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December 7, 2000 - 11:34am — Blake Azadeh Mirzadeh has written an excellent look at ePubs in the library:The Web, along with electronic publishing, has changed accessibility of serials and periodicals. In the past, scholars and researchers wrote their articles and published them in journals. Traditionally, library patrons and researchers came to the library to read or to make copies of these articles. To some extent publishers and vendors competed to receive orders from libraries. The Web and on-line electronic publishing, however, have changed the way of accessing information for scholars and researchers. With the emergence of the Web and electronic publishing, scholars and researchers are able to publish articles on-line without going through a publisher or a vendor and users can access information without going to the library. Technology has brought an easier way of accessing information for librarians and researchers. Consequently, it has become very important issue for libraries regarding how and when to replace printed journals with electronic ones. One way that information has become accessible on the Internet is through electronic journals. The number of journals, magazines and newspapers that are available online has been grown rapidly in recent years. Tenopir (1999 p.138) reported " the number of titles in the ARL Directory has grown from only 26 in 1991 to nearly 2500 in 1997. The number of listings in full text sources on-line has grown from 4400 in 1993 to about 8900 as of May 1999." In the another report regarding how quickly electronic journals are growing Aschroht (1999, p. 107) noted that " in the 18 months from September 1997 to March 1999 the number of electronic journals available increased by more than fifty percent... Not all these journals are scholarly in nature, but an increase can be seen across all genres." Background Electronic Journals has been defined in different ways. The most common definition states, " a journal that is provided by any electronic means, e.g. Internet or CD-ROM, although not necessarily exclusive by electronic means." (Ashcroft, 1999 p.105) These journals are generally accessible through electronic communication devices or telephone lines. The same definitions can be used for electronic newsletters and periodicals in electronic format. Electronic journals can be produced in different formats, such as a CD-ROM, which was the first step towards electronic publishing. Late 1988 and early 1990 various journals were published on CD-ROM mostly because of increased storage capacity. The first step in the process was the conversion of the journal from paper to electronic format, and then indexing, and the creation of bibliographic citations and abstracts. The significant advantage for CD-ROM was storage capacity. There were problems with publishing journals on CD-ROM such as: updating information, distribution, packing, and mailing. In addition, there was the high cost and lengthy time to develop, support, and continue to enhance proprietary software used to access the electronic journal. The other issue was that each journal had different editions with different interfaces and different ways of browsing, retrieving and displaying documents. Consequently, one of the reasons that a library would withdraw from the migration from paper to electronic journal was the lack of interface uniformity (Barnes, 1997). Electronic journals that existed before the Web were the ones that relied on dial-up services and proprietary networks. The drawback for this kind of journal is the lack of photographs, tables, charts and back file. At the beginning, maintenance costs and proprietary interface were major
They are Web-based and contain articles or other pieces of information on a certain topic.problems for libraries. Advantages In summary there are four advantages for electronic documents: first. Criteria for selecting electronic journals The electronic journals are usually like web sites that are arranged and updated much like printed magazines. certainly. immediate access and increased speed of communication. The fourth advantage is economy of storage: the increase in cost for keeping printed material makes electronic forms more attractive from an economic viewpoint. The electronic version duplicates the print version. Patrons can view journals when the library is not open if they have access to a network terminal. therefore. Third. organizations. offers speed of delivery. there are now forms of electronic journals that have all of the print version features and can therefore replace print. there are more advantages. libraries should be very careful about canceling printed subscriptions. librarians will be having more time to improve their on-line skills and train users. could not replace the printed format.g. however. or other suppliers of information. If we put the advantages and disadvantageous of the electronic journals on one scale. It is important that such electronic information be made available to those without such access. it is important to provide electronic formats. These journals are available through the vendor sites or directly from the publisher\'s sites and most of them are in Acrobat format. individuals. therefore. such as electronic journals and full-text databases. invoicing and claiming will be on-line so. . The most important advantages include space saving. This kind of journal. Archiving becomes a critical issue for particular types of products. e. However. since the volume of printed materials are increasing at great speed and libraries can only offer a small part of it. Most of the electronic journals are not archived. Also. some documents are more useful in electronic form due to enhanced search ability. (Davis. the numbers of this type of journal is growing fast. Disadvantages Archiving and site licenses are the two major issues that most libraries have identified. in the academic and research libraries. electronic format is sometimes the only alternative so it represents a net increase in the information base. Libraries are often hesitant to rely on electronic copies of titles for fear that archival access will not be maintained. Specifically. Wherever these journals originate. Also. Another benefit of electronic journals is availability for readers. which printed journals cannot offer. The latest formats are the journals that do not have any print version and are published electronically. hypertext links and multimedia. there can be immediate access from one\'s own desk as well as facilities such as integrated text. eliminates printing. It. libraries have learned that both storing large files of data and maintaining access to them have additional costs in terms of staff. powerful searching tools. Second. and other resources. One of the most important issues is the lack of accessibly to electronic journals for those who do not have access to the Internet or any other kind of electronic service. and saves money in terms of postage costs for libraries. they must be . Also. also. in allowing statistical calculations to be affected. but in recent years most libraries have been able to solve these problems. 1997) The lack of peer review of materials and slowness of the Internet and power outrages are other disadvantages of electronic journals. The journal can originate for Internet usage only without a paper version and can be created by any source including universities. Reading a large amount of data on the screen also can be verydifficult and can cause health problems such as back pain or vision problems. time.
