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FACULTAD DE MEDICINA HUMANA

SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION:
ARTIFICIAL BLOOD

ASIGNATURA: MEDICAL ENGLISH

DOCENTE:
DOCENTE DRA. Rosa Gonzáles Llontop

ALUMNO:
Fallaque Ruiz Carlos Eduardo

CODIGO:
090631-F

CICLO: 2010- I
Medical English–FMH

Lambayeque – Octubre de 2010

Develop artificial blood could save lives

Continually ask for blood donors, but these donations, though valuable, have a
number of risks to the recipient, including diseases such as hepatitis C or
HIV. Now, according to an article published May 10 in the online version of The
Guardian, Lance Twyman, a PhD from the University of Kent, working in his
laboratory at the University of Sheffield in the development of a new artificial
blood would be completely sterile and even could be manufactured in
dehydrated form. It would be easier to transport and store it in the future, simply
add water to obtain blood group 0 negative (universal donor).

Twyman has long been trying to create molecules that mimic nature and found
porphyrins, hollow square-shaped molecules that combine metals such as
iron. "Iron is found in the center of the molecule, as in the case of hemoglobin,"
says Twyman. However, although the hemoglobin in red blood cells containing
iron-based porphyrin to bind oxygen reversibly (ie, to capture the oxygen in the
lungs, transport and release in the tissues), porphyrin does not work alone, and
which ultimately react with oxygen rather than simply bind to it. Therefore,
according to Twyman, it is necessary to combine the chemistry of porphyrin
polymer chemistry for a molecule that mimics hemoglobin.
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After five years of development, combining a porphyrin with monomers that self-
assemble in a tree structure, Twyman has achieved a molecule very similar to
hemoglobin in size and shape and also provides the right environment around
the porphyrin core to iron bind and release oxygen. The appearance of this
artificial blood is a dark red paste with the consistency of honey and water
soluble.
Medical English–FMH
The placing plastic blood in the body, even to save a life, sounds risky, but
Twyman said that porphyrins are natural. According to him, the polymer
component would be ignored by the human body's immune system and there
are medical uses today reaffirming its position, however, so far, his experiment
is limited to test tube.

According to Twyman, a major application would be the battlefield or in a place


where there has been a major disaster and which provide blood quickly can
save lives because, unlike donated blood, it is easy to store and kept at room
temperature.

It is currently developing a second generation of molecules to perform a more


rigorous investigation and, if all goes well, the use in humans could be next.

Other researchers are skeptical and point out that much research remains
before we can say nothing.

Desarrollan sangre artificial que podría salvar muchas vidas

Continuamente se piden donantes de sangre, pero estas donaciones, aunque


valiosas, presentan numerosos riesgos para el receptor, incluidas
enfermedades como la hepatitis C o el VIH. Ahora, según un artículo publicado
el 10 de mayo en la versión en línea de The Guardian, Lance Twyman, doctor
por la Universidad de Kent, trabaja en su laboratorio de la Universidad de
Sheffield en el desarrollo de una nueva sangre artificial que sería totalmente
estéril e incluso se podría fabricar en forma deshidratada. Esto facilitaría su
transporte y permitiría almacenarla de cara al futuro, bastando con añadir agua
posteriormente para obtener sangre del grupo 0 negativo (el donante
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universal).

Twyman lleva tiempo intentando crear moléculas que imiten la naturaleza y ha


encontrado las porfirinas, moléculas huecas de forma cuadrada que se
combinan con metales como el hierro. "El hierro se encuentra en el centro de la
molécula, como en el caso de la hemoglobina", señala Twyman. Sin embargo,
aunque la hemoglobina de los glóbulos rojos contiene porfirina basada en
hierro para unirse al oxigeno de forma reversible (es decir, para poder captar el
Medical English–FMH
oxígeno en los pulmones, transportarlo y liberarlo en los tejidos), la porfirina no
funciona sola, ya que acaba por reaccionar con el oxígeno en lugar de
enlazarse simplemente a él. Por ello, según Twyman, es necesario combinar la
química de la porfirina con la química de polímeros para obtener una molécula
que imite la hemoglobina.

