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Suggestion solutions

1 (a) (i) ΔH = 4 × 278 – 244 – 2 × 496 [1]


= –124 (kJ mol-1) [1]
(correct ans [2])

(ii) shape is bent/V-shaped/non-linear (or diagram) [1]


due to (one) lone pair and/or (1) odd/unpaired electron (or shown on diag) [1]
(assume electrons are on chlorine unless explicitly stated otherwise, in which case
award no mark)

(iii) 3KClO3 + H2SO4 → K2SO4 + KClO4 + H2O + 2ClO2 [1]

(b) (i) coal-fired power stations; fuel in cars; car exhausts/gas emissions; other named use of a
fossil fuel; contact process; cement manufacture; brick manufacture; roasting of sulphide
ores; burning tyres (any 2) [1]
(NOT volcanoes etc; NOT burning of natural gas)
(no marks for only 1 correct source)

(ii) causes acid rain [1]


which lower pH of lakes; leaches aluminium from soils; kills fish/plants/rainforests;
dissolves/corrodes/damages buildings (any 1) [1]
(NOT asthma etc – since this is not environmental)

(c) (i) CO2: simple + molecular/covalent or weak intermolecular forces


SiO2: giant/macro + molecular/covalent
SnO2: ionic/electrostatic attraction between Sn4+ & O2- (ignore “giant”) (all 3 correct) [2]
(2 correct = [1], 1 correct = [0])

(Reject ionic bond for SnO2 as it repeats the words ionic structure).

(ii) H2O + CO2 H+ + HCO3¯ [1]


[ H + ][CO32− ]
Kc = [1]
[CO2 ]

• (Reject [H2O] in Kc because H2O would be in excess for this reaction.)


• (Equation should show equilibrium as student needs to know that CO2 partially
dissociates to give HCO3-. Hence, reject equation which shows forward arrow only.
• (Reject this equation: H2O + CO2 → H2CO3 as question said HCO3- is formed.)

(iii) HCO3¯ + H+ → H2CO3 or H2O + CO2 (or equation with H3O+) [1]
HCO3¯ + OH¯ → CO32- + H2O [1]

• (Reject H2CO3 + OH- because question said how HCO3- maintains pH. This implies
that HCO3- reacts with H+ and OH- in an irreversible manner to get rid of them
hence without causing pH to decrease or increase (respectively).)
• (Note: Question is a buffer question)

(d) (i) Oxidation number = 0: A = H2CO [1]

Oxidation number = +2: B = HCOOH [1]


Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)
2
(ii) K2Cr2O7/H+ K2Cr2O7/H+
CH3OH H2CO CH3OH HCOOH
distill heat under reflux
; ;
+
KMnO4/H
CH3OH CO2
heat under reflux
(3 correct – 2m, 2 correct – 1m)

(Reject combustion for methanol to CO2. Lousy way of synthesis.)

(e) hydrogen bonds exist between H2O molecules [1]


hydrogen bonds cannot form
between C2H5OC2H5 molecules because of alkyl group which prefers id-id interactions [1]

(Reject “extensive hydrogen bonding”. This implies the substance should be soluble and
extensive or less extensive makes it more or less soluble. The question provided the context
that it ether and water are insoluble, hence the two layers are observed.)

2 (a) primary: covalent (ignore amide, peptide etc) [1]


diagram showing peptide bond: (-CHR-)CONH(-CHR-) [1]
(note: Should not show –COOH and –NH2 at the end)

secondary: hydrogen bonds (NOT “..between side chains”) [1]


diagram showing N-H···O = C [1]
(note: Partial charges must be shown)

tertiary: two of the following:


• hydrogen bonds (diag. must show H-bonds other than those in α-helix or
β-pleated sheet – e.g. ser-ser)
• electrostatic/ionic attraction,
• van der Waals’/hydrophobic forces/bonds,
• (covalent) disulphide (links/bridges) [1] + [1]
suitable diagram of one of the above [1]
(for disulphide: S-S not S=S or SH-SH) [Max 6]

Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)


