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Question 1

Physical Fitness Components


Physical components usually can be list into 5 components. The 5 components

of physical fitness are often used in our school systems, health clubs and fitness centers to
gauge how good a shape we are truly in. The 5 components that make up total fitness are:

 Cardiovascular Endurance

 Muscular Strength

 Muscular endurance

 Flexibility

 Body Composition

Total fitness can be defined by how well the body performs in each one of the components of
physical fitness as a whole. It is not enough to be able to bench press our body weight. We also
need to determine how well we can handle running a mile etc.

Health related Physical Components

1. Cardiovascular Endurance

Cardiovascular endurance is the ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to deliver oxygen
to your body tissues. The more efficiently our body delivers oxygen to its tissues, the lower the
breathing rate is.

Example exercise of cardiovascular endurance.

Swimming Dancing

Jogging Biking

2. Muscular Strength

Muscular strength refers to the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal
effort. Muscle strength is measured during muscular contraction. The size of your muscle fibers
and the ability of nerves to activate muscle fibers are related to muscle strength.

How Strength Training helps our Health

 Strength training makes us stronger and fitter

 Strength training protects bone health and muscle mass

 Strength training helps keep the weight off for good

Examples exercise of Muscular Strength.

Weight Lifting Push Up

Sit Up

3. Muscular Endurance

Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated

contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time. It is one of the components of
muscular fitness, along with muscular strength and power.

Examples exercise of Muscular Endurance.

Walking Lunge Plank

Body Squats

4. Flexibity

Flexibility is defined as the range of motion of our joints or the ability of our joints to move
freely. It also refers to the mobility of our muscles, which allows for more movement around
the joints. Flexibilty helps decrease risk of injury and improve physical performance. Flexible
joints require less energy to move through a greater range of motion

Example exercise of Flexibility.

Stretching Tai Chi

Yoga Pilates

5. Body Composition

In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water
and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat
tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness.

Benefits of having a healthy body composition.

 Normal blood pressure level

 Improved quality of sleep
 Improved mood and self-confidence
 Increased energy and endurance throughout the day

Skills related Physical Components

There are six skill-related fitness components: agility, balance, coordination, speed, power, and
reaction time. Skilled athletes typically excel in all six areas.

 Agility is the ability to change and control the direction and position of the body while
maintaining a constant, rapid motion. For example, changing directions to hit a tennis
 Balance is the ability to control or stabilize the body when a person is standing still or
moving. For example, in-line skating.
 Coordination is the ability to use the senses together with body parts during movement.
For example, dribbling a basketball. Using hands and eyes together is called hand-eye
 Speed is the ability to move your body or parts of your body swiftly. Many sports rely
on speed to gain advantage over your opponents. For example, a basketball player
making a fast break to perform a layup, a tennis player moving forward to get to a drop
shot, a football player out running the defense to receive a pass.
 Power is the ability to move the body parts swiftly while applying the maximum force
of the muscles. Power is a combination of both speed and muscular strength. For
example, fullbacks in football muscling their way through other players and speeding
to advance the ball and volleyball players getting up to the net and lifting their bodies
high into the air.
 Reaction Time is the ability to reach or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel.
For example, an athlete quickly coming off the blocks early in a swimming or track
relay, or stealing a base in baseball.

1. Agility

Agility is defined as the body's ability to respond to external stimuli, change direction and react
quickly without losing balance or altering postural alignment. It is directly related to reaction
time. Sports coaches use the term "movement time" to describe the period between the end of
the reaction time and the movement chosen in response to it. Reducing the movement time is
the goal of agility training programs. Competitive martial arts and all ball and racquet sports
require agility, but it is also useful in daily activities, such as jumping away from a quickly-
approaching car. Medicine ball training, jump rope and agility ladder exercise effectively
enhance agility and reduce movement time.

Examples of exercise to perform agility.

