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15/03/2019 Planar transmission line - Wikipedia

Slotline is essentially a balanced line, unlike stripline and microstrip, which are unbalanced lines. This type makes it particularly
easy to connect components to the line in shunt; surface mount components can be mounted bridging across the line. Another
advantage of slotline is that high impedance lines are easier to achieve. Characteristic impedance increases with line width
(compare microstrip where it decreases with width) so there is no issue with printing resolution for high impedance lines.[45]

A disadvantage of slotline is that both characteristic impedance and group velocity vary strongly with frequency, resulting in
slotline being more dispersive than microstrip. Slotline also has a relatively low Q.[46]

Slotline variants

Slotline variants: A, standard,[47] B, antipodal,[29] C, bilateral[29]

Antipodal slotline is used where very low characteristic impedances are required. With dielectric lines, low impedance means
narrow lines (the opposite of the case with conducting lines) and there is a limit to the thinness of line that can be achieved because
of the printing resolution. With the antipodal structure, the conductors can even overlap without any danger of short-circuiting.
Bilateral slotline has advantages similar to those of bilateral air stripline.[48]

Substrate integrated waveguide

Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW), also called laminated  waveguide or post­wall
waveguide, is a waveguide formed in the substrate dielectric by constraining the wave
between two rows of posts or plated through holes and ground planes above and below
the substrate. The dominant mode is a quasi-TE mode. SIW is intended as a cheaper
Substrate integrated waveguide
alternative to hollow metal waveguide while retaining many of its benefits. The greatest
benefit is that, as an effectively enclosed waveguide, it has considerably less radiation
loss than microstrip. There is no unwanted coupling of stray fields to other circuit components. SIW also has high Q and high
power handling, and, as a planar technology, is easier to integrate with other components.[49]

SIW can be implemented on printed circuit boards or as low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC). The latter is particularly suited
to implementing SIW. Active circuits are not directly implemented in SIW: the usual technique is to implement the active part in
stripline through a stripline-to-SIW transition. Antennae can be created directly in SIW by cutting slots in the ground planes. A
horn antenna can be made by flaring the rows of posts at the end of a waveguide.[50]

SIW variants
There is an SIW version of ridge waveguide. Ridge waveguide is a rectangular hollow metal waveguide with an internal longitudinal
wall part-way across the E-plane. The principal advantage of ridge waveguide is that it has a very wide bandwidth. Ridge SIW is not
very easy to implement in printed circuit boards because the equivalent of the ridge is a row of posts that only go part-way through
the board. But the structure can be created more easily in LTCC.[51]

Finline consists of a sheet of metallised dielectric inserted into the E-plane of a
rectangular metal waveguide. This mixed format is sometimes called quasi­planar.[52]
The design is not intended to generate waveguide modes in the rectangular waveguide
as such: instead, a line is cut in the metallisation exposing the dielectric and it is this
that acts as a transmission line. Finline is thus a type of dielectric waveguide and can be
viewed as a shielded slotline.[53]

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