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Chapter IV

Industrial Engineering:
The subject of industrial engineering primarily deals with effecting
appropriate improvement of methods of doing a given job and of adopting
scientific methodologies of measuring the time required to do a job. A
fundamental job of industrial engineering is to scientifically study of given
work, also called “work study.”

To increase productivity, two important functions of production management


• Installation of the most effective method of performing the

operation, and

• The control of resources-mainly plant and labour required in carrying

out the operation.

Work study, formerly known as time and Motion Study, fulfills these two
requirements through its two complimentary specialisations of Method
Study and Work Measurement.

Method study aims to determine the most effective method of

performing a job, the most logical layout of manufacturing facilities, the
smooth flow of men and materials throughout the company to enable
processing a job in the quickest possible time and at the least possible cost.

Work measurement, on the other hand, helps to determine the time

required by the operator to complete specified task for the defined method
at the defined pace of performance.

Method study and work measurement though they are considered as

two separate techniques, yet they are closely related and complement each
other. The time for a job can be assessed accurately only after
standardising the method, which implies that method study, should precede
work measurement.
The relationship between method study and work measurement shown
in Fig. 9 below.


Method Study Work Measurement

Critical Analysis of
existing jobs to develop Work Measurement
easier & better method.

Define, install and To achieve improved

maintain improved planning, improved
method. manning, basis for
financial incentive
schemes, labour cost
control, improved
To achieve improved methods, reliable indices
processes and procedures, to measure an employee’s
better working conditions, progress etc.
better utilisation of
resources, improved
morale etc.

Resulting in higher

Fig.9.: Relationship between Method Study and Work Measurement.

Method Study:

“Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of

existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and
applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs.”

Basic Procedure of Method Study: Method is an organised approach and

its investigation rests on the following six basic steps outlined in the block
diagram (Fig.10)

1) Select the work to be analysed.

2) Record all facts relating to the existing method.
3) Examine the recorded facts critically but impartially.
4) Develop the most economical method commensurate with plant
5) Install the new method as standard practice.
6) Maintain the new method.

Economic Consideration
Technical Consideration Select the job
Human Consideration to be analysed

Record facts
Charting Symbol
relating to the
Charting Conventions existing method

Examine facts
critically but

Purpose Place Sequenc Person Means


Alternatives to the
Existing Method

Install the new


Maintain the new


Fig.10. Block Diagram of the steps in method study.

Let us elaborate each of these 6 steps or bit more extensively.

Step No 1:
Selection of the Job: The selection of the job to be analysed is a
management responsibility. The selection of the job should be done based on
the following considerations:

 Economic consideration.
 Technical consideration.
 Human consideration.

(a) Economic Consideration:

Economic consideration is the most important consideration in selecting

the most appropriate job, for conducting the method study. Under this job
may be selected based on the following considerations:

i. Plant, department, section, or, machines employing excessive overtime.

ii. Bottleneck operations, which are holding up other production
iii. Operations involving repetitive work and liable to run for a long time.
iv. Sections having an un-orderly movement of men and materials over
long distances.
v. Operations requiring a lot of manpower.
vi. Operations having poor utilisation of man and machine.
vii. Operations producing high rejection./scrap.
viii. Sections/departments from which too many suggestions for
improvement are received.

(b) Technical Consideration:

The considerations here are:

i. Operations producing excessive scrap, or, process defects.

ii. Frequent complaints from workmen regarding jobs whose performance
standards cannot be achieved.
iii. Operations involving frequent/close supervision, or, deployment of
skilled workmen.
iv. Jobs having inconsistent quality.
v. Operations inviting frequent requests from supervisors for relaxation
in allowed time.
vi. Jobs in which too many man-hours are spent in checking and
rechecking work.

(c) Human Considerations

Human consideration is the greatest consideration of all. Method study

means a change but a change, which is accepted; half-heartedly by the
workers and their representatives is really no good a change. A few
situations when human consideration should be given preference over other
considerations are:

Workers complaining of necessary and tiring work.

Poor morale evidenced by trivial complaints.
Repeated cases of accidents and health hazards.
Inconsistent earnings when the earnings are tied to output.

