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You are on page 1of 9

Integration Techniques

and have learned how to use the method of substitution to transform some

problems into these forms:

un+1

R

un du = n+1

+ C, n 6= −1

1

R

u

du = ln |u| + C

R

eu du = eu + C

something like x ln(x)dx, nothing we have learned so far will work. For

something like this we turn to a new method, namely that of integration by

parts, which is sometimes called “double substitution”.

product rule. When u and v are functions of x, we have

d

[uv] = uv 0 + vu0

dx

0 dv

where, of course, v = dx and u0 = dudx

. Antidifferentiating both sides of this

equation with respect to x we get

Z Z

uv = uv dx + vu0 dx

0

Z Z

0

uv dx = uv − vu0 dx

dv dv

This is the formula we use. Notice that since v 0 = dx , then v 0 dx = dx

dx = dv

du du

and since u = dx , then u dx = dx dx = du. We get:

0 0

1

Definition 3.1. The integration by parts formula:

R R

udv = uv − vdu

R

This formula is useful when Rvdu is an integral which is easier to evaluate

than the one we started with, udv. So when R facing a difficult integral, we

consider whether we can recognize the form udv for some u and v.

The following steps may make it a bit easier toR use this method.

Step 1: Write the given integral in the form f (x)g(x)dx so that you can

identify the two functions f (x) and g(x). Note that if there appears to be

only one function in the integrand, then you may need to identify the second

one to be the constant function, g(x) = 1.

Now, to use the integration by parts formula, we need to find du and v. That

is, we differentiate u to get:

du

dx

= f 0 (x) → du = f 0 (x)dx

R R

v= dv → v = g(x)dx

R R

replace udv with uv − vdu

R

Step 4: Evaluate the new expression (by finding vdu).

R R

Note: When we find v = dv = v 0 dx in Step 2, we don’t need to include

an arbitrary constant. This is because when we use v in our formula, we will

still have an indefinite integral appearing in the expression. All arbitrary

constants will be collected together as one when we perform the last integra-

tion.

2

Of course, the main difficulty in this method is determining the choice of

u and dv. In Step 1, we recognize the integrand as the product of 2 terms.

But how, in Step 2, do we determine which term should be u and which

should be dv? There is no general rule to follow. It is truly a matter of

experience. However, there are 2 guiding principles you should keep in mind:

R

(1) dv must be something youR know how to integrate, and (2) we want vdu

to be less complicated than udv, i.e. than what we started with. In gen-

eral it is safest to pick dv to be the “most complicated” choice that can be

integrated easily. In order to determine whether a choice is the best one, go

on until you get to Step 4. If the new integral is easier than the original one,

then your choice is a good one. Otherwise go back to Step 2 and make a

switch. With practice, you will start to have a feeling for the right choice.

R

Example 1. Find x ln xdx.

tive of any function. Also, we can quickly determine that no substitution

will work here. (You should check that for yourself.) We turn to integration

by parts.

u and which should be v 0 , we need to realize that we don’t know how to

integrate ln x. However, we do know how to differentiate it. Thus, we should

choose this as the function to be differentiated. That is, we let:

x2

This gives du d

(ln x) = x1 , so that du = x1 dx, and also v =

R

dx

= dx xdx = 2

.

Using the integration by parts formula, we see that

Z Z

udv = uv − vdu

becomes

2 R x2 1

(ln x)( x2 )

R

x ln xdx = − 2 x

dx

x2 x

R

= 2

ln x − 2

dx

x2 ln x x2

= 2

− 4

+C

3

xe3x dx.

R

Example 2. Find

means. (You should confirm that there is not a substitution that will work

here.) Thus, we use integration by parts.

