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DEFINITION OF SPECIES

In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of
interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are often used, such as
similarity of DNA, morphology or ecological niche. Presence of specific locally adapted traits may further subdivide species into subspecies.
Each species is placed within a single genus. This is a hypothesis that the species is more closely related to other species within its genus than to species of
other genera. All species are given a binomial name consisting of the generic name and specific name (or specific epithet).
The commonly used names for plant and animal taxa sometimes correspond to species: for example, "lion", "walrus", and "Camphor tree" – each refers to a
species. In other cases common names do not: for example, "deer" refers to a family of 34 species, including Eld's Deer, Red Deer and Elk (Wapiti). The last
two species were once considered a single species, illustrating how species boundaries may change with increased scientific knowledge.
Total number of species (estimated): 7–100 millions (identified and unidentified), including:

DEFINITION ENDANGERED SPECIES

An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by changing
environmental or predation parameters. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40
percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been evaluated through 2006.[2]
Eg : Endangered: faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future. Examples: Dhole, Blue Whale, Bonobo, Ethiopian wolf, Giant Panda, Snow Leopard,
African Wild Dog, Tiger, Indian Rhinoceros, three species of Albatrosses, Crowned Solitary Eagle, Philippine Eagle, Markhor, Orangutan, Grevy's zebra,
Tasmanian Devil,

The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that


is critically endangered; three subspecies of
tiger are already extinct.

The most endangered asiatic top predator, the dhole is on


the edge of extinction.

DEFINITION 'ENDEMIC SPECIES'


An 'Endemic Species' is one that is only found in a particular region and nowhere else in the world. Since these species are
not widespread and may be confined to only one or two protected areas, they are of great conservation concern.
Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a particular geographic location, such as a specific island, habitat type, nation or other defined zone. To be
endemic to a place or area means that it is found only in that part of the world and nowhere else. For example, all species of lemur are endemic to the island of
Madagascar. There are 50 species, all native to the island.

The Orange-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia violacea) is


exclusively found in Fynbos vegetation.

India has many endemic plant and vertebrate species. Among plants, species endemism is estimated at 33% with c. 140
endemic genera but no endemic families (Botanical Survey of India, 1983). Areas rich in endemism are north-east India, the
Western Ghats and the north-western and eastern Himalayas. A small pocket of local endemism also occurs in the Eastern
Ghats (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1986). The Gangetic plains are generally poor in endemics, while the Andaman and Nicobar
Islands contribute at least 220 species to the endemic flora of India (Botanical Survey of India, 1983)

BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION IN INDIA

Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. Communities of plants and animals in different
geographical areas of the world differ widely from each other. Biogeography is divided into branches: i] Phyto-geography and
ii] Zoo-geography.
Phyto-geography (plant geography) deals with origin, distribution and environmental interrelationships of plants.
Zoogeography deals with the migration and distribution of animals.
From the stand point of biodiversity, India is given the status of a “Mega-diversity” zone. CISSP There are 10 biogeographic
zones witch are distinguished clearly in India. They are as follows—
v Trans Himalayan zone.
v Himalayan zone.
v Desert zone.
v Semiarid zone.
v Western ghat zone.
v Deccan platea zone.
v Gangetic plain zone.
v North east zone.
v Coastal zone.
v Islands present near the shore line.

1. Trans Himalayan zone:


This is the northern most area of the country around Himalayas. This zone is not related to mountains but it is the area
present surrounding the mountains. 70-290 This region shows 1. Irregular vegetation.
2. It has the richest wild sheep producing quality wool. 3. It has not only quality sheep but also goat community which is
qualitatively and quantitatively in superior in the world. 4. Snow leopard is a special animal observable in this zone. 5.
Migratory birds like black neck crane are seen here. The great Indian bustard which is an endangered variety is also seen in
the grasslands west to this zone.
2. Himalayan zone:
This is a hilly region with good flora and fauna, exhibiting maximum biodiversity in this region. There are national parks here
in this zone.
3. Desert zone:
This is a part of Rajasthan state, from where, the great desert of western India namely ‘Thar desert’ starts, and Desert zone
is really a deserted zone with areas like Jaisalmir surrounded by sand dunes, which are the best centers for studying soil
erosion by wind.
4. Semi arid zone:
It starts in Rajasthan and extends up to some parts in the state of Punjab and Haryana. In this area, ground water and
surface water is much less. Dry xerophytic vegetation is predominant, fauna is also minimum. N10-004 Very few orchids and
bamboo and other plants are seen.
5. Western ghats:
It represents the mountainous western zone of south peninsular India having rich flora and fauna with tropical rain forests
extending from Konkan region of Maharashtra up to the western part of Kerala generally called Malabaar coast of Arabian
Sea.
Wild relatives of cultivated plants like banana, mango, citrus, black pepper are found abundantly in this part.
6. Deccan Plateau zone:
This is the central table land of south India with rich flora and fauna. But some areas represent semiarid type of vegetation.
Rainfall occurs mainly by the south west monsoon, in these areas and so limited number of dense forests is present in
Deccan. Deccan platean is represented in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu,
Karnataka and Kerala.

Endangered species
An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or
threatened by changing environmental or predation parameters. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has
calculated the percentage of endangered species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been
evaluated through 2006.[2]

Many nations have laws offering protection to conservation reliant species: for example, forbidding hunting, restricting land development
or creating preserves.
Only a few of the many species at risk of extinction actually make it to the lists and obtain legal protection. Many more species become
extinct, or potentially will become extinct, without gaining public notice.

Destructive human activities have led to the current rate of species extinction, which is at least 100–1,000 times higher than the
expected natural rate.

This has impacts far beyond the potential cultural loss of iconic species such as tigers, rhinos and whales. Species and the ecosystems
they are part of provide essential goods and services that make human life possible and contribute enormously to our health and well-
being — breathable air, clean water, food, fibers, building materials, medicines, energy, fertile soils, climate regulation, transport, and
recreational and spiritual values.

IUCN Red List Endangered species

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species.

IUCN Red List refers to a specific category of threatened species, and may include critically endangered species. IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species uses the term endangered species as a specific category of imperilment, rather than as a general term. Under the
IUCN Categories and Criteria, endangered species is between critically endangered and vulnerable. Also critically endangered species
may also be counted as endangered species and fill all the criteria

The more general term used by the IUCN for species at risk of extinction is threatened species, which also includes the less-at-risk
category of vulnerable species together with endangered and critically endangered. IUCN categories include:

Philippine Eagle, pictured in Davao City

Extinct:

Philippine Eagle, pictured in Davao Citythe last remaining member of the species has died, or is presumed beyond

reasonable doubt to have died. Examples: Javan Tiger, Thylacine, Dodo, Passenger Pigeon, Caribbean Monk Seal, Dimetrodon, Aurochs,
Dusky Seaside Sparrow

Extinct in the wild: captive individuals survive, but there is no free-living, natural population. Examples: Alagoas Curassow

Critically endangered: faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Examples: Mountain Gorilla, Arakan Forest
Turtle, Darwin's Fox, Javan Rhino, Brazilian Merganser, Gharial, Vaquita

Endangered: faces a very high risk of extinction in the near future. Examples: Dhole, Blue Whale, Bonobo, Ethiopian wolf, Giant Panda,
Snow Leopard, African Wild Dog, Tiger, Indian Rhinoceros, three species of Albatrosses, Crowned Solitary Eagle, Philippine Eagle,
Markhor, Orangutan, Grevy's zebra, Tasmanian Devil,

Vulnerable: faces a high risk of extinction in the medium-term. Examples: Cheetah, Gaur, Lion, Sloth Bear, Manatee, Polar Bear, African
Golden Cat, Komodo dragon, Golden hamster

Conservation dependent: The following animals are not severely threatened, but must depend on conservation programs. Examples:
Spotted Hyena, Blanford's fox, Leopard Shark, Black Caiman, Killer whale

Near threatened: may be considered threatened in the near future. Examples: Blue-billed Duck, Solitary Eagle, Small-clawed Otter,
Maned Wolf, Tiger Shark, Okapi.

Impact on biodiversity and endangered species

In order to conserve the biodiversity of the planet, one must take into consideration the reasons why so many species are becoming
endangered. “Habitat loss is the most widespread cause of species endangerment in the U.S., affecting 85% of imperiled species” . When
an animal’s ecosystem is not maintained, they lose their home and are either forced to adapt to new surroundings or perish. Pollution is
another factor that causes many species to become endangered. Also, over-exploitation, disease , and climate change have led to the
endangerment of several species.

Humans have an impact on the species and their environment. “As human use of resources, energy, and space intensified over the past
few centuries, the diversity of life has been substantially diminished in most parts of the world” .

Humans also set standards for which species they think should be saved and which species they find unimportant or undesirable. For
example, the coqui frog, an invasive species in Hawaii, is so common there that its “nocturnal singing” reduces the value of homes and
prevents hotels from using rooms near forests. Hawaiians have proposed eliminating the frog, and several wildlife managers want to
release a pathogen to kill the frogs. The frog has decreased the value of homes and caused a loss of business for several hotels, so the
Hawaiians decided it was acceptable to get rid of the group of coqui frog living near them.

Another example where the human impact affected the welfare of a species sex in the instance of non-native mute swans establishing
themselves at Arrowhead Lake in Vermont. When the population of swans grew to eight birds, the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department
decided to take action. Two swans were eventually killed, angering animal welfare organizations and people living near the lake.

Yet another example of the human impact in the lives of endangered species is that of the Preble’s meadow jumping mouse. Research
has shown that the mouse is not taxonomically different from the Bear Lodge meadow jumping mouse and the US Fish and Wildlife
Service has proposed removing the Preble’s mouse from the endangered species list based on this information.

Species maintaining importance

“Diversity of life and living systems are a necessary condition for human development” . Many question the importance of maintaining
biodiversity in today’s world, where conservation efforts prove costly and time consuming. Species should be saved for “aesthetic and
moral justifications; the importance of wild species as providers of products and services essential to human welfare; the value of
particular species as indicators of environmental health or as keystone species crucial to the functioning of ecosystems; and the
scientific breakthroughs that have come from the study of wild organisms” . In other words, species serve as a source of art and
entertainment, provide products such as medicine for human well-being, indicate the welfare of the overall environment and ecosystem,
and provided research that resulted in scientific discoveries. An example of an “aesthetic justification” in conserving endangered species
is that of the introduction of the gray wolf into Yellowstone National Park. The gray wolf has brought numerous amounts of tourists to the
park and added to the biodiversity in the protected region.

