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Modern Approaches To Teaching

Unit 9


An outstanding development in modern education is the increased use of supplementary devices by
which the teacher through the use of more than one sensory channel helps to clarify, establish and
correlate accuracy, concepts, interpretations and appreciations; increases knowledge; rouses interest
and evokes worthy emotions and enriches the imagination of children.

The Audio-Visual materials are quite helpful in instruction, they provide a concrete
basis for conceptual thinking; meaningful concepts to words enriches by meaningful

 The value of Audio-Visual Aids to Learning

1. Audio-Visual aids are potent starters and motivators:
When the child finds learning made easy, interesting and joyful with the help of sensory aids he
feels motivated. He cannot but attend to an interesting procedure going on before him. In short the
student can learn faster, remember, longer, gain more accurate information and receive and
understand delicate concepts and meanings. Thus learning becomes meaningful, enjoyable and

 2. Audio-Visual Aids give Variety to Classroom Techniques

Variety is always attractive to the child as well as to the adult. A.V.Aids provide a change in the
atmosphere of the classroom. They allow some freedom from the formal instruction of the
traditional type. While using sensory aids, the pupils may move about, talk, laugh, question, and
comment upon and in other ways act in a natural manner as they do outside the classroom.
An opportunity to touch, feel, handle, or operate a model specimen, picture, maps; etc, enable the
child and satisfies him temporarily, at least, the natural desire for mastery and ownership.

 3. A.V.Aids Educate Children For Life In This Modern Complex World

There was a time when life was very simple-Children learnt through direct experiences the
rudiments of knowledge, but ours is a complex world. More is the need today than before.
These Aids can bring about mutual understanding and appreciation of cultural values and ways of
living among the different nations of the world. Sympathetic attitudes can be developed among the
school children through media. So A.V.Aids, wisely selected and intelligently used, arouse and
develop intense and beneficial interest and so motivate the pupils’ learning and properly motivated
learning means improved attitudes, permanency of impressions and rich experience and ultimately
more wholesome living.

 Drawbacks
A.V.Aids are to children rather than to teachers-aids to learning, rather than to teaching. They do
not make teaching easier; they do not lighten the work of teachers. Their use requires considerable
addition to the time spent in planning and preparing lessons.
They are to increase his interest in and his comprehension of the topics being studied by presenting
several slants on it, especially through his two most used senses-sight and learning.

For the purposes of convenience, we shall classify these aids into Five (5) types:
1. Aids through the ear (Auditory)
a) Phonograph
b) Radio
2. Aids through the eye (Visual)

a) Motion Pictures
b) Stereoscope
c) The Camera
d) The Chalkboard
e) The Flannel board
f) The bulletin board
g) The Pictorial Materials
h) Representations-maps, globes, diagrams etc.

3. Aids Through The Eye/ Ear (Audio-Visual)

a) Sound-motion Pictures
b) Television
4. Aids Through Activity
a) The School Journeys
b) The Objects, Specimens, Model collections
5. Miscellaneous
a) Dramatization
b) Booklets
c) Newspapers And Magazines.

 Galaxy Of Teaching Aids.

1. Periodicals 2. Models 3. Books 4. Newspapers
5. Slides 6. Filmstrips 7. Radio 8. Tape Records
9. Graphs & Charts 10. Globes & Maps 11. Motion Pictures 12. Television
13. Photograph Discs 14. Pictorial Materials



In this Section we shall proceed to discuss some of the important displaying aids.


Black/ White board is a basic, most widely used and versatile tool of instruction. It is the most trusted
powerful and commonly used teaching devices in the classroom, Lecture room and also in the quickest
and easiest and often the only means of illustration. Modern Chalkboard is not black but in different
colour, mostly in pleasing green.

1. Chalkboard is almost non-expensive.
2. Chalkboard helps the teacher to focus the attention of his/her pupils on the lesson.
3. Chalkboard is easily available.
4. Chalkboard drawings intensify pupils’ interest in the class work.
5. Chalkboard can be used as a screen for projection of pictures

1. Chalkboard can be seen only from a limited distance.

2. Speaker has to run away from the audience.


When a chalkboard is used or presentation, certain techniques have to be remembered.