Martial Arts Jumping Rope

Agility Ladder

2. Balance

Balance is defined as the body's ability to remain centered over its base of support. It is directly
related to proprioception, which is the body's awareness of its position in space. Alpine and
cross-country skiing, snowboarding, skating and cycling require balance, but it is also needed
for non-athletic activities such as walking on ice, balancing on a bus or train or walking on a
moving platform at an airport.

Exercise that related to balancing.

Skate Boarding Ice Skating

3. Coordination

Coordination is defined as the harmonious functioning of muscles or groups of muscles in the

execution of movements. It's interesting to note that some dictionaries define "uncoordinated"
as "lacking planning, method and organization." Harmonious, coordinated movement therefore
requires the muscles of the body to act and react in an organized manner. Consider an orchestra.
If you put the brass section at the front of the stage, they would drown out the sound of the
violins and flutes. The sound would be distorted. Your body works the same way. If your larger
muscles work harder than your smaller, stabilizing muscles, your movements will lack
harmony, and look uncoordinated. Combining balance and agility training improves
coordination, but since there are mental elements to being coordinated, classes that offer
aerobic choreography may also be useful.


Orchestra Jumping Rope


4. Speed

Ability to move your body or parts of your body swiftly. Many sports rely on speed to gain
advantage over your opponents. For example, a basketball player making a fast break to
perform a layup, a tennis player moving forward to get to a drop shot, a football player out
running the defense to receive a pass.

Lead Push Dead lift

5. Power

Ability to move the body parts swiftly while applying the maximum force of the muscles.
Power is a combination of both speed and muscular strength. For example, fullbacks in football
muscling their way through other players and speeding to advance the ball and volleyball
players getting up to the net and lifting their bodies high into the air.

Clapping Push Up Two Footed Hurdle Jumps

6. Reaction Time

Reaction time is he interval time between the presentation of a stimulus and the initiation of
the muscular response to that stimulus. A primary factor affecting a response is the number of
possible stimuli, each requiring their own response, that are presented.

Activity improves reaction time.

1. 4-Cone Agility Drill

 Place four cones on the ground so that they form a square, 3 to 5 yards long on each

 Have your training partner randomly point to cones, moving as quickly as possible to

 As soon as a different cone is indicated, change direction accordingly regardless of

whether or not the previous cone was reached.
 Utilize proper cutting angles, acceleration, crossover, and shuffling skills.
2. Mirror Drill
 Place two cones 10 to 15 yards apart.
 Stand between the cones, facing your workout partner.

 One partner moves randomly between cones as the other mimics their movement as if
they were a mirror image. Go for a predetermined amount of time.

 Utilize crossover, acceleration, and shuffle to cover ground. Don't turn your back to
your partner, and keep your knees behind your toes and tension in your glutes.
 Decrease time for speed emphasis or increase time for conditioning emphasis.

Question 2

Strategy In Futsal

Types of Attacking strategy in Futsal

Attacking is one attempt to break down the opposing team's defense so it can be scored.
Attacking tactics are situations when a team in a state of possession with the intent to bring the
chances of goals.

1. Spread Your Wings

This is the point that relates towards the point the a team would need to make sure that the wide
man that would be in charge of the midfield on the sides, will need to make sure that they stay
on the sides. This is a basic rule, yet some players still don’t manage to fully apply it when they
are on the pitch. This helps the team have more passing options and give a team more dimension
on how they would want to play.

Forward moves towards the middle to create space so that our team can build a key pass

2. Open the court

Wingers should play hugging the sidelines to provide maximum width. 3 second rule also must
be adapted in every attacking strategy which is players must be on the move all the time when
they don’t have the ball. When your team is attacking you should never stay in the same place
without the ball for more than 3 seconds. In a game of 40 minutes you play for 4 minutes with
the ball and 36 without it.

More wide position will create more space

Types of defending strategy in Fustal

Defensive tactics are all the individual and collective actions that players make when their team
is not in possession of the ball, in attempting to counteract or restrict the opposition with a view
to achieving the objectives of defence.