Step No 2

Recording of Facts:

The next step is to record the facts about the existing method. But we
do not follow a descriptive methodology to record the existing method, and
use standard international charting symbols and conventions as
recommended by International Labour Institute, Genera (ILU). These are:

(a) Operation/ Activity represented by : ο

(b) Transport ..,,.. : ⇒

(c) Storage ..,,.. : ∇

(d) Inspection represented by :

(e) Delay ..,,.. : D

Using the above symbols we prepare the following types of charts.

Besides we also represent the existing method through Diagrams. There
are different types of charts and Diagrams as enumerated below:
Charts Symbol used Diagrams

(1) Operations Process Chart (OPC ) ο , (1) Flow

(2) Flow Process: ο , , ⇒, ∇ , D (2) String

Chart (FPC)


(Materials) (Man) (Equipment)

There are 3 types of Flow Process Charts

(3) Multiple Activity: working

Chart (MAC), also called man- non-working

Machine chart.

(4) Two-Handed Process Chart (THPC): ο , , ⇒, ∇ , D

Let us take each one of them one by one.

1. Operation Process Chart.(OPC):-

An operation process chart is a chart on which the major activities

and entry points of materials are recorded to have a graphic view of the
operations and inspection involved in the process. Here we use only two
symbols Ο and .

Example 1: Auto-craft Pvt. Ltd. manufactures different precision

turned components and small auto-part assemblies in their factory. Out
of many small auto-part assemblies produced in this company, there is
small assembly called relief valve assembly.
The relief value assembly consists of valve, a plunger, a spring and lock.
The following are the major activities involved in producing each other
the component parts.

1. Value body:
a. Machine blanks form 17 A/F En 1A bar stock.
b. Remove pip.
c. Centre-less grind OD.
d. Drill 2.5 Φ cross hole.
e. Countersink 2.5 Φ cross hole on both sides.
f. Centre-less grind threaded length to pre-rollingΦ .
g. Roll threads M10 x 1.0.
h. Drill 2.4 Φ x 8mm deep.
Drill and ream 4 x 25 mm deep.
j. Countersink 2.4 and 4 holes.
k. Inspect.

2. Plunger Body:
a. Machine blanks from ( ¼) ″ Φ bar stock
b. Remove pip.
c. Heat treat.
d. Centre-less grind O.D.
e. Inspect.

3. Spring: Purchase item.

4. Lock: Purchase item.
5. Assemble components.
6. Inspect assemblies.

You are required to prepare the operation process chart (OPC) for the
above auto-part assembly.


The operation process chart of the Relief value assembly is shown

Operation Process Chart (OPC):
Present Method.
Task : Manufacture of Relief value assembly.
Chart Begins : Raw materials/ Bought out parts in stores.
Chart Ends : Completed Assemblies delivered to stores.
Charted by : Abhijit Nag
Date of Charting : 7.4.04.

Obtain Obtain Obtain (1/4)” Φ Obtain 17A/F Enl.A.

Locks Springs Bar stock for plumbers Barstock for value body.
Machine Machine
1 1
blanks 1.00 2.50 blanks
Remove 2 0.05 0.05 1 Remove Pip
0.15 3 C’less grind
Heat Treat. 3 -- OD.
4 Φ
C’less 0.10 0.70 Drill 2.5 cnrs.
Grind OD hole
0.08 5 Φ
2 C’sink 2.5
Inspect 0.05
hite on both
0.16 6 C’less grind
length to pre-
rolling Φ
0.10 Roll threads
8 Φ
0.60 Drill 2.4 x
8mm deep.
7.50 9 Drill & ream
4 x 25 mm.
1 C’sink 2.4 &
0.10 0 Φ
4 .

0.05 1 Inspect.

1 Assemble
2.50 5 components.

3.00 Inspect
3 Assemblies.
Symbol Frequency Time (minutes)
15 15.69

3 3.10

Flow Process Chart (FPC):

Flow process chart is a chart, which sets out the sequence of flow of
work of a product, or, any part of it through the section, or, the
department, or, the factory by recording the events under review using
appropriate symbols. In drawing the flow process chart, we use all the five
symbols, namely, Ο , , →, D, & ∇ .

Flow process charts are of three types, the material type which shows
the events that occur to the materials till all the operations are completed
on it; the man type which deplict the activities performed by the man, and
the equipment type which exhibits the activities performed by the
equipment. Flow process chart (materials) is also called product process
chart while flow process chart (man) is also called man process chart.