23). Usually. It has been shown that when the full text versions of journals were available electronically patrons would prefer that version. It is also important to examine the statistical usage during the past two or three years before canceling any paper issues. and their skills in understanding and negotiating license agreements. Most articles in e-journals. Electronic journals are available from several major publishers that are commercial and noncommercial. More specifically. mostly in response to user demand. which allow easy linkages within the article. The other option that publishers offers to libraries is one in which they continue the print subscriptions and receive ten to thirty percent discounts for the electronic versions. journals are available electronically in different formats and versions. According to Katz. CD-ROM.looked at with a critical eye and evaluated like any other library resource. and scope. Therefore. . network databases. "most libraries have introduced electronic information sources in a piecemeal fashion. Therefore. As Davis (1997. electronic journals. On the other hand. librarians must continually be educated in increasing their skills on automated systems and electronic resources. Most libraries are increasing their electronic resources in response to user demand. the rising cost of print subscriptions makes it important for libraries. when written in HTML have many advantages. prefer the electronic version to the printed version and most often patrons do not bother to check the printed journal." (1992. format and cost of print with the electronic version. Pricing is another important issue that should be considered for e-journal subscriptions. Some publishers permit free access to libraries on their Web sites for a short period of time. specifically for academic libraries and librarians. network and database products. license and copyright laws are two major issues. Therefore. specifically in academic libraries. License and copyright agreements are legal matters that should be considered by libraries when they subscribe to electronic journals. medical and scholarly by nature. p. some materials should be purchased only in printed format while others only in digital form and still others should be purchased in both formats in order to have a balanced collection. it is important to review different sites and compare the contents. The most common is the one in which the publisher allows free access for a few months. Converting the journal to electronic format is costly for publishers. which should be considered for subscriptions to electronic journals. each publisher has its own policy. In a time of budget crisis in libraries. p. authority. These agreements must be fair and practical for both the publisher and library.13) stressed. audiovisual. Traditional selection policies and procedures could not continue with the fast growth of electronic resources such as electronic journals. or up to a year. Libraries should seriously consider these changes before selection of electronic journals and any other electronic publications. "the best criteria for evaluating a source are purpose. It is important to review these different formats before making a final decision. In addition. technical. to understand the direction and significance of the digital information revolution. and multimedia products are continuously growing. Selectors must increase their knowledge of automated systems and electronic products. It is also important in evaluation of electronic journals to consider format." Library patrons. the publishers must raise their price for the printed subscriptions in order to cover the cost of more updated technology. librarians should be very cautious about replacing and canceling printed journals with the new electronic journals. currency and audience. Consequently. Some libraries are very much aware and others are less aware of these new directions. The wide diversity of materials such as: print. to all of their e-journals. The topics that are covered in these journals are mostly scientific.
