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Phone & Fax.: 98-41 1-3356025

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Phone: 8 1-6-6879-7695

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e-mail: ise@pwr.eng.osaka-tJ.ac.jp

dependency of reference compensation current in one

Instantaneous reactive power compensation in single- phase to the current and voltage waveform of other two

phase scheme is implemented. The analytical analysis is phases.

presented. The proposed single-phase based theory can The main objective of this paper is presentation of

be usedfor reactive power compensation of single-phase single-phase pq theory and using it for instantaneous

as well as three-phase systems, successfully. This method reactive power compensation of each of the phases of a

generates sinusoidal reference current waveform in the three-phase system, independently. Single-phase pq

utility side in imbalanced utility voltage andor theory has two main advantages over existing original pq

imbalanced load current cases. The validity of presented theory as follows:

method and its comparison with original p q theory is

studied through simulation results. (a) Single-phase pq theory compensates for

instantaneous reactive power of single-phase as well

as three-phase systems. It can be used in single-

Key words: single-phase, pq theory phase loaded three-phase systems, too. But, original

pq theory generates incorrect compensating currents

1 Introduction in remaining phases of a three-phase system, which

is loaded by a single-phase load on one of its phases.

In modem power systems the requirement for reactive (b) Single-phase pq theory generates sinusoidal

power compensation is becoming more and more reference currents in the utility side when utility

rigorous. During the last decades, voltage source voltages and/or load currents are imbalance but

inverters (VSIs) due to advancements in power original pq theory cannot generate sinusoidal current

electronics and control methods have attracted a great waveform in above-mentioned conditions.

deal of attention for fast dynamic reactive power

compensation. It is possible canceling out the reactive 2 Theory of operation

power of load using injection of specified current

waveform to the utility by VSI. Obviously, the most The basic idea of original pq theory begins with

important subject in the operation of these inverters is transforming the instantaneous space vectors of three

the strategy of generation of reference current phase utility voltages and load currents from a-b-c

waveforms, which the inverter should inject in each of coordinates into a-p coordinates using (1) and (2) [ 11.

the phases. Between the various methods in this field,

the instantaneous pq theory has gained considerable

attention [ 11.

After the presentation of original pq theory [ 1,2] some

instantaneous power based theories presented [3-61. The

main objectives of these articles were extension of pq

theory to three-phase three-wire and/or three-phase four-

wire systems considering different utility voltage and/or

load current conditions. These conditions include The instantaneous real power, p(t) and imaginary

subjects such as imbalance and/or harmonic polluted power, q(t) of load is defined as follows:

utility voltage, imbalance and/or harmonic polluted load

current and neutral current compensation [7-91.

Considering this fact that the pq theory is a three-

phase system based theory, it is obvious that all of the

researches which are based on this theory, are usable

From (3), the reference compensating currents on the Considering this fact that the voltages and currents on

a-j3 coordinates, icompa and icompp are given as follows: the p axis are x/2phase lag in respect with the quantities

on a axis, it is possible writing the following equations:

-1

results in the following equation: These equations are correct in absence of negative

and (12), v’, (t) and i’, (t) lead v, (t) and i, (t) by x/2,

fcomp/,(t)

icompc(f)

= - -0.5

-0.5

&/2

-&/2

icompa(t)

Substituting of (S), (9), (1 1) and (12) in (10) gives the

following equation:

Where, ;compa(t) Icompb(1) and icompc(O are the

instantaneous compensating currents which should be

absorbed by voltage source PWM inverter from the

utility in each of the phases a, b and c, respectively.

Considering a there-phase utility which has a only one In eq. (13), v‘, (t) and i‘, (t) lead v,(f) and i , ( t )

single-phase load on phase “a” it is possible writing the by d 2 , respectively. This equation determines the

following expression: reference compensating current for instantaneous

reactive power compensation in phase “a”. The

i b ( t ) = ic(t) = 0 (6) compensating current of (1 3) depends on the utility

voltage and load current in the phase “a”. Considering

Using (2) to (4) results in the following equation: this fact that compensating cument of phase “a” is

independent on the voltages and currents of other two

phases makes it possible using this equation for

(7) instantaneous reactive power compensation in single-

phase systems as well as three-phase systems with

single-phase load. In a similar mariner for obtaining (1 3),

Obviously, situating compensating currents of (7) into it is possible concluding compensating currents in the

(5) result in compensating currents not only in the phase phases b and c using (14) and (15), respectively. These

“a” but also in remaining phases “b” and “c”. But, the currents are dependent only on the utility voltages and

phases b and c were unloaded and it is not necessary load currents of the phases “b” and “c”, respectively.

absorbing such a compensating currents from these

phases. In other words, original pq theory generates

incorrect compensating currents in remaining phases of a

three-phase system, which has a single-phase load on

one of its phases.