These are:
1. The writing must be brief and to the point.
2. Chalkboard must be easily visible to every pupil in the class.
3. While writing on the blackboard, the teacher should not turn his/her back fully towards the
4. The teacher while explaining the written matter on the chalkboard must always stand at the
side of the chalkboard.
5. While explaining the written points on the chalkboard, the teacher must make use of a pointer.
6. The teacher must make use of colored chalks for emphasis.
7. Chalkboard should never be crowded.
8. All the unrelated matter must be erased.
9. Words on the Chalkboard must be spelt correctly.
10. While writing on the board, care should be taken that the chalk does not make any noise.
11. Write a comment or make a portion of a sketch and then turn back to the class to ask questions.
12. Letters on the Chalkboard must be well placed and they should be of such sufficient size as to
make it visible to backbenchers.

Strictly speaking, the chalkboard is not in itself of visual material. An empty blackboard
conveys no message at all. It is a vehicle for the teacher’s instructions he/she wishes to
convey. The teacher makes his/her own impressions on it.


The Flannel board is a type of cloth board that consists of a piece of flannel cloth, tightly
stretched over the surface and then glued to a piece of plywood or even a very thick
cardboard. The Flannel board is an extremely versatile instructional device and is used at
almost any grad level. The purpose of using Flannel board is to save time during class
presentation and to encourage visual presentation of ideas or concepts. The Flannel board
is not only adaptable, providing teachers with a wealth of demonstration but it also allow
for student participation.

 Advantages & Disadvantages Of Flannel Board

a). It can be prepare before hand.
b). It permits quickly back & forth adjustment.
c). It can use a variety of visuals.
d). It facilitates the attention factors.

Disadvantage is that unlike other boards, a Flannel board cannot be used as a

chalkboard in the class.

 Holding Tips
a). One must plan in advance the exact appearance of the board.
b). Once must brush the Flannel occasionally to clean and roughen it.

2.3 Bulletin Board And Teaching Displays

A bulletin board is a place for pasting and brief items that are “News” to students. It is thus a
place for news items. It purposes is to motivate and to arouse curiosity. It always serves as a place

for displaying some outstanding work of the pupil. Bulletin board and their extended forms-
teaching displays and exhibits- are among the least expensive and most productive instructional
resources. They can perform useful educational functions in all levels and fields. There are other
purposes for which exhibits and displays are used.


1. To Facilitate Study Of Single- Copy Materials:

When only one copy of a useful resource is on hand, the bulletin board provides a means of
making it available for study by groups.

2. To Stimulate Interest:
The jackets of books for example, displayed on the bulletin board may encourage reading.

3. To Encourage Student Participation:

Problems presented on bulletin board or displays may be studied and discussed by students as a part
of classroom activity.

4. To Communicate Ideas Visually:

In choosing the objectives of a bulletin board or a display, planning the content and developing and
arranging the display, students use and extend their communication skills and abilities.

5. To Make a Classroom Dynamic and Attractive:

The benefits of student activity and participation in the creation of bulletin boards and teaching
displays cannot be overestimated.

 “Special Things/ How To Use Bulletin Boars”

1. Teacher must classify and file the material for bulletin board beforehand.
2. Teacher must arrange the material on the bulletin board in an interesting manner.
3. Teacher must put a title and give a brief description.
4. Teacher must use colour harmony.
5. Teacher must encourage the pupils to observe as well as to contribute to the bulletin board.
6. Teacher must collect suitable illustration for instructional projects and problems.
7. New arrival of books in the library may be exhibited on the bulletin board.
8. It always serves as a place for displaying some outstanding work of the pupils.

 General Care To Be Taken Of The Bulletin Board

a). Material that is going to be displayed on the bulletin board should be selected with care.
b). Material that is going to be displayed on the bulletin board should be correlated with regular
class- activity.

c). Material displayed on the bulletin board must be changed frequently and in time.

2.4 Magnetic Board
A Magnetic board is that which is prepared out of a piece of tin plate. In fact, the technique of
magnetic board is similar to that of a Flannel board. A small magnet is fixed, when placed against the
tin surface, it remains in the same position because the magnet gets fixed or stuck on the board.