Another example, supporting the conservation of endangered species as providers of products for human well-being, is the scrub mint. It
has been found that the scrub mint contains an anti-fungal agent and a natural insecticide. Also, the deterioration of the bald eagle and
the peregrine falcon “alerted people to the potential health hazards associated with the widespread spraying of DDT and other persistent
pesticides” .

This serves as an example of how certain fish can serve as identifiers of environmental health and protect human life as well as other
species. Finally, an example of species providing for scientific discoveries is the instance of the Pacific yew which “became the source of
taxol, one of the most potent anticancer compounds ever discovered” . Endangered species could prove useful to human development,
maintenance of biodiversity and preservation of ecosystems.

Another approach is known as ecosystem conservation, where a focus is placed less on preserving any individual given species than on
preserving the proper functioning of the ecosystem as a whole

Helping preserve endangered species

It is the goal of conservationists to create and expand upon ways to preserve endangered species and maintain biodiversity. There are
several ways in which one can aid in preserving the world’s species who are nearing extinction. One such way is obtaining more
information on different groups of species, especially invertebrates, fungi, and marine organisms, where sufficient data is lacking.

For example, to understand the causes of population declines and extinction an experiment was conducted on the butterfly population in
Finland. In this analysis, the butterflies’ endangered list classification, distribution, density, larval specificity, dispersal ability, adult
habitat breadth, flight period and body size were all recorded and examined to determine the threatened state of each species. It was
found that the butterflies’ distribution has declined by fifty-one and a half percent, and they have a severely restricted habitat. One
example of specific butterflies who have a declining distribution rate are the Frigga’s Fritillary and Grizzled Skipper, who have been
affected by habitat loss due to extensive draining of the bogs where they live. This experiment shows that when we know the causes of
endangerment, we can successfully create solutions for the management of biodiversity.

Another way to help preserve endangered species is to create a new professional society dedicated to ecological ethics. This could help
ecologists make ethical decisions in their research and management of biodiversity. Also, creating more awareness on environmental
ethics can help encourage species preservation. “Courses in ethics for students, and training programs for ecologists and biodiversity
managers” all could create environmental awareness and prevent violations of ethics in research and management. One final way in
which one can conserve endangered species is through federal agency investments and protection enacted by the federal government.
“Ecologists have proposed biological corridors, biosphere reserves, ecosystem management, and eco-regional planning as approaches to
integrate biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic development at increasingly larger spatial scales”.

One example of a federal mandated conservation zone is the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, the largest marine
protected area in the world. The monument is essential to the preservation of underwater communities and overfished regions. Only
researchers working in the area are permitted to fish, no corals may be removed, and the Department of Homeland Security will enforce
restrictions on vessels passing through the waters via satellite imaging. The monument will serve as a home to an estimated seven
thousand species, most of which cannot be found anywhere else in the world. This environmental monument demonstrates the fact that
it is possible to create a safe environment for endangered species, as well as maintaining some of the world’s largest ecosystems.
Causes of Endangerment

Habitat Destruction Introduction of Exotic Species


Overexploitation More Factors
When discussing the causes of endangerment, it is important to understand that individual species are not the only factors involved in this
dilemma. Endangerment is a broad issue, one that involves the habitats and environments where species live and interact with one another.
Although some measures are being taken to help specific cases of endangerment, the universal problem cannot be solved until humans
protect the natural environments where endangered species dwell.
There are many reasons why a particular species may become endangered. Although these factors can be analyzed and grouped, there are
many causes that appear repeatedly. Below are several factors leading to endangerment:
Habitat Destruction
Our planet is continually changing, causing habitats to be altered and modified. Natural changes tend to occur at a gradual pace, usually
causing only a slight impact on individual species. However, when changes occur at a fast pace, there is little or no time for individual
species to react and adjust to new circumstances. This can create disastrous results, and for this reason, rapid habitat loss is the primary
cause of species endangerment. The strongest forces in rapid habitat loss are human beings. Nearly every region of the earth has been
affected by human activity, particularly during this past century. The loss of microbes in soils that formerly supported tropical forests, the
extinction of fish and various aquatic species in polluted habitats, and changes in global climate brought about by the release of greenhouse
gases are all results of human activity.
It can be difficult for an individual to recognize the effects that humans have had on specific species. It is hard to identify or predict human
effects on individual species and habitats, especially during a human lifetime. But it is quite apparent that human activity has greatly
contributed to species endangerment. For example, although tropical forests may look as though they are lush, they are actually highly
susceptible to destruction. This is because the soils in which they grow are lacking in nutrients. It may take Centuries to re-grow a forest that
was cut down by humans or destroyed by fire, and many of the world's severely threatened animals and plants live in these forests. If the
current rate of forest loss continues, huge quantities of plant and animal species will disappear.
Introduction of Exotic Species
Native species are those plants and animals that are part of a specific geographic area, and have ordinarily been a part of that particular
biological landscape for a lengthy period of time. They are well adapted to their local environment and are accustomed to the presence of
other native species within the same general habitat. Exotic species, however, are interlopers. These species are introduced into new
environments by way of human activities, either intentionally or accidentally. These interlopers are viewed by the native species as foreign
elements. They may cause no obvious problems and may eventual be considered as natural as any native species in the habitat. However,
exotic species may also seriously disrupt delicate ecological balances and may produce a plethora of unintended yet harmful consequences.
The worst of these unintended yet harmful consequences arise when introduced exotic species put native species in jeopardy by preying on
them. This can alter the natural habitat and can cause a greater competition for food. Species have been biologically introduced to
environments all over the world, and the most destructive effects have occurred on islands. Introduced insects, rats, pigs, cats, and other
foreign species have actually caused the endangerment and extinction of hundreds of species during the past five centuries. Exotic species
are certainly a factor leading to endangerment.
Overexploitation
A species that faces overexploitation is one that may become severely endangered or even extinct due to the rate in which the species is
being used. Unrestricted whaling during the 20th century is an example of overexploitation, and the whaling industry brought many species
of whales to extremely low population sizes. When several whale species were nearly extinct, a number of nations (including the United
States) agreed to abide by an international moratorium on whaling. Due to this moratorium, some whale species, such as the grey whale,
have made remarkable comebacks, while others remain threatened or endangered.
Due to the trade in animal parts, many species continue to suffer high rates of exploitation. Even today, there are demands for items such as
rhino horns and tiger bones in several areas of Asia. It is here that there exists a strong market for traditional medicines made from these
animal parts.
More Factors
Disease, pollution, and limited distribution are more factors that threaten various plant and animal species. If a species does not have the
natural genetic protection against particular pathogens, an introduced disease can have severe effects on that specie. For example, rabies and
canine distemper viruses are presently destroying carnivore populations in East Africa. Domestic animals often transmit the diseases that
affect wild populations, demonstrating again how human activities lie at the root of most causes of endangerment. Pollution has seriously
affected multiple terrestrial and aquatic species, and limited distributions are frequently a consequence of other threats; populations confined
to few small areas due to of habitat loss, for example, may be disastrously affected by random factors.
Reptiles

Green Turtle

NAME:

English: Green Turtle

Tagalog: Pawikan

Scientific: Chelonia Mydas

ORIGIN
Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

The Green Turtle occurs throughout Philippines waters, with important nesting concentrations in the Turtle islands and Bancauan island, Tawi-Tawi.
Approximately 80% of the Philippine green turtle nesting occur in this area 9 Limpus, 1985 unpublished). The turtle islands are known to be a
traditional nesting area for the green turtle. Along with the Turtle Islands of Sabah and the Berau Islands in Indonesia, they support the only major (i.e.
thousands of testing females anually) green turtle breeding aggregation in the ASEAN Region (Limpus,1985 unpublished). A significant decline in
annual egg production is now evident due to large-scale harvesting of the turtle eggs for decades.

The green turtle is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical waters near continental coasts and around islands. It is rarely found in temperate
water.

Olive-Ridley Turtle

NAME:

English: Olive-Ridley Turtle

Tagalog: Pawikan

Scientific: Lepidochelys Olivacea

ORIGIN
Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat
The olive ridley is not a very commom species in the Philippines. The type specimen for the specise was collected from Manila Bay in 1829 and early
this century. Taylor(1920 &1921) recorded that " the species is not rare and is taken frequently in Manila Bay". Recent record are scarce. Gomez (1y
hatchlings were 980) reported a captive specimen but could not determine the capture site. In 1987, an olive ridley was captured in Palawan and was
last released. In 1988, a specimen was caught by a freshmen in Navotas, Malabon and was later releasesd by the PCP in Batangas. On August 1990, a
juvenile olive ridley was caprtured in Carigara Bay, Capoocan, leyte. This was released inthe same place on September 11,1990 after a PCP metal tag
was applied (Region VIII, FAO report) . The most recent documented sighting of olive ridleys took place in Subic Bay,Zambales. A group of olive
ridlerecovered at El Grande Island and a nest of eggs were laid in front of the officers Club, USN installation. The egg were laid on December 23 ,1992
and the hatchlings emerged on February 14,1993. Mayor Richard Gordon took pride in releasing the newly emerged olive ridley hatchlings. These past
two years, resort owners in Subic have reported that olive ridleys nests during the months of November to December.

The olive ridley ia a pantropical species living principally in the northern hemisphere. They are widely distributed in continental coastal waters.

Hawksbill Turtle

NAME:

English: Hawksbill Turtle

Tagalog: Pawikan

Scientific: Eretmochelys Imbricata

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The Hawksbill occurs widely with low nesting densities throughout the Philippines. No major nesting aggregating have been identified but were found
to nest in small numbers of numerous islands. A hawksbill turtle from a feeding ground at Culasi, Antique, Central Philippines was recorded nesting 713
kilometers distant to the Northern Sabah Turtle Islands (de Silva, 1982 ). Hawksbills appear to be now greatly reduced in number when compared with
the past harvest statistics ( Seale,1911,1917; Polunin,1975, deCelis,1982). The relative rarity of the hawksbill is largely a result of prolonged over-
exploitation of eggs and the international trade of tortoiseshell.

The hawksbill is the most tropical of all sea turtles. it is distributed throughout the Central Atlantic and Indo pacific Region.

Leatherback Turtle

NAME:

English: Leather Back Turtle

Tagalog: Pawikan

Scientific: Dermochelys Coriacea

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat


Only a single nesting within the Philippines is known for the leatherback turtle from the Quiniluban island Group (F. Matillano and D. Labra, BFAR Staff,
1985).

