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Topic 1 Introduction to Communication

 The pitfalls to avoid in written communication are using confusing language , verbosity , poor
sentence structure and information overload.
 Peopla sometimes fail to respond to written forms of communication for various reasons , for
instance , the message is not clear , the language is weak or there is too much information.
 The receiver of any written report should be able to understand the contents of the report , know
precisely what action needs to be taken , how to do it and in what manner it should be done.
Topic 2 Communication Models – A Theoretical Perspective ( 理论观点)

A sign can represent ideas , experiences , images , objects , feelings and concepts.

Symbols hv complex meanings in addition to the literal ones.

Emotions and abbreviations are increasingly making an impact in written communication.

Topic 3 What are Essays ?

Essays : A short literary composition on a single subject , usually presenting the personal view of the

3.1 Stages of Essay Writing

3.2 Types Of Essays

3.4 Writing Paragraphs

Introduction : introduces the topic , followed supporting sentences

Body paragraph : supporting evidence for the essay , provide examples

Conclusion : summarise the whole essay , making clear to readers understanding of the essay topic.
Topic 4 Types of Essays

Explaination essay can be defined as an essay that explains things or processes in sequential order.

Arguementation essay tries to win the audience over so that they agree with what we say , accept our facts ,
embrace our velues and adopt our arguments and way od thinking.

Discussion essay we present both sides of the issue & let the audience decide for themselves which side of
the fence they want to be on.


Topic 5 Tackling 解决 Essays

1. Read the question twice to understand correctly.

2. Try interpret ( 解释 ) the question by underlining key words.
3. Start writing down the facts / researching the topic & read more about it
4. Using the classic 5 paragraph essay ( introduction – body / point 1 – body / point 2 – body / point 3 –
conclusion )
5. Creative writing : does not hv specific rules , can be fiction , poetry or non-fiction.
Example : poetry , novels , short stories
Read more to write better / more original / own style

5.4 Biliographies & Plagiarism

Bibliographies : a list of writings with time and place of publication in preparing a document.
Two popular ways of bibliographies :

MLA : used in fields like humanities , history , literature , rhetoric & communication.

APA : is widely used in social science.

Plagiarism : Stealing someone else’s ideas or words & claiming them to be your own.

5.5 Screening for useful resourses

1. Read the abstract ( a summary of points usually presented in skeletal form ) or précis ( a concise
summary of essential points , statements or facts )

2. Reading the introduction ( contains the topic sentence , supporting details , preview or scope ) of
the book or an essay.

5.6 Describing Visual Data

Visual data such as charts and graphs are often used in essays , especially in scientific research papers.
Common types of graphic : table , line graph , bar charts , pictographs & pie charts.

Topic 6 Persuasive 说服 Writing

 A type of writing to influence / change reader’s thoughts or actions to agree with those of the writer.

The persuasive essay is constructed using a title, thesis statement, supporting paragraphs and a

Reasons & Purposes of Persuasive Writing

1. To change reader’s thoughts and actions.

2. Make ppl believe what we say

3. Take appropriate action on written work

Types of Reasoning Process

Deductive reasoning : introduces a general principle or premise & draw a specific conclusion from it.

Inductive reasoning : supports a general conclusion by looking at specific facts or evidence.

Topic 7 Report Writing

7.1 Process preparing a report :