1. Cover against the counter attack

It’s so very tempting to abandon defensive duties when your team is attacking. But far too
many goals are given away by over-committing in attack and then being caught on the break.
Make sure one player occupies a defensive position at all times – that doesn’t mean being back
out of the action, it just means that they’re ready to intercept any quick breaks forward and
changes of possession.

Close space to avoid opponents build counter attack

2. Always be goal-side of your opponent

When taking up defensive positions, the basics are simple: get between the opponent and the
goal. That way, you are blocking their route to scoring.

On the other hand, if let them past you then they’re in with a chance. That’s why it’s vital that,
if the opponent makes a move forward, must follow them so they don’t get behind our team.
Player A is goal-side of the ball, but that’s not enough. Instead A needs to be goal-side of the
player he’s marking, or at the very least blocking the potential pass. Here, player A’s opponent
has run past him, and the pass in behind will lead to a clear chance at goal.


Types of Training/Drills in Futsal

1. Y-Drill (20minutes)

 passing, receving, turning and dribbling

Coaching Points

 accurate passing (long and short)

 use instep to pass
 various control techniques (sole & roll, inside, outside)
 dribble with head up
 communication between movements
 alternate left and right


2. Y-Drill with 1-2 (25 mins)

Y- Drill with 1-2

 A plays 1-2 with B

 A passes to C
 C plays 1-2 with B
 C dribbles back to start

Coaching Points

 timing the movement between positions

 accurate passing
 good communication between all positions
 alternate passes to C and D from A
 awareness from position B for where A is passing


Basic Skills in Futsal

1. Technique Skills

In the basic skills of futsal, an important term is “technique,” which is the physical movement
involved in those skills. Practicing the skills is called “technical training." Players practice
technique throughout their lives, but correct technique practice is essential for players age 6-
12 while they are in developmental stages.

The coach of developing players should heavily emphasize technical training while also having
a basic understanding of correct technical execution. This can be accomplished using a
repertoire of conditioned games to teach techniques in a manner that provides plenty of

Shooting Stop Ball

2. Passing

The technical elements of passing vary based on the kind of pass being made. The key elements
of any pass (both short and long) include:

 See the target.

 Approach the ball.
 Plant and position of support, or non-kicking foot (the toe of the non-kicking foot
should be pointed in the direction the player wants the ball to go).
 Look at the ball, holding the head steady.
 Contact the correct area of the ball with locked ankle.
 For instep and outside of foot pass, the toes are pointed down and contact is on the top
of the foot.
 For inside of the foot pass, toes are pointed up.
 Follow-through: kick “through the ball," following through toward the target.
 Transfer the weight forward.

See the target Find friend to pass

Common Injury occurred in Futsal

1. Ankle Strain

The ankle utilises three different joints to create its wide range of movement. Roll your foot
over or away from your centre of gravity and these ligaments are liable to become stretched
(Grade I), partially tear (Grade II) or – please God no – actually snap (Grade III). Hence an
ankle sprain can consign you to the sidelines for anywhere between one week and three month.

Prevention : Because they are normally sustained in heavy contact (e.g. a tackle) or under freak
conditions (e.g. falling over the ball), ankle injuries can be difficult to ward against.

Treatment :

 Rest your ankle by not walking on it. Limit weight bearing. ...

 Ice it to keep down the swelling. ...

 Compression can help control swelling as well as immobilize and support your injury.

Diagram of ankle strain injury.

Ankle Injury

2. Hamstring strain

The hamstrings, which run from behind the knee up the back of the leg to the glutes, are
possibly the most important muscles in the footballer's body, controlling both speed over the
ground and power when kicking the ball. Which is probably why they're also one of the most
annoying to aggravate.

Hamstring strains typically take two to four weeks to heal and can be more if badly injured.

Prevention: Focus on the pre-match warm up, with a series of dynamic stretches to loosen
your calves, thighs, and posterior muscles. Then move on to short sprints, punctuated by longer

Treatment :

 Rest the leg.

 Ice your leg to reduce pain and swelling.

 Compress your leg.

Hamstring strain Injury