable regression line is the regression x on y:

x = 0.3936554 + 0.81702935 y
When y = 20.0,
x = 16.7 km

12(iii s
)
180

70
y
2 30

10
HCI Prelim H2 Mathematics P2 Solutions

## Since the graph of s = a + b ln y is concave downwards whereas the graph of s = a + by 2 is

concave upwards, the graph of s = a + b ln y will be more suitable to describe the scatter
diagram of s and y. Hence model II is more suitable.

## 12(iv The appropriate regression line of s on ln y is s = 25.9499647 + (45.24427905) ln y ,

) i.e. s = 25.9 + (45.2) ln y (to 3 s.f.)

12(v) Since r for s and ln y is 0.992 close to 1, the linear correlation is strong between s and ln y.
Furthermore, 170 cents is within the data range of the sample. Therefore the estimation using
the line in (iv) is reliable.

Since y is the independent variable, the line found in (iv) is also suitable for the estimation.

11
Solutions to SAJC H2 Maths PRELIM EXAM 2010

Paper 1

S/N Solutions
1 Let un = an 3 + bn 2 + cn + d
3 2
a (1) + b (1) + c (1) + d = 63
u1 = 63 :
a + b + c + d = 63 − (1)
3 2
a ( 2 ) + b ( 2 ) + c (2) + d = 116
u2 = 116 :
8a + 4b + 2c + d = 116 − (2)
3 2
a ( 3) + b ( 3) + c(3) + d = 171
u3 = 171 :
27a + 9b + 3c + d = 171 − (3)
3 2
a ( 4 ) + b ( 4 ) + c (4) + d = 234
u4 = 234 :
64a + 16b + 4c + d = 234 − (4)
Using the GC APPL to solve (1), (2), (3), (4) simultaneously, we get:
a = 1, b = −5, c = 61, d = 6
un = n3 − 5n 2 + 61n + 6

3 2
Hence u50 = ( 50 ) − 5 ( 50 ) + 61 ( 50 ) + 6 = 115556

2 1− x 2
≤ x −1 , x ≠
2 − 3x 3
1− x
+1− x ≤ 0
2 − 3x
1 − x + (1 − x )(2 − 3 x )
≤0
2 − 3x
(1 − x)(1 + 2 − 3 x )
≤0
2 − 3x
(1 − x)(3 − 3 x )
≤0
2 − 3x
3(1 − x) 2
≤0
2 − 3x
3(1 − x ) 2 (2 − 3 x) ≤ 0

2 1
3

2
x>
3
2
Hence, to solve 1 − x 2 ≤ x 2 − 1 .
2 − 3x
2
Replace x by x ,

2
x2 >
3
2
x2 − > 0
3
 2  2
 x − 

x+  > 0
 3  3 
2 2
x<− or x>
3 3

## 3 V = ( Base Area ) × height

1 
2 3 =  x 2 sin 60°  × h
2 
(Note: some students might use Pythagoras Thm or Trigo. to find base area.)
1 3
2 3 =  x2 × h
2 2 

8
h = 2 (shown)
x

## Total cost of constructing prism,

C = 1× ( edges ) + 2 3 ( 2 × triangles ) + 2 ( 3 × rectangles )
 1 3 
= ( 3h + 6 x ) + 2 3  2  x 2   + 2 ( 3xh )
 2
  2  

  8    1 3    8 
=  3  2  + 6 x  + 2 3  2  x 2 
 + 2  3x  2  
 x    2 2   x 
  
24 48
= 2 + 6 x + 3x2 +
x x
= 3 x + 6 x + 48 x + 24 x −2
2 −1

dC
= 6 x + 6 − 48 x −2 − 48 x −3 = 0
dx
dC
=0
dx
6 x + 6 − 48 x −2 − 48 x −3 = 0
6 x 4 + 6 x 3 − 48 x − 48 = 0
6 x 3 ( x + 1) − 48( x + 1) = 0
(6 x 3 − 48)( x + 1) = 0
6 x 3 = 48 or x = −1( rejected )
x=2
2 −1 −2
C = 3 ( 2 ) + 6 ( 2 ) + 48 ( 2 ) + 24 ( 2 )
= 12 + 12 + 24 + 6
= 54
SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 2 of 10
Minimum cost C is \$54.