Tras cinco años de desarrollo, combinando la porfirina con monómeros que se


autoensamblan en estructura de árbol, Twyman ha logrado una molécula
extremadamente similar a la hemoglobina en forma y tamaño y que, además,
ofrece el entorno adecuado alrededor del núcleo de la porfirina para que se
enlace el hierro y libere el oxígeno. El aspecto de esta sangre artificial es el de
una pasta de color rojo oscuro, con la consistencia de la miel y soluble en agua.

El hecho de poner sangre plástica en el cuerpo, aunque sea para salvar una
vida, suena arriesgado, pero Twyman señala que las porfirinas son naturales.
Según él, el componente polimérico sería ignorado por sistema inmunológico
del cuerpo humano y existen usos médicos en la actualidad que reafirman su
postura; sin embargo, de momento, su experimento se limita a tubo de ensayo.

Según Twyman, una de las principales aplicaciones sería el campo de batalla o


un lugar en el que se haya producido un desastre importante y donde aportar
sangre con rapidez pueda salvar muchas vidas ya que, a diferencia de la
sangre donada, ésta es fácil de almacenar y se mantiene a temperatura
ambiente.

Actualmente, se está desarrollando una segunda generación de moléculas para


realizar una investigación más rigurosa y, si todo va bien, el uso en humanos
podría ser lo siguiente.

Otros investigadores se muestran escépticos al respecto y señalan que todavía


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queda mucho por investigar antes de poder afirmar nada.


Medical English–FMH

DEVELOP ARTIFICIAL BLOOD COULD SAVE LIVES

The Guardian, Lance Twyman, Ph.D., University of Kent

Continually ask for blood donors, but these donations, though valuable, have a
number of risks to the recipient. Now, according to an article by Lance Twyman
in the development of a new artificial blood that would be utterly futile and even
could be manufactured in dehydrated form.

Twyman found porphyrins, hollow square-shaped molecules that combine


metals such as iron, but the porphyrin does not work alone, and which
ultimately react with oxygen rather than simply bind to it. It is therefore
necessary to combine the chemistry of porphyrin polymer chemistry for a
molecule that mimics hemoglobin.

Twyman has achieved a molecule very similar to hemoglobin in size and shape
and also provides the right environment around the porphyrin core for iron to
bind and release oxygen. The appearance of this artificial blood is a dark red
paste with the consistency of honey and water soluble.

The polymer component, being a natural component would be ignored by the


human body's immune system.

One of the main applications would be the battlefield or in a place where there
has been a major disaster.
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It is currently developing a second generation of molecules to perform a more


rigorous investigation and, if all goes well, the use in humans could be next.

Carlos Eduardo Fallaque Ruiz


Medical English–FMH

Questions about artificial blood

1. Why are the events given the development of artificial blood?

At present the major advantages of artificial blood body blood, either because
they are sterile, easy to use, and less expensive and produced in dry form.

2. Who is the principal author of this great revolutionary theory?

The lead author is Lance Twyman, doctor of the University of Kent

3. What molecule used mainly Twyman in the formation of artificial


blood?

The porphyrins, hollow square-shaped molecules that combine metals such as


iron.

4. What biomolecule is closer to the porphyrin?

Porphyrin according to their molecular conformation, keeps a close relationship


with hemoglobin.

5. What is the main deficiency in the blood porphyrin artificial?

In the porphyrin does not work alone, as it reacts with oxygen rather than simply
bind to it.

6. What solution did Twyman, due to this problem?

The combination of porphyrin chemistry with polymer chemistry to obtain a


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molecule that mimics hemoglobin.

7. What is the polymeric component formed Twyman?

Twyman has achieved a molecule very similar to hemoglobin in size and shape,
which offers the right environment around the porphyrin core for iron to bind and
release oxygen.

8. What does this artificial blood?


Medical English–FMH
The appearance is that of a dark red paste with the consistency of honey and
water soluble.

9. Why the polymeric component is not rejected by the immune system?

Because it is a natural component

10. What are the main applications of the artificial blood?

One of the main applications would be the battlefield or in a place where there
has been a major disaster.

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