 Advantages Of Magnetic Board

1. Magnetic adhesion is more reliable.
2. Preparation of cutouts is simpler.
3. Magnetic board can carry heavier pieces.
4. Magnetic board can be used as a pin up board with magnets serving as drawing pins.

 Disadvantaged Of Magnetic Board

a). Magnetic board is very heavy. Thus, it cannot be carried from one place to another like
roll-up black boards.

b). Preparation of magnetic board is a bit expensive and elaborate too.

c). It is difficult sometimes to find suitable and cheap magnets.

 Roll-Up Black Board:

A rollup blackboard is prepared out of rexin cloth. At one end of the cloth is fixed a
wooden strip with nails and at the other end another wooden strip is fixed. But it is
rounded one so as to feel easy to roll it upwards. There is also fixed a tape or ribbon
so that one can hang it on the wall easily.

 Advantages
a).Roll-Up Black boards are easy to prepare.
b).Roll-Up Blackboards are easy to carry for one place to another.
c).Roll-Up Blackboards are useful for summing up the taught matter.
d).Roll-Up Blackboards are very useful in classroom teaching because it saves time.
The teacher can write beforehand on it: he/ she may even draw a diagram or
drawing so as to save time while actually teaching.


We are fully convinced that how difficult it is to express our abstract thoughts just in
words, without the help of any instructional material. But this itself is not enough to
state the significance of Audio0-Visual aids while teaching.
These A.V. materials accomplish when used properly:

1. Audio-Visual aids supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and thus reduce
meaninglessness of word responses of pupils in classroom activities.
2. A.V.Aids bring the past into the present and cover the record of years and even
centuries into a short period of minutes. The schools today can come very close to
actually experiencing historic events.
3. These aids help in making the whole world a real audience of events occurring in the
various parts of the world.

4. When A.V.Aids are employed, the response of the class is always better.
5. They help in a longer retention of the learnt matter as the stimulus that is receives are
at least through the three senses
6. The use of A.V.Aids provides a stimulus to pupils for making good use of textbooks
rather than depending on guides.
7. The Visual aids are also found to be useful for the mass entertainment of an
intellectual type.
8. They also contribute to the growth of meaning and hence to vocabulary development.
9. These aids do not depend much on the verbal explanation. A.V. Materials are value to
the teacher in the accurate communication of ideas because these materials are
themselves capable of “ Speaking ” a universal language.
10. The topic thought with the help of visual aids are comparatively easy to understand
and therefore, they interest the children more than the mere description of anything
through talk.

Various Types Of A.V.Aids


The Phonographic idea dates back to the time of the Egyptians, who more than 3500 years
ago, develop a device that reproduced a human voice. However, the scientific development
phonograph took place in the early years of the 20th century. It was for many days used as
a means of entertainment. But slowly & progressively with the advent of modern times,
the gramophone really proved an effective aid in teaching music, the correct accents,
intonation of different languages, etc.


Slowly with the passing of time the gramophone was replaced by another Audio- Aid
Radio a wireless transmitting station. It is also good to use the word “ broadcasting ”
because to broadcast means, “ to scatter over a wide surface”.

The role of Radio in the field of education there are certain essential contributions to be
made towards a successful service by those who originate radio lessons & by the class
teacher who receives them. Some of the following services provide in the educational
field, that.
1. Radio is an aid to the learner.
2. Radio teachers should read the script they write.
3. Radio lessons should be directly related to the school curriculum.
4. Sufficient numbers of teacher’s notes have been supplied which should indicate:

a). Date, time, & duration of broadcasts.

b). A summary of the content of each lesson.

 Advantages Of Educational Broadcasts:

1. Educational broadcasts have potentially a great coverage.
2. Educational broadcastings are usually not that expensive in unit costs.
3. Educational broadcasts can received anywhere either in the house or in the school or
even while traveling.
4. It does not require electrification.
5. It has the capability of obtaining imaginative involvement of listeners.
6. Educational broadcasts are very much suitable for supportive type of learning.
7. Educational broadcasts have the capacity to bring a dramatic feeling in the classroom.
8. It has the warmth of a drama, the personal feeling of the actor’s presence.