d 2C −3 −4
2
= 6 + 96 ( 2 ) + 144 ( 2 ) > 0
dx

4(a) w2 = 3 + 4i
Let w = x + iy
( x + iy ) 2 = 3 + 4i
x 2 + 2 xyi − y 2 = 3 + 4i
x 2 − y 2 = 3 ----- (1)
2 xy = 4 ----- (2)
2
From eq (2): y =
x
2
2
Sub into eq (1): x −   = 3 ⇒ x 4 − 3 x 2 − 4 = 0
2
x
Solving, we get x = ±2 , y = ±1
Hence w = ± (2 + i )

Let z 4 = −16
(b)
z 4 = 16eiπ
z 4 = 16ei (π + 2 kπ )
1 i (π + 2 k π )
z = 2e 4 , k = −2, −1, 0,1
iπ i 34π −i 34π −i π4
z = 2e 4 , 2e , 2e , 2e

Im(z)

z2 z1
2
π
4 Re(z)
O

z3 z4

5(a)
(i) Let y = x 2 − 3
x = ± y+3
Since x ≤ 0 , x = − y + 3
f −1 : x a − x + 3 , x ≥ −3

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 3 of 10

y = f(x) y
(ii)

0 x

y = f-1f(x) y = f-1(x)

(iii) gf −1 ( x ) = g ( − x + 3) = −2 x + 3 + 4

## (b)(i) h(16) + h(25) = h(4) + h(1)

= (12 – 6) + (12 – 1) = 17

(ii) y

12

3–

x
-6 0 6 12

6(i) −π π
≤t ≤
2 2
The only axes intercept is at (0,0).

## From the graph, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 .

When x = 1,
SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 4 of 10
π
cos ( t ) = 0 ⇒ t = ±
2
π π π π
When t = , y= + 1 . When t = − , y=− −1 .
2 2 2 2
π π
∴− −1 ≤ y ≤ +1
2 2
(ii) x = 1 − cos t ; y = t + sin t
dy dy dt 1 + cos t
= × =
dx dt dx sin t
π π  π π  π
When t = , x = 1 − cos   = 1 − 0 = 1 , y = + sin   = + 1
2 2 2 2 2
π 
1 + cos  
dy
=  2  = 1+ 0 = 1
dx π  1
sin  
2
Equation of line l ,
π 
y −  + 1 = 1  x − (1)
2 
π
y − −1 = x −1
2
π
y = x+
2
(iii) π π
When x = 1, y = + 1 or − − 1 (by symmetry)
2 2
One of the points of intersection is the origin. From the graph in part (i), there
is another point of intersection when
π π
m ≥ + 1 or m ≤ − − 1
2 2

7(i) 2x + 4 y − z = 8
x + 2z = 6
From G.C, x = 6 – 2z, y = –1 + 1.25z, z = z
6   −2 
vector equation of l: r =  −1 + λ  1.25  , λ ∈
 
0   
  1 
x
(ii) uuur  
OF1 =  y 
z
 

F1 is on π1 ⇒ 2x + 4y – z = 8 --- (1)

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 5 of 10

6  2 
uuur    
OF1 −  9  = λ  4 
 −2   −1 
   
x−6 2 
    --- (2)
 y −9 = λ 4 
z + 2  
   −1 

## Solving (1) and (2), λ = −2

x = 2, y = 1 , z = 0
The foot of the perpendicular is (2,1, 0) .
(iii)  26   16 
 5   2  5  8 
      2 
Direction vector of F1 F2 =  9  − 1  =  8  =  20 
 2   0   2  5 1 
       
5  5 
 8   −2  18.75  15 
      5 
20 × 1.25  =  −10  =  −8 
Vector perpendicular to π3 =   
1  1   50  4  40 
       
 15   2   15 
     
r ⋅  −8  =  1  ⋅  −8  = 22
 40   0   40 
     
 15 
vector equation of π3 : r ⋅  −8  = 22 (shown)
 40 
 

## (iv) (6, –1, 0) is a point on l.

Perpendicular distance from (6, –1, 0) to the plane π3
 6   2    15   4   15 
          
 −1  −  1   ⋅  −8   −2  ⋅  −8 
 0   0    40   0   40 
= =     = 1.75
 15  225 + 64 + 1600
 
 −8 
 40 
 
 15 
 
m = 1.75 , v =  −8 
 40 
 

8(i) Let the height ascended by the athlete and robot after n pulls be An and Rn
respectively.