The other way is that they are available through aggregators. <http:\\navigator. <http:\\www. In this way.org> EBSCO <. Another way to inform the public about ejournals is to give details directly on the library\'s web site through an e-journal\'s section. electronic journals and other electronic resource libraries will continue their role as the information provider and will provide a collection that is easily accessible and relevant. No doubt. Some publishers offer their electronic journals through an intermediary service.OCLC. publicity and usage demonstrations are all necessary to encourage usage and to distribute information. access point. Documentation. They are available directly from the publisher\'s site and they have complete control over changes and pricing.co.UMI.org/OCLC/menu/eco. Cataloging is one way to show the public what is accessible and available in the library computer database collection. Conclusion: In recent years the function and definition of librarianship has changed.edu> UMI (University Microfilm International) <http:\\www. Therefore. Electronic publishing creates an exciting time for libraries and librarians.EBSCO. The most important issue is that electronic journals require promotion in the same way as any other new information service.blackwell. Acrobat viewing software is freely available and can be downloaded but this can act as another barrier to usage by those who are not completely computer literate. price and availability of the service. But some libraries are not cataloging their e-journals because such journals are not physically present in the library collection. most journals will be available electronically in the future. photographs and images. With the Web. which aggregates the titles from many different publishers under one system or interface. training.uk/> Dialog@CARL <http: Dialog. it is impossible for librarians and libraries to have complete information about the new product. Electronic journals are available in different ways. The library was the place that collected.CARL. Since new products become available every day and publishers are adding new features and new titles on a constant basis. Libraries and the information provider should be prepared to help their patrons with this transition from print to electronic journals. Some publishers use the Adobe Acrobat PDF format instead of or in addition to HTML.lexis-nexis.com> Each publisher offers different features such as the number of titles. Making student and faculty aware of electronic journals can accomplished in different ways. Some of the major electronic journal publishers are: Academic Press IDEAL (International Digital Electronic Access Library) <http:\\www. tables.com> OCLC<http:www.com> Lexis/Nexis.apnet.html> Project Muse/ Johns Hopkins University Press <http:\\museljhu. it is most helpful if the Acrobat is mounted on a network basis. preferably listing individual journals.There is easy incorporation of graphs. Electronic journals should provide benefits to everyone. publishers do not have to create or maintain their own separate system. including video and sound. organized and .com> Blackwell\'s Electronic Journal Navigator.http://www.
one small step: continuing the migration to electronic journals. budget crises. licensing. It will certainly create a new future with increasing opportunities for serial librarians. and providing access to serials is an activity that could provide full employment for librarians for years to come.391. 3.121-1333). All of the materials that exist in the library are no longer in physical format. Linda and Langdon. making decisions for the selection and purchasing of new electronic journals. v. Electronic publishing resources are continuously growing and the librarian\'s job will become more challenging and rewarding. .1 : Basic Information Sources. no. early retirement and downsizing of the workforce.18. Such as increasing prices. v. New York: McGraw-Hill. Trisha. however. The electronic resources have changed this definition because they affected the collecting and organizing aspect of librarianship. Decision making for selection and purchasing of electronic journal has also been changed. the serial librarian\'s job will remain as important as in the past. "Evaluation of electronic Journals related to the Inherent". Therefore. Heller. john H. There is no doubt that serials and periodicals are important parts of any library\'s collection. 6th ed. or reorganizing and learning new skills may be interesting for serial librarians.provided access to information. This is due to changes in the reorganization and restructuring of the serial librarian\'s job in many libraries. 1993(pp. A. flexibility and knowledge. the Director of Learning Resources or the Systems Librarian may also do so. . in addition rather than the serial librarians. no. Of course not all of the changes are bad.58. Davis. winter 1997 (pp. In recent years. "Electronic journals and university library collections" Collection Building. winter 1997 (pp. Many serial librarians in recent years are considered leaders in the field of electronic licensing and in working with vendors to implement electronic journals. "The evaluation of selection activities for electronic resources. Barnes.404). declining acquisitions. Indeed the task of purchasing. "One giant leap.3.3. Dennis." Library Trends. Vol. Serial librarians should exhibit to library administrators their expertise. Reference Librarian.404-415). 1997 (pp. Katz. Colin. v. 1992. Furthermore.45. Introduction to Reference Work. William. no. no. Reassigning. References: Ashcroft." Library Trends.45.105-113). serial librarians are performing multiple tasks and wearing different hats.
124. Tenopir.40-46). " Should we cancel print?" Library Journal. Schutz. 1132. George. "Electronic shocks: the impact of electronic document delivery and full text databases: implications and outcomes for serials" LASIE. v. Born.een. 1999. Machovec.122. no. Feb.org/node/1513 . Carol. "Electronic Journals management: some problems & solutions. "E-journals come of age. "The future of academic journals: consider the current situation in academic libraries" New Library World 98 v. Technorati Tags: Electronic Publications • • Electronic Publications Post to Twitter Librarian And Information Science News Search Top of Form Bottom of Form http://www. 1997 (pp." Library Journal. Tenopir. April 1998(pp.P (pp. Dec. v. "The complexities of electronic journals. v. Tony. Lee. Ketcham-Van Orsdel. 1997 (pp. " Electronic Journal Market Overview-1997" Retrieved February 2.2000 from the World Wide Web http://www.lisnews. 1996 (p.html. Deidre. 2. Kath. Carol. 1997 (pp. L." Managing Information.123.7. 138). Sept.coalliance. no.5-20) Sweeney.37." Library Journal.org/reports/ejournal.25-31).4-15).Kidd. Sept.39).
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