Using the presented single-phase pq theory solves this

problem. Considering the transformation formulas of

a-p coordinates into a-b-c coordinates gives the

following expressions for current and voltage on c1 axis: 3 Control Circuit of Single-phase pq

Theory

Fig. 1 shows the control circuit of presented method in

one of the phases. In this figure v(t), i(t) and icomp(t)

stand for the utility phase voltage, load current and

reference compensating current, respectively. The

On the other hand, from (3), (4) and (5) we have: notations of v’(t) and i’(t) show d2 phase leaded

waveform of v(t) and i(t), respectively.

From theoretical point of view, the control block of

‘ W 2 phase lead” should be a quadrature filter, which its

transfer hnction is as follows [lo]:

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”“‘+ phase lead

i comp 0)

implementation of Hilbert transform in the frequency

domain. The output function of this filter is orthogonal to Fig. 2. Simulated power system

its input signal in steady state as well as transient case.

Unfortunately, from practical point of view, it is not This circuit has four stages of operation as follows:

possible making this filter, exactly. In this paper the

following all pass filter is used for approximation of 1- From zero to 50 (ms) the load of utility is only

operation of quadrature filter: the three-phase balanced R-L load. This load

would result in reactive power burden on utility.

1-6s

H ( s ) = --

2- The second three-phase balance R-L load

(17)

1+6S switches ON to the utility at 50 (ms). Switching

this load ON can be used for studying the

Where, T I = l / o l and o1 stands for angular dynamic operation of control circuit.

fundamental frequency. 3- At 100 (ms), the single-phase load on the phase

In three-phase systems, it is possible using the “c” switches ON. This load generates imbalance

proposed control circuit of Fig. 1 in each of the phases, load current case. Indeed, the single-phase

independently. In this way, the control circuit reactive power compensation ability of control

compensates for instantaneous reactive power of each of circuit is studied from 100 (ms) to 150 (ms).

the phases, independently. For example, considering a 4- At 150 (ms) to the end of simulation time, the

single-phase loaded three-phase system and using (6), magnitude of voltage of phase “a” is reduced to

( 1 4) and ( 1 5) results in zero compensating currents in the 50% of its rated value. This generates a voltage

phases b and c. imbalance case. On the other hand, the current of

The other feature of single-phase pq theory is phase “a” decreases and the current imbalance

generation of sinusoidal reference current waveforms in case of previous interval changes to a new state.

the utility side in imbalance utility voltages and/or

imbalance load side currents cases. Obviously, this is Fig. 3 shows the simulation results. Fig. 3(a) shows the

because of single-phase based operation of presented utility voltages. This figure shows the voltage imbalance

theory. The simulation results of following section has case from 150 (ms) to 200 (ms).

been used to explain the operation of single-phase pq Fig. 3(b) shows the load side currents. These currents

theory. are balanced from zero to 50 (ms) and show reactive

power burden of load. From 50 (ms) to 100 (ms) these

4 Simulation Results currents are balanced again but reactive power burden of

load is increased. From 100 (ms) to 150 (ms) there is a

The operation of presented single-phase pq theory is current imbalance case and from 150 (ms) to 200 (ms)

studied through simulation results. Three similar single- there is current and voltage imbalance case,

phase pq theory based control circuits (see Fig. 1) are simultaneously. The control circuit uses the voltage and

used in each of the phases a, b and c, independently. Fig. current waveforms of F i g s 3(a) and 3(b) as input signals

2 shows the simulated power system. The source for generation of reference reactive power compensating

consists of a 3-phase 4-wire 120 V (rms, L-L), 60 Hz current waveforms.

utility. The load consists of a three-phase balance R-L Fig.s 3(c) and 3(d) show the reference source side

load, another three phase balance R-L load which, can be currents after the operation of pq theory and single-phase

switched ON and OFF using a three phase thyristor scheme of pq theory, respectively. Considering Fig. 3(c)

switch and a resistive load which can be switched ON shows that original pq theory cannot generate sinusoidal

and OFF using a single-phase thyristor switch. waveform at the source side in load current and/or utility

voltage cases (i.e. from 100 (ms) to 200 (ms)). On the

other hand, Fig. 3(d) shows that the operation of

- 763 -

. .

