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# N U M B E R 2 0 1 6 8 9

+ N U M B E R + 2 0 1 6 8 9
P U Z Z L E 4 0 3 3 7 8

T I L E S 9 1 5 4 2
+ P U Z Z L E S + 3 0 7 7 5 4 2
P I C T U R E 3 1 6 9 0 8 4

C L O C K 9 0 8 9 2
T I C K 6 5 9 2
+ T O C K + 6 8 9 2
P L A N E T 1 0 4 3 7 6

C O C A 8 1 8 6
+ C O L A + 8 1 0 6
O A S I S 1 6 2 9 2

H E R E 9 4 5 4
+ S H E + 8 9 4
C O M E S 1 0 3 4 8

D O U B L E 7 9 8 0 6 4
D O U B L E 7 9 8 0 6 4
+ T O I L + 1 9 3 6
T R O U B L E 1 5 9 8 0 6 4

N O 8 7
G U N 9 0 8
+ N O + 8 7
H U N T 1 0 8 2

T H R E E 8 4 6 1 1
T H R E E 8 4 6 1 1
T W O 8 0 3
T W O 8 0 3
+ O N E + 3 9 1
E L E V E N 1 7 1 2 1 9

C R O S S 9 6 2 3 3
+ R O A D S + 6 2 5 1 3
D A N G E R 1 5 8 7 4 6
M E M O 8 4 8 5
+ F R O M + 7 3 5 8
H O M E R 1 5 8 4 3

DIPHER

Addition of two numbers with 'n' digits, results in a n+1 digits, then the left most place always =
1.
So M=1. Substitute this value.
Now 'o' cannot be 1 as M already 1. It may not be 2 either as S+1 =
12 or 1 + S + 1 = 12 in the both cases S is a two digit number. So 'o' is
nothing but zero. Put o = 0.
Now S can be either 8 or 9. If S = 8, then there must be a carry over.
E + 0 = 10 + N or 1 + E + 0 = 10 + N
In the above two cases, E - N = 10 is not possible and E - N = 9 not
possible as as N cannot be zero.
So E = 9.
Now E + 0 = N is not possible as E = N. So 1 + E = N possible.

## The possible cases are, N + R = 10 + E - - - (1) or 1 + N + R = 10 + E - - - (2)

Substituting E = N -1 in the first equation, N + R = 10 + N - 1, we get R = 9 which is not possible.
Substituting E = N - 1 in the second equation, 1 + N + R = 10 + N - 1, we get R = 8.
We know that N and E are consecutive and N is larger. Take (N, E) = (7, 6) check and substitute,
you wont get any unique value for D.
Take (N, E) = (6, 5), Now you get D = 7, Y = 2.
et us name the columns as below

We know that sum of two single digit alphabets should not cross 18, and maximum difference
between two alphabets is 9.
If we add two maximum 4 digit numbers the sum is maximum 19998. So the digit in the 5th left is
1.
Now from the 1st column 1 + E = 1F; if there is any carry over from the 2nd column 1 + 1 + E =
1F
But 1F is a two digit number in alphanumeric is equal to 10 + F
So 1+E=10+F⇒E−F=91+E=10+F⇒E−F=9
From this relatlion we know that E = 9, F = 0
or 1+1+E=10+F⇒E−F=81+1+E=10+F⇒E−F=8
E = 9, F = 1 or E = 8, F =
0
From the above we can
infer that F = 0 but we
dont know whether E is
equal to either 8 or
9. But surely F is not
equal to 1 as we fixed
Now from the 3rd column,
2C= 1 ⇒ C = 1/2
1 + 2C = 1 ⇒ C = 0
If the sum is a two digit number then
2C = 11 ⇒ C= 11/2
1 + 2C = 11 ⇒ C = 5
From the above C = 1/2 and 11/2 are not possible nor is 0 possible as we fixed F = 0
If C = 5 the the A = 1 and there is a carry over to the left column. and also there must be carry
over from the first column, but we dont know 1 + 2B is a single digit or two digit number
From the second and fourth columns
1+2B = G - - - - (1) or 1 + 2B = 10 + G - - - (2)
D + B = 10 + G - - - (3)
Solving (1) and (3) we get D - B = 11 which is not possible
But If we solve (2) and (3) then we get D - B = 1
So D and B are consecutive numbers and their sum is more than 10. So acceptable values
are D = 7 and B = 6
This completes our problem so final table looks like the following
Solved Example 6:
Find the alphabets in the following multiplication

Explanation:
This is a tough question as there are total 9 different alphabets are used.
Step 1: K + A = A. So K = 0
Step 2: From the hundreds column, 2B + A = 10 or 20. As 2B, 10, 20 are even, A should be
even. Remember this logic.
Possibilities are, for A and B are (2, 4), (4, 3), (6, 2), (8, 1) and (2, 9), (4, 8), (6, 7), (8, 6)
In the second row of multiplication, we have PAS x B = ASAA.
P2S x 4 = 2S22 ⇒S = 3, 8 But both are not satisfying.
P4S x 3 = 4S44 ⇒S = 8. But P48 x 3 = 4844 is not possible. Ruled out.
P6S x 2 = 6S66 ⇒S = 3, 8. But both are not satisfying. Ruled out.
P2S x 9 = 2S22 ⇒S = 8 But P28 x 9 = 2822 is not possible. Ruled out.
P4S x 8 = 4S44 ⇒S = 3. This is possible as P43 x 8 = 4344 then P = 5.
P6S x 7 = 6S66 ⇒S = 8 But P68 x 7 = 6866 is not possible. Ruled out.
P8S x 6 = 8S88 ⇒S = 3, 8 But both are not satisfying. Ruled out.
Therefore, S = 3, P = 5, A = 4, B = 8.