(f 0 (x) = 1) but gets more complicated when we integrate (an antiderivative of

2

x is x2 ). However, g(x) = e3x gets neither more nor less complicated, whether

we differentiate or integrate (i.e g 0 (x) = 3e3x R, while an antiderivative of g(x)

1 3x

Ris 3 e .) Because of this, in order to have vdu be less complicated than

udv, we make the choice that makes f (x) = x get less complicated:

u = x and dv = e3x dx

3x

This gives du = dx and v = e3 . Using the integration by parts formula, we

see that Z Z

udv = uv − vdu

becomes

3x e3x

xe3x dx = x e3 −

R R

3

dx

xe3x 1

e3x dx

R

= 3

− 3

xe3x 1 e3x

= 3

− 3 3

+C

e3x 1

= 3

x− 3

+C

R

Example 3. Find ln xdx.

As well, there doesn’t appear to be any way to make a substitution. This

suggests that we should try to use integration by parts − but how? The

integrand does not seem to be a product of 2 functions.

dv = 1dx, we get du = x1 dx and v = x.

4

We get:

1

Z Z Z Z

ln xdx = udv = uv − vdu = (ln x)(x) − x dx

x

Z

= x ln x − 1dx = x ln x − x + C

x2 ex dx.

R

Example 4. Find

and that the substitution rule does not help. (You should check that for

yourself.) So integration by parts would seem to be the correct approach.

3

that f (x)dx = x2 dx = x3 (+C) is a more complicated function than f (x)

R

(i.e., higher

R powerRof x), while f 0 (x) = 2x is less complicated. On the other

hand, g(x)dx = ex dx = ex (+C) and f 0 (x) = ex , so this function does not

get more complicated no matter which way we go. With the goal of making

things less complicated, we therefore choose u = x2 and dv = ex dx. This

gives du = 2xdx and v = ex , so we get

Z Z Z Z

2 x 2

x e dx = udv = uv − vdu = (x )(e ) − (ex ) (2x)dx

x

Z

2 x

=x e −2 xex dx

R

We see that xex dx is less complicated, but is still not something we know

(and the substitution rule does not help). What to do? Use integration by

parts again.

This time, the integrand is xex . Using the same reasoning as before, we let

u = x and dv = ex dx, so that du = dx and v = ex . Then we have

Z Z Z Z

xe dx = udv = uv − vdu = xe − ex dx = xex − ex + C

x x

Z Z

x e dx = x e − 2 xex dx = x2 ex − 2(xex − ex + C)

2 x 2 x

5

The Method Of Partial Fractions:

3 4

Consider the function f (x) = x

+ x+4

.

functions) to a common denominator:

3 4 3(x + 4) + 4(x) 7x + 12

f (x) = + = = 2

x x+4 x(x + 4) x + 4x

R

In its original form, we can find f (x)dx easily:

Z

3 4 1 1

Z Z

+ dx = 3 dx + 4 dx = 3 ln |x| + 4 ln |x + 4| + C

x x+4 x x+4

what if this problem had been given to us in the form:

Find x7x+12

R

2 +4x dx.

above, in bringing f (x) = x3 + x+44

to the form f (x) = x7x+12

2 +4x . That is, the

(x)

method gives us a way to take a rational function of the form fg(x) , where

f and g are both polynomial functions, with f having lower degree than g,

and break it up, or “decompose” it into “partial fractions”, i..e, into a sum

of several rational functions, each of which (in the cases we’ll be looking at)

has a constant numerator and a linear denominator, that is, a denominator

of the form ax + b.

function:

inator (i.e. we must have a proper fraction). If it is not, then divide

(perhaps using long division) until the fraction is in proper form.

2. The denominator must have only linear factors, i.e., when factored, the

highest power of x in any factor is 1. (That is, the method we will learn

only works in these cases.)

6

3. A rational function of this type can be broken down into a sum of several

terms, one for each of the factors of the denominator. The form of each

of these terms, i.e. partial fractions, is that the numerator is some

(unknown) constant while the denominator is the corresponding linear

factor of the original denominator. For instance, if the factorization of

the denominator is (x + a)(x + b), then we can decompose the proper

A B

rational function into x+a + x+b for some values of A and B.

Let’s see how this applies to the problem whose answer we already know.