Why Is Flow Process Chart Prepared:

It is prepared to explore the possibilities of reducing distance travelled by

(to reduced the cost adding time and increase only the value adding times).

 Avoiding waiting time and thereby reduce production losses.

 Eliminating operations, or, combining one operations with another.
 Evolving better sequence of activities.

Example 1: One of the industrial jobs involved the following activities:

i. Component was brought from stores 10 metres away from the

ii. It waited near the machine for the operator to be free from his
previous job (40 minutes).

iii. It was loaded on the machine (2 minutes).

iv. It was machined on one surface (4 minutes).

v. It was unloaded from the machine (1 minute).

vi. Activities (iii), (iv) and (v) were repeated till the component was
machined on all the four surfaces.

vii. The component was then taken to the inspection bench, 20 metres
away from the machine.

viii. The component’s accuracy was checked (3 minutes).

ix. It was then moved to the work distribution centre, 10 metres away
from the inspection bench.

x. It was finally placed in the appropriate rack (0.50 mins).

You are required to prepare the flow process chart (materials) to record
the above activities.

Flow Process Chart ( Materials )
[Present Method]

Task : Machining of a component

Chart Begins: Component lying in the rack of work distribution centre
before machining.
Chart Ends: Component lying in the rack of work distribution centre after
Charted by: Abhijit Nag.
Date of Charting: 08.04.04.

Component lying in the

1 racks of work distribution
10 metres 1
To Machine

40 1 Waited for the operator

to be free

2 1 Loaded on the machine

Repeat for 4
sides 4 2 Machined on one side

Unloaded from the

1 3 machine

2 To Inspection bench
20 metres
1 Inspected for accuracy

10 metres 3 To work distribution centre

0.5 Replace in the rack

Lying in the rock



Symbol Frequency Time (minutes) Distance (metres)

13 28.50 --

1 3 --

3 -- 40

1 40 --

2 -- --

Other Numerical for Students to Solve and Practice:

Numerical No. 1:

The following represent the procedure to testing concrete pipes. Form the
storage yard the pipes are loaded on the four-wheel trolley and transported
to the inspection shed 50 metres away. After unloading, the pipes wait from
60 minutes till inspector marks the identification number on them. The
marking takes 10 minutes for a trolley load of pipes (50 nos.). Tests for
leakage and straightness are carried out on each of the pipes in sequence,
the tests taking 10 minutes and 4 minutes respectively. The acceptance /
rejection tally is marked on the pipes. This takes 5 minutes. The pipes are
then loaded on the four-wheel trolley and transported back to the yard (50
metres). At the yard, the accepted and rejected pipes are separated (5
minutes) as per the marking and stored in two groups for further

You are required to prepare the flow process chart (materials) for
the above activities.

Numerical No. 2:

The following represents the procedure of manufacturing aluminium discs

for single-phase energy meters. The aluminium discs used in energy meters
are made from 1 mm. thick aluminium sheets (8’ x 3’). These sheets are
stored 10 ft. away from the shearing machine, where they are first cut into
strips of 91 mm width, giving 10 strips for each sheet. The strips are
transported over 4 feet and kept in racks to wait for further operations.
From these racks they are taken to a 10-ton power press located 10 ft. away
from the racks. Here the strips are blanked into discs. In the same
operation, the edges of the discs are serrated and a centre hole is punched.
The blanked discs are taken to a degreasing tank located 60 feet from10-
ton press. The degreasing is done in trichlorocthylene vapours. They are
then taken over 60 feet to a 100-ton power press where the discs are
embossed to give rigidity. They are again taken for degreasing. They are
then transported over 50 feet to the inspection centre and after inspection,
they are taken over 120 ft. to the stores.

You are required to prepare a flow process chart (materials) for

above process.

3.Multiple Activity Chart, or, Man-Machine Chart:

A multiple activity chart is a chart on which the activities of more

than one subject are recorded to indicate their interrelationship in a given
work cycle. In other words, this chart shows what each subject does at any
time in relations to the other.

Why is it Made?

A multiple activity chart is prepared to:

• Detect idle time on man and machine.

• Established the number of machines that can be handled by the
• Determine number of operators required to perform a job involving
team working.