Isolated records of leatherback trutles caught in nets or washed ashore have been reported to PCP. In Hinunangan, Southern Leyte, it was capture on
September 19,1990. The activity of leatherback was not recorded. It was released the following day (region VIII, FAO Report ). Still another leatherback
was captured and released in Binuangan, Tubay, Agusan del Norte on February 16,1992. The CCL and CCW were 147.3 cm and 68 cm, respectively.
Based on the 1994 habitat survey on marine turtle conducted by the PCP in the Province of Romblon, occasional sighting of leatherback turtle have
been reported. Ibrahim (1994) reported that most sighting of Malaysia leatherbacks have been received from Hawaii, Japan, Indonesia and mostly from
the Philippines. The species is probably common in the open waters of the Philippines where they feed before migrating to breed in neighboring
countries.

The leatherback can adapt to colder water making it the most widely distributed of all the sea turtle. It is a highly pelagic species.

Loggerhead Turtle

NAME:

English: Loggerhead Turtle

Tagalog: Pawikan

Scientific: Caretta caretta

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

Loggerhead turtle is documented in the Philippines only from old published photos (Seale, 1911; Taylor,1920 &1921). Two recent sightings of
loggerheads, tagged in Japan took place in Philippine water.

Other than these, there appears to be no other positive records of this species from Philippine waters. If breeding indeed occurs, it would probably be
in the extreme northern islands adjacent to the important loggerhead nesting aggregation in Southern Japan.

The Loggerhead turtle is widely distributed in coastal tropical and subtropical waters around the world. This species commonly wander into temperate
water and to the boundaries of warm currents.

Crocodile

NAME:

English: Crocodile

Tagalog: Buaya

Scientific: Crocodylus Midorensis

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

The term 'crocodile' was derived from the Greek word 'krokodeilos' meaning Lizard. There are two crocodalian found in the Philippines. They are
Philippine or fresh water crocodile (Cocodylus midorenses) and Estuarine or saltwater crcodile (Crocodylus porosus).

The Estuarine crocodile is widely been distributed than the Philippine or freshwater crocordiles. Salty crocodile are found in all the larger Islands of the
Philippines including Luzon , Mindanao, Palawan, Samr, Leyte and Panay. in global distribution extends from eastern Indiato northern Austratia.

Its habitat are the mouths of rivers and muddy canals located near the sea and can also be found in mangroves and shamps.

Both species of crocodiles are endangered in the Philippines. they are been hunted for their valuable skin which is considered as one of the most price
leather in the international market. A belt made from the crocodile skin has an average worth 250 US dollar and a handbag cost 4000 US dollar while
shoes cost 600 to 800 US dollars. A live crocodile can fetch as much as 10,000 pesos.

Most of the original habitats of the crocodile are now lostand it has been coverted to fishponds or has been cleared for agriculture making them very
rare in the philippines and can be found only in uninhabited areas.
Birds

Philippine Cockatoo

NAME:

English: Philippine Cockatoo

Tagalog: Kalangay

Scientific: Kakatoe Haematuropygia

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The species is widely distributed throughout the Philippines where it is endemic. Several birds were seen in nest-holes in tall dead trees in April and
May in the interior of Negros, around Pagyabonan, Bais. The trees were tall ones that were left standing in burned clearings that had been plated with
rice for several seasons and then allowed to grow up with cogon grass. these clearings were interspersed with large patches of original dipterocarp
forest in rolling country.

Grain and seeds are preferred as food. Nine birds taken from Negros had eaten corn and the seeds of wild bananas.

There are probably only 800 to 300 birds left in Palawan and the species has had 60 to 90 percent decline in population in the late 10 to 15 years. The
major cause of the rapid decline of its population of the unregulated collection illegal trade of this species which very much in demandas house pet
and zoo's animal. Habitat loss is also a major factor for this decline.

Tarictic Hornbill

NAME:

English: Tarictic Hornbill

Tagalog: Tariktik

Scientific: Penelopides Panini Panini

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The Tarictic hornbill's range follows the limits of the dipterocarp forests found from the lowlands to about 800 m elevation. Some birds may be found in
mid- mountain forests of slightly higher elevation but not as frequently as the next species. Its main habitat is the dipterocarp forests. Occasionally it
goes to feed on fruiting trees in clearings close to the original forests or on fruiting trees second-growth patches in well-forest areas.

It is a noisy birds and keeps up its incessant notes that sound like the syllables "Ta-ric-tic, ta-ric-tic,ta-ric-tic" as it feeds on fruits. Some times, more
than a dozen birds feed at the same time on one fruiting tree. As some leave others come in. This continues throughout the day. Among the dense
foliage, it difficult to locate the birds immediately in spite of the noise.

Philippine Eagle

NAME:

English: Philippine Eagle

Tagalog: Aguila

Scientific: Pithecophaga Jefferyi

ORIGIN
Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

The Philippine Eagle is a giant forest raptor endemic to the Philippines. It is considered one of the largest and most powerful eagles in the world.
Unfortunately, it is also one of the world's rarest and certainly among its most critically endangered vertebrate species.

The Eagle is known to be geographically restricted to the islands of Luzon, Samr, Leyte, and Mindanao. These islands were once connected to each
other during the mid-Pleistocene when the sea level was lower by 120-160 meters than at present.

Recent biogeographical analysis suggest that the origin of Pithecophaga is clearly Papuasian. Its closest relative is believed to be the Ne Guinea harpy
eagle,Haryopsis novaeguinea The ancestors of the Philippine Eagle probably arrived through te southeast part of Mindanao prior to the mid-
Pleistocene.

Population Status

The current population status of the Philippine Eagle is not known. the species has been considered rare since it was first dicovered in 1896. morever,
the eagle has always been difficult to census because of the significant logistic difficulties of working in dense, steep rain forest.
Attemps to survey or estimate the population status of the species have always been crude at best. Only scattered, individual reports occured up
through the 1960's. Additionally, data from researchrs in the 70's to the early 80's were difficult to interpret. And because of the small sample sizes
and nature of approaches used, no confidence limits could be established for these estimates.

The general indicators of population status continue to be alarming. Habitat and probably prey population are continuing to disappear at a rapid rate.
Thus, wild population are losing places to live and likely are becoming food stressed .

Of the two primary characteristics of population, i.e. reproductive rate and survival rate the latter is the most important for populations long-lived,
lowly reproducing species. Chance effects ( such as weather fluctuation, epidemics, inbreeding, etc.) only make matters worse for small population.

Mindoro Imperial Pigeon

NAME:

English: Mindoro Imperial Pigeon

Scientific: Dacula Mindorenses

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

Confined with Mindoro, where it uncommon. occurs in forested highlands above 1,400 meters although may come down to
lower altitudes during the dry season after water. Feeds on large fruit. Usually seen in pairs; sometimes in threes or fours. Voice penetrating booming
note little information is available in this species.

Philippine BooBook Owl

NAME:

English: Philippine BooBook Owl

Tagalog: Kuago

Scientific: Ninox Philippenses Centralist

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The numerous of the owl family are distributed all over the tropical and temperate region of the world. Nine species by about 29 forms, occurs in the
Philippines, one of which is migratory, and one a mere straggler.

Members of this family usually have lengthened feathers above and behind the eye known as "horns" or "ear tufts" The habits are those describe for
the grass owl family.

The Philippine Boobook owl is common on the various islands. Its notes are always heard at night in the foothills, in the neighborhood of dense second-
growth or original forests. Some birds are even flushed from the small dense patches of the trees that are allowed to row at the sides cultivated fields
or long the small creek that run across farms.

The owl, like any other owl, is seldom encountered during daytime. however, with the aid of an electric trough with concentrated beam, it is easy to
see four or five birds at night, their yellowish gleaming eyes easily showing where they are.

Palawan Peacock Pheasant

NAME:

English: Palawan Peacock Pheasant

Scientific: Polyplectron emphanum

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

Endemic to Palawan where it is quite uncommon. Lives on the floor of the deep forest though seldom observed because of its shy and wary nature. The
male struts and displays to the female in a dancing arena within a clearing on the forest floor. Feeds on a variety of fruit and seeds, as well as insects
and other small animals. Much sought after by collectors and may be threatened with extinction unless adequately protected.

Black Shahma

NAME:

English: Black Shahma

Scientific: Copsychus cebuensis

ORIGIN
Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

Found only on Cebu where it is very scarce; endemic. Occurs in the undergrowth of the patches of secondary growth tracts along steep ravines and in
bamboo groves and thickets. Secretive and little known about its behavior.

Crimson Backed Woodpecker

NAME:

English: Crimson Backed Woodpecker

Tagalog: Karpintero

Scientific: Chrysocolapteus Lucidus

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat


The Crimson-backed woodpecker is frequently found in both original and second-growth forest in the hills up to about 600 m. elevation, near the upper
limit of the dipterocarp forest zone. occasionally it visits the partly burned dead trees left standing in abandoned clearing close to forests.

It is a noisy bird making loud fast-repeated noter as it goes about in its search for food, drumming against wood. The birds usually goes about in pairs
which keep track of each on the in the dense growth by means of the oft-repeated notes. the tapping on a large partly burned hollow tree, produces a
very loud sound that closely resembles that produced by a modern riveting machine.

The birds is not at all shy and allow close approach, while carryings on nonchalantly its search for food.

The species is distributed from India and Ceylon, east to Burma, Thailand and Indochina, and the Philippines and south to Malaysia. At least seven
endemic races are known in the Philippines.

The C.l haemtribon, occurs in Luzon and Marinduque; C.l. grandis, occurs in Polillo C.l. rufopunctatus, occurs in Bohol, Leyte, panaon ans samar; C.l.
xanthocephalus, occurs in Guimaras, Masbate, Negros, Panay and Ticao; C.l. licidus, occurs in Zamboanga and Basilan; C.l. montanus, occurs
throughout Mindoro except in Zamboanga and the C.l erythrocephalus, occurs in Balabac, Calamianes and Palawan.

Sulu Hornbill

NAME:

English: Sulu Hornbill

Scientific: Anthracoceros montani

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

Scarce. Occurs in the mountains of Jolo, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi. Usually travels in pairs or in small noisy groups. Feeds on
forest fruit, small lizards and some insects. Like other hornbills, nests in tree holes.
Mammals

Philippine Tarsier

NAME:

English: Philippine Tarsier

Tagalog: Mamag

Scientific: Tarsius Philippensis

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The Philippine Tarsier stays in the lowlands and medium elevations, in the plains and in rolling or hilly country. It stays in mixed open country with
dense patches of bush, tall grass, light bamboo, and low trees, preferably along the dense edges of clearing made in these areas. The animal may be
accidentally disturbed during daytime from its living quarters among the dense low vegetation at the edge of clearing frequently in newly-opened
country, and at the outskirts of forests. It jumps agilely and at first glance appears more like a surprised rat than anything else.

At night the tarsier is often found in the edges of clearings looking for food. It is often encountered in newly-burned kaingin patches, where it is after
the ash and the pieces of charcoal as sources of salt.