That is, let’s see how we decompose x7x+12 3 4

2 +4x into x + x+4 using the method of

partial fractions.

to the Rules above, it is true that

7x + 12 A B

= +

x(x + 4) x x+4

for some values of A and B. But by bringing these to a common denominator,

we see that

A B A(x + 4) + B(x) (A + B)x + 4A

+ = =

x x+4 x(x + 4) x(x + 4)

so we have

7x + 12 (A + B)x + 4A

=

x(x + 4) x(x + 4)

and so it must be true that (A + B)x + 4A = 7x + 12.

We see that on the left hand side of this equation we have the constant

term 4A, while on the right hand side the constant term is 12. Thus we must

have 4A = 12, so A = 3. Also, the coefficient of x on the left hand side of

the equation is (A + B), while the coefficient of x on the right hand side is

7, so we must have A + B = 7, and since we have A = 3 then we must have

B = 4. In this way, we see that

7x + 12 3 4

= +

x2 + 4x x x+4

know what the answer is.

7

1

R

Example 5. Find x2 −4

dx

Solution: We first observe that (1) we don’t recognize this integral, (2) substi-

tution doesn’t help and (3) it doesn’t look like integration by parts will help

much either. Since the integrand is a rational function, we try the method

of partial fractions.

1 1

x2 −4

= (x−2)(x+2)

(a) We factor the denominator

into linear factors

1 A B

(x−2)(x+2)

= x−2

+ x+2

(b) Separate the fraction (common

denominator in reverse) and

place new unknowns in the

numerators.

denominator

1

x = 2 → 1 = A(4) + B(0) → A = 4

(d) Make “clever” choices for x in

order to solve for A and B

x = −2 → 1 = A(0) + B(−4) → B = − 41

That is, in the last step above, we can use the “zeroes” of the denominator

function to solve for A and B, since for each of those x-values one of the 2

unknowns is being multiplied by 0.

R 1 R 1 − 41

x2 −4

dx = 4

x−2

+ x+2 dx

1 1

dx + − 41 1

R R

= 4 x−2 x+2

dx

1

= 4

ln |x − 2| − 41 ln |x + 2| + C

Notice: The substitution rule was used for each integral in the last step.

Also notice: We can check our partial fraction decomposition by bringing the

partial fractions to a common denominator to see that we get the original

function. It is a good idea to always do this.

8

7x+5

R

Example 6. Find (x+1)(x−1)(x+2)

dx.

tions, corresponding to the 3 linear factors in the denominator of this rational

function:

7x + 5 A B C

= + +

(x + 1)(x − 1)(x + 2) x+1 x−1 x+2

Bringing the right hand side to a common denominator and then equating

numerators, we see that:

7x + 5 = A(x − 1)(x + 2) + B(x + 1)(x + 2) + C(x + 1)(x − 1)

Again, the “zeroes” of the denominator polynomial help us to find the un-

knowns. When x = −1, we have x + 1 = 0 and so both the B and C terms

on the right hand side are 0 and we get:

7(−1) + 5 = A(−1 − 1)(−1 + 2) ⇒ −2 = A(−2)(1) ⇒ A = 1

Similarly, when x = 1 we have x − 1 = 0 and so both the A and C terms are

0, giving:

12

7(1) + 5 = B(1 + 1)(1 + 2) ⇒ 12 = B(2)(3) ⇒ B = =2

6

Finally, when x = −2 we have x + 2 = 0 so that both the A term and the B

term are 0 and we get:

7(−2)+5 = C(−2+1)(−2−1) ⇒ −14+5 = C(−1)(−3) ⇒ 3C = −9 ⇒ C = −3

We see that the partial fraction decomposition is:

7x + 5 1 2 3

= + −

(x + 1)(x − 1)(x + 2) x+1 x−1 x+2

(Once again, we can check these calculations by bringing the right hand side

of the decomposition to a common denominator and working out the numer-

ator.)

7x+5

R R 1 2 3

(x+1)(x−1)(x+2)

dx = x+1

+ x−1

− x+2

dx

1 1 1

R R R

= x+1

dx +2 x−1

dx −3 x+2

dx

= ln |x + 1| + 2 ln |x − 1| − 3 ln |x + 2| + C

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