9. Educational broadcasts sometimes easily serve as an inspirational material. E.g.
special events or eyewitness reports of space travelers themselves.

 Limitations Of Radio Broadcasts:

Radio has a good means of sharing the talents of students; yet it has the following limitations:

1. It is one-way communication.
2. It requires visual support in most instructional areas.
3. Proper selection of subjects is a great consideration.
4. The class teacher has no control over the pace of development of a radio lesion.
5. Radio service is flexible. It has fixed lesson times which are sometimes inconvenient for
schools who prefer a flexible timetable.
6. In the most remote rural areas, normal reception conditions are very often poor.
7. The success of a radio lesson may be seriously impaired by out side interruption at the
receiving end.
8. Lastly, it requires a high degree of concentration on the part of the listener.

Some suggestions regarding educational broadcast utilization are as following.

1. The class should be suitable prepared to receive the programme.
2. The broadcast should not be considered as substitute for regular teaching.
3. The broadcast must be integrated with classroom work.
4. Full attention of pupils must be insisted upon.
5. Broadcast must be supplemented with other aids.


The tape recorder is proving a great educational benefit in the schools which can afford it. It is used
for many purposes.
1. Learning of foreign languages.
2. Leaning the music. Learners can record their performance and then discuss their deficiencies
with the teacher.
3. Replaying Speeches. To a school gathering for example, an assembly that is important can be
recorded and then repeated as and when desired.
4. Good radio programmes can be tape-recorded and replayed.
5. Class discussion and lectures if recorded can provide a substantive basis for second thoughts
about what was said and how it was said.

 Advantages Of A Tape Recorder

1. The tape recorder is a portable, easily operated mechanical device.
2. The tape recorders are easy to operate.
3. Tape recorders are convenient to transport.
4. The tape of the tape recorder itself is inexpensive and durable.
5. It can be readily edited.
6. Tape recorder is chiefly useful in the “ creative” facility it gives the teacher and in the
opportunity it gives to assess: -

a). Speech Training

b). Reading
c). Composition
d). Comprehension
e). Drama
f). Choral Signing
g). Poetry in foreign language

h). Country dancing

Listening & discussing are the important forms of children’s schoolwork. Now, training in
listening is inherent In teaching and the record being the tool especially helpful in
developing listening habits, its organization and the way in which it is used should be
planned so as to help students build constructive listening habits. By doing this, the tape-
recording device can bring a live situation into focus when it is most needed.


In the field of education the development of motion pictures as the medium of instruction
has swept its way and has come to stay as one of the most potent devices in teaching. It
brings reality into pupils’ appearance in utmost first hand.

4.1 Educational Role

1. The motion picture compels attention.

2. The motion picture makes the experience almost first hand.
3. The motion picture is an edited version of reality.
4. It offers common denominator of experience.
5. It can influence and even change attitudes.
6. It can be the pupils in their understanding.
7. The motion pictures bring variety.
8. It offers a satisfying aesthetic experience.

4.2 Educational Television

Television is of great help to teacher, however, the entire picture will be clear when on goes
through the values or significance of educational television. Some of them are as follows:

Significance Of Educational Television

1. It can bring out the real event as it actually happens.
2. Foreign languages can be taught effectively on the television.
3. Best science equipments can be brought in every school through television for teaching science
4. Television facilitates a school or college to share its best teachers rather than rationing them.
5. Television acts as a supplementary enrichment, for it brings the latest information for
classroom discussion.
6. Television lessons once recorded on the videotape can be repeated any number of times.
7. Educational television can add a dimension beyond the range of motion pictures.
8. Television can bring models of excellence to the teachers, Viewers. We can see and hear able
scientists, creative teachers, great poets and the significance of dramatists. Especially in those
fields where specialized teacher talents may be lacking.
9. Television moreover can become a great equalizer of educational opportunities.
10. Television can save the time and effort of the teacher and the student, too. The student can see
every thing in the real sense, which provides an interesting and exciting change and furnishes
some of the variety that is the spice of education.

