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ABG Review

Dr Susan Prion
Spring 2006
Description Normal values
pH Negative log of [H+] Normal = 7.35-7.45
Acidosis = pH < 7.35
Alkalosis = pH >7.45
PaCO2 The respiratory PaCO2 > 45 means
parameter of ABG hypoventilation and
interpretation respiratory ACIDOSIS
CO2 is a volatile acid
that is excreted Pa CO2 < 35 means
primarily as a gas hyperventilation and
through the lungs respiratory
ALKALOSIS
PaO2 Measure of the Normal = 80 -100 torr
oxygenation status of (decreases with age)
the central and
peripheral tissues

Related to FiO2,
amount of hgb, acid-
base statusm SaO2
and VA
HCO3 Measures the Normal = 22-26 torr
buffering ability of the
blood and the amount HCO3 > 26 means
of carbonic acid (the metabolic alkalosis
metabolic parameter
of ABG interpretation)
+
HCO3 < 22 means
H + HCO3  H2CO3 metabolic acidosis
CO2 + H2O
SaO2 Saturation of Normal = 90-100% (age
hemoglobin with dependent)
oxygen
SaO2 > 100 =
1 gram HgB can carry hyperoxia
1.36 cc of O2
SaO2 < 90 =hypoxia
Base excess Another way to Normal = -2 to +2 BE
report amount of
buffers A positive base excess
means alkalosis
Zero point (BE = 0)
corresponds to 24 A negative base
torr of HCO3 excess means acidosis

BE is reported as a
negative – or positive
value (e.g. +3 or -2)