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Implementation of Single-phase pq Theory

Mehrdad Tarafdar Haque*, and Toshifumi he**

Electrical Engineering Department, Tabriz University, Tabriz, IRAN*

Phone & Fax.: 98-41 1-3356025

Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, JAPAN**

Phone: 8 1-6-6879-7695
Fax.: 81-6-6879-7263

Abstract only in three-phase systems. This subject results in

dependency of reference compensation current in one
Instantaneous reactive power compensation in single- phase to the current and voltage waveform of other two
phase scheme is implemented. The analytical analysis is phases.
presented. The proposed single-phase based theory can The main objective of this paper is presentation of
be usedfor reactive power compensation of single-phase single-phase pq theory and using it for instantaneous
as well as three-phase systems, successfully. This method reactive power compensation of each of the phases of a
generates sinusoidal reference current waveform in the three-phase system, independently. Single-phase pq
utility side in imbalanced utility voltage andor theory has two main advantages over existing original pq
imbalanced load current cases. The validity of presented theory as follows:
method and its comparison with original p q theory is
studied through simulation results. (a) Single-phase pq theory compensates for
instantaneous reactive power of single-phase as well
as three-phase systems. It can be used in single-
Key words: single-phase, pq theory phase loaded three-phase systems, too. But, original
pq theory generates incorrect compensating currents
1 Introduction in remaining phases of a three-phase system, which
is loaded by a single-phase load on one of its phases.
In modem power systems the requirement for reactive (b) Single-phase pq theory generates sinusoidal
power compensation is becoming more and more reference currents in the utility side when utility
rigorous. During the last decades, voltage source voltages and/or load currents are imbalance but
inverters (VSIs) due to advancements in power original pq theory cannot generate sinusoidal current
electronics and control methods have attracted a great waveform in above-mentioned conditions.
deal of attention for fast dynamic reactive power
compensation. It is possible canceling out the reactive 2 Theory of operation
power of load using injection of specified current
waveform to the utility by VSI. Obviously, the most The basic idea of original pq theory begins with
important subject in the operation of these inverters is transforming the instantaneous space vectors of three
the strategy of generation of reference current phase utility voltages and load currents from a-b-c
waveforms, which the inverter should inject in each of coordinates into a-p coordinates using (1) and (2) [ 11.
the phases. Between the various methods in this field,
the instantaneous pq theory has gained considerable
attention [ 11.
After the presentation of original pq theory [ 1,2] some
instantaneous power based theories presented [3-61. The
main objectives of these articles were extension of pq
theory to three-phase three-wire and/or three-phase four-
wire systems considering different utility voltage and/or
load current conditions. These conditions include The instantaneous real power, p(t) and imaginary
subjects such as imbalance and/or harmonic polluted power, q(t) of load is defined as follows:
utility voltage, imbalance and/or harmonic polluted load
current and neutral current compensation [7-91.
Considering this fact that the pq theory is a three-
phase system based theory, it is obvious that all of the
researches which are based on this theory, are usable

0-7803-7156-9/02/$10.0002002 IEEE - 761 - PCC-Osaka 2002

From (3), the reference compensating currents on the Considering this fact that the voltages and currents on
a-j3 coordinates, icompa and icompp are given as follows: the p axis are x/2phase lag in respect with the quantities
on a axis, it is possible writing the following equations:

Transforming these currents into a-b-c coordinates

results in the following equation: These equations are correct in absence of negative

[*lm1//(1)] [ 1 0 ][ sequence of load currents and utility voltages. In (1 1)

and (12), v’, (t) and i’, (t) lead v, (t) and i, (t) by x/2,

= - -0.5

icomLJp(‘) 1 (5) respectively.