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 6 of 10

  19 n 
0.8 1 −   
  20     19  n 
An = = 16 1 −   
1   20  
20
Rn = 0.4n

## From GC, An = Rn when n ≈ 32.4 (or tabulate it to get n = 33)

The robot will overtake the athlete after 33 pulls.
(ii) A∞ = 16 (Note: An is an increasing sequence.)
∴He will never reach the top.

n
(iii) 2× [ 2 x + (n − 1)(−0.02)]
2
= 2nx − 0.02n(n − 1)
16
Robot will reach the top after = 40 pulls.
0.4
Athlete must reach top by 39th pull.

## ∴ 2(19) x − 0.02(19)(18) + ( x − 19 × 0.02) ≥ 16

39 x − 0.02(19) 2 ≥ 16
x ≥ 0.595
The minimum value of x is 0.60 (2 d.p.).

−1

9(i) dy e tan x
=
dx 1 + x 2
−1
dy e tan x
∫ dx ∫ 1 + x 2 dx
d x =
−1
∴ y = e tan x
+C
When x = 0, y = 1 ⇒ 1 = e0 + C ⇒ C = 0
−1
Thus y = e tan x

−1

(ii) dy e tan x y
= 2
=
dx 1 + x 1 + x2
dy
(
⇒ 1 + x2
dx
)
=y

Differentiating w.r.t. x,
d2 y dy dy
(1 + x2 ) dx 2
+ 2x =
dx dx
2
(
⇒ 1 + x2 ) ddxy + (2 x − 1) ddyx = 0
2

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 7 of 10

d2 y dy
(iii)
(1 + x2
dx 2 )
+ (2 x − 1)
dx
=0

Differentiating w.r.t. x,
d3 y d2 y d2 y dy
(1 + x2
dx 3 )
+ 2 x
dx 2
+ (2 x − 1)
dx 2
+2
dx
=0

d3 y d2 y dy
⇒ 1 + x2( dx 3
+ (4 )
x − 1)
dx 2
+ 2
dx
=0

When x = 0, y = 1 (given)
dy d2 y d3 y
= 1, 2 = 1, 3 = −1
dx dx dx
Thus Maclaurin series is
1 1
y = 1 + x + x 2 − x3 + L
2 6
tan −1 x
(iv) e −1

2
= e tan x (1 + x) −2
(a) (1 + x)
 1 1 
 2 6 
(
= 1 + x + x 2 − x 3 + ...  1 − 2 x + 3 x 2 + ... )
3
= 1 − x + x 2 + ...
2
(b) 2 x + tan −1 x 2 x tan −1 x
e =e e
 (2 x) 2  1 1 
= 1 + 2 x + + ... 1 + x + x 2 − x 3 + ... 
 2!  2 6 
9 2
= 1 + 3x + x + ...
2

n
10(a) Let P(n) be the statement ∑ ( r !× r ) = ( n + 1)! − 1, for all n ∈
r =1
+

Proving P(1)
1
LHS = ∑ ( r !× r ) = 1
r =1

RHS = (1 + 1) !− 1 = 1
∴ P(1) is true

## Assuming that P(k) is true for some positive integer k,

k
i.e. ∑ ( r !× r ) = ( k + 1)! − 1
r =1
To prove P(k+1) is true i.e.…
Then,
k +1 k

∑ ( r !× r ) = ∑ ( r !× r ) + ( k + 1)!× ( k + 1)
r =1 r =1

= ( k + 1) ! − 1 + ( k + 1) ! × ( k + 1)

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 8 of 10

= ( k + 1) ! + ( k + 1) ! × ( k + 1)  − 1
= ( k + 1) !1+ ( k + 1)  − 1
= ( k + 1) !( k + 2 ) − 1
= ( k + 2 ) !− 1
∴ P(k)true ⇒ P(k + 1)is true