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(b) CARE – this is not about DNA!
candidates should describe TWO potential effects on tertiary or quaternary structures caused
by amino acid sidechains...
these include:
• disruption of H-bonding
• disruption of disulphide bridges
• disruption of electrostatic/ionic attraction
• disruption of van der Waals’ forces
(only allow effects on the secondary structure if proline is specifically mentioned)
2 x [1]
then award [1] mark each for two of the following bullet points:
• a description of the amino acids involved in the above, (or a labelled diagram)
(award [1] mark for each example)
(note: Have accepted non-specific examples but rather clear illustration to how the above set
of bullets can be disrupted.)
a description of an effect of interchanging amino acids, such as the..
• unfolding of tertiary structure/different folding/different shape (NOT denatured)
• inactivity of an enzyme or changing the active site
• causing of a protein to become less soluble/coagulate (e.g. sickle cells)
2 x [1]
(c) (i) Formation of the amide bond between the –COOH of one amino acid with the –NH2 of another
amino acid. Both –COOH and –NH2 are attached to the same C atom.
(Note: Candidates should be more detailed. Many just stated –COOH and –NH2. Although, it was
accepted, it is not impressive)

(ii) H H
O

H2N C C NH C CO2H

CH2 CH2OH

CH
H3C CH3
(d) (i) H

-
H2N C COO

CH2

COO-
H3C

(ii) H

-
H2N C COO

(CH2)2

H2N

Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)


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(e) (ii) Amino acid B and D.

In B: -COOH of R: (-NH)CH(COO-)CH2COOH + OH- → (-NH)CH(COO-)CH2COO- + H2O

In D: -NH2 of R: (-NH)CH(COO-)(CH2)2NH2 + H+ → NH)CH(COO-)(CH2)2NH3+

pH changes will interfere with the hydrogen bonding that is going to happen for B and D. In B,
removes –COOH ability to form H-bonding and in D, removes –NH2 ability to use it lone pair to
attract a H. (Reject: If the –NH2 and the –COOH on the α-carbon is reacted.)

(iii) Amino Acid B and D (accept B only, reject C)

Show by drawing a diagram how the electrostatic attraction between –COO- and –NH3+ will be
disrupted because of their interaction with the heavy metal ion.
(accept: students saying only the –COO- affected. The –NH3+ is indirectly affected because once
the –COO- is bonded with the heavy metal ion, it can’t exhibit electrostatic attraction with the –
NH3+)
(Reject: Heavy metal, M, Na. Using Ca2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ are used)

3 (a) (i) Eo = 0.40 – (–0.83) = 1.23V [1]


(Note: Show calculations clearly)

(ii) 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O [1]


(Reject: Equations which shows water on both sides of the equation.)

(iii) Cathode electrode will become more negative [1]


Anode electrode will also become more negative / less positive [1]
(Note: Explanation using LCP is required)
(Reject: Answers which think that anode electrode potential increase because forward reaction
increase. Electrode potentials are measured from higher oxidation number to lower oxidation
number.)

(iv) no change ecf from (iii) [1]


(Note: Since OH- is not featured at the overall reaction. They do not affect Ecell value.)
(v) increased conductance or lower cell resistance or increased rate of reaction [1]
(Note: increase conductance or lower cell resistance facilitate the ease of the redox reaction.)

(b) (i) Eo = 1.47 – (–0.13) = 1.60V [1]

(ii) PbO2 + Pb + 4H+ → 2Pb2+ + 2H2O [1]

(iii) PbO2 + Pb + 4H+ + 2SO42– → 2PbSO4(s) + 2H2O [1]


(iv) PbSO4 being insoluble is formed on the electrode. [1]

It facilitates the re-charging process. Re-generates the reactants for the battery to work.
[1]

Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)


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o
(v) E cell will increase [1]
as [Pb2+] decreases, Eelectrode(PbO2) will become more positive, but Eelectrode(Pb) will become
more negative [1]

(c) variable oxidation states [1]


formation of complexes [1]
catalytic activity [1]
(Note: GCE accepted colour, but that is more of a physical property than chemical property.)

(d) (green is [Ni(H2O)6]2+)


ppt is Ni(OH)2 [1]
blue solution is [Ni(NH3)6]2+ or [Ni(NH3)4]2+ or [Ni(NH3)4(H2O)2]2+ [1]
formed by ligand exchange
Ni2+ + 2OH– → Ni(OH)2 [1]
Ni(OH)2 + 6NH3 → [Ni(NH3)6]2+ + 2OH– [1]
(Reject: Strange reactions which make use of NH3 to give NH2.)
(Note: Initial addition of NH3 provides a basic medium, a source of OH- for metal hydroxide to be formed.
Subsequent addition of NH3, NH3 serves as a ligand as it contains available lone pair of electrons. The
ligand is able to form a dative bond with a metal centre, giving us a complex ion.)

4 (a) high temperature (and/or pressure) provide enough energy [1]


to break N≡N bond
or to provide Ea for N2/O2 reaction [1]
(Reject: Insufficient O2 used for reaction. If that is the case, most of the fuel will become CO.)