Thus, we can say that television is a very powerful medium and if properly integrated with
classroom teaching it can definitely make the teaching- learning process more dynamic, effective,
meaningful and interesting thus improve the quality of education, which is our ultimate aim today.
It may be note that television is an aid and it will never supplant the teacher but will supplement
him/her. Any aid in itself is never bad or good. It effect depends upon how we use it.

 Limitations Of Educational Television
The Educational Television has its own limitations. These are:

1. Equipments necessary for television are costly and complicated.

2. Television maintenance is costly and a well- trained staffs is difficult to get.
3. Follow- up activity hardly takes place.
4. Educational television does not provide for laboratory experience.
5. As compared to projected pictures, television screen is too small in size.
6. Teacher does not readily permit any class discussion and immediate feedback
becomes impossible.
7. They’re being no personal contact with the teacher; one cannot adjust to individual
8. Educational television programmes are mostly based on the average pupil and thus
there is very little scope for an extraordinary pupil.

The Classroom Utilization Of Educational T.V.P. Programmes

Involves the following considerations:
A programme is useful if it can be seen and heard properly. Seeing and hearing, however,
depend on the following:

A). Physical Environment

a). Television must be located away from extreme moisture or dust. It must be moved
away from one place to another only when it is absolutely necessary.
b). Expert technicians should carry out Maintenance.
c). For maximum visibility, the television set must be placed at a proper height.
d). Pupils must look at the screen from the normal eye line, i.e. at 30.

B). Programme Utilization is dependent On

1. The willingness of teachers to make full use of the educational television
2. Achievement of concrete results through this medium.
3. Teacher’s clear statement of objectives.
4. Teacher’s suggestion to pupils for supplementary reading.
5. Watching of programmes should be without interruptions.
6. Adequate time should be allowed for preparation and follow-up activity.
7. Teacher’s explanatory note of what the programme hopes to achieve.

To sum up, television as an instructional aid has the potential of facilitating better
communication and retention in the teacher- learning process. Perhaps the potential of
television is the greatest unifying force ever to act upon man but to obtain the optimum
benefits from it. We must try to find a way to unfetter it a way to let it operate freely in all
educational institutions in the country.


An educational film is one, which contribute to the achievement of desirable educational

goals by making an effective use of motion pictures as a medium of communication. In
fact. There are two types of films. Silent and sound. Sound film, which visualizes
properly, employs motion, includes environmental sound, & is related to the school
curriculum & is an audio-visual synthesis of environmental and interpretative sounds and
visual concepts.

Nature Of Educational Film
1. An educational film is necessarily a multiple method of communication.
2. We find realistic presentation of facts in educational film.
3. It records & reproduces phenomena for scientific study.
4. It dramatizes human relations & events.
5. Educational films depict imagination.

Techniques For Teaching with Films

The various techniques for teaching with films. These are as follows:

1. The introduction to the film should make it clear the purpose for which the film is
being shown.
2. If the group is large, it may be advisable to break it up into small syndicates for this
3. In the case of technical exposition, a question period may be necessary first.
4. When the film is being used to teach a skill, then a practice experience may be the
most appropriate follow-up.
5. Research experiments have shown that a follow-up discussion or question & answer
period is a must to obtain a full value from a film.


Presentation of a new subject through a film is as follows:

1. The teacher must make introduction of the film.

2. Difficulties in the vocabulary of the film may also be explained.
3. Then comes the actual screening.
4. Discussion may follow immediately.
5. Follow-up activities written or oral should be planned much in advance.

Selection Of Films:
The selection of the film, must be on the basis of the following:

1. Length:
The teacher must see whether it is related to the topic/ subject & to the time available in
the programme.
2. Condition:

The teacher must also see that the condition of the film copy is good & it does not get
broken very often & it does not have too many scratches.

3. Content:
The teacher must be able to answer the question, the questions nust be asked from the
students too.

4. Style
The main responsibility of the teacher to find out whether the pupil will be able to
understand the humour in the film, whether it is appropriate to the subject.