## ∴ Since P(1) is true,

and P(k) is true ⇒ P(k + 1)is true

+
by Mathematical Induction, P(n) is true for all n ∈

## (b)(i) α = −2, β = 1, γ = 3 (by GC)

(ii) lim xn +1 = lim xn = L
n →∞ n →∞
(or any statement to the same effect)
3 2
L = −1 + 5 L + 8 L − 5
L + 1 = 3 5 L2 + 8 L − 5
3
( L + 1) = 5 L2 + 8 L − 5
L3 + 3L2 + 3L + 1 = 5 L2 + 8 L − 5
L3 − 2 L2 − 5 L + 6 = 0
As L3 − 2L2 − 5L + 6 = 0 , hence L is a root of the equation y = x3 − 2 x 2 − 5 x + 6
Therefore, L = α , β or γ
(iii) xn +1 < xn
−1 + 3 5 xn 2 + 8 xn − 5 < xn
3
5 xn 2 + 8 xn − 5 < xn + 1
3
5 xn 2 + 8 xn − 5 < ( xn + 1)
5 xn 2 + 8 xn − 5 < xn 3 + 3xn 2 + 3 xn + 1
xn 3 − 2 xn 2 − 5 xn + 6 > 0
By referring to the graph of y = x3 − 2 x 2 − 5 x + 6 , (or any statement to the same
effect) the y value at xn is positive (above the x-axis)
Hence, when xn+1 < xn , then α < xn < β or xn > γ .

## 11(a) Using A(sin θ + cos θ) + B(cos θ – sin θ) ≡ 4 sin θ,

Comparing the coefficient of sin θ & cos θ respectively,
We have A – B = 4 ----(1)
A + B = 0 --- (2)
Solving the simultaneous equations,
A = 2, B = –2 (Ans)

1
π 4sin θ
∫ 0
4
sin θ + cos θ

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 9 of 10

1
π
4
2(sin θ + cos θ ) − 2(cos θ − sin θ )
= ∫0
sin θ + cos θ

1 1
π π
4 4
(cos θ − sin θ )
= ∫ 2 dθ − 2 ∫
0 0
sin θ + cos θ

π π
= 2[θ ]04 − 2[ln(sin θ + cos θ )]04
π π
= − ln 2 (or − 2 ln 2)
2 2
(b)(i) 2t A B
2
= +
(t + 1) (t + 1) (t + 1)2
Solving, we have A = 2, B = –2
(ii) Using substitution t = 2 x − 1 ,
t 2 +1
x= ,
2
dt 1 1
= =
dx 2x −1 t
When x =1, t = 1
x = 5, t = 3
Hence
5 3
1 1
∫1 x + 2 x − 1 d x = ∫1 t 2 +1 + t (t ) dt
( )
2

3
2t
=∫ 2
dt
1
t + 2t + 1
3
2t
=∫ dt
1
(t + 1) 2
3
1 1
= 2∫ ( − ) dt from b(i )
1
t + 1 (t + 1)2
1 3
= 2[ln(t + 1) + ]1
t +1
1
= 2 ln 2 −
2

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 10 of 10

Solutions to SAJC H2 Maths PRELIM EXAM 2010

Paper 2

Qn Solutions
1 (i)  2 1   2 
uuur      
AG ⋅ 1   2  ⋅ 1 
uuur  2  4  2
     
Length of projection = AC = =
2 + 1 + 22
2
22 + 1 + 22

2+2+8
= = 4 units
3

 2   2λ 
(ii) uuur    
AC = λ 1  =  λ 
 2   2λ 
   
uuur
AC = 4
4λ 2 + λ 2 + 4λ 2 = 16
4
λ=
3
 2
uuur 4  
AC = 1 
3 
 2
uuur uuur
2 AG + 3 AC uur
By ratio theorem, = AI
5
 2 8 
   
 4 +  4
uur  8   8 
AI =
5
10  5
1  2 
= 8  =  4
5  5 
16  8 
uuur uuur
(iii) Angle between AG and GC
uuur uuur
−1 AG ⋅ AC
sin uuur uuur
= AG AC units

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 1 of 9

1   2 
 2  ⋅ 4 1 
  3 
 4  2
= sin −1     = 60.8o or 1.06 (in radians)
1 + 4 + 16 × 4

2 (i) x + y = 100
dx dx
α (100 − x) ⇒ = k (100 − x)
dt dt
1.9 = k (100 – 5) ⇒ k = 0.02
dx
∴ = 0.02 (100 − x)
dt

(ii) dx
= 0.02 (100 − x)
dt

∫ ∫
1
⇒ dx = 0.02 dt
100 − x
⇒ − ln 100 − x = 0.02t + C
When t = 0, x = 5,
−ln(95) = C