(b) (i) two from C, CO, hydrocarbon, SO2, H2S, NO2/NOx [1+1]
not CO2, H2, H2O, SO3, NO

(ii) Pt or Pd or Pt/Rh or Pt/Pd/Rh [1]

(iii) 2NO + 2CO → 2CO2 + N2


or 2NO + C → CO2 + N2 [1]

(c) (i) [ NO ] 2 [Cl 2 ]


KC = 2
[1] units are mol dm–3 [1]
[ NOCl ]
(ii) Calculate the value of Kc at each of the temperature give; at 230 oC and at 465 oC.
At 230 oC Kc = 4.5 × 10-3 mol dm-3 [1]

At 465 oC Kc = 9.2 × 10-2 mol dm-3 [1]


(Note: Mark is deducted for wrong units.)

(iii) endothermic because Kc increases with temperature


mark is for explanation – explanation includes relating Kc and [pdts] hence telling us the
shift in position of equilibrium.
allow ecf on answer to part (ii) [1]

(d) (i) equilibrium position moves to RHS [1]


more gas molecules on RHS compared to LHS (3 vs 2 respectivey) [1]

Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)


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(ii) no change to equilibrium position [1]
[NOCl ] and [NO] change by same amount [1]
(Note: See-saw analogy. Both addition results in the same in the same direction. Since both will
cause the change by same amount, since same amount is added, the equilibrium position does not
change.)

(e) N2 + Cl2 →NCl3

NCl3 + 3H2O → NH3 + 3HClO [1]


HClO + HCl → Cl2 + H2O [1]
A = NH3, B = HClO, C = Cl2 [1] each

(Note: It is important to remember that when Cl2 is dissolved in NaOH, Cl- and ClO- are formed. When
both are added in the presence of acid, they will create Cl2.)

5 (a) (i) Ethene: Room temperature.

Benzene: Br2 with FeBr3, room temperature.


[1 or 0]
(Note: dark is not accepted because rate of free radical substitution will be slower.
Especially when in this case no H in ethene and benzene would like be substituted via
free radical substitution. – generally because their C–H bond is stronger.)

(ii) Reaction I: Electrophilic Addition reaction [1]

Reaction II: Electrophilic Substitution reaction [1]

(b) Correct intermediate for electrophilic addition [1]


Correct intermediate for electrophilic substitution [1]
arrow pushing [both steps, 1]; partial charges [1]

(c) Delocalised ring of electrons (in benzene) is stable, (so is re-formed in second step in
benzene.)
or electrons in the ethene π bond are localised/more available for reaction with electrophiles [1]
(Note: Need to talk about the delocalized electron ring because that arises due to the stability
because of aromaticity. It is insufficient to just state “lose stability due to aromaticity”.)
(d) For a given rate equation: rate = k[A]n

n is the order of reaction. It is given with respect to a given reactant and it is defined as the
power to which the concentration of that reactant raised to in the experimentally determined
rate equation.

(e) (i) Explanation and working [1]

1st order w.r.t to ketone [1] 1st order w.r.t to CN- [1] zero order w.r.t to H+ [1]

Rate = k[(CH3)2CO] [CN-]

(Note: Working must be shown to get credit for orders of reaction.)


Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)
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(ii) Mechanism B [1]
1st step is the slow step [1]

Mechanism A is not possible.


If 2nd step is the slow step, H+ still affects the rate as it is used to form the intermediate.
[1]
(Note: Not relevant to talk about breaking of bonds, since it is not using the rate equation
to explain)

(f) C6H5CH2OCH2CH2CH3 and C6H5CH2OH [1+1]

SN1 mechanism with the formation of the carbocation (draw structure) which enables the
propanol and hydroxide ion to attack it. [1]

2-chloro methylbenzene cannot undergo nucleophilic substitution because the C-Cl bond has
partial double character due to overlapping of p orbital between Cl and the π electron cloud. [1]

Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)


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Spare questions
(e) Dimethylglyoxime, DMG, I a useful reagent for the quantitative estimation of nikel. It forms
an insoluble salt with nickel ions according to the following equation.

A mall coin of mass 3.40g was dissolved in nitric acid and an excess of DMG was added. The
precipitated Ni-DMG was filtered off, washed and dried. Its mas was 4.00g.

Calculate the % of nickel in the coin.


[3]
J2010/IV/2

Kwok YL Complied questions for Mock Paper 3 (O910)