It is a timid animal and dislikes to stay in strong light, even if it is only the light of the day. It is satisfied to stay in the darkest corner of a cage and
cling there, hiding its face away from the spectator. when two or more animals are placed together inside a cage, all of them stay together in the
darkest corner, one on top of the back of another. The animal acts and moves sluggishly during the day but at night it becomes very active.

The tarsier feeds mainly on insects and small reptiles. Captive tarsiers relish cockroaches and house lizard.

Tarsier occur in Samar, Leyte, Bohol and Mindanao. Several species have been described but it is more likely that there is only one species that is
distributed among these islands, which may include two or three subspecies.

Philippine Deer

NAME:

English: Philippine Deer

Tagalog: Usa

Scientific: Cervus Mariannus

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

Cervus mariannus is known to have at least four subspecies which are endemic to Luzon, Mindoro, Mindanao, and associated smaller islands in the
eastern part of the Philippines (Oliver et al.1991) This animal is one of the regional variants of Cervus unicolor, is listed under Appendix II of the
Comvention on the International Trade of Endangered Species of Flora nad Fauna (CITES). It has been considered as an endangered species by the
ASEAN Experts Group onEnvironment (1986). However, compared with the Spotted Deer and the Calamian Deer, Cervus mariannus is not as seriously
threatened throughout its range and is not included in the IUCN Red List (IUCN 19900. Recent survey, however, has indicated that hte subspecies of
cervus mariannus in Mindoro (C.m. nigricans) are highly threatened within their respective range because if deforestation and over-hunting (OLiver et
al.1990).

Mouse Deer

NAME:

English: Mouse Deer

Tagalog: Pilandok

Scientific: Tragulus Nigricans

ORIGIN
Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

Small deerlike ruminants wothout horns in both sexes; canines present in both jaws, but well-developed in upper jaw in the male; middle metacarpals
fused; molars selenodont; premolars adapted for cutting.

From India, throughout southeastern Asia to the western malaysia islands. In the Philippines found only in Balabac island, south of Palawan, but not on
Palawan island itself.

The Balabac Chevrotain or mouse deer is active at night. During the day, it stays in deeply-shaded spots, among the dense vegetations, inside original
forests, but may also be found inside the second growth forests close to virgin forests. The animal is difficult to find in the forest during the day, but at
night it roams around the cleared areas, even close to seashore.

Mouse Deer are commonly encountered along the roadsides at night with the use of flashlights. The eyes flash very brightly once caught in the beam
and the animal normally stares for sometime before fleeing.

Palawan Bearcat

NAME:

English: Palawan Bearcat

Tagalog: Binturong

Scientific: Arctictis Binturong

ORIGIN
Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The Mammalian Fauna of the Philippine Islands is exceptionally diverse with over 165 species and at least 121 of which are endemic with the
Philippines. One this species the Palawan Bearcat locally known as Manturon or Binturong. It is found only in Palawan.

The Palawan Bearcat usually stays in denser vegetation both in original and secondary growth forests. it can also be found in lowlands and extends its
range in to the hills and lower mountain slopes.

It is arboreal, and uses its prehensile tails for climbing trees especially high canopy staying among dense clusters of the leaves where it difficult to
discover. It is a nocturnal species and can only be seen through its eyes luminous eyes that stares for short periods against bright beams and
flashlights. The Palawan bearcats is sometimes eaten by the natives. The fur is used in making caps, wraps and coats and is even used as decor. The
species has been heavily affected by deforestation, hunting and trapping.
Sea Cow

NAME:

English: Sea Cow

Tagalog: Dugong

Scientific: Dugung Dugon

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribtution Habitat

Dugong live long and have very low productive rates They can live up to about 70 years and only reach sexual
maturity at the age of 9 to 17 years. The male and female dugong can be differentiated from each other by lookinf at the distances between their
anus, genital slit and umbilical scar. After mating, the female will give birth to only a single calf bonding as the calf stays near the cow for at least 18
months. during this time the calf will suckle from the cow's teats underneath the flipper.

The only time that the cow will concieve again is after 3 to 7 years. Helen Marsh assumess that if every female dugong in a given population gives
birth every three years startung at the age of 10, an increase in the population of only 5% is expected per year.

Dugongs can be seen in tropical shallow coastal waters from 3 to 20 meters in depth where we can also find an abundance of seagrass. The Philippines
is one of the 43 countries in the Indopacific where dugongs can be found which includes countries sech as Africa, India, indonesia, Papua New Guinea,
Palau, Australia and the middle East. Today, only relict populatios remain in the Indo-Pacific, separated by large areas where populations are either
close to extinction or are already extinct (Marsh1993)

There are several distinct populations in the world which were determined through mitochondrial DNA studies (Tikel 1995). One is the Asian dugong,
another is the African dugong and several other populations in Autralia. It is estimited that there are only more than 100,000 dugongs in the whole
world (Marsh pers. comm.)

Dugong were previously found in every island of the Philiippines. They were numerous along the country's lengthy coast. There is even one reord of a
dugong caught from Manila Bay in the 18th century (Aragon1951). Documentation by early writers deliver a myriad of information, belifs and
superstition about this animal. They were considered mysterious and human-like, although some described them as monstrous. Many historical
accounts say that their body parts have medicinal powers.

It is evident that the dugongs have been exploited in the Philippines for a very long time.

There are no population counts in the country. In palawan, where most studies have been done. the population is described as sparse and low in
density (Kataoka et al. 1995 and Nishiwaki et al 1979). Dugongs form large herbs of up to hundreds of animals. Usually, they are only seenalone or in
pairs.

Dugongs have become extinct in many aresa in the Philippines. Most of the remaining of the dugongs in the country can be found in Palawan.
Twoother areas with possible viable populatios are the eastern Luzon coast (Isabela-Quezon) ans southern Mondanao. There are alsoindications that
dugongs may still exist in Bicol, Catanduanes, Romblon, Mindoro, Caluya Islands and Cuyo. they are probably rare or extinct in the western Lizon
coast, norther Mindanao, Samar and the visayas(Kataoka et al.1995)
Tamaraw

NAME:

English: Tamaraw

Tagalog: Tamaraw

Scientific: Anoa Mindorensis

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The wild Asiatic water buffalo is at present restricted to northeastern India, Ceylon, southern Vietnam, and the Malay Peninsula. This species is widely
distributed as a domesticated animal and has been introduced into southern Europe, northern Africa, China, Philippines (called carabao), Indonesia,
and Australia. The Tamaraw is Found only on mindoro Island in the Philippines and nowhere else in the world.

The Tamaraw is the largest land animal native to the Philippines. This small buffalo frequents dense vegetation along the rivers in the lowlands of
Mindoro island and spends much of its time in the marshy areas. It is found in open grasslands and forests and range from sea level up to the high
ridges of mountains on Mindoro Island, with elevation of more than 2000 m.

This dwarf buffalo is over hunted both by sport hunters and by people who are after its meat. The species is one of the top game animals and its head
is considered valuable trophy by the average big-game hunter anywhere in the world. Inspite of government regulations prohibiting its capture and
killing, the species continues to be collecte and killed by illegal hunters.

This dwarf buffalo is noted for its fierceness when cornered. The native hunters in Mindoro say that it is always best to have a nearly tree to climb up
when hunting the Tamaraw, because it really attacks even when slightly wounded.

The Tamaraw found only on Mindoro Island and nowhere else.

Destruction of its habitat due to the deforestation or habitat alterations have been contributed to its decline. Over hunting of collecting trophies are
also taken a heavy tool of Tamaraw population. From 10,00 heads in 1900's, the tamaraw population is now down 369 heads in the late 80's given
them a precarious grip of survival.

Spotted Sambar Deer

NAME:

English: Spotted Sambar Deer

Tagalog: Usa (East Visayan)

Scientific: Cervus (Rusa) Alfredi

ORIGIN

Population Status/Origin /Distribution Habitat

The Spotted Sambar Deer frequents the extensive coronal areas in the interior of Negros Island, both in lowlands and in the highlands up to about
1200 m. The species is abundant especially in the vicinity of extensive tracts of original forests where it can seek cover.

The deer feeds on the young shoots of the cogon grass and on the young leaves and buds of low forest growth.

The extensive coronals between Bayaon and Bais municipalities, in the rolling country of the interior, are favorite hunting grounds for deer. The
animals attracted to the newly-burnt clearings in the forests where they lick the ashes for the their salt requirements. The favorite practice of the deer
hunter is to burn wide tracts of cogon areas and then wait for a few weeks until the new shoots come up and then hunt at night the new shoots come
up and then hunt at night with the aid of head lamps, or torches. The deer seems to be attracted helplessly to the beam of light and merely stands
still. A hunters can easily bag half a dozen deer in s single night.

African Elephant
Common Name: African elephant
Scientific Name: Loxodonta africana
Location: Africa

Subspecies:
Savanna elephant

(Loxodonta africana africana)


Forest elephant

(Loxodonta Africana cyclotis)


African elephants once numbered in the millions across Africa, but by the mid-1980s their populations had been devastated by poaching. The status of the species now varies greatly across
the continent. Some populations remain in danger due to poaching for meat and ivory, habitat loss and conflict with humans.

Elephants are important because their future is tied to much of Africa's rich biodiversity. Scientists consider African elephants to be keystone species as they help to maintain suitable habitats
for many other species in savanna and forest ecosystems.

Elephants directly influence forest composition and density, and can alter the broader landscape. In tropical forests, elephants create clearings and gaps in the canopy that encourage tree
regeneration. In the savannas, they can reduce bush cover to create an environment favorable to a mix of browsing and grazing animals.
Project of Environmental Studies

Project Name
ENDANGERED SPECIES

Submitted By:

Under the guidance of

Don Bosco Institute Of Technology,

ENDANGERED SPECIES

An endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct because it is either few in numbers, or threatened by
changing environmental or predation parameters. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has calculated the percentage of endangered
species as 40 percent of all organisms based on the sample of species that have been evaluated through 2006. Only a few of the many species at risk of
extinction actually make it to the lists and obtain legal protection. Many more species become extinct, or potentially will become extinct, without gaining
public notice.
The wildlife of India is varied and one of the richest wildlife of the world. The wildlife of India is having the several endangered species that are living
critically in India that too in the verge of extinction. The species are endangered as due to the reasons like:
they are few in number they are threatened by the environmental and climatic parameters

The endangered species of the Indian Wildlife are identified by the different international organizations like World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International
Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). There are many reasons that have been on the
verge of extinction in India. The reasons for it are:

1.the loss of the species in the biological entity


2.destabilization of an ecosystem
3.endangerment of other species
4.loss of irreplaceable genetic material and associated bio-chemicals

India is so varied and rich in the wildlife as it holds 400 species of mammals and 1200 species of birds. To go on the Wildlife Safari is the best way to explore
the natural flora and fauna of the Indian Wildlife Sanctuary. There are about 80 National Park and 400 Wildlife Sanctuaries. The National Parks in India are
giving their best support in the conservation of these endangered species such as Royal Bengal Tigers, Indian Elephants, Indian Rhinos, Siberian Crane,
leopards and lions. The list of endangered species are categorized into certain categories like: Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN), Vulnerable (VU)
and Threatened. This classification of animals is done by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the
Wildlife Institute of India (WII) in the year 2004.