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1

m

V.L.

9

1 1 1 1

(a) Utility Voltages

0 la O b A IC

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

-0.04

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

(b) Load Side Currents

0.03

(W

0.02

0.01

0

-0.01

-0.02

-n n?

-V.VY 1 - 1 8 8 1

(c) Source Currents by pq Theory

0.03

' 0.02

0.01

0

-0.01

-0.02

-n n7

".W 8 1 1 1 1

(d) Source Currents by Presented Method

- 764 -

presented single-phase scheme of pq theory not only

compensates for instantaneous reactive power but also [31 J. L. Willems, “A New Interpretation of the

results in sinusoidal current waveform in all of the load Akagi-Nabae Power Components for

currents and source voltages cases. Obviously, such Nonsinusoidal Three-phase Situations”, IEEE

ability is due to single-phase based operation of this Trans. Instrum. Meas., Vol. 41, No. 4, Augest.

control circuit. It should be noticed that this control 1992, pp. 523-527.

strategy would not generate balanced current [41 A. Nabae, H. Nakano and S. Togasawa, “An

waveforms in the utility side. Instantaneous Distortion Current Compensator

without any Coordinate Transformation,” Proc.

5 Conclusions of IEEJ International Power Electronics Conf.

(IPEC-Yokohama), 1995, pp. 1651-1655.

The demerits of original pq theory in compensation F. Z. Peng and J. S. Lai, “Generalized

for a single-phase loaded three-phase utility are Instantaneous Reactive Power for Three-phase

discussed through analytical expressions. Single-phase Power Systems,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.,

pq theory is presented and its application in above- Vol. 45, No. 1, Feb. 1996, pp. 293-297.

mentioned condition is studied through analytical M. T. Haque, S. H. Hosseini and T. Ise, “A

expressions. The formula of single-phase reference Control Strategy for Parallel Active Filters

instantaneous reactive power compensation current is Using Extended pq Theory and Quasi

derived. The validity of presented control strategy is Instantaneous Positive sequence Extraction

proved through simulation results. These results show Method,” International Symposium on Industrial

valuable dynamic response of single-phase pq theory. Electronics (ISIE 2001-Pusan-Korea), Vol. 1, pp.

The independent operation of single-phase pq theory in 348-353.

each of the phases is other feature of presented control [71 S. J. Huang and J. C. Wu, “A Control Algorithm

strategy, which results in sinusoidal current waveform for Three-phase Three-Wired Active Power

in imbalance load current and/or utility voltage cases. Filters under Non Ideal Main Voltages,” IEEE

Trans. Power Electronics, Vol. 14, No. 4, July

6 References 1999, pp. 753-760.

Y. Komatsu and T. Kawabata, “A Control

[l] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, Methods of Active Power Filter in

“Generalized Theory of the Instantaneous Unsymmetrical and Distorted Voltage System,”

Reactive Power in Three-phase Circuits,” Proc. Proc. of PCC - Nagaoka’97, pp. 16 1- 168.

of IEEJ International Power Electronics M. T. Haque, T. Ise and S. H. Hosseini, “A

Conference. (IPEC-Tokyo), 1983, pp. 1375- Novel Control strategy for Active Filters Usable

1386. in harmonic polluted and/or Imbalanced utility

[2] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, A. Nabae, voltage Case of 3-Phase 4-wire Distribution

“Instantaneous Reactive Power Compensators systems,” 9’th Intl. Conf. on Harmonics and

Comprising Switching Devices without Energy Quality of Power, Vol. I , Oct. 2000, Orlando,

Storage components,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., USA, pp. 239-244.

Vol. 20, No. 3, MayIJune 1984, pp. 625-630. POI J. G. Proakis and M. Salehi, “Communication

Systems Engineering,” Prentice-Hall Intl., Inc.

1994.

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