## From the above diagram, R = 6 and E = 2. and A = 7 and W = 1.

Final Solution:

CRYPTHARITHM MEANING

A cryptarithm is just a math puzzle or a math riddle. We can turn any regular addition,
subtraction, multiplication, or division problem into a cryptarithm by replacing the numbers with
letters.

## Your job now is find the numerical values of these letters.

In ths lesson, I will show you, using my own techniques and thinking ability, how to solve
cryptarithms.

Example #1: Solve the cryptarithm below using only the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9. No letter
can represent two different digits. For instance n cannot be 2 and 6 at the same time.

sun
+ fun
______
SWIM

Guess and test is the strategy that we are going to use. However, just guess and test is not
enough. You may need to make some good observations or use some basic math facts to solve
the puzzle in a timely fashion. Otherwise, we may end up guessing all day.

Solution:

s u n
+ f u n
_______________
s w i m

Notice that n cannot be 0. When adding n and n, the result is m and m is different than n.
However, 0 + 0 = 0, so you are not getting a different number. By the same token, u cannot be 0.

## Notice also that n cannot be 2, 7, or 9.

2+2=4 7 + 7 = 14 9 + 9 = 18

When adding, you will have to write down 4, or 8. However, 4 and 8 are not listed among the
numbers we can use.

## Notice that the following additions are not possible.

s 6 1

+ f 6 1 _______________

s w 2 2

2 appears twice
s 6 3

+ f 6 3 _______________

s w 2 6

6 appears twice

s 1 6

+ f 1 6 _______________

s w 2 2

2 appears twice

For the one in the middle, you could try to swap 3 and 6 and see what happens.

s 3 6
+ f 3 6
_______________
s w 7 2

We have 3 numbers left to use 0, 1, and 9. If you going to get a number with 4 digits as an
answer, then 9 must be either s or f

9 3 6
+ 1 3 6
_______________
1 0 7 2

1 3 6
+ 9 3 6
_______________
1 0 7 2

The one on the right is of course our answer. The other two additions below are more
possibilities that would not have worked if we had tried them.

9 3 1
+ 7 3 1
_______________
1 6 6 2

9 1 3
+ 7 1 3
_______________
1 6 2 6
Example #2: Find A, B, C, and D. The digits that we can pick from are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
and 9

ABCD
x 4
____________
DCBA

Solution:

A B
D C
x 4
_________________
D C B A

## Important observation: The answer has 4 digits.

If the digit in red ( A ) is bigger than 2, the answer will have 5 digits instead 4.
Therefore A cannot be 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 8, or 9. A can be either 1 or 2.

## Suppose that A is 1 as shown below. Then, 4 times D = 1

1 DB C
x 4
_________________
D C B 1

## 4 times 1 = 4, 4 times 2 = 8, 4 times 3 = 12, 4 times 4 = 16, 4 times 5 = 20,

4 times 6 = 24 , 4 times 7 = 28, 4 times 8 = 32, 4 times 9 = 36

There are no numbers multiplied by 4 that will give you a 1 in the ones place. A cannot be 1 and
since A cannot be 1, A must be 2.

2 B C D

x 4
_________________
D C B 2

## Only 4 times 3 or 4 times 8 will give you a 2 in the ones place, so D is 3 or 8

2 B C 3
x 4
_________________
3 C B 2

2 B C 8

x 4
_________________
8 C B 2

At this point, I feel more inclined to use the one on the right because 4 times 2 gives me the 8
that I want.

2 B C 8

x 4
_________________
8 C B 2

My strategy now is to pick the right number for B. As I try to do this I notice that B cannot be
bigger than 3. Anything bigger than 3 will have a carry that will force the 8 in the answer to be
bigger. 2 is not a choice either since 2 cannot be repeated. My only choice for B then is 1.

2 1 C 8

x 4
_________________
8 C 1 2

## When I do 4 times 8, I have a carry of 3.

4 times C + 3 must give a number with 1 in the ones place. My two choices for C are 2 and 7. 2
cannot be chosen since the 2 will be repeated. My only choice for C is 7.

2 1 7 8

x 4
_________________
8 7 1 2

Some cryptarithms will be tougher than that to solve. However, you can eventualy solve them by
making some good observations.

CONCLUSION
This document covers only the addition and
subtraction aspects of cryptarithmetic.
Moreinformation on multiplication and division
and other advanced topics in cryptarithmetic
is beyond the scope of this document and can be
found at the website listed in the workscited
section
ALPHAMETIC DEFINE
: a mathematical puzzle consisting of a numerical computation with letters
substituted for numbers which are to be restored through mathematical
reasoning

Cryptarithmic puzzles are quite old and their inventor is not known. An 1864 example
in The American Agriculturist[2] disproves the popular notion that it was invented
by Sam Loyd. The name "cryptarithm" was coined by puzzlist Minos (pseudonym
of Simon Vatriquant) in the May 1931 issue of Sphinx, a Belgian magazine of
recreational mathematics, and was translated as "cryptarithmetic" by Maurice
Kraitchik in 1942.[3] In 1955, J. A. H. Hunter introduced the word "alphametic" to
designate cryptarithms, such as Dudeney's, whose letters form meaningful words or
phrases.[4]

Alphametic
A type of cryptarithm in which a set of words is written down in the form of a
long addition sum or some other mathematical problem.The object is to
replace the letters of the alphabet with decimal digits to make a valid
arithmetic sum.
Digimetic
A cryptarithm in which digits are used to represent other digits.
Skeletal division
A long division in which most or all of the digits are replaced by symbols
(usually asterisks) to form a cryptarithm.
Reverse cryptarithm
A rare variation where a formula is written, and the solution is the
corresponding cryptarithm whose solution is the formula given.