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Axia College Material

Appendix B

Complete the following chart. The first column shows the name of a research
method used in psychology. In the second column, write a brief description of
that research method. In the third column, provide a situation when this method
could be applied.

Research Method Description Application


Scientific method a standardized way of A psychologist observes
making observations, that some college
gathering data, forming sophomores date a lot,
theories, testing while others do not. He
predictions, and observes that some
interpreting results sophomores have blond
hair, while others have
brown hair. He also
observes that in most
sophomore couples at
least one person has
brown hair. In addition,
he notices that most of
his brown-haired friends
date regularly, but his
blond friends don’t date
much at all. He explains
these observations by
theorizing that brown-
haired sophomores are
more likely to date than
those who have blond
hair. Based on this
theory, he develops a
hypothesis that more
brown-haired
sophomores than blond
sophomores will make
dates with people they
meet at a party. He then
conducts an experiment
to test his hypothesis. In
his experiment, he has
twenty people go to a

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party, ten with blond hair
and ten with brown hair.
He makes observations
and gathers data by
watching what happens
at the party and counting
how many people of each
hair color actually make
dates. If, contrary to his
hypothesis, the blond-
haired people make more
dates, he’ll have to think
about why this occurred
and revise his theory and
hypothesis. If the data he
collects from further
experiments still do not
support the hypothesis,
he’ll have to reject his
theory
Case study method It is an in-depth Koluchova (1972
investigation of a single onwards), who
individual, group, or investigated the
event to explore development of two
causation in order to find Czechoslovakian twins
underlying principles. whose mother died. They
were split at birth and
fostered, however when
they were returned to
their father, they were
badly treated. As a result
medical records showed
that they were
underdeveloped
biologically and were
lacking communication
skills. Koluchova used
observation and
interviews to record their
lives. At the age of
seven, their intelligence
was estimated to be that
of a three year olds. After
being adopted into a
more caring home, both
twins grew up with no

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signs of atypical
behaviour. This case
study concludes that the
family environment
directly affects a person's
behaviour.
Survey method A method in which uses Interviewing new mothers
interviews and that had drugs during
questionnaires to collect birth and ones that did
information from large not to see who enjoyed
numbers of people. the experience more and
would have another child
using the same method.
Naturalistic observation observing subjects in Observing people in an
method their natural environment environment where there
is no crime and then
observing ones in a crime
filled environment to
figure out who is more
likely to commit a crime.
Correlation method The correlation is a way there is a correlation
to measure how between income and
associated or related two education. We find that
variables are. The people with higher
researcher looks at income have more years
things that already exist of education. (You can
and determines if and in also phrase it that people
what way those things with more years of
are related to each other. education have higher
The purpose of doing income.) When we know
correlations is to allow us there is a correlation
to make a prediction between two variables,
about one variable based we can make a
on what we know about prediction. If we know a
another variable. group’s income, we can
predict their years of
education.
Experimental method manipulating one variable in an experiment to test
to determine if changes whether music improves
in one variable cause people's memories, we
changes in another would have a sheet of
variable. This method paper with ten unrelated
relies on controlled words on it for people to
methods, random memorize. The control
assignment and the group would have no
manipulation of variables music playing in the

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to test a hypothesis. background while the
experimental group
would have some music
in the background.
Because as researchers
we have adhered to the
scientific method and
held all variables as
constant as possible, if
the experimental group
does report better
recollection of words,
then we could assume
that the music had an
effect on memory.
However, we must be
certain to do our best to
ensure that any
controllable differences
between the two groups
are eliminated in order to
ensure that no
confounding variable
interferes with the
experiment.

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