There are many such unique variety of the animals that has been kept in the National Parks and the Wildlife Sanctuaries. There are more than 350 species of
mammals that inhabit in the country. The species that ranges from Indian Elephants, Indian Rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tigers etc. As the endangered species
are classified into four categories and they are Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable and Threatened.

The animals who are listed under the Critically Endangered are as under:
Jenkin's Shrew
Malabar Large Spotted Civet
Namdapha Flying Squirrel
Pygmy Hog
Salim Ali's Fruit Bat
Sumatran Rhinoceros
Wroughton's Free Tailed Bat

Species
According to official records, there are more than 130000 animal species in India. According to some, the number may actually be much more than this. There
has been a threat to this natural treasure with the increasing destruction of their habitat like the tropical forests and biosphere reserves. There are a number of
causes which lead to the endangerment of a particular species such as habitat destruction, paucity of prey, overexploitation etc. The animal population has
been declining by every passing minute and we are likely to face grave consequences until we do not react fast. Moreover, the plants and animals hold
immense medicinal, agricultural, ecological and commercial value. This is the time when the endangered species must be protected so that our future
generations are not deprived of experiencing this valuable treasure. Some of the animals

Asian Elephant-Loss of habitat and poaching have led to the near extinction of this gentle giant and there are only about 15 to 20 thousand of these creatures
left in the wild. The Asian Elephant is mainly found in the terai region of Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Assam, Kerala and Karnataka.

Leopard
There has been much said about saving the Tiger, but far less attention has been paid to its dotted counterpart, which is equally threatened and their are only
about 7500 leopards to be seen aroundin the Indian jungles. These are concentrated in parts of central India and north east.

Asiatic Lion-

Found in the Gir national park, on last count their are only about 352 of these ferocious beasts left. Now is the time we should act and protect the Lion if we
want our children to see and admire this marvellous creature.

Snow-Leopard
The exotic looking creature is mostly seen in the upper reaches of the Himalayas. Poaching and paucity of prey have led to its near extinction, but thanks to
environmentalist who woke up to this threat and took immediate measures forthe animal's survival.
You can help protect the endangered species by doing whatever little you can. Mentioned below are some of the things you should and should not do

• Make sure you obey the rules while visiting an animal sanctuary and never pollute the environment.

• Join one of the local wildlife conservation organisations in your area.

• Plant trees and build a bird feeder in your backyard.

• Recycle stuff and try to use minimum non biodegradable material.

Some facts
• According to estimates, there are a total of one and a half million species on the planet. However, the number could be 20 times more than this.

• More than 1000 animal species in the world are considered to be endangered.

• More than 3500 protected areas exist in the world, which include national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and other reserves.

• An endangered species is one which is low in number and is at an immediate risk of becoming extinct. Such species need special protection for their
survival.

Causes of Endangerment

When discussing the causes of endangerment, it is important to understand that individual species are not the only factors involved in this dilemma.
Endangerment is a broad issue, one that involves the habitats and environments where species live and interact with one another. Although some measures are
being taken to help specific cases of endangerment, the universal problem cannot be solved until humans protect the natural environments where endangered
species dwell.

There are many reasons why a particular species may become endangered. Although these factors can be analyzed and grouped, there are many causes that
appear repeatedly. Below are several factors leading to endangerment:

Habitat Destruction

Our planet is continually changing, causing habitats to be altered and modified. Natural changes tend to occur at a gradual pace, usually causing only a slight
impact on individual species. However, when changes occur at a fast pace, there is little or no time for individual species to react and adjust to new
circumstances. This can create disastrous results, and for this reason, rapid habitat loss is the primary cause of species endangerment. The strongest forces in
rapid habitat loss are human beings. Nearly every region of the earth has been affected by human activity, particularly during this past century. The loss of
microbes in soils that formerly supported tropical forests, the extinction of fish and various aquatic species in polluted habitats, and changes in global climate
brought about by the release of greenhouse gases are all results of human activity.

It can be difficult for an individual to recognize the effects that humans have had on specific species. It is hard to identify or predict human effects on
individual species and habitats, especially during a human lifetime. But it is quite apparent that human activity has greatly contributed to species
endangerment. For example, although tropical forests may look as though they are lush, they are actually highly susceptible to destruction. This is because the
soils in which they grow are lacking in nutrients. It may take Centuries to re-grow a forest that was cut down by humans or destroyed by fire, and many of the
world's severely threatened animals and plants live in these forests. If the current rate of forest loss continues, huge quantities of plant and animal species will
disappear.

Introduction of Exotic Species

Native species are those plants and animals that are part of a specific geographic area, and have ordinarily been a part of that particular biological landscape
for a lengthy period of time. They are well adapted to their local environment and are accustomed to the presence of other native species within the same
general habitat. Exotic species, however, are interlopers. These species are introduced into new environments by way of human activities, either intentionally
or accidentally. These interlopers are viewed by the native species as foreign elements. They may cause no obvious problems and may eventual be considered
as natural as any native species in the habitat. However, exotic species may also seriously disrupt delicate ecological balances and may produce a plethora of
unintended yet harmful consequences.

The worst of these unintended yet harmful consequences arise when introduced exotic species put native species in jeopardy by preying on them. This can
alter the natural habitat and can cause a greater competition for food. Species have been biologically introduced to environments all over the world, and the
most destructive effects have occurred on islands. Introduced insects, rats, pigs, cats, and other foreign species have actually caused the endangerment and
extinction of hundreds of species during the past five centuries. Exotic species are certainly a factor leading to endangerment.

Overexploitation

A species that faces overexploitation is one that may become severely endangered or even extinct due to the rate in which the species is being used.
Unrestricted whaling during the 20th century is an example of overexploitation, and the whaling industry brought many species of whales to extremely low
population sizes. When several whale species were nearly extinct, a number of nations (including the United States) agreed to abide by an international
moratorium on whaling. Due to this moratorium, some whale species, such as the grey whale, have made remarkable comebacks, while others remain
threatened or endangered.

Due to the trade in animal parts, many species continue to suffer high rates of exploitation. Even today, there are demands for items such as rhino horns and
tiger bones in several areas of Asia. It is here that there exists a strong market for traditional medicines made from these animal parts.

More Factors

Disease, pollution, and limited distribution are more factors that threaten various plant and animal species. If a species does not have the natural genetic
protection against particular pathogens, an introduced disease can have severe effects on that specie. For example, rabies and canine distemper viruses are
presently destroying carnivore populations in East Africa. Domestic animals often transmit the diseases that affect wild populations, demonstrating again how
human activities lie at the root of most causes of endangerment. Pollution has seriously affected multiple terrestrial and aquatic species, and limited
distributions are frequently a consequence of other threats; populations confined to few small areas due to of habitat loss, for example, may be disastrously
affected by random factors.

Why Save Endangered Species?

Plants and animals hold medicinal, agricultural, ecological, commercial and aesthetic/recreational value. Endangered species must be protected and saved so
that future generations can experience their presence and value.

Medicinal

Plants and animals are responsible for a variety of useful medications. In fact, about forty percent of all prescriptions written today are composed from the
natural compounds of different species. These species not only save lives, but they contribute to a prospering pharmaceutical industry worth over $40 billion
annually. Unfortunately, only 5% of known plant species have been screened for their medicinal values, although we continue to lose up to 100 species daily.

The Pacific yew, a slow-growing tree found in the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest, was historically considered a "trash" tree (it was burned after
clearcutting). However, a substance in its bark taxol was recently identified as one of the most promising treatments for ovarian and breast cancer.

Additionally, more than 3 million American heart disease sufferers would perish within 72 hours of a heart attack without digitalis, a drug derived from the
purple foxglove.

Agricultural

There are an estimated 80,000 edible plants in the world. Humans depend upon only 20 species of these plants, such as wheat and corn, to provide 90% of the
world's food. Wild relatives of these common crops contain essential disease-resistant material. They also provide humans with the means to develop new
crops that can grow in inadequate lands such as in poor soils or drought-stricken areas to help solve the world hunger problem. In the 1970s, genetic material
from a wild corn species in Mexico was used to stop a leaf fungus that had previously wiped out 15% of the U.S. corn crop.

Ecological

Plant and animal species are the foundation of healthy ecosystems. Humans depend on ecosystems such as coastal estuaries, prairie grasslands, and ancient
forests to purify their air, clean their water, and supply them with food. When species become endangered, it is an indicator that the health of these vital
ecosystems is beginning to unravel. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that losing one plant species can trigger the loss of up to 30 other insect,
plant and higher animal species.

The northern spotted owl, listed as threatened in 1990, is an indicator of the declining health of the ancient forests of the Pacific Northwest. These forests are
the home to over 100 other old-growth dependent species, which are at risk due to decades of unsustainable forest management practices.

Pollution off the coast of Florida is killing the coral reefs along the Florida Keys, which serve as habitat for hundreds of species of fish. Commercial fish
species have begun to decline, causing a threat to the multi-million dollar tourism industry, which depends on the quality of the environment.
THE PLIGHT OF ENDANGERED SPECIES

There are now 41,415 species on the IUCN Red List and 16,306 of them are threatened with extinction, up from 16,118 last year. This includes both
endangered animals and endangered plants.

One in four mammals, one in eight birds, one third of all amphibians and 70% of the world’s assessed plants on the 2007 IUCN Red List are in jeopardy. The
total number of extinct species has reached 785 and a further 65 are only found in captivity or in cultivation. In the last 500 years, human activity has forced
over 800 species into extinction.

For every species that is alive today, perhaps a thousand more have lived previously and become extinct. Most of these extinctions occurred before humans
evolved, and the species are known to us only through fossils. Extinctions are a natural part of evolutionary processes, but through most of the history of life
on Earth, biological diversity has been increasing.

Periodically, however, major changes in the conditions on Earth have caused the collapse of living systems, and large percentages of species a have become
extinct. These species will never return. It takes millions of years for life forms to diversify again.

The current extinction crisis is unique, in that the loss of biodiversity is occurring very rapidly, and the causes of the crisis are the activities of a single species:
human beings. Some scientists believe the current crisis began when humans and their domestic animals first began to colonize the various parts of the globe.