Advantages Of The Use Of Educational Films
1. It enables the pupils themselves to see and hear.
2. It is not just informative but recreative, too.
3. It is very much enjoyable to the students.
4. It, therefore brings the world of reality into the classroom.
5. It has the ability of bringing past events to the present within the four walls of the
6. Educational films are very much helpful for the development of continuity of
7. They also contribute to growth of meaning.
8. They have a high degree of interest to the pupils.
9. Educational films have proved their effect on adult education, on industry & on sales
10. They have become very much helpful in establishing depth in the learning of the

Limitations Of Films:
1. Good films are very expensive. Projection equipment is expensive also it requires
care of experienced technician.
2. To get a well-trained technician for the school is a difficult job.
3. Teachers often have difficulty in securing a good educational film when it is most
4. Very often pupils look upon the film as a sort of enjoyment rather than a matter of

Certain Hints To Teacher

a). The teacher has been thorough with the operation of the projector.
b). The teacher must not show the film when the machine is dirty.
c). Evaluation of the film must be done through proper discussion.
d). The teacher should never think that the pupils could learn everything just from the film
e). The teacher must not show the film, which has no relevance at all to the topic that is
being taught.


There are some of the important graphs that are as follows.

5.1 Graphs
Graph is defined as a visual representation of numerical data, which is the fundamental
tool for expressing number relationship. A graph is useful for showing quantitative data in
a visual form. There are many types of graphs such as bar graphs, circle graphs, line
graphs, pictorial graphs etc.

5.2 Charts

The particular role of a chart is always to show relationships such as comparison, relative amount,s
developments. Processs, classifications and organization.

Kinds Of charts have been distinguished as follows:
1. Time chart or Tabular chart.
2. Stream chart or Tree chart.
3. Flow chart.
4. Comparison & contrast chart.
5. Pupil achievement or progress chart.
6. Direction or guidance chart.
7. Pictorial chart.
8. Development chart.

How should a Good Chart be?

1. It must be big enough to be seen by the whole class.
2. It must have clarity, which is the printing layout must be perfectly clear.
3. It must be simple; much detail will lead to confusion.
4. It must be attractive enough to capture & hold the pupils’ attention.
5. Its title must be clear & attractive.
6. It must be accurate & authentic in its representation of people & things & in its use of colour.
7. It should employ colour with discretion. Where colour is employed, it must be in good taste &
8. It must have clear-cut column headings. Charts are available:

a). Singly
b). In sets
c). In book form
d). As sets in special plastic containers eyeleted for immediate display.

Purpose Of Charts

The most important purpose of a chart is to present visual ideas or concepts which are likely to be
difficult to understand if presented in oral or written form.

How To Store A Chart

a). Chart should be stored flat not folded & not rolled.
b). Charts can either be laid flat, that is, horizental storage or suspended which is vertical storage.
c). In either case, storage should be by size & not by content.

In short, it may be said that charts & graphs both show information in lists, pictures, tables &
diagrams. They help us to teach quantity development, function & relationship of facts.

5.3 Posters

Aposter is a picture of drawing designed for display to convey a message or idea & to
create astrong lasting impression. It satisfies the viever emotionally & aesthetically. The
purpose of a poster is to motivate class interest & to publicise important school &
community events.

Tree important aspects of a poster are:

a). Design------ means to convey a message at a glance through a simple design.
b). Unity ------- Convince the others about the main idea for which the pioster is designed.

c). Effect------- The poster must tell its story vividly with the desired effect. If it had to be
given in words it would be weaker in attractiveness, impression & appeal.

The purpose For Which A Poster is Used Are:

a). To motivate class interest.

b). To present an idea forcefully.
c). To add atmosphere to the situation.
d). To compel attention by some attractive features.
e). To convey the message quickly.


A picture is just like an old familiar friend. Pictures can be secured from newspapers,
magazines, books, good calendars., etc.
Pictures have a basic value because:-
1. They have an inherent appeal to children.
2. They empkey ideas & impressions.
3. They are inexpensive.
4. They are simple to procure & easy to use.
5. They are helpful in broadening the child’s vision (if used properly).
6. They are helpful in developing social understanding among pupils.
7. They represent concrete reality with no barriers of speech in their interpretation.
8. They can provide all the basic imagery of child’s environment (if used properly).