Substituting of (S), (9), (1 1) and (12) in (10) gives the
following equation:
Where, ;compa(t) Icompb(1) and icompc(O are the
instantaneous compensating currents which should be
absorbed by voltage source PWM inverter from the
utility in each of the phases a, b and c, respectively.
Considering a there-phase utility which has a only one In eq. (13), v‘, (t) and i‘, (t) lead v,(f) and i , ( t )
single-phase load on phase “a” it is possible writing the by d 2 , respectively. This equation determines the
following expression: reference compensating current for instantaneous
reactive power compensation in phase “a”. The
i b ( t ) = ic(t) = 0 (6) compensating current of (1 3) depends on the utility
voltage and load current in the phase “a”. Considering
Using (2) to (4) results in the following equation: this fact that compensating cument of phase “a” is
independent on the voltages and currents of other two
phases makes it possible using this equation for
(7) instantaneous reactive power compensation in single-
phase systems as well as three-phase systems with
single-phase load. In a similar mariner for obtaining (1 3),
Obviously, situating compensating currents of (7) into it is possible concluding compensating currents in the
(5) result in compensating currents not only in the phase phases b and c using (14) and (15), respectively. These
“a” but also in remaining phases “b” and “c”. But, the currents are dependent only on the utility voltages and
phases b and c were unloaded and it is not necessary load currents of the phases “b” and “c”, respectively.
absorbing such a compensating currents from these
phases. In other words, original pq theory generates
incorrect compensating currents in remaining phases of a
three-phase system, which has a single-phase load on
one of its phases.
Using the presented single-phase pq theory solves this
problem. Considering the transformation formulas of
a-p coordinates into a-b-c coordinates gives the
following expressions for current and voltage on c1 axis: 3 Control Circuit of Single-phase pq
Fig. 1 shows the control circuit of presented method in
one of the phases. In this figure v(t), i(t) and icomp(t)
stand for the utility phase voltage, load current and
reference compensating current, respectively. The
On the other hand, from (3), (4) and (5) we have: notations of v’(t) and i’(t) show d2 phase leaded
waveform of v(t) and i(t), respectively.
From theoretical point of view, the control block of
‘ W 2 phase lead” should be a quadrature filter, which its
transfer hnction is as follows [lo]:

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”“‘+ phase lead

i comp 0)

Fig. 1. Control circuit single-phase pq theory

The operation of this filter is equivalent with

implementation of Hilbert transform in the frequency
domain. The output function of this filter is orthogonal to Fig. 2. Simulated power system
its input signal in steady state as well as transient case.
Unfortunately, from practical point of view, it is not This circuit has four stages of operation as follows:
possible making this filter, exactly. In this paper the
following all pass filter is used for approximation of 1- From zero to 50 (ms) the load of utility is only
operation of quadrature filter: the three-phase balanced R-L load. This load
would result in reactive power burden on utility.
H ( s ) = --
2- The second three-phase balance R-L load
1+6S switches ON to the utility at 50 (ms). Switching
this load ON can be used for studying the
Where, T I = l / o l and o1 stands for angular dynamic operation of control circuit.
fundamental frequency. 3- At 100 (ms), the single-phase load on the phase
In three-phase systems, it is possible using the “c” switches ON. This load generates imbalance
proposed control circuit of Fig. 1 in each of the phases, load current case. Indeed, the single-phase
independently. In this way, the control circuit reactive power compensation ability of control
compensates for instantaneous reactive power of each of circuit is studied from 100 (ms) to 150 (ms).
the phases, independently. For example, considering a 4- At 150 (ms) to the end of simulation time, the
single-phase loaded three-phase system and using (6), magnitude of voltage of phase “a” is reduced to
( 1 4) and ( 1 5) results in zero compensating currents in the 50% of its rated value. This generates a voltage
phases b and c. imbalance case. On the other hand, the current of
The other feature of single-phase pq theory is phase “a” decreases and the current imbalance
generation of sinusoidal reference current waveforms in case of previous interval changes to a new state.
the utility side in imbalance utility voltages and/or
imbalance load side currents cases. Obviously, this is Fig. 3 shows the simulation results. Fig. 3(a) shows the
because of single-phase based operation of presented utility voltages. This figure shows the voltage imbalance
theory. The simulation results of following section has case from 150 (ms) to 200 (ms).
been used to explain the operation of single-phase pq Fig. 3(b) shows the load side currents. These currents
theory. are balanced from zero to 50 (ms) and show reactive
power burden of load. From 50 (ms) to 100 (ms) these
4 Simulation Results currents are balanced again but reactive power burden of
load is increased. From 100 (ms) to 150 (ms) there is a
The operation of presented single-phase pq theory is current imbalance case and from 150 (ms) to 200 (ms)
studied through simulation results. Three similar single- there is current and voltage imbalance case,
phase pq theory based control circuits (see Fig. 1) are simultaneously. The control circuit uses the voltage and
used in each of the phases a, b and c, independently. Fig. current waveforms of F i g s 3(a) and 3(b) as input signals
2 shows the simulated power system. The source for generation of reference reactive power compensating
consists of a 3-phase 4-wire 120 V (rms, L-L), 60 Hz current waveforms.
utility. The load consists of a three-phase balance R-L Fig.s 3(c) and 3(d) show the reference source side
load, another three phase balance R-L load which, can be currents after the operation of pq theory and single-phase
switched ON and OFF using a three phase thyristor scheme of pq theory, respectively. Considering Fig. 3(c)
switch and a resistive load which can be switched ON shows that original pq theory cannot generate sinusoidal
and OFF using a single-phase thyristor switch. waveform at the source side in load current and/or utility
voltage cases (i.e. from 100 (ms) to 200 (ms)). On the
other hand, Fig. 3(d) shows that the operation of