Others believe it began around 1600, when human population growth exploded, and the level of per capita resource consumption began to rise dramatically in
some parts of the world.

Of the species that are best known, the so-called "higher animals," more than one percent have become extinct in the last 400 years and the overwhelming
majority of these extinctions are anthropogenic. Many more species are in danger of becoming extinct if we do not act quickly to conserve them.

onclusion:
is we know: the earth does not belong to man,

n belongs to the earth. All things are connected

the blood that unites us all

n did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it

atever he does to the web, he does to himself."

Source:

www.wikipedia.com

www.endangeredspecies.org

www.indianwildspecies.org

www.incredibleindia.com

Endemic Species.
An endemic species is an animal or plant species whose habitat is restricted to a particular area or space on the globe. Since these
species are not widespread and may be confined to only one or two protected areas, they are of great conservation concern. This
general term is used for a range of creatures including mammal species, reptile species, bird species and insect species. Details on an
endemic species may be different depending on what kind of animal or plant is being referenced. Generally, an endemic species is a
focus point for helping to protect biodiversity in a given environment.
Scientists who are researching endemic species are involved in what’s called zoogeography. The study of an endemic species involves
different zoogeographical zones that make up the habitat for different ranges of species. Looking at zoogeography helps biologists to
decipher the past of a type of animal or plant, and predict its future.

Biogeographical classification of india


WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREA NETWORK IN INDIA : A REVIEW