So,
− ln 100 − x = 0.02t − ln(95)
ln (100 − x ) − ln(95) = −0.02t since x < 100
 100 − x 
1n   = −0.02t
 95 
100 − x
= e −0.02t
95
⇒ x = 100 − 95e −0.02t

(iii) When t = 0, x = 5 ⇒ y = 95
Initial value of y = 95 ⇒ Half of initial value = 47.5
When y = 47.5, x = 52.5

## 52.5 = 100 − 95e −0.02 t ⇒ t = 34.7

(iv)
x = 100

x = 100 − 95e−0.02t

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 2 of 9

As t → ∞, x → 100, y → 0 .
Compound Y will be transformed almost completely to compound X.

3 (a) π
0 ≤ arg( z + 1 − i ) ≤ and z − i = 2
2
arg( z + 1 − i ) = π Im(z)
2

P(x,y)

1 arg( z + 1 − i ) = 0
π
4 Re(z)
-1 0

## Let P represent the complex number z = x + iy .

π 2
a = 2 cos = 2=x π b
4 4
π (0,1) a
b = 2 sin = 2
4
y = 2 +1
∴z = 2 +i ( 2 +1 )
(b) (i) 3
 3π 3π  π π
w = 2  cos + i sin  cos − i sin 
 4 4  6 6
3π 3π
Let w1 = cos + i sin
4 4
π π
w2 = cos − i sin
6 6
3
∴ w = 2 ( w1 )( w2 )
3
w = 2 w1 w2 = 2(1)(1) = 2

(
arg( w) = arg 2 ( w1 )( w2 )
3
)
= arg(2) + arg( w1 ) + 3arg( w2 )
3π  π
= 0+ + 3 − 
4  6
π
=
4
 π π
∴ w = 2  cos + i sin 
 4 4
SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 3 of 9
(ii)  nπ nπ 
wn = 2n  cos + i sin 
 4 4 
Since n = 4k , k ∈
 4 kπ 4 kπ 
wn = 24k  cos + i sin 
 4 4 
= 24k cos kπ
= (−1)k 24k

4 (i) dy 8( x 2 + 1) − 8 x (2 x)
Stationary points: Let =0⇒ 2
=0
dx ( )
x 2
+ 1
⇒ − x 2 + 1 = 0 ⇒ x 2 = 1 ⇒ x = ±1
8 8(−1)
⇒y= = 2 or y = =− 2
1+1 (−1) 2 + 1
( )
The stationary points are at 1, 2 and −1, − 2 . ( )
(ii) Axes Intercepts: When x = 0 , y = 0 ⇒ (0,0 ) is on the curve.
Horizontal asymptote: as x→ ±∞, y → 0 since y is a proper fraction, there
is a horizontal asymptote at y = 0

n
n
⌠ 2 x du
(iii) ∫0 f ( x ) d x = 2 
⌡0 x 2 + 1
n
= 2  ln x 2 + 1 
0

= 2  ln ( n 2 + 1) − ln ( 02 + 1) 

= 2 ln ( n 2 + 1) (shown)

2
∫ f ( x ) dx
−2
2
= 2 ∫ f ( x ) dx = 2  2 ln ( 22 + 1) 
0

= 2 2 ln 5 = 2 ln 25

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 4 of 9

(iv)
Volume obtained
1
= π ∫  g ( x )  dx
2

0
1 8x
= π ∫ f ( x ) dx y= 2
0
(1,1.19 ) x +1
= π 2 ln 12 + 1
=π 2ln2 units3

5 (i) The sample could be biased or unrepresentative as only those with interest
in the NE programme would volunteer to take part in the survey.

## (ii) Use stratified sampling method.

Select 60 females and 40 males to form the sample of size 100 so that the sample
is more representative of the population.

The selection within each strata according to the gender may be done by simple
random sampling using the available name list:

Obtain the list of female students and label them from 1 to 1080.
Generate 60 unique random numbers between 1 to 1080 inclusive.
Choose the students who correspond to the numbers generated.

6 (a) 9!
= 1260
4!3!2!

(b) 4!
= 12
2!

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 5 of 9

3!
Number of arrangements = =3
2!