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. .

1 1 1 1

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

(a) Utility Voltages

0 la O b A IC

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2
(b) Load Side Currents

0 lqsoua 0 lqsoub A Iqsouc

-n n?
-V.VY 1 - 1 8 8 1

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

(c) Source Currents by pq Theory

0 lasou 0 lbsoo A lcsou

' 0.02
-n n7
".W 8 1 1 1 1

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

(d) Source Currents by Presented Method

Fig. 3. Simulation results

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presented single-phase scheme of pq theory not only
compensates for instantaneous reactive power but also [31 J. L. Willems, “A New Interpretation of the
results in sinusoidal current waveform in all of the load Akagi-Nabae Power Components for
currents and source voltages cases. Obviously, such Nonsinusoidal Three-phase Situations”, IEEE
ability is due to single-phase based operation of this Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 41, No. 4, Augest.
control circuit. It should be noticed that this control 1992, pp. 523-527.
strategy would not generate balanced current [41 A. Nabae, H. Nakano and S. Togasawa, “An
waveforms in the utility side. Instantaneous Distortion Current Compensator
without any Coordinate Transformation,” Proc.
5 Conclusions of IEEJ International Power Electronics Conf.
(IPEC-Yokohama), 1995, pp. 1651-1655.
The demerits of original pq theory in compensation F. Z. Peng and J. S. Lai, “Generalized
for a single-phase loaded three-phase utility are Instantaneous Reactive Power for Three-phase
discussed through analytical expressions. Single-phase Power Systems,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,
pq theory is presented and its application in above- Vol. 45, No. 1, Feb. 1996, pp. 293-297.
mentioned condition is studied through analytical M. T. Haque, S. H. Hosseini and T. Ise, “A
expressions. The formula of single-phase reference Control Strategy for Parallel Active Filters
instantaneous reactive power compensation current is Using Extended pq Theory and Quasi
derived. The validity of presented control strategy is Instantaneous Positive sequence Extraction
proved through simulation results. These results show Method,” International Symposium on Industrial
valuable dynamic response of single-phase pq theory. Electronics (ISIE 2001-Pusan-Korea), Vol. 1, pp.
The independent operation of single-phase pq theory in 348-353.
each of the phases is other feature of presented control [71 S. J. Huang and J. C. Wu, “A Control Algorithm
strategy, which results in sinusoidal current waveform for Three-phase Three-Wired Active Power
in imbalance load current and/or utility voltage cases. Filters under Non Ideal Main Voltages,” IEEE
Trans. Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 4, July
6 References 1999, pp. 753-760.
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