While making use of pictures in classroom teaching, a teacher should note that: -
1. Large size pictures are better suited for young children
2. Pictures should be mounted on stiff paper.
3. Pictures must be properly classified.
4. Correct numbering must be done on the pictures for use for the guidance of the
5. Pictures can be employed at the recapitulatin stage of the lesson for helping the child
in the learnt material.


Pictures if used properly, definitely enhance the child’s capacity & help him.her to reason
things with proper understand. Unfortunately, our homes as well as schools are so poorly
provided with good picture albums that the greatest need of children remains unsatisfied.


There is a subtle deference between a picture and photograph. A photograph is an exact

copy of a particular place, thing or person. Photograph can be clipped from a magazine
and the teacher can also show such photographs in the magazines even without removing
them from magazines. Collected photographs of scientists, great educationists,
philosophers, social reformes, etc may be filed or they may be either put into the album or
mounted on a hard cardboard or may be un-mounted.


Flash cards are used for the presentation of an idea in the form of poster, picture, words
and sentences. A single card or a whole series may be flashed in front of the class. They
aim to develop the power of observation, idetification, quick comprehension and retention.
Flashcards are small compact cards made out of cardboard or any other thick material. The
purpose of using flash cards in to provide pupils with a systematic approach to drill.
However, the flash cards should not be used for a prolonged period, as it becomes boring
to children. They are also used to teach recognition by sight


All the flash cards are joined with each other in such a way that they can all be easily
Folded. I fact, each card is separate but as they are all put together in a foldable form, the
label becomes “foldingcards”.
It is easy to carry. For summing uo the taught material, all things may be put once at a
glance. Even for story-telling purposes or for the development of a story in smaller classes,
folding cards come to help. The lengthiest of the content matter can be concised and put in
the form of a folding card.

It is a symbolic line sketch, usually a drawing, intending to convey a message or point of
view about things, events or situation. A first rate cartoon is one that tells its story
metaphorically through pictures and a metaphor can be more powerful than a direct
statement. A striking cartoon is aesthetically pleasurable. An excellent cartoon says what it
tries to say as forcibly as possible. Cartoons can be a valuable material for social studies.
The power of the cartoon to influence public opinion lies in its compactness, its simplicity
and the considerable interest it can arouse by sharply drawn illustration laced with hum
our. It is a pre-digested source of information with strong visual impact.


Maps are meant to show precision in relationship with space, which in actual life enables
us to tell exactly where, in a given direction, a place is located, how far away it is and what
other things are on the way.
Maps vary widely in type and content according to their purposes. There are varieties of
maps like physical map, navigation map, picture map, historical maps, weather maps, etc.

Integrated Use of maps

To make map study vivid, concret and interesting, liberal use of all the allied aids should
be made like.
i. Use the blackboard for clarification of points and compilation of necessary
data derived from the map.
ii. An outline map should be used if a close view of particular section of the
detailed map is required
iii. Use individual atlases of detailed study of the problem but specific
instruction must be provided for locating the information.
iv. Use posters, charts, pictures, photographs and models for illustration

A diagram is a simplified drawing designed to show inter-relation ship primarily by means

of lines and symbols. Diagrams being of an abstract character require a careful foundation
work before they can be used effectively with a class of pupils. Diagrams are used in the
teaching of almost all subjects. They are indispensable in geometry and scince.
Diagrams usually can be better use for summary and review than for introduction. They
should be used alongwith the other aids.

A good diagram must approximate two standards:

A) It must be technically correct and neatly drawn in proper proportion well labeled and
B) It should be so prepared that it can be moved and seen from all angels.

5.11 GLOBE

A globe is the most basic equipment of a geography room. It is essentially needed in the
teaching of many topics in physical, mathematical and economic geography.

Specific Purposes and Use of Globe

A) To correct misconceptions about the shape of earth.

B) To demonstrate the phenomena of day and night and change of seasons.
C) To build concepts regarding the lines of latitude and longitude.
D) To develop a spirit of internationalism.


Subject: Modern Approaches To Teaching

Teacher: Miss Nazneen Shah
B.Ed (Evening)
Section (D)
I.E.R, University Of Peshawar