## Case 2: (Y-B-Y)(R-B-R-B-R)(R) – each bracket is a fixed group.

Number of arrangements = 3! =6

## Case 3: (R-B-R-B-R-B-R)(Y)(Y) – each bracket is a fixed group.

3!
Number of arrangements = =3
2!

Total arrangement = 12

## (b) (i) Required probability

1 1 1
= 0.4 p + 0.3 × p + 0.2 × p + 0.1× p
2 4 8
49
= 0.6125 p or p
80

## (ii) Required probability

 1 1  2 1  2 1  1 1 
 0.4 p + 0.3 × p + 0.1× p  × p+ × p  × p
=  9 4   10 4  9 4 
2 8
0.6125 p
47
= 0.0533 p or p
882

(iii) 1 − 49 p ≥ 7
80 10
49 3
p≤
80 10
24
0< p≤
49

## 8 (a) Let R be the no. of Buzzland spies in a suburb of 1200 residents.

R B (1200, 0.003)
Since n = 1200 is large and np = 3.6 < 5
R Po(3.6) approximately

P ( R ≥ 5)
= 1 − P ( R ≤ 4)
= 0.294

## (b) (i) Let T be the total no. of spies present in a city.

T Po(1.7)

Required proportion
= P ( R > 5)
= 1 − P ( R ≤ 5)
= 0.007999
No. of cities = 0.007999 ×10000 ≈ 80

(ii) Let n be the no. of cities investigated and U, V the total no. of
Buzzland and Dodoland spies respectively in these cities.

U Po(1.3n) , V Po(0.4n)

## Consider P (U = 23 and V = 11) .

P (U = 23 and V = 11)
= P (U = 23) × P (V = 11)

## Assumption: The no. of Buzzland spies is independent of the no. of

Dodoland spies. / The Buzzland and Dodoland spies work
independently.

9 (i)

a = 1.0894
b = 0.28373

## SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 7 of 9

(iii) ln y = 0.28373(12) + 0.085622
ln y = 3.4903
y = 32.798 ≈ 32.8
Not reliable as x = 12 is out of data range

## (iv) ln 7 = 0.28373( x) + 0.085622

x = 6.56 ≈ 7
We use the line ln y on x since x is the independent variable and ln y is the
dependent variable.
(Cannot use x on ln y even if student states r ≈ 1, so the lines almost
coincide as y is dependent variable.)

10 (a) No.

## The distribution would be asymmetric or skewed.

If it can be modeled by Normal distribution, then there will be
approximately the same number of employees earning above and below the
mean salary.

## (b) (i) TA ~ N(55, 25), TB ~ N(53, 16)

TA + TB
Let T ~ N(54, 10.25) where T =
2
P(50 < T <60) = 0.864 (3 sig figures).

## (ii) TB ~ N(53, 16)

P( 53 – a ≤ TB ≤ 53 + a) ≤ 0.6
⇒ P(TB ≤ 53 + a) ≤ 0.8
⇒ 53 + a ≤ 56.366 (from GC)
⇒ a ≤ 3.37
Hence greatest value of a is 3.37.

## (iii) TA – TB ~ N(2, 41)

P(TA – TB > 0) = 0.6226 ≈ 0.623

## Let X be the random variable “ no of days out of 60, on which Anne

will take longer than Ben to travel to work.”
X ~ B(60, 0.6226)

## X ~ N(37.356, 14.098) approximately,

SAJC H2 Mathematics Prelim Solutions Page 8 of 9
P( X ≥ 43) → P( X > 42.5) using continuity correction
= 0.0854 (3 significant figures).

11 (a) (i) Let X be the r.v. “pH level of water” and µ be the population mean.
H 0 : µ = 8.5
• To test at 1 % level of significance
H1 : µ ≠ 8.5
X − µ0
• Under H 0 , T= t (10)
s/ n
p-value = 0.0289

## Conclusion: Since p-value > 0.01, we do not reject H0. There is

insufficient evidence, at 1% level, that the pH level differs from 8.5.

distributed.

## (b) (i) 1  (−15.2)2 

x = 8.31 , s2 = − = 2.90 (3 s.f.)
79  80 
232.2

(ii) 2.9027
By CLT, X ~ N (8.31, ) approximately
n
P( X < 8.2 ) < 0.3
8.2 − 8.31
< −0.5244
2.9027
n
−0.11 n < −0.8934
n > 8.1218
n > 65.96
Least value of n is 66.