Fig. 3 : Biogeographic Classification of India : Zones


82
82
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
The Biogeographic classification
The Biogeographic classification
The Biogeographic classification
The Biogeographic classification
The Biogeographic classification
Coasts. A large coastline distributed both
n
of India (Rodgers and Pawar 1990)
of India (Rodgers and Pawar 1990)
of India (Rodgers and Pawar 1990)
of India (Rodgers and Pawar 1990)
of India (Rodgers and Pawar 1990)
to the west and east, with distinct
Trans-Himalayas. An extension of the
differences between the two; Lakshadeep
n
Tibetan plateau, harboring high-altitude
islands are included in this with the
cold desert in Laddakh (J&K) and Lahaul
percent area being negligible.
Spiti (H.P) comprising 5.7 % of the coun-
try’s landmass.
Apart from the biogeographic classifications
Himalayas. The entire mountain chain
described above ecosystems can also be de-
n
running from north-western to north-
marcated on the basis of purely geographical
eastern India, comprising a diverse range
or geological features like mountains, islands,
of biotic provinces and biomes, 7.2 % of
valleys, plateaux, oceans; on the basis of veg-
the country’s landmass.
etative cover like forests, grasslands,
Desert. The extremely arid area west of the
mangroves and deserts; on the basis of
n
Aravalli hill range, comprising both the
climatic conditions like arid and semi-arid
salty desert of Gujarat and the sand desert
areas, permanently snow-bound areas, high
of Rajasthan. 6.9% of the country’s land-
rainfall areas; on the basis of soil characteristic
mass.
and other such criteria.
Semi-arid. The zone between the desert
In some descriptions the biomes/ecosys-
n
and the Deccan plateau, including the
tems are clubbed together into very general
Aravalli hill range. 15.6 % of the country’s
habitat classifications. The main natural habi-
landmass.
tat types are:
Western ghats. The hill ranges and plains
Forests
n
n
running along the western coastline, south
Grasslands
n
of the Tapti river, covering an extremely
Wetlands
n
diverse range of biotic provinces and
Mangroves
n
biomes. 5.8% of the country’s landmass.
Coral reefs
n
Deccan peninsula. The largest of the zones,
Deserts
n
n
covering much of the southern and south-
central plateau with a predominantly
deciduous vegetation. 4.3 % of the coun-
try’s landmass.
Gangetic plain. Defined by the Ganges
n
river system, these plains are relatively
homogenous. 11% of the country’s
landmass.
North-east India. The plains and non-
n
Himalayan hill ranges of northeastern
India, with a wide variation of vegetation.
5.2% of the country’s landmass.
Islands. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands
n
in the Bay of Bengal, with a highly diverse
Photo 9.3
Mixed coniferous forest
set of biomes. 0.03% of the country’s land-
Source MoEF Annual report 1998-99
mass.
83
BIODIVERSITY
Table 9.4
Forest types distribution and percentage
Forest type Distribution % of forest area
Tropical forests
Tropical wet evergreen North East & South, Andaman & Nicobar island 5.8
Tropical semi evergreen South & East 2.5
Tropical moist deciduous Central & East 30.3
Tropical littoral & swamp Along the coast 0.9
Tropical dry deciduous West & Central 38.2
Tropical thorn West & Central 6.7
Tropical dry evergreen Central & South 0.1
Subtropical forests
Subtropical broad leaved hill forests South 0.4
Subtropical pine Sub-Himalayan tract 5.0
Subtropical dry evergreen North-East & South 0.2
Temperate forests
Montane wet temperate Himalaya & Nilgiris (in Western Ghats) 2.0
Himalayan moist temperate Temperate areas of Himalayas 3.4
Himalayan dry temperate Dry temperate areas of Himalayas 0.2
Sub-alpine and alpine forests
Sub-alpine Himalaya 4.3
Moist alpine shrub Himalaya 4.3
Dry alpine shrub Himalaya 4.3
Source GoI 1999
Forests
The diversity of grasslands in India is high
The forest cover of the country is placed at
ranging from semi-arid pastures of the western
633 397 sq km according to the forest survey
part of the Deccan peninsula, the humid,
of India assessment (1997). This presents
semi-waterlogged tall grassland of the Terai
19.27% of India’s total geographical areas.
belt, the rolling shola grasslands of the
India is endowed with diverse forest types
western ghat hilltops, and the high-altitude
ranging from the Tropical wet evergreen for-
alpine pastures of the Himalayas.
ests in North-Eastern to the Tropical thorn
The grass flora in India is also quite di-
forests in the Central and Western India
verse, consisting of about 1256 species in 245
(Photo 9.3). The forests of the country can be
genera and an estimated 370 endemic species
divided into 16 major groups comprising 221
reported (Shukla, 1983). Unfortunately due
types. The distribution of these groups, and
to greater neglect than Forests the status of
the percentage of total forest area covered by
grasslands is not so well known or docu-
each are given in Table 9.4.
mented.
Grasslands
Wetlands
In India the spread of grassland and
Wetlands cover 3% of the Indian landmass, or
shrubland is put at 12% of the total landmass
nearly 100 000 sq. Km (Olson et al. 1983).
(Olson et al. 1983) while the planning
Wetlands in India harbor a vast variety of life
commission (1989) and Grasslands and
forms that are a part of the complex food of
Fodder research Institute, Jhansi (1993) gives
these transitional ecosystems. About 320
an estimate of about 3.7 to 3.9%.
species of birds are associated with the Indian
84
84
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
Mangroves
Government of India estimated mangrove
cover of 674 000 ha, which is about 7% of the
world’s mangrove.
Mangroves are salt-tolerant ecosystems in
tropical and subtropical regions. These ecosys-
tems are largely characterized by assemblage
of unrelated tree genera that share the com-
mon ability to grow in saline tidal zone. India
harbours some of the best mangroves swamps
in the world, located in the alluvial deltas of
Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and
Photo 9.4
Wetlands of West Bengal
Source MoEF Annual report 1999-2000
Cauveri rivers and on the Andaman and
Nicobar group of Islands (Photo 9.5). The
Wetlands (Photo 9.4). Apart from birds, the
total area covered by mangroves in India is
wetlands support a diverse population of
estimated at about 6,700 sq km. amounting to
plants and animals including 150 species of
about 7% of the Worlds mangroves.
amphibians. Wetlands are the habitat of some
The largest stretch of mangroves in the
of the world’s endangered and threatened
country lies in the Sunderbans in West Bengal
flora and fauna. The Western and Central
covering an area of about 4,200 sq. km. The
flock of Siberian crane, one of the most
predominant mangroves species are
Avicennia
endangered cranes in the world, uses
officinalis Excoecaria agallocha, Heritiera fomes,
Keoladeo as its winter site. The brown
Bruguiera parviflora, Ceriops decandra,
antlered deer (
Cervus eldi eldi
) or ‘sangai’ is
Rhizophora mucronata
and
Xylocarpus grana-
found only in
phumadis
(floating landmasses)
tum
. Mangroves also harbour a number of
of Lok Tak Lake. Gahirmatha beach is a major
molluscs, polychaetes and honeybees. The
breeding site of olive ridley turtles. Chilka is
the habitat of many threatened species such as
green sea turtle, Hawksbill turtle, dugong,
and blackbuck.
Photo 9.6
Soft corals (Sinularia sp.) of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Source MoEF Annual report 1996-97
Indian mangroves are host to 105 species of
fish, 20 kinds of shellfish, and 229 crustacean
Photo 9.5
Waterway in the Pitchavaram mangrove forest flanked
species. The Royal Bengal tiger is found in the
by Avicennia and Rhizophora trees
Sunderban mangroves. Different species of
Source MoEF Annual report 1998-99
monkeys, otters, deer, fishing cats, snakes and
85
85
BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY
wild pigs are common. A total of 117 species
cies are restricted to the Thar area (Rodgers
of migratory and residential birds have been
and Pawar 1988). In the remote part of Great
reported. The most common birds are flamin-
Rann, Gujarat lies the nesting ground of
gos, storks, sea eagles, kites, kingfishers,
Flamingoes and the only known population of
sandpipers, bulbuls, and whistlers.
Asiatic wild ass.
The cold deserts in India cover a vast area
Coral reefs
of 109 990 sq. Km, about 87,780 sq. km in
Accurate estimates of coral reef extent in the
Laddakh (Jammu and Kashmir) and 22,210
world are not available. A rough estimate puts
sq. Km in Lahaul -Spiti (Himachal Pradesh).
it at 600 000 sq Km (Smith 1978) out of
The diversity of the high altitude cold deserts
which 60% occurs in the Indian Ocean region
has been studied only recently with many
and most of it in south-east Asia (Photo 9.6).
insect species being endemic. Interestingly
The coral reef cover in Indian waters is
the cold desert harbors
Kiang
a close relative
roughly estimated upto 19,000 sq. Km (Wafar
of the Indian wild ass found the Rann of
1992). Indian reefs belong to the following
Kachchh. Other distinctive animals include
categories:
Snow leopard, Yak, Tibetan antelope, Ibex,
Blue sheep, Tibetan gazelle, Woolly hare etc.
PalkBay and Gulf of Mannar : Fringing
Biodiversity hotspots
Biodiversity hotspots
Biodiversity hotspots
Biodiversity hotspots
Biodiversity hotspots
Gulf of Kachchh : Fringing ,
Patchy
Biodiversity hotspots
are areas that are unusu-
Andaman and Nicobar Islands : Fringing
ally rich in species, most of which are
Lakshadeep Islands : Atolls
endemic, and are under a constant threat of
Central West coast : Patchy
being overexploited. Among the 18 hot spots
in the world, two are found in India. These
The diversity of the Indian coral reefs is very
are two distinct areas: the Eastern Himalayas
impressive with about 200 coral species be-
and the Western Ghats and are also depicted
longing to 71 genera (Untawale and
in the National forest vegetation map of
Dhargalkar 1993). The richest being Andaman
India. Together these 18 sites contain
and Nicobar Islands which alone harbors 179
approximately 49 955 endemic plant species,
species (Subba Rao 1989).
or 20% of the world’s recorded plants species,
in only 746 400 sq km or 0.5% of the earth’s
Deserts
land surface.
In India, deserts extend over about 2% of the
Eastern Himalayas
landmass (Olson et al. 1983). Three kinds of
deserts are noticeable in India:
Phytogeographically, the Eastern Himalayas
The sand desert of western Rajasthan and
forms a distinct floral region and comprises
n
neighbouring areas.
Nepal, Bhutan, neighbouring states of east and
The vast salt desert of Gujarat
north-east India, and a contiguous sector
n
The high-altitude cold desert of Jammu
Yunnan province in south western China. In
n
and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
the whole of Eastern Himalayas, there are an
estimated 9000 plant species, with 3500 (i.e.
Desert fauna in India is also quite diverse,
39%) of them being endemic. In India’s sector
with about 1200 sp. of animals reported from
of the area, there occur some 5800 plant
Thar region of which 440 are vertebrates and
species, roughly 2000 (i.e. 36%) of them being
755 are invertebrates. Desert fox, Desert cat,
endemic.
Houbara Bustard and some Sandgrouse spe-
86
86
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
Map 9.1
National forest vegetation map of India with biodiversity
hotspots
At least 55 flowering plants endemic to
Species of several families of monocotyledons,
this area are recognized as rare, for example,
Orchidaceae, Zingiberaceae and Arecaceae
the pitcher plant (
Nepenthes khasiana).
abound in the area. Gymnosperms and
The area has long been recognized as a
pteridophytes (ferns) are also well represented
rich centre of primitive flowering plants and
in the area.
the area is recognized as ‘
Cradle of Speciation
’.
87
87
BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY
The area is also rich in wild relatives of
plants of economic significance, e.g. rice
banana, citrus, ginger, chilli, jute and
sugarcane. The region is regarded as the centre
of origin and diversification of five palms of
commercial importance namely, coconut,
arecanut, palmyra palm, sugar palm and wild
date palm.
Tea (
Thea sinensis
) is reported to be in
cultivation in this region for the last 40,000
years. Many wild and allied species of tea, the
leaves of which are used as substitute of tea,
Photo 9.7
The Malabar Tree Nymph (Idea malabarica) found only
are found growing in the North East in the
in wet evergreen forest of the Western Ghats
natural habitats.
Source MoEF Annual report 1997-98
The ‘taxol’ plant
Taxus wallichiana
is
sparsely distributed in the region and has
Western ghats
come under red data category due to its over
exploitation for extraction of a drug effectively
The Western Ghats region is considered as
used against cancer.
one of the most important biogeographic
As regards faunal diversity, 63% of the
zones of India, as it is one of the richest
genera of land mammals in India are know
centres of endemism. Due to varied
from this area. During the last four decades,
topography and micro-climatic regimes, some
two new mammals have been discovered from
areas within the region are considered to be
the region: Golden Langur from Assam –
active zones of speciation.
Bhutan region, and Namdapha flying squirrel
The region has 490 arborescent taxa, of
from Arunachal Pradesh indicating the species
which as many as 308 are endemics this ende-
richness of the region.
mism of tree species shows a distinct trend,
The area is also a rich centre of avian
being the highest (43%) in 8N-10°30’N loca-
diversity – more than 60% of the Indian birds
tion and declining to 11% in 16N - 16°30’N
are recorded in the North East. The region
location.
also has two endemic genera of lizards, and 35
About 1 500 endemic species of
endemic reptilian species, including two turtle.
dicotyledonous plants are reported from the
Of the 204 Indian amphibians, at least 68
Western Ghats. 245 species of orchids belong-
species are known from North East, 20 of
ing to 75 genera are found here, of which 112
which are endemic.
species in 10 genera are endemic to the region
From Namdapha National Park itself, a
(Photo 9.7).
new genus of mammal, a new subspecies of
As regards the fauna, as many as 315
bird, 6 new species of amphibia, four new
species of vertebrates belonging to 22 genera
species of fish, at least 15 new spcies of beetles
are endemic, these include 12 species of mam-
and 6 new species of flies have been discovered
mals, 13 species of birds, 89 species of reptiles,
(Babu and Arora 1999).
87 species of amphibians and 104 species of
fish.
88
88
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
Photo 9.8
Renanthera imschortians: a highly threatened species
of orchid commonly known as Red Vanda
Source MoEF Annual report 1998-99
Photo 9.9
Lion-tailed Macaque: an endangered species
Source MoEF Annual report 1999-2000
The extent of endemism is high in am-
phibian and reptiles. There occur 117 species
of amphibians in the region, of which 89
species (i.e. 76%) are endemic. Of the 165
The contribution of natural and agricul-
species of reptiles found in Western Ghats, 88
tural biodiversity in terms of crops, live stock,
species are endemic.
fisheries etc is very substantial in terms of
Many of the endemics and other species
commercial value.
are listed as threatened (Photo 9.8). Nearly
Such biodiversity has a major contribution
235 species of endemic flowering plants are
to make to the Indian GDP (gross domestic
considered endangered. Rare fauna of the
product). The large economic implications of
region includes: Lion Tailed Macaque (Photo
biodiversity in its wild and domesticated
9.9), Nilgiri Langur, Nilgiri Tahr, Flying
forms is the rice improvement programme.
Squirrel, and Malabar Gray Hornbill (Babu
Rice accounts for 22% of the total cropped
and Arora 1999).
area and 39% of the total area under cereals,
which reflects its importance in the country’s
Biodiversity contribution to Indian
Biodiversity contribution to Indian
Biodiversity contribution to Indian
Biodiversity contribution to Indian
Biodiversity contribution to Indian
struggle to attain self-sufficiency in food.
economy
economy
economy
economy
economy
When the rice crop was doomed due to the
Biodiversity products have obtained a com-
grassy stunt virus in the 1970s, one single
mercial value and have been increasingly
gene from the wild strain of rice, namely
exchanged in the markets having a monetary
Oryza nivara
from Uttar Pradesh, showed
value, from which their share in the national
resistance to this virus and proved vital in the
economy can be judged. In the Indian
fight against the virus.
context it is difficult to put a value on
With respect to the commercial value of
diversity as such because the marketable
the plant species of medicinal value, the world
products are of various kinds both legal and
trade is of several billion dollars and this is
illegal e.g wood and non-wood products from
growing. The export market for medicinal
forests where wood comprises the major
plants has also increased. India’s foreign
commercial produce is both legally exported
exchange reserves from horticultural
as well as illegally smuggled out of the
products are from high yielding varieties
country. Many non-wood forest produce and
(ICAR 1999). Increased production of
the illegal produce is not accounted for in the
oilseeds also helped in saving large amounts
official documents.
of foreign exchange spent on edible oil
import.
89
89
BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY
The aforesaid pressures will lead to loss of
India (ZSI) established in 1916. The Forest
biodiversity in India and will also result in
Survey of India established in 1981 assesses
considerable drop in Indian GDP and foreign
the forest cover, with a view to develop an
exchange earnings from horticultural prod-
accurate database for planning and
ucts, oil seeds, oil meal, and oil cake will drop
monitoring purposes. The Wildlife Institute of
down to a great extent.
India undertakes studies of endangered
species of animals and critical ecosystems.
Over 47,000 species of plants and 89,000
Response
The Ministry of Environment and Forests
(MoEF) is the nodal agency in the Govern-
ment of India for planning, promotion,
coordination, and overseeing the implementa-
tion of the environmental and forestry
programmes. The MoEF is also the focal point
for implementation of the Convention on
Biological Diversity. The mandates of the
Ministry interalia include survey of flora,
fauna, forests and wildlife, and conservation
of natural resources (Photo 9.10). These
objectives are supported by legislative and
Photo 9.11
Pitcher plant: an endangered species
regulatory measures. A number of institutions
Source MoEF Annual report 1997-98
animals species have been recorded by the
BSI and ZSI respectively.
The Survey organizations have published
over the years, documents on flora and fauna
at country, state and in some cases district
levels and for selected ecosystems. Besides,
extensive reports on inventories of resources
indicating level of biodiversity in selected
areas have also been brought out. The Surveys
have also published Red Data Books on
endangered species (Photo 9.11). The voucher
specimens are preserved in Central National
Photo 9.10
Black buck: needs conservation
Source MoEF Annual report 1997-98
Herbarium (CNH) of BSI and National
Zoological Collection (NZC) of ZSI.
affiliated with the Ministry are involved in the
The Forest Survey of India publishes
work related to various aspects of biological
every three years, a State of Forest in India
diversity. Survey and inventorization of the
report based on remote sensing and ground
floral and faunal resources are carried out by
truth data.
the Botanical Survey of India (BSI) estab-
lished in 1890, and the Zoological Survey of
90
90
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
have been significant in restoring viable
population of large mammals such as tiger,
lion, rhinoceros, crocodiles, elephants, etc.
The Indian Council of Forestry Research
n
and Education
(ICFRE)
has identified 309
forest preservation plots of representative
forest types for conservation of viable and
representative areas of biodiversity. 187 of
these plots are in natural forests and 112 in
plantations, covering a total area of 8,500
hectares.
Photo 9.12
A herd of Cheetal at Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary
A programme entitled
“Eco-develop-
n
Source MoEF Annual report 1999-2000
ment”
for in situ conservation of biological
diversity involving local communities has
Existing policy r
Existing policy r
Existing policy response
esponse
esponse
esponse
Existing policy r
Existing policy r
esponse
been initiated in recent years. The concept
In situ conservation (within natural
of eco-development integrates the ecologi-
habitat)
cal and economic parameters for sustained
Some important measures taken are as follows:
conservation of ecosystems by involving the
Approximately 4.2% of the total geographi-
local communities with the maintenance of
n
cal area of the country has been earmarked
earmarked regions surrounding protected
for extensive in situ conservation of
areas. The economic needs of the local
habitats and ecosystems. A protected area
communities are taken care of under this
network of 85 National Parks and 448
programme through provision of
Wildlife Sanctuaries have been created
alternative sources of income and a steady
(Photo 9.12). The results of this network
availability of forest and related produce.
Table 9.5
Biosphere reserves set up
Name of the site Date of notification Location (State)
Nilgiri 01.08.86 Part of Wynad , Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and
Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu)
Nanda Devi 18.01.88 Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, Almora Districts (Uttar Pradesh)
Nokrerk 01.09.88 Part of Gora Hills (Meghalaya)
Manas 14.03.89 Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and Darang district
(Assam)
Sunderbans 29.03.89 Part of delta of Ganga & Brahamaputra river system (West Bengal)
Gulf of Mannar 18.02.89 Indan part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu)
Great Nicobar 06.01.89 Southern most islands of Andaman and Nicobar (A&N islands)
Similpal 21.06.94 Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa)
Dibru-Saikhowa 28.07.97 Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia district (Assam)
Dehang Debang 02.09.98 Part of Siang and Debang velley in Arunachal Pradesh
Pachmarhi 03.03.99 Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh
Kanchanjanga 07.02.2000 Part of Kanchanjanga Hills and Sikkim
Source MoEF 2000
91
91
BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY
Photo 9.13
Den of the Royal Bengal Tiger of Sundarbans Biosphere Reserves
Source MoEF Annual report 1999-2000
To conserve the respective ecosystems, a
n
formulation of perspective plans for con-
Biosphere Reserve Programme
is being
servation based on resource survey using
implemented. Twelve biodiversity rich areas
remote sensing technology and GIS
of the country have been designated as
studies on biodiversity and related
Biosphere Reserves (Table 9.5) applying
ecological matters, prevention of pollution
the diversity and genetic integrity of plants,
from point and non-point sources,
animals and microorganisms in their
treatment of catchment, desilting and weed
totality as part of the natural ecosystems,
control.
so as to ensure their self-perpetuation and
Wild Life Protection Act is in the final
unhindered evolution of the living
n
stage of revision and provisions have been
resources (Photo 9.13).
made for conservation reserves and com-
Programmes have also been launched for
n
scientific management and wise use of
fragile ecosystem. Specific programmes for
Table 9.6
World heritage sites
management and conservation of wetlands,
Site Location
mangroves, and coral reef systems are also
being implemented. 21 wetlands, 15 man-
Kaziranga National Park Assam
grove areas and 4 coral reef areas have
Keoladeo Ghana National Park Rajasthan
been identified for management. National
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam
Nanda Devi National Park Uttar Pradesh
and sub-national level committees oversee
Sundarban National Park West Bengal
and guide these programme to ensure
strong policy and strategic support.
Six internationally significant wetlands of
munity reserves to allow restrictive use to
n
India have been declared as “
Ramsar
make it more people oriented. Presently
Sites
” under the Ramsar Convention. To
Biodiversity Act which is in the final stage,
focus attention on urban wetlands threat-
has got the component of National
ened by pollution and other anthropogenic
Biodiversity Authority to control access to
activities, State Governments were re-
genetic resources form international com-
quested to identify lakes that could be
munity. There will also be State
include the National Lake Conservation
Biodiversity Boards to control access to
Plan. The activities of the NLCP include
domestic consumers.
92
92
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
Under the World Heritage Convention, five
n
natural sites have been declared as “
World
Heritage Sites
”, the name of which are
under:
The Tura Range in Gora Hills of
n
Meghalaya is a gene sanctuary for
preserving the rich native diversity of wild
Citrus and Musa species.
Sanctuaries for rhododendrons and
n
orchids have been established in Sikkim.
Large mammal species targeted protection
n
Photo 9.14
Herd of elephants of North-east India
based on the perception of threat to them
Source MoEF Annual report 1998-99
have been under implementation.
Project Tiger.
A potential example of an
n
highly endangered species is the Indian
Project Elephant
was launched in 1991-92
Tiger (
Panthera tigris
) The fall and rise in
n
the number of Tiger’s in India is an index
to assist States having free ranging popula-
of the extent and nature of conservation
tion of wild elephants to ensure long term
survival of identified viable populations of
efforts. It is estimated that India had about
40 000 tigers in 1900, and the number
elephants in their natural habitats (Photo
declined to a mere about 1 800 in 1972.
9.14). Major activities of Project Elephant
are:
Hence, Project Tiger was launched in 1973
with the following objectives:

Ecological restoration of existing natural
habitats and migratory routes of el-

To ensure maintenance of available
ephants
population of Tigers in India for scien-
tific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and

Development of scientific and planned
management for conservation of el-
ecological value
ephants habitats and value population of

To preserve, for all times, the areas of
such biological importance as a national
wild Asiatic elephants in India

Promotion of measures for mitigation of
heritage for the benefit, education and
man-elephant conflict in crucial habitats
enjoyment of the people

At present there are 25 Tiger Reserves
and moderating pressures of human and
domestic stock activities in crucial el-
spreading over in 14 states and covering
ephant habitats
an area of about 33 875 sq km and the
Tiger population has more than doubled

Strengthening of measures for protection
of wild elephants from poachers and
now due to a total ban on hunting and
unnatural caused of death
trading tiger products at national and
international levels and the implementa-

Research on Project Elephant manage-
ment related issues
tion of habitat improvement and
ˆ
Public education and awareness pro-
anti-poaching measures (MoEF 2000)
grammes

Eco-development

Veterinary care
93
93
BIODIVERSITY
BIODIVERSITY
Rhinos have been given special attention in
currently available survey, Central
n
selected sanctuaries and national parks in
Government and State Government together
the North East and North-west India. All
run and manage 33 Botanical Gardens.
these programmes, though focussed on a
Universities have their own botanic gardens.
single species, have a wider impact as they
There are 275 zoos, deer parks, safari parks,
conserve habitats and a variety of other
aquaria etc. A Central Zoo Authority was set
species in those habitats.
up to secure better management of zoos. A
scheme entitled Assistance to Botanic
Gardens provides one-time assistance to
botanic gardens to strengthen and institute
measure for ex-situ conservation of
threatened and endangered species in their
respective regions.
Recent conservation initiatives
Several recent initiatives of the Indian Gov-
ernment have focused on wetland, mangroves
and coral reef management. In 1998-99, an
amount of Rs. 140 lakhs were released to the
State Governments for the preparation of
management action plans for Pongdam in
Himachal Pradesh, Wullar in Kashmir, Loktak
in Manipur, Rudrasagar in Tripura and
Photo 9.15
Joint Forest Management
Kolleru in Andhra Pradesh. Additionally, one
more wetland has been identified for conserva-
The Ministry of Environment and Forests
tion, i.e. Rudrasagar from Tripura, thus
n
constituted the National Afforestation and
increasing the list to 20 wetlands for intensive
Eco-development Board (NAEB) in
conservation in the country. Additionally, a
August 1992. National Afforestation and
wetland strategy has been drafted.
Eco-development Board has evolved
The National Committee on Conservation
specific schemes for promoting
and Management of Mangroves and Coral
afforestation and management strategies,
Reefs in September 1998 recommended the
which help the states in developing specific
establishment of an Indian Coral Reef Moni-
afforestation and management strategies
toring Network to develop Action Plans for
and eco-development packages for aug-
important coral reefs of the country. Prepara-
menting biomass production through a
tion of these plans is already underway.
participatory planning process of Joint
Moreover, financial assistance from UNDP/
Forest Management and microplanning
GEF has led to a PDF-B project on strength-
(Photo 9.15).
ening the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve.
The ZSI (Zoological Survey of India) has
Ex-situ conservation (outside natural
initiated another UNDP/GEF project relating
habitats)
to management of Andaman’s coral reefs.
To complement in situ conservation,
attention has been paid to ex-situ
conservation measures. According to
94
INDIA : STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT 2001
Policy gaps
Policy gaps
Policy gaps
Policy r
Policy r
Policy recommendations
ecommendations
ecommendations
ecommendations
Policy gaps
Policy gaps
Policy r
Policy r
ecommendations
Lack of policies for protection of wetlands,
Most of the legal provisions pertain mainly
n
n
grasslands, sacred groves and other areas
to use/exploitation of biological resources,
significant from the point of view of
rather than their conservation. Even Wild
biodiversity.
Life Protection Act 1972, focuses on pro-
Lacunae in economic policy, institutional
tection rather than conservation.
n
and governance system
Protection under Wild Life Protection Act
Inadequate enforcement of existing laws
is largely directed towards large animal
n
Poor implementation of wildlife protection
species (charismatic terrestrial species)
n
act 1972 as amended in 1991
rather than the large spectrum of fauna
Inadequate implementation of eco-devel-
and flora also found in the marine realm.
n
opment programmes
Hence the existing laws relating to
n
Need for enhanced role of NGOs and
biodiversity shall be examined in order to
n
other institutions
bring them in tune with the provisions of
Need for political commitment and good
convention to reflect current understanding
n
will.
of biodiversity conservation.
Need for providing Institutional Structure
Need for comprehensive legislation on
n
n
Need for more sectoral financial outlay
biodiversity conservation and use especially
n
Human resource development - limited
fisheries policies, which is generally ig-
n
local community participation
nored.
Formulation of policies for protection of
n
Knowledge/infor
Knowledge/infor
Knowledge/information/data
mation/data
mation/data
mation/data
Knowledge/infor
Knowledge/infor
mation/data
wetlands, grasslands, sacred groves, marine
Documentation of biodiversity is an urgent
flora and fauna and other areas significant
n
requirement as latest statistics and data on
from the point of view of biodiversity.
floral and faunal biodiversity of India has
Improving policy environment.
n
not been compiled and documented.
Passage of biodiversity bill.
n
The information and data should be made
A presence of a biodiversity cell in all
n
n
available to the scientific and socio-eco-
development departments impinging on
nomic agencies to support the evaluation/
land and water.
revision of the policies.
Documentation of biodiversity.
n
Lack of knowledge of the magnitude,
Increase allocation of financial resources
n
n
patterns, causes and rates of deforestation
for conservation of biodiversity.
and biodiversity laws at the ecosystem and
Integrating conservation with development
n
landscape level.
Incentives and disincentives for improper
n
Information on poaching trade and trade
use of biodiversity
n
routes is sketchy and current wildlife pro-
Biodiversity Act / Bill should not override
n
tection and law enforcement measures are
the provisions of Wildlife Protection act.
inadequate and inefficient procedure.
There should be continuous monitoring of
n
Biodiversity Act /Bill should not override
biodiversity use for review of results of
n
the provisions of Wildlife Protection Act.
implementation of policies and programmes.